Volume 37 part 2 (1992)


General Issues
Continents and Countries

Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.

General issues


BEETHAM, DAVID. The Legitimation of Power. [Issues in Political Theory.] Macmillan, Basingstoke [etc.] 1991. viii, 267 pp. f 10.99.
"How far power is legitimate, what makes it so, and why it matters": these are questions Professor Beetham tries to answer in this study. Departing from the accounts given by most social scientists since Max Weber the author argues that legitimacy is not just a matter of subjective acquiescence or belief, but has a normative structure, which must be investigated, and that the conventional separation between normative philosophy and empirical social science in the study of legitimacy is untenable.

CARLING, ALAN H. Social Division. Verso, London [etc.] 1991. xii, 442 pp. f 44.95. (Paper: £14.95.)
Basing himself on the work of Robert Brenner, G.A. Cohen, Jon Elster and John Roemer, Dr Carling provides an accessible treatment of "analytical marxism" across the range of its major concerns. He also applies the rational-choice method to the domestic sphere and to processes of assimilation and discrimination in relation to ethnic groups. The book concludes that rational-choice is necessary to, but insufficient for, an adequate general theory of social division (that is, structural social inequalities).

HOHENDAHL, PETER UWE. Reappraisals. Shifting Alignments in Postwar Critical Theory. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1991. ix, 247 pp. $ 12.00.
Professor Hohendahl interprets and subjects to critical scrutiny many of the central ideas of Georg Lukacs and the Frankfurt School (Theodor W. Adorno, Jurgen Habermas). Besides studies focusing on the work of individual philosophers dissertations have been included about the trajectory of (neo-)marxist criticism in Germany to the 1980s and the varied reception of Critical Theory in Germany and the United States in the 1970s and 1980s. With the exception of the introductory and final essays, the chapters of this book have all appeared in journals and special collections before.

Hundert Jahre "Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft". Ferdinand Tonnies in der internationalen Diskussion. Hrsg. von Lars Clausen [und] Carsten Schlutter. Leske + Budrich, Opladen 1991. 598 pp. Ill. DM 96.00.
In 1887 Ferdinand Tonnies's seminal book Gemeinschaft und Cesellschaft was first published. The present collection of over thirty essays discusses the backgrounds and historical context, problems of interpretation and the reception of the work. Dealt with are, among other things, Tonnies's reception of Hobbes (Bernard Willms), Hegel (Jendris Alwast) and Marx (Gunter Rudolph), his view of woman (Michael Th. Greven, Barbel Meurer) and his theory of industrial relations (Friedrich Furstenberg, Andrzej Przestalski).

MADSEN, DOUGLAS and PETER G. SNOW. The Charismatic Bond. Political Behavior in Time of Crisis. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1991. xii, 187 pp. $ 35.95; f 23.95.
Using Juan Peron and his Peronistas as its empirical focus, this study attempts to expand and refine Max Weber's theory of charismatic leadership. The authors particularly use Albert Bandura's theory of "self-efficacy" - the subjective assessment of one's own capacity to deal with environmentally-posed challenges - and defend the thesis that charismatic leadership can arise when "a great social enterprise, such as a polity or an economy" collapses and, consequently, self-efficacy feelings are likely to fail.

MÄRZ, EDUARD. Joseph Schumpeter. Scholar, Teacher and Politician. Yale University Press, New Haven [etc.] 1991. xx, 204 pp. $ 35.00.
All but two of the ten essays gathered in this volume first appeared in Professor Marz's book Joseph Alois Schumpeter - Forscher, Lehrer und Politiker (Vienna, 1983). The author discusses Schumpeter's major books (including Business Cycles and Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy), his contribution to Marxist political economy, the genesis of his theory of economic development, his concept of the entrepreneur, and his position regarding Keynesian neo-classicism. He also illuminates Schumpeter's intellectual and personal background.

MEILLASSOUX, CLAUDE. The Anthropology of Slavery. The Womb of Iron and Gold. Transl. by Alide Dasnois. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1991. 421 pp. $ 49.95. (Paper: $ 18.95.)
The present book is the English translation of Professor Meillassoux's Anthropologie de l'esclavage: Le ventre de fer et d'argent (Paris 1986). The work is a theoretical essay based on detailed studies of precolonial slavery in Africa; it attempts to demonstrate that the institutions of slavery were far more complex and pervasive than previously suspected. The author analyzes the military and aristocratic systems that created the organization of slave capture, the complementary and competitive politics of the merchant classes, and the mercantile exploitation of slaves.

Rational Choice Theory. Ed. by Peter Abell. [Schools of Thought in Sociology, v. 8.1 [An Elgar reference collection.] Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, Aldershot 1991. xviii, 432 pp. f 65.00.
"Rational Choice Theory" is a flourishing branch of economic sociology. The present Reader contains reprints of 24 more or less classic texts in the field, including essays by George C. Homans, John C. Harsanyi, Mancur Olson, James S. Coleman, Jon Elster, G.A. Cohen, Michael Hechter and Arthur L. Stinchcombe.


ALEXANDER, ROBERT J. International Trotskyism 1929-1985. A Documented Analysis of the Movement. Duke University Press, Durham [etc.] 1991. Xiii, 1125 pp. £ 140.00.
In this encyclopedic work Professor Alexander, who formely wrote a book about Trotskyism in Larin America (Stanford, 1973), charts the formation and growth of Trotskyism in over sixty-five countries, providing biographical information about its most influential leaders, accounts of Trotsky's personal involvement in the development of the movement in each country and reports of its various factions and splits. The book is arranged alphabetically from Albania to Yugoslavia. The text is followed by extensive indexes of names, organizations, publications and subjects.

Arbeiterbewegung- Kirche - Religion. Hrsg. von Winfried R. Garscha und Stefan Weigang. [ITH-Tagungsberichte, Band 27.] Europaverlag, Wien 1991. 193 pp. S 248.
The thirteen case studies in this collection all deal with the relation between the labour movement on the one side and church and religion on the other. Among the subjects are: "Religion and Working Class in India" (Uddalak Roy), "Muslim Brotherhood and Workers (Egypt 1928-1952)" (Rifaat Said), "The Catholic Church. Religion and Labour Movement as Exemplified by Poland" (Andrzej Chwalba et al.) and i'Social Catholicism and Labour Movement in Spain" (Antonio Elorza).

Frauengeschichte: gesucht - gefunden? Auskunfte zum Stand der historischen Frauenforschung. Hrsg. von Beate Fieseler [und] Birgit Schulze. Bohlau Verlag, Koln [etc.] 1991. vi, 278 pp. DM 38.00.
The fifteen essays in this collection together give a survey of the development of women's history in Europe and the United States. German historiography receives the most attention, with contributions on, among others, early modern history, domestic labour in the nineteenth and twentieth century, the revolution of 1848-1849, women's movements 1890-1933, but there are also articles on the USA, France 1789-1795, England 1800-1918, Fascist Italy, Finland, Russia and the Soviet Union.

History Workshop. A Collectanea 1967-1991. DOCUMENTS Memoirs Critique and cumulative index to History Workshop Journal. Ed. by Raphael Samuel. History Workshop 25, Oxford 1991. xiv, 213 pp. 111. f 15.00.
This Collectanea offers an informal history of History Workshop. It draws on a variety of sources, from facsimile reproductions of the notes and xeroxes of the 1960s to the "position papers" of 1991. In addition, a cumulative index to History Workshop Journal, volumes 1-32 is included.

An Interrupted Past. German-Speaking Refugee Historians in the United States After 1933. Ed. by Hartmut Lehmann and James J. Sheehan. German Historical Institute, Washington, D.C.; Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1991. x, 234 pp. f 30.00; $ 39.50.
The fifteen essays in this volume describe the fate of those German-speaking historians who fled from Nazi Germany to the United States. Their story is set into several contexts: the traditional relationship between German and American historiography, the evolution of the German historical profession in the twentieth century, the onset of Nazi persecution after 1933, the special situation in Austria and the difficulty of settling the refugees in their new homeland. In addition to articles on prominent scholars (Hajo Holborn, Ernst Kantorowicz, Theodor Mommsen, Hans Rosenberg) there are accounts of the group as a whole, including information on approximately ninety individuals and their family lives.

Kriegsbegeisterung und mentale Kriegsvorbereitung. Interdisziplinare Studien. Hrsg. von Marcel van der Linden und Gottfried Mergner, unter Mitarb. von Herman de Lange. IBeitrage zur Politischen Wissenschaft, Band 61.] Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1991. 296 pp. Ill. DM 148.00.
The seventeen essays in this collection deal with war enthusiasm and mental preparation for war in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Topics include: memories of war and war enthusiasm (George L. Mosse); war enthusiasm in the German labour movement, 1870-1914 (Jurgen Rojahn) and 1914-1915 (Wolfgang Kruse); popular justifications of the Dutch war in Indonesia, 1945-1949 (Tessel Pollmann), Holy War and martyrdom in the war between Iran and Iraq, 1980-1988 (Dawud Gholamasad) and the importance of memories of war for the US-American "Committee on the Present Danger", 1976-1985 (Joany Knol).

Zwischen Integration und Autonomie. Der Konflikt zwischen den Internationalen Berufssekretariaten und dem Weltgewerkschaftsbund um den Neuaufbau einer internationalen Gewerkschaftsbewegung 1945 bis 1949. Eine Quellenedition. Hrsg. von Sigrid Koch-Baumgarten [und] Peter Rutters. [Schriftenreihe der Otto Brenner Stiftung, 53.] Bund-Verlag, Koln 1991. 518 pp. DM 68.00.
The present edition of sources deals with the conflict between the International Trade Secretariats and the World Federation of Trade Unions 1945-1949. 82 annotated documents (translated into German) from German, Dutch, Swiss and British archives are presented, accompanied by an informative introduction. Biographical details of persons appearing in the sources have been appended.


SEIDMAN, MICHAEL. Workers Against Work. Labor in Paris and Barcelona During the Popular Fronts. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1991. xiv, 399 pp. $ 39.95.
See Helen Graham's review in this volume, pp. 276ff. CONTINENTS AND COUNTRIES


ECHENBERG, MYRON. Colonial Conscripts. The Tirailleurs Sénégalais in French West Africa, 1857-1960. [Social History of Africa.] Heinemann, Portsmouth (NH); James Currey, London 1991. xix, 236 pp. 1ll. f 35.00. (Paper: f 11.95.)
This book traces the history of a large and diverse group of the West African men who served in the Tirailleurs Sénégalais regiments of the French Colonial Army (1857-1960). Professor Echenberg examines not only how the soldiers and veterans lived out their lives in service and how the military institution functioned, but also reviews the African military within a framework bounded by such issues as labour, micgration and demography. The main focus is on how the rank-and-file African soldiers, officers, and veterans responded to their ambiguous and often contradictory position within the colonial formation.

Law in Colonial Africa. Ed. by Kristin Mann [and] Richard Roberts. [Social History of Africa.] Heinemann, Portsmouth (NH); James Currey, London 1991. xv, 264 pp. Maps. £ 35.00. (Paper: £ 11.95.)
This collection of eleven essays "focuses on a part of the broad history of law in colonial Africa. It looks at the engagement among and between Africans and Europeans in their mutual efforts 1) to shape and define rules and processes affecting access to resources, labor, and authority, 2) to deal with conflict stemming from divergent ideas and interests regarding resources, labor, and authority, and 3) to encode meanings of property, labor, and power relationships that emerged under colonialism."

South Africa

ELLIS, STEPHEN [and] TSEPO SECHABA. Comrades against Apartheid. The ANC and the South African Party in Exile. James Currey, London; Indiana University Press, Bloomington letc.] 1992. x, 214 pp. Ill. £ 25.00. (Paper: £9.95 )
The present study, the result of co-operation between a black participant and a white, British academic, attempts to write a provisional history of the South African Communist Party, the African National Congress, and of the guerilla army Umkhonto we Sizwe, formed by both Party and Congress in 1961. The authors show that in the period in question, 1960-1990, the organizations "effectively merged to the point that it became difficult to define the three separately."

TICKTIN, HILLEL. The Politics of Race: Discrimination in South Africa. Pluto Press, London [etc.] 1991. vii, 115 pp. f 25.00. (Paper: f 7.95.)
This small study analyzes the rise and fall of South-African apartheid seen from a structural perspective. The author concludes that after the disappearance of apartheid the blacks will indeed hold a great measure of political power, but that the economy will remain both capitalist and largely white-controlled: the black middle class will benefit, but the black working class will remain in the same fundamental position as before.


LYONS, MARYINEZ. The Colonial Disease. A social history of sleeping sickness in northern Zaire, 1900-1940. [Cambridge History of Medicine.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge letc.] 1992. xvi, 335 pp. Ill. Maps. f 50.00.
Between 1890 and 1930 severe disruptions of the former Belgian Congo and dislocation of its human populations caused by intruding Azande, Afro-Arab traders and Europeans seriously affected ecological relationships. One result was outbreaks of epidemic trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness. The present book analyzes the background to these disruptive developments and describes the European and African responses to these crises.


KRIGER, NORMA J. Zimbabwe's Guerrilla War. Peasant Voices. [African Studies Series 70.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1992. x, 303 pp. £ 35.00.
In this study of political mobilization and organization in Zimbabwe's recent rurally based war of independence, the author is interested in the extent to which ZANU guerillas were able to mobilize peasant support, the reasons why peasants participated, and the links between the post-war outcome for peasants and the mobilization process. Using oral evidence from the Mutoko district, Dr Kriger reveals the prominence of peasant strategies to avoid active involvement in supporting the guerillas and the ways the guerillas coerced individual peasants to participate.


The Bahamas

JOHNSON, HOWARD. The Bahamas in Slavery and Freedom. Ian Randle Publishers Ltd, Kingston (Jamaica); James Currey Publishers, London 1991. viii, 184 pp. £ 35.00.
With one exception the chapters in this book were previously published in various journals. The central theme is the organization and control of labour during and after slavery. Specific topics treated are, among others, the task and self-hire systems during slavery and the evolution and operation of longterm labour contracts which were introduced in connection with the liberated Africans who were settled in the Bahamas; the monopoly of state power held by the white mercantile elite and its implications; and the labour migration of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to Florida.

United States of America

CHONG, DENNIS. Collective Action and the Civil Rights Movement. [American Politics and Political Economy Series.] The University of Chicago Press, Chicago [etc.] 1991. xiv, 261 pp. $ 16.95.
This is a theoretical study of the dynamics of public-spirited collective action as well as a study of the American civil rights movement and the local and national politics that surrounded it. Applying rational-choice theory historically, Dr Chong reexamines the problem of organizing collective action by focusing on the social, psychological and moral incentives of political action. The work demonstrates how the civil rights movement succeeded against difficult odds by mobilizing community resources, resisting powerful opposition and winning concessions from the government.

FREY, SYLVIA R. Water From the Rock. Black Resistance in a Revolutionary Age. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1991. xii, 376 pp. $ 29.95.
The author of this monograph contends that the American Revolution involved a triangle of forces: two sets of white belligerents and approximately 400,000 slaves. Maintaining that a black liberation movement was central to the revolutionary struggle in the South, she demonstrates the relationship not only between slave resistance and Britain's Southern strategy, but also between slave resistance and the white independence movement among Southerners. Professor Frey describes these developments in detail and shows how they transformed three spheres of life - religion, law and the economy, during the postwar years.

The Invisible Empire in the West. Toward a New Historical Appraisal of the Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s. Ed. by Shawn Lay. University of lllinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1992. vii, 230 pp. $ 32.50.
Addressing a common set of questions, contributors to this volume examine local Ku Klux Klan chapters during the 1920s in six Western cities: Denver, Salt Lake City, El Paso, Anaheim, Eugene and La Grande. The authors show that the Klan was not at all composed of marginal men prone to violence and irrationality, but that it drew its membership from a generally balanced cross section of the white male Protestant population.

LAUSE, MARK A. Some Degree of Power. From Hired Hand to Union Craftsman in the Preindustrial American Printing Trades, 1778-1815. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville 1991. x, 261 pp. Ill. $ 28.00.
Concentrating on printers' local trade associations, Dr Lause shows that, contrary to earlier opinion, significant trade-union activity existed in the first years after the American Revolution. The author argues that these artisans organized not only to promote their own immediate concerns but also to create more permanent unions to control wages and working conditions.

LEWY, GUENTER. The Cause that Failed: Communism in American Political Life. Oxford University Press, New York [etc.] 1990. xiii, 359 pp. $24.95;f 18.00.
See Malcolm Sylvers's review in this volume, pp. 274ff.

LING, PETER J. America and the automobile: technology, reform and social change. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1992; distr. excl. in the USA and Canada by St. Martin's Press, New York. vi, 202 pp. £ 14.95.
Drawing together insights from the historiography of the Populist and Progressive Movements, as well as perspectives from historical geography and urban sociology, this book provides an interdisciplinary study of the adoption of the automobile. Dr Ling explores how a group of affluent professionals, alarmed by the political instability resulting from the social inequalities of late nineteenth-century America, strove to use the automobile as an adjustment mechanism for spatial variations such as rural isolation and urban overcrowding.

THATCHER, MARY ANNE. Immigrants and the 1930s. Ethnicity and Alienage in Depression and On-Coming War. Garland Publishing, Inc., New York [etc.] 1990. xviii, 329 pp. $ 73.00.
Most studies of American immigration have emphasized the course of the story up through the quota legislation of the 1g20s and then turned to the problems related to World War II and the postwar era. This mimeographed reprint of a doctoral thesis (UCLA 1973) describes the experience of American immigrants in the intervening years. Attention is paid to population changes, the legislative response to the "complexities of nalturalization" and the immigrant response.

WINPENNY, THOMAS R. Bending is not Breaking. Adaptation and Persistence among 19th Century Lancaster Artisans. University Press of America, Lanham [etc.] 1990. xviii, 116 pp. $ 17.75.
On the basis of case studies of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in the years 1819 (preindustrial), 1850 (early industrial) and 1880 (mature industrial) Professor Winpenny argues in this small monograph that artisans showed a real potential for adaptation to and extended coexistence with the modern factory system.



SHUM, KUI KWONG. The Chinese Communists' Road to Power. The Anti-Japanese National United Front, 1935-1945. Oxford University Press, Hong Kong [etc.] 1988. 312 pp. £ 29.95.
See Gregor Benton's review in this volume, pp. 255ff.


BEN ARI, EYAL Changing Japanese Suburbia. A Study of Two Present-Day Localities. [Japanese Studies.] Kegan Paul International, London [etc.l 1991. XVii, 328 pp. Maps. £ 45.00.
The present book provides a detailed ethnographic account of two modern suburban communities, a new housing estate and a commuter village, situated near Kyoto. The work presents three in-depth case studies: "Community Action" and the modes of political mobilization and participation undertaken by the local residents; "Community Care" and the potential of modern Japanese localities to provide aid and assistance to a rapidly aging population; and "Community Sentiments" and the new secular rituals through which attachment to the locality and a sense of local solidarity are created.



Bede Nairn and Labor History. [Labor History Essays, Vol. 3 1 Pluto Press, Leichhardt, in assoc. with the NSW Branch of the Australian Labor Party, Sydney 1991. vi, 81 pp. A$ 9.95.
This collection of seven short essays reflects on the role of labour history in the context of Australian history, using the work of the historian Bede Nairn -author of books like Civilising Capitalism (1973) and The Big Fella (1986) - as a yardstick. Among the contributions are "Bede Nairn and the official history" (Graham Freudenberg) and "The strange death of Labour history" (Verity Burgmann).


COOPER, SANDI E. Patriotic Pacifism. Waging War on War in Europe 1815-1914. Oxford University Press, New York [etc.] 1991. vii, 336 pp. f 30.00.
During the nineteenth century peace became a citizen's cause - a subject of private conferences, specialized periodicals, national and international societies, etc. Drawn mainly from the educated middle classes, European peace activists asserted that Europe was a single culture despite national animosities. They argued that internationalism was the logical outgrowth of the nation-state, not its subversion. In the present monograph Professor Cooper explores the arguments of the "patriotic pacifists" with emphasis on the international peace movement that grew between 1889 and 1914.

EPSTEIN, STEVEN A. Wage Labor and Guilds in Medieval Europe. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 1991. vii, 307 pp. $ 39.95.
See Jurgen Kuczynski's review in this volome, pp. 263ff.

KAPLAN, GISELA. Contemporary Western European Feminism. UCL Press, London; Allen & Unwin, North Sydney 1992. XXVi, 340 PP. f 30.00. (Paper: £ 10.95.)
This book, described by the author as "an overview in the true sense", sketches the development of feminism and women's movements in western Europe after 1945. This very informative work charts international trends and changes per country. The book also includes a list of feminist research addresses, an extensive bibliography and an index of names and places.

Labour Relations in Transition in Eastern Europe. Ed. by Gyorgy Szell. [de Gruyter Studies in Organization, 33.] Walter de Gruyter, Berlin [etc.] 1992. ix, 369 PP. DM 138.00.
The over twenty contributions to this volume give information about and analyses of the current transformation process in Eastern Europe. Attention is paid to general trends (e.g. material incentives, decentralization tendencies), possibilities and limits of self-management, changing trade-union structures and legal and political changes.

LIVI BACCI, MASSIMO. Population and nutrition. An essay on European demographic history. Transl. by Tania Croft-Murray with the ass. of Carl Ipsen. [Cambridge Studies in Population, Economy and Society in Past Time,14.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1991. xiv,149 pp. £ 25.00. (Paper: f 8.95.)
In this concise monograph Professor Livi-Bacci examines the biological, social and cultural mechanisms linking subsistence, mortality and population in Europe from the Black Death to the onset of industrialization. The picture that emerges shows that mortality levels were determined more by epidemiology cycles than by the nutritional level of the population, and thus calls into question the existence of any long-term interrelationship between subsistence or nutritional levels and mortality.

Maternity and Gender Policies. Women and the Rise of the European Welfare States, 1880s-1950s. Ed. by Gisela Bock and Pat Thane. Routledge, London [etc.] 1991. xv, 259 pp. £ 35.00.
This collection of twelve essays analyzes the influence of women's movements on the emergence of Europe's welfare states and the limits to that influence. Among the topics are: Norway's road to child allowances (Anne-Lise Seip and Hilde Ibsen), Social Democratic family policy in Sweden, 1900-1960s (Ann-Sofie Ohlander), French feminism and maternity, 1890-1918 (Anne Cova), pronatalism and motherhood in Franco's Spain (Mary Nash), and antinatalism, maternity and paternity in National Socialist racism (the first editor).

PADGETT, STEPHEN [and] WILLIAM E. PATERSON. A History of Social Democracy in Postwar Europe. [The Postwar World.] Longman, London [etc.] 1991. xii, 290 pp. £ 9.99.
This book surveys the western European experience of social democracy from its late nineteenth-century origins to 1945, and examines in more detail its history from 1945 onward. The authors give attention to changes in ideology and internal party life. The impact of social democracy when in government is evaluated in order to assess the extent to which it has in fact achieved substantial economic and social reform by parliamentary means.

Social Democracy in Transition. Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe. Ed. by Lauri Karvonen and Jan Sundberg. Dartmouth, Aldershot [etc. 1991. ix, 321 pp. £ 35.00.
The ten essays in this collection look at "European social democracy in relation to three geographically and temporally distinct waves of political mobilization: the process which led to the strong position of social democracy in Scandinavia, the rise to prominence of democratic socialism in southern Europe from the mid-1970s on, and what today seems to be a flat rejection of social democracy in central Europe after the revolution of 1989."


KOMLOS, JOHN. Ernahrung und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung unter Maria Theresia und Joseph II. Eine anthropometrische Geschichte der Industriellen Revolution in der Habsburgermonarchie. Aus dem Amerikanischen ubersetzt von Liliane Komlos. OBV, Wien 1991. 191 pp.
This is a mimeographed German translation of Dr Komlos's book on Nutrition and Economic Development in the Eighteenth-Century Habshurg Monarchy: An Anthropometric History (Princeton, 1989).

LEWIS, JILL. Fascism and the Working Class in Austria, 1918-1934. The Failure of Labour in the First Republic. Berg, New York [etc.] 1991; distr. excl. in the US and Canada by St. Martin's Press, New York. xii, 236 pp. f 32.50.
The central question of this study is why the strong and well-organized Austrian labour movement was unable to prevent its destruction by fascism. The author indicates that the answer should be sought not in Vienna, but outside of the capital. She shows that it was in the provinces, in Upper Styria in particular, that the labour movement was first broken to give away to working-class fascism. This was due, she maintains, to employers' tactics and to inappropriate policies of the socialist leadership.


KORALKA, JIRÍ. Tschechen im Habsburgerreich und in Europa 1815-1914. Sozialgeschichtliche Zusammenhange der neuzeitlichen Nationsbildung und der Nationalitatenfrage in den bohmischen Landern. [Schriftenreihe des Osterreichischen Ost- und Sudeuropa-Instituts, Band 18.] Verlag furGeschichte und Politik, Wien; R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munchen 1991. 324 pp. S 496.
This collection - at the same time some kind of Festschrift - contains a biography and bibliography of the author and also seven essays about Czech social history and nation building during the nineteenth century. Attention is paid to the bourgeoisie, the labour movement, political representation and Czech society in an international context among other subjects.


KNUDSEN, KNUD, HANNE CASPERSEN og VAGN OLUF NIELSEN. Kampen for en bedre tilvœrelse. Arbejdernes historie i Danmark fra 1800-tallet til 1990. Billedredaktion ved Karen Kræmer. [SFAH skriftserie nr. 26.] Selskabet til forskning i Arbejderbevægelsens historie, København 1991. 372 pp. Ill. D.kr. 250.00.
This book is the first overall account of the development of the Danish labour movement from its early beginning in the 1840s to 1990. The work, based partly on original research of the authors and partly on existing literature, is aimed primarily at a non-expert readership. The scholarly apparatus has consequently been limited to a commented bibliography.


BOSCHETTI, ANNA. The Intellectual Enterprise. Sartre and Les Temps Modernes. Transl. by Richard C. McCleary. Northwestern University Press, Evanston 1988. vi, 279 pp. $ 42.95. (Paper: $ 15.95.)
In this book which was published in Italian and French before, two subjects are dealt with. First, the conditions of Sartre's "success" at the end of World War Il ("based on an extraordinary correspondence between his position and the demands of the 'market' he is subject to"; and second, Sartre and the journal Les Temps Modernes during their "hegemonic phase" (roughly 1945-1953), ending with the departure of Merleau-Ponty, "at which time signs of the review's inability to adapt and concurrent signs of phenomena which will prove hostile to existentialism start to become evident."

CHARTIER, ROGER. The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution. Transl. bij Lydia G. Cochrane. [Bicentennial Reflections on the French Revolution.] Duke University Press, Durham [etc.] 1991. xix, 238 pp. f 33.20. (Paper: £ 6.95.)
In this book Professor Chartier sets himself two tasks. First, while acknowledging the seminal contribution of Daniel Mornet's Les origines intellectuelles de la Revolution fran,caise (1935), he attempts to synthesize the half-century of scholarship that has created a sociology of culture for revolutionary France, from education reform through widely circulated printed literature to popular expectations of government and society. Second, he reexamines the conventional wisdom that there is a necessary link between the profound cultural transformation of the eighteenth century and the abrupt revolutionary rupture of 1789.

CHOPART, JEAN-NOEL. Le fil rouge du corporatisme. Solidarite et corporations ouvrieres au XIXe siecle. Preface de Madeleine Reberioux. Mutualite Franc,aise, Paris 1991. 179 pp. F.fr. 75.00.
This is a concise history of mutual-benefit societies in Le Havre during the nineteenth century. The author concentrates his study on workers in and around the docks (shipwrights, porters, etc.) and follows their attempts at organizational self-help from the origins to around the First World War.

CORDILLOT, MICHEL. Eugene Varlin, chronique d'un espoir assassine. [Coll. "La Part des Hommes".] Les Editions Ouvrieres, Paris 1991. 263 pp. Ill. F.fr. 125.00.
The bookbinder Eugene Varlin (1839-1871) was a key person in the French labour movement of the third quarter of the nineteenth century. From the middle of the 1860s he played an important part in the construction of the co-operative movement and the establishment of the First International in France. After having come to the front during the siege of Paris he was executed by a firing squad without a judicial judgement on the last day of the Semaine sanglante. The present monograph describes Varlin's life in a very thorough way.

DELMAIRE, DANIELLE. Antisemitisme et catholiques dans le Nord pendant l'affaire Dreyfus. Presses Universitaires de Lille, n.p. lVilleneuve d'Ascq] 1991. 277 pp. Ill. F.fr. 130.00.
In this study the author researches the anti-semitism of (northern) French Catholics on the basis of close-reading of the Catholic newspaper La Croix du Nord. The emphasis is placed on the period of the Dreyfus-affair (1897-1899), with attention to the years before and after (1890-19(K) in order to ascertain possible shifts in attitude. The text analysis is set against the background of the "real situation" of northern French Jews and their enemies in the above period.

DEWERPE, ALAIN [et] YVES GAULUPEAU. La fabrique des proletaires. Les ouvriers de la manufacture d'Oberkampf a Jouy-en-Josas (1760-1815). Presses de l'Ecole Normale Superieure, n.p. [Paris] 1990. 222 pp. Ill. F.fr. 150.00.
See Christian Simon's review in this volume, pp. 265ff.

Histoire des elites en France du XVIe au XXe siecle. L'honneur - le merite - l'argent. Sous la dir. de Guy Chaussinand-Nogaret. [Par] G. Chaussinand-Nogaret, J.M. Constant, C. Durandin [et] A. Jouanna. Tallandier, n.p. [Parisl 1991. 478 pp. F.fr. 149.00.
This is a longitudinal study of the French elites ("that section of the population where power, authority and influence are concentrated") from the sixteenth to the twentieth century. Four extensive chapters describe the changing material prerequisites and symbolic expressions of the nobility's and bourgeoisie's superiority.

Histoire des galeres, bagnes et prisons. XIIIe-XXe siecles. Introduction a l'histoire penale de la France. [Par] Jacques-Guy Petit, Nicole Castan, Claude Faugeron, Michel Pierre [et] Andre Zysberg. Preface de Michelle Perrot. Bibliotheque historique Privat, Toulouse 1991. 368 pp. Ill. B.fr. 1326.
Galleys, penal colonies and prisons form the central topics of this collection of eleven essays. The book is made up of three parts: the history preceding the use of detention to the eighteenth century, the "penitentiary revolution" circa 1790 to the nineteenth century, and the modern penitentiary system from the Third Republic onwards. As appendices are included a glossary and chronology.

MCPHEE, PETER. A Social History of France, 1780--1880. [Routledge Social History of the Modern World.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1992. xii, 347 pp. Maps. £ 35.00.
This book synthesizes the most recent research into the social history of France, from the collapse of the Ancien Regime to the consolidation of the Third Republic. The author places relations of power at the heart of his analysis, stressing the relationship between political upheaval, economic change, the construction of new ideologies of gender and ethnicity, and daily life.

MILNER, SUSAN. The Dilemmas of Internationalism. French Syndicalism and the International Labour Movement, 1900-1914. Berg, New York [etc.] 1990; distr. excl. in the US and Canada by St. Martin's Press, New York. viii, 260 pp. f 37.50.
See Wayne Thorpe's review in this volume, pp. 268ff.

MOLINARI, JEAN-PAUL. Les ouvriers communistes. Sociologie de l'adhesion ouvriere au PCF. L'Albaron, Thonon-les-Bains 1991. 367 pp. F.fr. 150.00.
This is a historical-sociological study of working-class support of the French Communist Party. The author researches, among others, the party's roots among railworkers, miners, metalworkers, and agricultural labourers and gives attention to the role of communities.

L'usine et le bureau. Itineraires sociaux et professionnels dans l'entreprise XIXe et XX siecles. [Par] Y. Lequin, S. Vandecasteele, P. Bourdelais [e.a.] Presses Universitaires de Lyon, Lyon 1990. 195 pp. F.fr. 150.00.
The nine essays in this collection focus on the social history of enterprises in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. ln addition to an introduction by the compilers (Yves Lequin and Sylvie Vandecasteele) and a survey article about "Old and new images of Business History" (Jean-Pierre Daviet), case studies have been included about, among other topics, the transition from artisanal to Taylorized bicycle production in a factory at Saint-Etienne, 1900-1950 (Jean-Paul Burdy), foremen [supervizers] at Creusot, 1850-1900 (Patrice Bourdelais) and the employees of the Societe Lyonnaise de Banque (Yves Grafmeyer).


ABRAMS, LYNN. Workers' Culture in Imperial Germany. Leisure and Recreation in the Rhineland and Westphalia. Routledge, London [etc.] 1992. ix, 214 pp. £ 35.00.
The present book focuses on the leisure activities enjoyed by workers in the cities of Bochum and Dusseldorf during the Kaiserreich. Dr Abrams covers a range of popular amusements and recreations, including festivals, pubs, Tingel-Tangels, dance halls, clubs and cinemas. She concludes that the working class played a positive, even assertive role in the face of bourgeois pressure to reform and sanitate popular recreational pursuits and interprets this assertiveness as "a rational expression of political and economic impotence".

BAUER, SONJA-MARlA. Die Verfassunggebende Versammlung in der Badischen Revolution von 1849. Darstellung und Dokumentation. [Beitrage zur Geschichte des Parlamentarismus und der politischen Parteien, Band 94.] Droste Verlag, Dusseldorf 1991. 377 pp. Ill. DM 78.00.
These two massive volumes contain the first results of research carried out at the University of Cologne, analyzing the data resulting from the census held in the Russian Empire in 1897. The first volume gives a detailed justification of the method used and contains background information necessary for a right understanding of the statistical results. The second volume contains a large number of tables with "selected data about the socio-ethnic structure of the Russian Empire".

Deutsche im Ausland- Fremde in Deutschland. Migration in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Hrsg. von Klaus J. Bade. Verlag C.H. Beck, Munchen 1992. 542 pp. Ill. Maps. DM 68.00.
The history of German emigration and immigration is described in this volume by 33 scholars. Attention is given to German migration to the east (among others, the Volga Germans) and overseas (USA, Canada, Latin America, etc.), and to migration to Germany (Sinti and Roma, "Ostjuden" in the empire, forced labourers during the Nazi-regime, and Gastarbeiter and refugees after 1945.

"Deutsche Wirtschaft": Zwangsarbeit von KZ-Haftlingen fur Industrie und Behorden. Symposion "Wirtschaft und Konzentrationslager". Hrsg.: Hamburger Stiftung zur Forderung von Wissenschaft und Kultur. VSAVerlag, Hamburg 1991. 227 pp. Ill. DM 29.80.
The present collection of essays and "reports" focuses on the implementation of forced labour from concentration camps in German industry, 1937-1945. Included in the collection are studies on, among others, Auschwitz (Karl Heinz Roth, Franciszek Piper), and Neuengamme (Hermann Kaienburg, Gerd Wysocki, Stefan Romey), and more general essays, among which "Capitalism and 'free wage labour"' (Gotz Rohwer).

GOTTHARDT, CHRISTIAN. Industrialisierung, burgerliche Politik und proletarische Autonomie. Voraussetzungen und Varianten sozialistischer Klassenorganisationen in Nordwestdeutschland 1863 bis 1875. [Veroffentlichungen des Instituts fur Sozialgeschichte Braunschweig-Bonn.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachf., Bonn 1992. 440 pp. DM 135.00.
Basing himself on the thesis, formulated primarily by Hartmut Zwahr, that the development of the bourgeoisie and the working class should be approached synchronically" in social-historical research, the author analyzes the emergence of socialist organizations in northwest Germany 1863-1875. In this monograph four regional variations, which arise out of different socio-economic "historical contexts", are identified.

MÜHLBERGER, DETLEF. Hitler s Followers. Studies in the sociology of the Nazi movement. Routledge, London [etc.] 1991. xii,276 pp. Maps. £ 35.00.
This study evaluates the social structure of the Nazi Party in four regions of Germany during its so-called Kampfzeit phase. Contrary to the middle class thesis of Nazism advanced by numerous scholars, Dr Muhlberger reveals that in addition to followers from the middle and upper social classes the Nazi Party enjoyed strong support among the lower class and that it was indeed - as it claimed to be at the time - a people's party or Volkspartei, in which all classes were represented.

MÜNCH, RONALD A. Von Heidelberg nach Berlin: Friedrich Ebert 1871-1905. [Schriftenreihe der Stiftung Reichsprasident-Friedrich-Ebert-Gedenkstatte, Band 2.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munchen 1991. 144 pp. Ill. DM 48.00.
This small book presents a "revisionist" description of the social background, youth, and first political activities of Friedrich Ebert (1871-1925), the former social-democratic Reichsprasident. The author shows that Ebert's background was not indigent proletariat, but lower middle class.

RITTER, GERHARD A. [und] KLAUS TENFELDE. Arbeiter im Deutschen Kaiserreich 1871 bis 1914. [Geschichte der Arbeiter in der Arbeiterbewegung in Deutschland seit dem Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts, Band 5.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachf., Bonn 1992. xi, 889 pp. Ill. DM 118.00.
This sizeable work is the first of four volumes about the working class and the labour movement in the Kaiserreich, which in their turn are the central part of a "total" German labour history from about 1800 to 1933 (see IRSH, XXIX (1984),p.408, XXXI(1986),p.352, X XXXIII(1988),p.92, XXXVI(l991), p. 143). The present volume sketches the economic and political backgrounds, analyzes the social stratification, the structure of the labour market, the development of artisanal and industrial labour processes, the income and expenses of working-class families, proletarian family life and the institutions for socialization outside the family, which influenced the working class (schools, churches, the army, etc.).

Vom alten zum neuen Burgertum. Die mitteleuropaische Stadt im Umbruch 1780-1820. Hrsg. von Lothar Gall. [Stadt und Burgertum, Band 3.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munchen 1991. v, 678 pp. DM 148.00.
The shifting social position of urban bourgeoisies in German cities around 1800 is the theme of the fifteen essays in this collection. Included are case studies about Bremen (Andreas Schulz), Gottingen (Regina Jeske), Munster (Susanne Kill), Dortmund (Karin Schambach), Aachen (Michael Sobania), Cologne (Gisela Mettele), Wetzlar (Hans-Werner Hahn), Wiesbaden (Thomas Weichel), Frankfurt/Main (Ralf Roth), Heidelberg (Marie-Lise Weber), Karlsruhe and Mannheim (Dieter Hein), Heilbronn (Dirk Reuter), Augsburg (Frank Moller) and Munich (Ralf Zerback).

Great Britain

ANDERSON, PERRY. English Questions. Verso, London (etc.) 1992. vii,370 pp. £ 39.95. (Paper: £ 12.95.)
The six essays collected for the present book concern the "peculiarities" of British social and cultural development from the Civil War of 1640-1649 to the present. Four texts have appeared earlier in the New Left Review ("Origins of the Present Crisis" (1964), "Components of the National Culture" (1968), "Figures of Descent" (1987), and "A Culture in Contraflow" (1990)) and two are published here for the first time: "The Notion of Bourgeois Revolution" (1976) and "The Light of Europe" (1991).

GILBERT, DAVID. Community, and Collective Action. Social Change in Two British Coalfields, 1850-1926. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1992. x, 293 pp. Maps. £ 40.00.
On the basis of recent theorizing concerning collective action (mainly Mancur Olson and Craig Calhoun) Dr Gilbert investigates the differences and simila;ities between mining communities in two regions (South Wales and Nottinghamshire) and two settlements (Ynysybwl and Hucknall), especially during and after the big strike of 1926. The book is flawed by a number of minor errors: e.g. the author persists in speaking of the "isolated mass" hypothesis of Kerr and Siegal.

JONES, PETER D'A. Henry George and British Socialism. [Modern European History.] Garland Publishing, Inc., New York [etc.] 1991. xi, 273 pp. $ 53.00.
This reprint of an M.A. thesis (Manchester, 19S3) studies the influence of the American single-tax agitator and writer of Progress and Poverty Henry George (1837-1897). Dr d'Alroy Jones presents George's doctrine, then describes its spread to the British isles and finally researches its influence on various socialist movements, from the Socialist League to the Christian Socialists.

JOURNÈS. HUGUES. Une littérature révolutionnaire en Grande-Bretagne: La poésie chartiste. Publisud, Paris 1991. 430 pp. Ill. F.fr. 228.00.
The topic of this voluminous monograph is the poetry of the Chartist movement. The book is made up of two parts: the first consists of portraits of the "great people's poets" (Ebenezer Elliott, Capell Lofft, William James Linton, Thomas Cooper, Ernest Jones, Gerald Massey and Ebenezer Jones); in the second part the poetry is analyzed thematically ("toil", hunger, workhouses, prostitution, gin, suicide, revolt, etc.).

MITCHISON, ROSALIND. Coping with Destitution. Poverty and Relief in Western Europe. The 1989 Joanne Goodman Lectures. University of Toronto Press, Toronto [etc.] 1991. xvi, 91 pp. f 21.00. (Paper: f 9.95.)
This small volume is made up of three lectures given at the University of Western Ontario in 1989 on the development of welfare systems in early modern Europe, with particular emphasis on the British Isles. The topics are: the emergence of new attitudes to poverty in the sixteenth century; relief systems in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries as set up in various countries and the differences between Catholic and Protestant states and the development of British relief systems in the early nineteenth century.

Quantitative Economic History. Ed. by N.F.R. Crafts, N.H. Dimsdale, and S. Engerman. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1991. xx, 251 pp. £ 15.00.
The ten papers in this collection (first published in Oxford Economic Papers, December 1987 and December 1988) cover a wide range of topics in economic history with a strong quantitative content. Eight of the papers examine nineteenth-century data and the remaining two deal with the inter-war period. Among the contributions with a bearing on social history are studies about British-Australian migration during the industrial revolution (Stephen Nicholas and Peter R. Shergold), risk-sharing in the late nineteenth-century British coal industry (John G. Treble), unemployment in inter-war Britain (Barry Eichengreen) and female labour force participation in inter-war Britain (T.J. Hatton and R.E. Bailey).

RICHARDS, THOMAS. The Commodity Culture of Victorian England. Advertising and Spectacle,1851-1914. Verso, London [etc.] 1991. xiv, 306 pp. Ill. f 11.95.
The central thesis of the present book maintains that in Britain between the Great Exhibition of 1851 and the First World War, the commodity became (and has remained) the centerpiece of everyday life, "the dead center of the modern world". Drawing in particular on the work of Guy Debord, the author examines the birth of the commodity and the origins of advertising. He attempts to show that the cultural forms of consumerism came into being long before the consumer economy itself.
SCHULTE BEERBUHL, MARGRIT. Vom Gesellenverein zur Gewerkschaft. Entwicklung, Struktur und Politik der Londoner Gesellenorganisationen 1550-1825. [Gottinger Beitrage zur Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte, Band 16.] Verlag Otto Schwartz & Co., Gottingen 1991. viii, 529 pp. DM 48.00.
This detailed study of the development and structure of London guilds in the period 1550-1825 (doctoral thesis, Dusseldorf 1987) intends to demonstrate that organized artisans had already internalized the essential characteristics of the modern economic human at the beginning of the process of industrialization, and that their behaviour in the eighteenth century was no longer molded by the traditional "moral economy", but by the new ideal of rational and achievementoriented trade-labour.

TURLEY, DAVID. The Culture of English Antislavery, 1780-1860. Routledge, London letc.] 1991. x, 284 pp. £ 35.00.
The present book offers an account of British organized antislavery from its beginnings in the 1780s. The successive alliances of abolitionists are analyzed through the concept of a culture of reform, embracing ideology, forms of organization and propaganda and the more intimate connections and rituals which reformers used to reinforce their identity and solidarity; the result is a definition of the middle-class "reform mentality". The author also relates the various elements of antislavery to the popular radicalism of the 1790s and early Chartism.


DEÁK, GEORGE. The Economy and Polity in Early Twentieth Century Hungary. The Role of the National Association of Industrialists. East European Monographs, Boulder 1990; distr. by Columbia University Press, New York. ix, 209 pp. $ 32.00.
The present book, based on a doctoral thesis (New York, 1980) reconstructs the development of the National Association of Hungarian Industrialists from its founding in 1902 to the beginning of World War I. The author researches the (important) role of the Association in the process of economic "modernization" and its connection to early Hungarian liberalism.


CIPOLLA, CARLO M. Miasmas and Disease. Public Health and the Environment in the Pre-industrial Age. Transl. by Elizabeth Potter. Yale University Press, New Haven [etc.] 1992. ix, 101 pp. $ 25.00; £ 16.95.
In this small book Professor Cipolla makes use of the papers of the Magistrato alla Sanita, the Florence Health Magistracy, and analyzes the Sanitation Office in seventeenth-century Florence, its regional inspectors and their grasp of epidemiological principles. He also documents the endeavours of doctors and inspectors to combat dsisease within a superstitious culture and an environment of dirt.

MILLER, JAMES EDWARD. From Elite to Mass Politics. Italian Socialism in the Giolittian Era, 1900-1914. The Kent State University Press, Kent (Ohio) [etc.] 1990. xii, 265 pp. $ 32.00.
Focusing on the years 1908-1914, this book argues that, in their pursuit of gradual change, the dominant Reformist faction of the Italian Socialist Party deliberately built a party structure that limited mass participation in the movement and handed control to middle-class parliamentary deputies. The politics of prime minister Giolitti, however, sparked a series of internal revolts against Reformist leadership, which led to a strategy of confrontation with the Italian state, championed by a coalition of lower-middle class and working-class "Revolutionaries", by which the party's traditional leadership was ousted.

Il mito della Rivoluzione e la sinistra italiana tra '800 e '900. A cura di Aldo Nicosia. FrancoAngeli, Milano 1991. 250 pp. Ill. L. 34.000.
The twelve essays in this volume are case-studies on the reception of the French Revolution by the Italian Left in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Topics handled are, among others: democratic and socialist iconography (Giovanna Ginex), the anarchists (Letterio Briguglio), the masons (Anna Maria Isastia), the Republicans (Angelo Varni), Giuseppe Zanardelli (Roberto Chiarini), Guglielmo Ferrero (Zeffiro Ciuffoletti), Andrea Costa (Maurizio Ridolfi) and Antonio Labriola and Filippo Turati (Ugo Spadoni).

The Red Brigades and left-wing terrorism in Italy. Ed. by Raimondo Catanzaro. Pinter Publishers, London 1991. viii, 216 pp. £ 39.00.
The six essays in this book analyze the Red Brigades and related groups, examining the social conditions and protest cycle which bred violent activism in the 1960 and 1970s, and pointing to the failure of the body politic to absorb radical groups, thereby denying them a legal framework within which to express their views. Included are papers on the organizational history and political ideology of the Red Brigades (Gian Carlo Caselli and Donatella della Porta), the role of social networks in the construction of Prima Linea (Claudio Novaro) and an "account of violence in the words of the protagonists" (the editor).

The Netherlands

GERBER, JOHN. Anton Pannekoek and the Socialism of Workers' Self-Emancipation 1873-1960. [Studies in Social History, 10.] Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London; International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam 1989. xxv, 250 pp. Ill. D.fl. 130.00; $ 76.00; f 46.00.
See Corrado Malandrino's review in this volume, pp. 271ff.

Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

New Directions in Soviet History. Ed. by Stephen White. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1992. 209 pp. f 30.00.
Besides a provocative essay on "Gorbachev and history" (Pierre Broue) this collection contains nine papers grouped around three key themes: the changing nature of mass culture in the 1920s and 1930s, the politics of shopfloor relations during the same period, and the changing composition of the political elite from the 1930s to the present day. Research is presented on, inter alia, popular cinema 1921-1931 (Denise Youngblood), the 1926 rezhim ekonomii campaign in Moscow (John Hatch) and the demise of the shock-worker brigades in industry, 1931-1936 (John Russell).

Perestroika from Below. Social Movements in the Soviet Union. Ed. by Judith Sedaitis and Jim Butterfield. Westview Press, Boulder [etc.] 1991. xii, 220 pp. $ 34.50.
The twelve essays in this collection deal with the emergence of social movements in the Soviet Union following Gorbachev's April 1985 announcement of a reformist policy. Topics include: worker activism (the first editor, Russell Bova), women's movements (Carol Nechemias, Laurie Essig and Tatiana Mamonova) and ecology movements (Charles E. Ziegler, David R. Marples). The book concludes with a synthesizing essay on the importance of social movements in the development of a "civil society" (Andrew Arato).

Revolution in Russia: Reassessments of 1917. Ed. by Edith Rogovin Frankel, Jonathan Frankel [and] Baruch Knei-Paz. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1992. xx, 434 pp. Ill. f 42.50. (Paper: £ 15.95.)
The nineteen contributors to this volume re-examine the key issues and events of 1917. Topics include: the soviets (Israel Getzler), the Red Guards (Rex A. Wade), the peasantry (John Channon), the perceptions and reality of labour protest (Diane P. Koenker and William G. Rosenberg), commercial and industrial circles (Ziva Galili), nationalism (Ronald Grigor Suny), Georgian social democracy (Stephen F. Jones), ethnic Germans (Ingeborg Fleischhauer), Lenin (Neil Harding, Robert Service, John Keep), and historiographical debates (D.A. Longley, Edward Acton, the third editor).


KELSEY, GRAHAM. Anarchosyndicalism. Libertarian Communism and the State. The CNT in Zaragoza and Arag6n, 1930-1937. [Studies in Social History, 11.] Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht [etc.] and International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam 1991. ix, 312 pp. Maps. D.fl. 195.00; $ 112.00; f 66.00.
In an attempt to correct for the "persistent overemphasis on Cataluna and Barcelona", this book studies the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo during the years of the Second Republic and the first part of the Civil War in the Aragon area, and the Zaragoza region in particular. The author demonstrates, among other things, how during the first year of the Civil War the extensive and highly successful collective system was promoted and built up by local anarchosyndicalist militants working in their own villages and towns, and not foisted on them from outside.

NAGEL, KLAUS-JÜRGEN. Arbeiterschaft und nationale Frage in Katalonien zwischen 1898 und 1923. [Forschungen zu Spanien, Band 7.] Verlag Breitenbach Publishers, Saarbrucken [etc.] 1991. xi, 798 pp. DM 95.00.
"Starting from the thesis that in different historical circumstances nationalism can be expressed by different social strata or their political representatives, the history of policial Catalonianism [...] is investigated. The history of the labour organizations, their reactions or lack of them and their own initiatives on the one hand and the electoral behaviour of the workers on the other hand are then confronted with this nationalism." This extensive volume, a doctoral thesis (Bielefeld, 1989), covers the period of 1898-1923.


DEGEN, BERNARD. Abschied vom Klassenkampf. Die partielle Integration der schweizerischen Gewerkschaftsbewegung zwischen Landesstreik und Weltwirtschaftskrise (1918-1929). [Basler Beitrage zur Geschichtswissenschaft, Band 161.] Verlag Helbing & Lichtenhahn, Basel [etc.] 1991. 326 pp. S.fr. 59.00.
The present doctoral thesis (Basel, 1990) describes the development of the Swiss trade-union movement in the first decade after the general strike of 1918. The author sketches the emergence of the 48-hour week and how it was consequently rendered void of meaning, the decrease of nominal wages and the reactions of union leaders. He concludes that unions were in a transitional phase from "autonomy" to "integration".