Volume 37 part 3 (1992)


General Issues
Continents and Countries

Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.

General issues


ALBRITION, ROBERT. A Japanese Approach to Stages of Capitalist Development. Macmillan, Basingstoke [etc.l 1991. ix, 325 pp. f 45.00.
Dr Albritton identifies three areas for analysis of present-day society: "the theory of a purely capitalist society, the theory of stages of capitalist development, and the analysis of capitalist history". His earlier study A Japanese Reconstruction of Marxist Theory (1986) is devoted to the first area; the present study to the second. Building on the work of the Japanese economist Kozo Uno, the author distinguishes four stages in the evolution of capitalism: mercantilism, liberalism, imperialism and consumerism.

BAYAT, ASSEF. Work, Politics and Power. An international perspective on workers' control and self-management. Zed Books Ltd, London 1991. vii, 243 pp. f 29.95. (Paper: f 10.95.)
Dr Bayat, who has previously published a monograph on workers' councils during the Iranian revolution of 1979 (see IRSH, XXXIII (1988), p. 81), here constructs a theoretical framework for understanding the very different struggles for workers' control that have taken place in situations as diverse as Portugal in 1974, Chile under Allende, Iran 1979, Nyerere's Tanzania and Ecevit's Turkey. as well as India and South Africa today.

COHEN, ROBIN. Contested Domains. Debates in International Labour Studies. Zed Books Ltd, London [etc.] 1991. xiii, 188 pp. £ 29.95. (Paper: f 10.95 )
The present volume contains nine essays, most of which have been published previously. Professor Cohen's dual theme is the control which the state and employers seek to impose and maintain over labouring people, and the resistance put up by workers to these often new and unacceptable disciplines. On the basis of historical and contemporary case studies drawn from North America, Britain, and various parts of Africa, the author develops an interlocking theory of habituation and resistance.

HOLUB, RENATE. Antonio Gramsci. Beyond Marxism and Postmodernism. [Critics of the Twentieth Century.l Routledge, London [etc.] 1992. xii, 247 pp. £ 10.99.
This book places Gramsci's work in the context of the present-day critical and socio-cultural debate. The author argues that Gramsci was far ahead of his time in offering a high-level theory of art, politics and cultural production. She takes stock of Gramsci's achievement with particular reference to the Frankfurt School, Brecht's theoretical writings, Ernst Bloch's philosophy of hope and the phenomenological tradition (especially Merleau-Ponty).

LOONE, EERO. Soviet Marxism and Analytical Philosophies of History. Transl. by Brian Pearce. Verso, London [etc.] 1992. xvii, 280 pp. f 39.95.
Professor Loone belongs to a group of Marxist philosophers based in Estonia, especially at the University of Tartu. In this book, which was first published in Russian in 1980, Dr Loone, whose intellectual style has much in common with analytical philosophy, surveys the philosophy of history as practised in the West (Collingwood, Popper, Kuhn, Modigliano, Plumb and others) and attempts to reformulate the Marxist theory of history.

SCHULTE, GÜNTER. Kennen Sie Marx? Kritik der proletarischen Vernunft. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt letc.] 1992. 237 pp. DM 38.00.
In this peculiar book Dr Schulte, a professor of philosophy, makes connections between the writings and the life of Marx, especially by paying attention to Marx's metaphors and imagery. Among other things, the author draws the conclusion that the abstract labour that Marx denotes as Gallerte (jelly) in Capital is nothing else but "dried sperma", which is sucked up by the capitalist, who is seen as a vampyre.

SMITH, DENNIS. The Rise of Historical Sociology. Polity Press, Cambridge 1991. xi, 231 pp. £ 11.95.
This book surveys the spectacular postwar resurgence of historical sociology in the Anglo-Saxon world. In the process it discusses not only American and British authors like T.H. Marshall, Reinhard Bendix, Barrington Moore, Theda Skocpol, Charles Tilly, Perry Anderson, Immanuel Wallerstein, Michael Mann, W.G. Runciman and Anthony Giddens, but also non-sociologists like Edward P. Thompson and authors that reached the Anglo-Saxon world through translations mainly, like Marc Bloch, Fernand Braudel and Norbert Elias.


BEILHARZ, PETER. Labour s Utopias. Bolshevism, Fabianism, Social Democracy. Routledge, London [etc.] 1992. xi, 168 pp. £ 35.00.
This study concentrates on the role of utopias in Bolshevism, Fabianism and Social Democracy. Its main purpose is to address the question: do the revolutionary and reformist traditions merely represent different roads to the same utopia, or do they in fact aspire to different images of a socialist future? Dr Beilharz's argument is that they do indeed embody very different conceptions of socialism as such: "Bolshevism is in essence a labour utopia, Fabianism is a utopia governed by the principle of social function, while Social Democracy contains an image of the future closer to that of the ideals of the French Revolution or 'new liberalism'."

MARSHALL, BILL. Victor Serge. The Uses of Dissent. [Berg French Studies.l Berg, New York [etc.] 1992; distr. excl. in the US and Canada by St. Martin's Press, New York. xi, 227 pp. £ 30.00.
This full-length biography reconstructs the eventful life of Victor Kibalchich alias Serge (1890-1947) from the prisons of France and Siberia, through the Russian Civil War and Stalin's purges to the Second World War and exile in Mexico, setting his literary work amidst debates about revolution, communism and anarchism, literature and representation.

Nationalisms & Sexualities. Ed. by Andrew Parker, Mary Russo, Doris Sommer, and Patricia Yaeger. Routledge, New York [etc.] 1992. xi, 451 pp. f 12.99.
Following on from the work of George L. Mosse and Benedict Anderson this collection of twenty-three essays investigates the relation between nationalism and sexuality. Six topics are being addressed: relationships between (neo)colonial nations and sexualities; the volatility of dress as a marker of national and sexual status; the projection outside of one nation's borders of the sexual practices it deems unsavory; the roles played by different modes of representation in the construction of national and sexual norms; the production and reproductions of national citizens; and feminisms in their encounters with desparate nationalisms.

Power and Economic Institutions. Reinterpretations in Economic History. Ed. by Bo Gustafsson. Edward Elgar, Aldershot 1991. xiv, 344 pp. £ 45.00.
The eight essays in this volume are devoted to three principal themes: "Traditional Economies", "Transitions to Capitalism", and "Capitalism". Contributions include "Economic power and productive efficiency in traditional agriculture" (Amit Bhaduri), "The rise and economic behaviour of medieval craft guilds" (the editor), "On the origins of capitalist hierarchy" (Maxine Berg), "From Verlag to factory: the contest for efficient property rights" (Lars Magnusson), "Understanding capitalism: control versus efficiency" (Stephen A. Marglin), "Organizations and markets in capitalist development" (William Lazonick), and "Taylorism and the rise of organized labour: United States and Sweden" (Alf Johansson).

SCHIEDER, WOLFGANG. Karl Marx als Politiker. Piper, Munchen [etc.] 1991. 214 pp. DM 38.00.
The present monograph focuses on Karl Marx as a nineteenth-century politician, as the radical socialist who with his topical political writings and his activities in small organizations exercized more influence than as the author of Capital. Professor Schieder reconstructs the various stages in the development of the political Marx, from the Communist League, via the International Working Men's Association until his later years. Starting point in this is that as a consequence of the recent developments in Eastern Europe Marx "falls back into the place where he belongs: the nineteenth century. As a result it finally becomes possible to understand him from the circumstances of his time".

Slavery and the Rise of the Atlantic System. Ed. by Barbara L. Solow. Camhridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.l 1991. viii, 355 pp. £ 35.00.
The twelve essays in this book deal with the role of slavery in the "Atlantic System" from the sixteenth up to and including the eighteenth centuries. They describe, among other subjects, the "Old World background of slavery in the Americas" (William D. Phillips. Jr) and its effect on precolonial western Africa (David Eltis), Portugal (Joseph C. Miller), the Netherlands (P.C. Emmer), Britain (P.K. O'Brien and S.L. Engerman), France (Patrick Villiers), New England (David Richardson) and the Chesapeake (David W. Galenson).

Sources of the History of Africa, Asia, Australia and Oceania in Hungary. With a Supplement: Latin America. Ed. by The National Archives of Hungary [Guides to the Sources for the History of the Nations, 3rd Series, Vol. 9.] K.G. Saur, Munchen [etc.] 1991. xvii, 451 pp. DM 298.00.
ln the present volume data have been collected about Hungarian archives relating to the history of the developing countries. More than half of the material listed relates to the countries in Asia. The compilers were unable to describe all archival holdings to the same degree of completeness: the descriptions of business are rather detailed, while in other cases, e.g. the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the descriptions are more general.

State and Society in International Relations. Ed. by Michael Banks and Martin Shaw. Harvester Wheatsheaf, New York [etc.] 1991. viii, 216 pp. $ 60.00; f 32.50.
The nine essays in this volume (eight of which have not been published before) address the paradox that "although international relations, as a field, deals with the inter-relationships between states, states themselves had traditionally been studied only in other fields". Among the more historical contributions are: "Politics and the market: Reflections on the rise and current condition of capitalist society" (John A. Hall) and "War and the historical formation of states: Evidence of things unseen" (Darryl Roberts).

Zur Okonomik des privaten Haushalts. Haushaltsrechnungen als Quelle historischer Wirtschafts- und Sozialforschung. Hrsg. von Toni Pierenkemper. [Reihe Stiftung der Private Haushalt, Band 12.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1991. 252 pp. DM 48.00.
The eleven essays collected in this volume were presented during the Tenth International Economic l-listory Congress (Leuven/Louvain. 1990) and treat diverging aspects of the economic history of households. Dealt with are methodological questions of mass statistics (the editor), scales of equivalence (Armin Triebel), but also case studies, among them some concerning Davies's and Eden's budgets of agricultural labouring families in late-eighteenth-century England (Thomal Sokoll), Belgian working-class budgets 1853-1929 (Peter Scholliers) and the nineteenth-century upper-middle-class household of the Bethmann family, Frankfurt (Wilfried Forstmann).


GREEN, ANDY. Education and State Formation. The Rise of Education Systems in England, France and the USA. Macmillan, Basingstoke [etc.] 1992. xii, 353 pp. f 14.99.
This book analyzes the social origins of national education systems (i.e., "systems of formal schooling at least partly funded and supervised by the state which provided universal education for all children of school age in a given nation") in Western Europe and North America. The author shows that such systems arose unevenly and considers the key social factor for this to be the nature of the state and the process of state formation.

LAZONICK, WILLIAM. Competitive Advantage on the Shop Floor. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1990. vii, 419 pp.; £44.95.
See Richard Hyman's review in this volume, pp. 405ff.


Les migrations dans le monde arabe. Sous la dir. de Gilbert Beauge et Friedmann Buttner. [Societes arabes et musulmanes, 4.1 Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris 1991. 327 pp. F.fr. 195.00.
The sixteen essays in this collection deal with social, economic and political aspects of the migration to the Gulf Area from the 1970s. Special attention is paid to the consequences for the social and cultural relations in the push as well as in the pull areas. Some contributions address the problem of return migration.

SCOTT, ALAN. Ideology and the new social movements. [Controversies in Sociology, 24.] Unwin Hyman, London [etc.] 1990. vii, 174 pp. f 25.00. (Paper: £ 8.95.)
This book focuses upon the competing theoretical explanations of the rise and character of the "new social movements" in North America and Europe. The author reviews mainstream theories. both functionalist and neo-Marxist. Specific examples, most notahly the rise of the West German Greens, are used to assess the value of the different approaches. Dr Scott concludes by arguing that the Weberian idea of social closure that can accomodate questions of allegiance and identity and control of resources has considerable explanatory power and can encompass the cultural and political aspects of social movements. CONTINENTS AND COUNTRlES


South Africa

BOZZOLI, BELINDA, with the ass. of Mmantho Nkotsoe. Women of Phokeng. Consciousness, Life Strategy, and Migrancy in South Africa, 1900-1983. [Social History of Africa.] Heinemann, Portsmouth (NH); James Currey, London 1991. xi, 292 pp. Ill. Maps. £ 35.00. (Paper: 9.95.)
This book recounts the lives and experiences of twenty-two black South-African women - all born before 1915 - from one small town in the Western Transvaal. The narrative takes the form of a chronologically arranged oral prosopography. The chapter headings represent the course of the reconstruction: "Peasant daughters", "Church, School, and Tribe", "Leaving Home", "Courtship and Marriage", "Respectable Matrons", "Subjectivity and Identity: Tales of Violence and Persecution", "Resentment and Defiance", "Leaving the City", "Grandmothers and Pensioners".

CRAIS CLIFTON C. White Supremacy and Black Resistance in Pre-industrial South Africa. The making of the colonial order in the Eastern Cape, 1770-1865. [African Studies Series, 72.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1992. xvi; 284 pp. Ill. Maps. f 35.00.
The present book provides an analysis of the emergence of a racially divided society in the pre-industrial Eastern Cape of South Africa. The author gives a detailed study of the impact of British colonial policy, the role of cross-cultural trade and evangelical Christianity, the abolition of slavery and peonage, capitalist development, the state, and the creation of a racist ideology on the part of white settlers. Central to this study is an examination of the manifold forms of black resistance, from theft and armed struggle to the great millenarian Cattle Killing of 1856-1857.

LABAND, JOHN. Kingdom in crisis. The Zulu response to the British invasion of 1879. [War, Armed forces and Society.] Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1992. xi, 272 pp. Maps. £ 40.00.
This history of the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879 examines the complexities of the Zulu response to the British invasion of their kingdom. Professor Laband argues that despite the Zulus' coherent and energetic response, their inability to adapt their traditional military methods in order to counter the British challenge meant they could not long prevent the invaders from advancing deep into Zululand. Mounting military disaster, diplomatic stalemate and economic disruption eventually eroded the king's authority and encouraged his leading subjects to come to terms with the British invaders.

SAGNER, ANDREAS. Landliche Regionen Südafrikas im Umbruch: Thembuland, ca. 1865-1930. Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte eines afrikanischen Häuptlingstums. [Europaische Hochschulschriften, Reihe III, Band 481.] Peter Lang, Frankfurt/M. [etc.] 1991. 309 pp. S.fr. 69.00.
This doctoral thesis (Munich, 1990) investigates the social and economic development in Thembuland, a part of the present Transkei, during the early phase of industrialization (1865-1920). The author argues that an analysis that concentrates onty on capitalist accumulation and state interventions cannot but be insufficient, since a significant motor of changes in the country, viz. the precolonial relations, is then neglected.


Sudan after Nimeiri. Ed. by Peter Woodward. [Routledge/SOAS Contemporary Politics and Culture in the Middle East Series.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1991. xiv, 223 pp. f 35.00.
In twelve chapters this collection analyzes the social, economic, political and ecological development in Sudan from the fall of President Nimeiri in the middle 1980s. emphasizing the country's predicament. Dealt with are, among other things: rainfall trends and rural changes (Mike Hulme and A. Trilsbach), the background to the change of government in 1985 (Tim Niblock), north-south issues (Douglas H. Johnson), the islamization of law as a political stake (Jean François Rycx), the refugee problem (Ahmed Karadawi) and external relations (the editor).


HARRIS, RICHARD L. Marxism, Socialism, and Democracy in Latin America. [Latin American Perspectives Series.] Westview Press, Boulder Ietc.] 1992. xiii, 234 pp. $ 42.95. (Paper: $ 16.95.)
This book studies "the extent to which Marxist thought on the transition from capitalism to socialism provides an essential framework for understanding the successes and failures of recent and past attempts to construct socialist societies in Latin America and the Caribbean". The author provides a critical survey of the relevant issues in Marxist literature and then relates these issues to contemporary revolutionary transformations in Cuba (1959-1991), Chile (1970-1973), Grenada (1979-1983), Nicaragua (1979-1990), and El Salvador (1980-1991).


Colonial Leviathan. State Formation in Mid-Nineteenth-Century Canada. Ed. by Allan Greer and lan Radforth. University of Toronto Press, Toronto [etc.] 1992. xii, 328 pp. C$ 55.00. (Paper: C$ 22.95.)
This collection of ten essays focuses on the practices- administrative and economic as well as legal - by which Canadian citizens came under the control of the state. Included are studies of the law of associations, the bureaucracy of public schooling and the establishment of police forces. Other contributions focus on the railway-construction boom, the revolution in government finances, the post-Rebellion transformations effected by the Lower Canadian Special Council, and the utilitarian inspiration of changes in imperial administration. For all their diversity, the articles suggest that state formation was a wideranging shift that involved far more than a simple "growth of government".

Glimpses of Canadian Legal History. Ed. by Dale Gibson and W. Wesley Pue. Legal Research Institute, University of Manitoba, n.p. [Winnipeg] 1991. vii, 287 pp.
The present collection contains eleven essays on Canadian legal history. Among the topics are: "Mutiny on the Beaver: Law and Authority in the Fur Trade Navy, 1835-1840" (Hamar Foster), gang rape and male law in nineteenthcentury Toronto (Constance B. Backhouse), the Reno gang of train robbers (the first editor and Lee Gibson) and the early British Columbia Supreme Court and the "Chinese Question" (John P.S. McLaren).


HEYMAN, JOSIAH McC. Life and Labor on the Border. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson 1991. xiii, 247 pp. $ 40.00.
This study is based on ethnographic fieldwork in Sonora and Arizona; six histories of grand-families are the core. Drawing on a collection of life histories Dr Heyman describes what happened to the families over several generations as people left the Sonoran countryside to work for American-owned companies in northern Sonora or to cross the border to find other employment. He considers the consequences of changing political and economic tides and also the effects on family life of the new role of women in the labour force.

Mexico Since Independence. Ed. by Leslie Bethell. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1991. ix, 453 pp. Maps. f 14.95; $ 18.95.
This collection brings together chapters from volumes III, V, and VII of The Cambridge History of Laltin America to provide in a single volume an economic, social and political history of Mexico after its independence from Spain in 1821. Contributors include Jan Bazant (the years 1821-1867), Friedrich Katz (1867-1910), John Womack, Jr (1910-1920), Jean Meyer (the 1920s), Alan Knight (c. 1920-c.1946) and Peter H. Smith (1946-1980s).

MURPHY, ARTHUR D. [and] ALEX STEPICK. Social Inequality in Oaxaca. A History of Resistance and Change. Foreword by Henry A. Selby. [Conflicts in Urban and Regional Development.] Temple University Press, Philadelphia 1991. xix. 282 pp. Maps. $ 39.95. (Paper: $ 16.95.)
Using ethnographic material and historical research the authors of the present book focus on issues of poverty and inequality in Oaxaca, a secondarv Mexican city. Putting the emphasis on the development of households Professors Murphy and Stepick describe gender role, the importance of compadrazgo (co-godparenthood) as a social institution, class-based political struggles and strikes, and the role of children in redeeming their parents from poverty.

United States of America

CASHMAN, SEAN DENNIS. African-Americans and the Quest for Civil Rights? 1900-1990. New York University Press, New York [etc.l 1991. xvi, 321 pp. Ill. $ 24.95.
This is a rather popularly written survey of the African-American's quest for civil rights in the twentieth century. The book reconstructs the experiences and the resistance of black people in chronological order and pays much attention to the principal leaders, from Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois to Martin Luther King and Malcolm X.

COBBLE, DOROTHY SUE. Dishing It Out. Waitresses and Their Unions in the Twentieth Century. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1991. xiv, 327 pp. Ill. $ 34.95.
See Mary H. Blewett's review in this volume, pp. 408ff.

Exploitation and Exclusion: Race and Class in Contemporary US Society. Ed. by Abebe Zegeye, Leonard Harris [and] Julia Maxted. [African Discourse Series, No. 3.] Hans Zell Publishers, London [etc.] 1991. xii, 277 pp. £ 35.00.
Taken from a number of disciplinary and theoretical positions, the contributions to this collection explore the distinctions and similarities between race and class exploitation, analyzing the effectiveness of concepts of justice and social policies in the abatement of inequality, and provide a methodological framework for examining race in its capitalist dimensions. Topics include: the concept of racism (the second editor), human rights (Bernard Boxill), language (Geneva Smitherman), racist discourse (David Goldberg), racial formation theory (Howard Winant), anti-communism and anti-racism (Lou Kushnick) and Black Power politics as social movement (Gerald McWorter).

GREENBERG, CHERYL LYNN. Or Does It Explode? Black Harlem in the Great Depression. Oxford University Press, New York [etc.] 1991. ix, 317 pp. Ill. f 27.50.
Focusing on the lives of ordinary people in black Harlem, the present work examines (un)employment, relief and black political action from the late 1920s, through the Depression and New Deal to the outbreak of World War II. Dr Greenberg demonstrates how Harlemites mobilized to better their living conditions through organizations and grass-roots activism and investigates the interactions with the administrations of New York City and New Deal agencies.

HOLTZBERG-CALL, MAGGIE. The Lost World of the Craft Printer. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1992. xviii, 227 pp. Ill. $ 27.50.
On the basis of interviews with older hot-metal printers Dr Holtzberg-Call analyzes their craft rhetoric. Demonstrating a widespread consistency in themes and expressive forms in the printers' occupational narratives, she finds that a significant number of printers independently developed similar responses to the deskilling of their craft and the threat of unemployment. What once served as the printers' rhetoric of tradition (initiation rites, etc.) is now their rhetoric of displacement.

HOUGH, LESLIE S. The Turbulent Spirit. Cleveland, Ohio, and its Workers, 1877-]899. [Studies in Nineteenth-Century American Political and Social History.] Garland Publishing, Inc., New York [etc.] 1991. v, 230 pp. $ 56.00.
In this study two competing sets of theories of violent labour protest are being tested: "Breakdown theories", holding that "antisocial" behaviour is encouraged by abrupt changes in society and "Solidarity theories", stressing the complexity of the relationship between working-class consciousness and collective protest. Through a description of a dramatic series of incidents in late nineteenth-century Cleveland the author reaches the conclusion that "Solidarity theories" have a greater explanatory power.

Major Problems in the History of American Workers. DOCUMENTS and Essays. Ed. by Eileen Boris [and] Nelson Lichtenstein. [Major Problems in American History Series.] D.C. Heath and Company, Lexington (Mass.) [etc.] 1991. xv, 681, iv pp. $ 20.00; f 11.95.
This book of readings consists of fifteen chapters in a roughly chronological order dealing with the history of the American working class. Each chapter opens with a brief introduction to its topic, followed by a selection of relevant documents and essays by experts in the field. Headnotes, setting the readings in historical and interpretative perspectives, introduce each chapter's documents and essays. A list of books and articles for further reading appears at the end of each chapter.

MALONE, ANN PATTON. Sweet Chariot. Slave Family and Household Structure in Nineteenth-Century Louisiana. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 1992. xiv, 369 pp. Ill. $ 39.95.
This analysis of slave families and household composition in nineteenth-century Louisiana contains both a statistical study over time of 155 slave communities in twenty-six parishes and a descriptive study of three plantations: Oakland, Petite Anse and Tiger Island. Professor Malone shows that the real strength of the slave family and its extensions, the slave household and community, was its multiplicity of forms and its adaptability. She finds, for example, that the preferred family form consisted of two parents and children but that all types of families and households were accepted.

Masters to Managers. Historical and Comparative Perspectives on American Employers. Ed. by Sanford M. Jacoby. Columbia University Press, New York 1991. ix, 249 pp. $ 40.50.
Merging perspectives from business and labour history and the social sciences, this collection of eight essays deals with various topics including "The Transition from Outwork to Factory Production in the Boot and Shoe Industry, 1830-1880" (Jens Christiansen and Peter Philips), "Ford Welfare Capitalism in Its Economic Context" (Daniel M.G. Raff), the Metal Manufacturers Association of Philadelphia, c. 1900-1930 (Howell John Harris) and "American Exceptionalism Revisited: The Importance of Management" (the editor). One contribution treats a non-American subject: "The Decline of Paternalism and the Making of the Employer Class: France, 1870-1914" (Gerald Friedman).

SAVAGE, LON. Thunder in the Mountains. The West Virginia Mine War, 1920-21. [Pittsburgh series in social and labor history.] University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh 1990. xix, 195 pp. Ill. $ 19.95. (Paper: $ 9.95.)
The West Virginia mine war of 1920-1921, "a major civil insurrection of unusual brutality on both sides, even by the standards of the coalfields" is reconstructed in this small monograph. The lively narrative, written by a former professional journalist and first published in 1985, is preceded by an explanatory introduction by John Williams.

SORIN, GERALD. The Nurturing Neighborhood. The Brownsville Boys Club and Jewish Community in Urban America, 1940-1990. New York University Press, New York [etc.] 1990. xiv, 255 pp. Ill. $ 44.00.
This is a social history of the Brownsville Boys Club, a group established in 1940 by second-generation Jews who grew up in the Brownsville section of Brooklyn near the end of the depression. The club evolved out of their efforts and became an extraordinary mutual-aid society and community in microcosm. The author, himself a former club member, conducted extensive interviews with the Brownsville boys and integrated these with other sources to create an account of class and economic experience, as well as the communal and individual vitality of an ethnic group.



HENRIOT, CHRISTIAN. Shanghai 1927-1937. Elites locales et modernisation dans la Chine nationaliste. [Materiaux pour l'etude de l'Asie orientale moderne et contemporaine. Cahiers du Centre Chine, no 7.] Editions de l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris 1991. 342 pp. F.fr. 190.00.
In this study (these de troisieme cycle, Paris III) the focus is on the elite of Shanghai 1927- 1937. The author pays attention to three problems: the functioning of the municipal administration; the leaders within this apparatus, their resources and strategies; and the influence of the activities of the municipality on the city.


The Indian National Congress and the Political Economy of India 1885- 1985. Ed. by Mike Shepperdson and Colin Simmons. Avebury, Aldershot [etc.] 1992. viii, 414 pp. Ill. £ 45.00.
In the framework of political economy the seventeen so-far unpublished essays in this mimeographed volume deal with the rise and development of the Indian National Congress. The contributions, dealing with varying aspects, treat, among other subjects: the world economy and the establishment of the Congress (John McGuire), the Congress Party and Indian big business, 1920- 1947 (Claude Markovits), Congress and the tribals (Crispin Bates), Gandhian economic thought and the economic policy of the Congress (Subrata Ghatak) and the political economy of health in India (the first editor).

SAXENA, KlRAN. Trade Union Movement and the National Movement. South Asian Publishers Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi 1990. xiii, 211 pp. Rs. 120.00.
The complex and changing relation between the Indian trade-union movement and the movement for national independence from about the turn of the century to the 1940s is the focus of this study. Professor Saxena stresses the political role played by the trade-union movement. at the same time paying attention to the attitude of the British government ("it did not want to allow the indigenous capitalist class to exploit extremely cheap Indian labour and thus grow into a formidable competitor to British industry") and to the "unity and struggle of the working class with the Indian capitalist class during the national movement".

SINHA, ARUN. Against the Few. Struggles of India's Rural Poor. Zed Books Ltd, London [etc.] 1991. x, 227 pp. f 32.95. (Paper: f 10.95.)
In this book Arun Sinha, a prominent Indian journalist, describes the "war" that the rural poor in the state of Bihar, in eastern India, carry on against the ruling classes. After introducing Bihar- its history, caste system, class structure and tribal communities - Sinha describes seven different local struggles. These cases span a Catholic organization, which sought change without direct conflict; the three Communist Parties; a movement led by Jayaprakash Narayan, who eventually proposed ' peaceful class struggle"; a struggle of the Santhals, led by Shiboo Soren; and a movement of hill people, the Paharias. In a concluding chapter stock is being taken of the present situation.

Travailler en Inde. Études réunies par Gérard Heuzé. [Collection Purusartha, 14.] Editions de l'École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris 1992. 361 pp. Ill. F.fr. 190.00.
In addition to a substantial introduction by the editor and an exploratory bibliography this collection contains twelve historical and contemporary case studies of (changing) labour relations and their social and cultural aspects in India. Dealt with are, among other subjects, women porters in the vegetable market in Maharashtra (Guy Poitevin and Hema Rairkar), working-class women in Bombay (Alice Thorner), the growth of a work culture amongst textile workers in Kanpur during the first decades of this century (Chitra Joshi) and workers' resistance to rationalization in the Bombay cotton mills between the wars (Raj Chandavarkar).


LUCAS, ANTON. One Soul One Struggle. Region and Revolution in Indonesia. [Southeast Asian Publications Series, 19.] Allen and Unwin, Sydney 1991. xxvi, 301 pp. Ill. Maps. f 12.95.
This is a study of the Indonesian revolution at the grass-roots level. It focuses on the Three Regions Affair (Tiga Daerah) in Pekalongan Residency in northern Central Java in 1945. Combining a large number of oral sources, Dutch archives and Indonesian newspapers, it sets the 1945 social revolution in Pekalongan Residency against the background of pre-war economic exploitation and political discontent and the extraordinary harshness of the Japanese occupation.

SHIRAISHI, TAKASHI. An Age in Motion. Popular Radicalism in Java, 1912- 1926. [Asia East by South.] Cornell University Press, Ithaca, London 1990. xxiv, 365 pp. $ 34.95.
See Fritjof Tichelman's review in this volume, pp. 410ff.


SARRAF, TAHMOORES. Cry of a Nation. The Saga of the Iranian Revolution. [American University Studies, Series XI, Vol. 38.] Peter Lang, New York [etc.] 1990. xv, 305 pp. $ 50.95; S.fr. 72.90; DM 89.00.
This work of empirical political sociology portrays the revolution in Iran (1979) by examining Ayatollah Khomeini's leadership and the symbolism, rhetoric and doctrine of Shi'ism. It also details the events of the revolution, the horror of the war with Iraq, and the role of women, opposition groups, minorities and Iranians displaced abroad.

SIIAFIEI_NASAB, DJAFAR. Les Mouvements Revolutionnaires et la Constitution de 1906 en Iran. [Islamkundliche Untersuchungen, Band 142.] Klaus Schwarz Verlag, Berlin 1991. xxi, 693 pp. DM 98.00.
This mimeographed doctoral thesis (Lyons, 1986) investigates the course of the Iranian revolution of 1906-1908. The author treats the social and economic backgrounds, paying special attention to the early "tobacco movements", and describes the various political organizations that were active, the constitutional reforms and the coup d'etat of June 1908.


HILTERMANN, JOOST R. Behind the Intifada. Labor and Women's Movements in the Occupied Territories. [Princeton Studies on the Near East.
Princeton University Press, Princeton 1991. xvii, 265 pp. Ill. $ 29.95.

This study, which was mostly completed before the beginning of the intifada, contains a comprehensive investigation of local organizations in the Israelioccupied West Bank and Gaza Strip. Dr Hiltermann demonstrates how preexisting grassroots organizations were transformed and new ones were established, and argues that it was this process in the 1970s and 1980s that made possible the sustained popular insurrection beginning in December 1987.


Social Change in the Pacific Islands. Ed. by Albert B. Robillard. Kegan Paul International, London [etc.l 1992. xvi, 507 pp. f 45.00.
The present collection consists of a postmodern introductory essay by the editor ("Social Change as the Projection of Discourse"), fourteen case studies, and a concluding chapter on social change in Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia from the sixteenth century to present. Among the topics are: changing relations of production in Papua New Guinea (Eugene Ogan and Terence Wesley-Smith), social change and the survival of "neo-tradition" in Fiji (Vijay Naidu), the militarization of Guamanian society (Larry W. Mayo), state formation in Tonga (Christine Ward Gailey), and nuclear dependency in French Polynesia (Ben Finney).


FREUDENBERG, GRAHAM. Cause for Power. The Official History of the New South Wales Branch of the Australian Labor Party. Pluto Press, Leichhardt 1991. v, 297 pp. Ill. A$ 39.95. (Paper: A$ 19.95.)
This is the official centenary history of the New South Wales Branch of the Australian Labor Party, written by a high officer of this organization. The author emphasizes what he considers to be the central dilemma of the party: the compromise between power and principle. At the same time he points out that Labor's commitment to parliamentary democracy meant that it never became an ideological socialist party.


Assimilation and community. The Jews in nineteenth-century Europe. Ed. by Jonathan Frankel and Steven J. Zipperstein. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1992. xii, 384 pp. Ill. £ 35.00.
The early and middle decades of the nineteenth century in Europe (1815-1881) have long been regarded as the major period of assimilation in post-medieval Jewish history. However, the historical processes as analyzed in this collection of fourteen essays emerge as multi- rather than uni-directional. Traditional loyalties, new socio-economic structures, communal cohesion, romantic rediscoveries of the past, and the political solidarity engendered by the struggle for emancipation served to counterbalance homogenizing forces. Contributors include Phyllis Cohen Albert, Todd M. Endelman, Israel Finestein, Michael Graetz, Paula E. Hyman, Marion A. Kaplan, Hillel J. Kieval, Eli Lederhendler, Marsha L. Rozenblit, and David Sorkin.

European Food History. A Research Review. Ed. by Hans J. Teuteberg. Leicester University Press, Leicester [etc.] 1992; distr. excl. in the USA and Canada by St. Martin's Press, New York. xii, 297 pp. £ 55.00.
This collection of sixteen essays is a rather comprehensive review of modern European research in the history of food and diet from the late medieval period to the twentieth century. A large number of countries is dealt with (from Ireland to Russia). The editor himself has written an introduction to the book in an "Agenda for a comparative European history of diet".

SCHAFRANEK, HANS. Zwischen NKWD und Gestapo. Die Auslieferung deutscher und osterreichischer Antifaschisten aus der Sowjetunion und Nazideutschland 1937-1941. ISP-Verlag, Frankfurt/M. 1990. 220 pp. DM 29.00.
Dr Schafranek, who formerly published an extensive political biography of Kurt Landau (IRSH, XXXIV (1989), p. 164), in this study traces the fortunes of German and Austrian anti-fascists, who returned to their homes from the Soviet Union in the period 1937- 1941, or rather were handed over to the Nazi dictatorship by the Soviet Government. Also included are over three hundred short biographies and a few relevant documents.

SLOMP, HANS. Labor Relations in Europe. A History of Issues and Developments. [Contributions in Labor Studies, Nr 29.] Greenwood Press, New York [etc.] 1990. xi, 230 pp. £ 36.95.
This book is an effort to gain a European perspective on the history of labour relations, stressing similarities and common developments. The presentation is chronological. The first chapter contains a short, general survey of labor during the Industrial Revolution. The second describes the major trends and issues of the nineteenth century to 1875. The third and fourth cover the turn of the century, while the remaining eight chapters each discuss one or two decades in the twentieth - making a separation between Eastern and Western Europe for the period from 1948 to the 1980s.

Social Orders and Social Classes in Europe since 1500: Studies in Social Stratification. Ed. by M.L. Bush. Longman, London [etc.] 1992. vii, 267 pp. £ 10.50.
This collection of thirteen essays evaluates the notions of "order" and "class" as they are to be discerned in the history of Europe since 1500. This is done by conceptual analysis, but also through case studies examining the actual application of these concepts. Contributions include: "The language of orders in early modern Europe" (Peter Burke), "The concept of class" (William M. Reddy), "Myths of order and ordering myths" (William Doyle) and case studies concerning the clergy in Imperial Russia (Gregory L. Freeze) and the rural proletariat in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century England (K.D.M. Snell).


KROLL,FRIEDHELM [Und] MONIKA WAMMERL. Angebetet und verworfen. Streitfrage "Arbeiterklasse". Sozialstruktur und Lebensweisen in Osterreich. Segmentierungen der Lohnarbeit. Verlag Arbeit & Gesellschaft GmbH, Marburg 1992. 574 pp. Maps. DM 64.00.
In this study, at the same time theoretical and empirical, the idea of the "working class" is the focal point. The authors, inspired by marxism, defend the point of view that a working class in the sense of "the social group of doubly free wage labourers" still exists, but that this group has always been segmented and did not necessarily have the social (anti-capitalist) qualities that were ascribed to it. The development of the working class is concretely analyzed by considering the Austrian example.


Aux frontieres des classes moyennes. La petite bourgeoisie belge avant 1914. Ed. par Ginette Kurgan-van Hentenryk et Serge Jaumain. Editions de l'Universite de Bruxelles, Bruxelles 1992. 147 pp. B.fr. 495.00.
The five essays of the present collection concern the Belgian lower-middle-class in the period 1850-1914. Aside from a survey article bv the first editor, the collection contains studies on cabaretiers-cafetiers (Rudy Ankaert), pharmacists (Diana Vazquez Martinez), retailers (the second editor), and the first attempts at trade-union organization by employees (Guy Moreau).


ENGBERG, JENS. Den Internationale Arbejderforening for Danmark. Aktstykker til belysning af statsmagtens kamp mod den tidlige arbejderbevægelse i Danmark fra slaget på Fælleden i maj 1872 til førernes bortrejse til Amerika i marts 1877. Selskabet til forskning i arbejderbevægelsens historie (SFAH) i samarbejde med Arbejderbevægelsens Bibliotek og Arkiv (ABA), København 1992. 610 pp. D.kr. 320.00.
This is a sequel to Dr Engberg's publication of sources documenting the struggle of the Danish state against the labour movement 1871-1872 (see IRSH, XXXI (1986), pp. 339f.). The present book deals with the period 1872-1877. The bulk of the documents consists of criminal and police records and protocols of the Danish Supreme Court.


CARROT, GEORGES. La maintien de l'ordre en France au XXe siecle. [Kronos. 6.] Henri Veyrier, Paris 1990. 432 pp. Ill. F.fr. 120.00.
The author of this study, historian and chief of a division of the French national police, here describes the actions of the French police from the labour unrest in 1919- 1920 up to and including the "Revolution" of May 1968 from the point of view of the defenders of law and order. He does so in chronological order.

Catalogue des Caricatures politiques de la Commune de Paris et materiaux originaux de Maxime Vuillaume relatifs a la Commune de Paris dans la Bibliotheque de l'Universite de Kanagawa. [Edition preliminaire.] Preface et redige par N. Takahashi. Kanagawa University, Yokohama 1991. xii, 107 pp.
The library of the university of Kanagawa (Japan) contains an impressive quantity of material concerning the Paris Commune. In the present book these holdings (among which a large number of caricatures) are inventoried.

Cent ans d'immigration, etrangers d'hier Franc,ais d'aujourd'hui. Apport demographique, dynamique familiale et economique de l'immigration etrangere. Sous la dir. de Michele Tribalat. Preface de Michel Louis Levy. [Travaux et DOCUMENTS; 131.] Editions de l'INED; Presses Universitaires de France, Paris 1991. xiv? 301 pp. F.fr. 170.00.
In this collective work a large quantity of statistical material about twentiethcentury French immigration has been collected. The text, which is supported by numerous graphs and tables, provides information about, inter al., demographic developments, generation differences, family composition, migration cycles and the situation in the labour market.

Les colloques du bicentenaire. Repertoire des rencontres scientifiques nationales et internationales. Pres. par Michel Vovelle avec la collab. de Danielle Le Monnier. La Decouverte/Institut d'Histoire de la Revolution Française/Societe des Etudes Robespierristes, Paris 1991. xli, 574 pp. F.fr. 150.00.
In the years 1984- 1990 the historical world celebrated the bicentenaire by a flood of congresses, symposia and publications on the French Revolution. This repertory presents a survey of these activities - it describes nearly 550 scholarly gatherings in short, paying special attention to the subjects treated and the possible publication of proceedings. Several indexes and an introductory survey by Professor Vovelle make it into a useful work.

FURLOUGH, ELLEN. Consumer Cooperation in France. The Politics of Consumption, 1834-1930. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1991. ix, 311 pp. Ill. $ 41.75.
Generally founded as bakeries or grocery stores, the consumer cooperatives of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries became vital to the French labour movement both as vehicles for social vision and as financial sources for labour militancy. Locating the origins of consumer cooperation within the associationist movement that flourished between 1834 and 1851, Dr Furlough examines developments on national and local levels up to the 1920's, when consumer cooperation came to signify a corrective, rather than an alternative, to capitalist commerce.

HELLER, HENRY. Iron and Blood. Civil Wars in Sixteenth-Century France. McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal [etc.l 1991. xiv, 191 pp. £26.95.
Challenging Braudel and Le Roy Ladurie, this study argues that well before the 1560s French society was marked by acute social tensions that regularly exploded in uprisings and rebellions. Refuting Mousnier's thesis that early modern France was a society of orders in which most people knew and accepted their social status, Dr Heller stresses that the history of the sixteenth century is one of both resistance and domination.

KOULAKSSIS, AHMED. Le parti socialiste et l'Afrique du Nord de Jaurès à Blum. Armand Colin, Paris 1991. 349 pp. F.fr. 169.00.
In this book Dr Koulakssis reconstructs the development of French socialdemocratic attitudes towards the colonial reality in North Africa from the 1880s to the period of the Popular Front in the 1930s. The author sketches the different currents, debates and controversies and analyzes the paradoxical combinations of points-of-view that were developed in them (e.g. of those who defended both human rights and colonial repression).


AZARYAHU, MAOZ. Von Wilhelmplatz zu Thalmannplatz. Politische Symbole im offentlichen Leben der DDR. [Schriftenreihe des Instituts fur Deutsche Geschichte, Universitat Tel-Aviv, 13.] Bleicher Verlag, Gerlingen 1991. 214 pp. DM 38.00.
The present doctoral thesis (Tel Aviv, 1988) analyzes how political symbols were used by the "political center" of the former German Democratic Republic "in order to propagate its ideology among the public". Taken up in this study are, among others, the state symbol (the hammer and sickle), the flag, the national anthem, postage stamps, street names, and the use of sports.

BAUER, SONJA-MARlA. Die Verfassunggebende Versammlung in der Badischen Revolution von 1849. Darstellung und Dokumentation. [Beitrage zur Geschichte des Parlamentarismus und der politischen Parteien, Band 94.] Droste Verlag, Dusseldorf 1991. 377 pp. Ill. DM 78.00.
During the revolution in 1848-1849 Baden was the only Land in Germany where the revolutionaries succeeded in taking over the entire government machinery and forming a parliament by public election, an experiment which was suppressed shortly thereafter by Prussian troops. The present doctoral thesis (Stuttgart, 1987) gives a detailed history of this parliament (the Verfassunggebende Versammlung) and contains the annotated protocols of and other documents pertaining to the fourteen public sessions of this body of representatives for June, 10-30, 1849. Short biographies have been included in the appendix.

ELLERKAMP, MARLENE. Industriearbeit. Krankheit und Geschlecht. Zu den sozialen Kosten der Industrialisierung: Bremer Textilarbeiterinnen 1870- 1914. [Kritische Studien zur Geschichtswissenschaft. Band 95.] Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Gottingen 1991. 343 pp. DM 58.00.
The present doctoral thesis (Bremen, 1988-1989) researches health problems, life stvle. social security and female workers' protest in eight textile factories in Bremen, 1870- 1914. Attention is given to pathogenic working conditions, their gender-specific consequences, the social policies of employers and government and attempts on the part of workers at organized self-help.

FISCHER, CONAN. The German Communists and the Rise of Nazism. Macmillan, Basingstoke [etc.] 1991. xiv. 285 pp. f 40.00.
See James Wickham's review in this volume. pp. 414ff.

HOLMES, KIM R. The NSDAP and the Crisis of Agrarian Conservatism in Lower Bavaria. National Socialism and the Peasant's Road to Modernity. [Modern European History. Germany and Austria.] Garland Publishing, Inc., New York [etc.l 1991. xiv, 230 pp. $57.00.
This dissertation (Georgetown, 1982) is concerned with the question of whether or not peasant traditionalism contributed to the rise of National Socialism in Lower Bavaria. The body of the work consists of three parts: the historv of the NSDAP in Lower Bavaria, 1921 - 1933; a discussion of Lower Bavarian politics leading up to the Nazi Party's takeover in 1933 and an analysis of the socioeconomic factors involved in this takeover. Dr Holmes argues that instead of a fulfilment of native traditions, the rise of Nazism was the result of their demise.

KLENKE, DIETMAR, PETER LILJE [und] FRANZ WALTER. Arbeitersanger und Volksbuhnen in der Weimarer Republik. [Politik- und Gesellschaftsgeschichte. Band 27.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachf., Bonn 1992. 346 pp. DM 98.00.
In this book (the third volume of a series on socialist cultural and leisure-time organizations in the Weimar Republic - see IRSH, this volume, pp. 141f.) two extensive contributions have been included: one about the Deutsche Arbeiter-Sängerbund (Dietmar Klenke and Franz Walter) and the other about the Verband der Deutschen Volksbühnenvereine (Peter Lilje). Both studies are carefully researched essays on organizational history.

KUHLEMANN, FRANK-MICHAEL. Modernisierung und Disziplinierung. Sozialgeschichte des preußischen Volksschulwesens 1794-1872. [Kritische Studien zur Geschichtswissenschaft, Band 96.] Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Gottingen 1992. 468 pp. DM 84.00.
This doctoral thesis (Bielefeld. 1989) analyzes different aspects of the development of primary education in Prussia in the years 1794- 1872, among them the educational policy of the state in general, the introduction of compulsory education, eliminating illiteracy and the training of teachers. Starting from Ruschemeyer's notion of "partial modernization" Dr Kuhlemann argues that the evolution he has studied must not be seen only as an attempt at disciplining the lower classes, but also as a contribution to Prussian modernization.

Marxismus und Demokratie. Karl Kautskys Bedeutung in der sozialistischen Arbeiterbewegung. Hrsg. von Jurgen Rojahn, Till Schelz [und] Hans-Josef Steinberg. [Quellen und Studien zur Sozialgeschichte, Band 9.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1992. 401 pp. DM 98.00.
The twenty-eight essays in this collection treat various aspects of the life and work of Karl Kautsky (except the contrihution by Susanne Miller, which pays attention to Luise Kautsky). Dealt with are, inter al.: Kautsky's reception of Marx (Marek Waldeberg), Kautsky and the agrarian question (Hans Georg Lehmann), Kautsky's ideas about socialist colonial politics (Masao Nishikawa), Kautsky's theory of imperialism (Toshimichi Matsuoka), Kautsky during the First World War (the first editor), Kautsky and Antiquity (Hans Kloft) and Kautsky and the French Revolution (Beatrix Bouvier).

SACHSSE, CHRISTOPH [und] FLORIAN TENNSTEDT. Geschichte der Armenfursorge in Deutschland. Band 3. Der Wohlfahrtsstaat im Nationalsozialismus. Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart [etc.] 1992. 356 pp. DM 76.00.
This third volume of an overall history of the care for the poor in Germany deals with the system of social security under National Socialism. The authors show that the Third Reich knew a reasonably well developed welfare state, which, however, was based on the racist starting point of the Volkspflege. Much attention is paid to the ideology of racial biology and the undermining of individual rights.

SCHÜREN, REINHARD. Soziale Mobilität. Muster, Veränderungen und Bedingungen im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. Scripta Mercaturae Verlag, St. Katharinen 1989. xi. 378 pp. DM 59.00.
On the basis of data concerning long periods of tirne in twelve localities (eleven in Germany and one in the Netherlands) Dr Schüren investigates the history of social mobility in Germany during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Much attention is paid to intergenerational, occupational and connubial mobilities and the connection between social mobility and class formation.

"Sicherheit" und "Wohlfahrt". Polizei, Gesellschaft und Herrschaft im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. Hrsg. von Alf Ludtke. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/M. 1992. 394 pp. Ill. DM 26.00.
The thirteen essays in this collection chiefly deal with capita selecta from the social history of the German police from the nineteenth century to the present day. Attention is paid to the development of the police service itself, the definition of criminal groups, the action of the police during industrial conflicts and police intervention in family affairs. among other subjects. The case studies are preceded by an extensive exploratory introduction by the editor.

SIEGEL, TILLA [und] THOMAS VON FREYBERG. Industrielle Rationalisierung unter dem Nationalsozialismus. [Forschungsherichte des Instituts fur Sozialforschung Frankfurt am Main.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] l991. 455 pp. DM 85.00.
In this extensive study it is demonstrated that, in spite of the dramatic political breach of 1933. the "rationalization" of labour processes that had begun in the 1920s continued under National Socialism: in mechanical engineering the principle of flexible rationalization was further developed, while in electrical engineering mass production in the manner of Ford was strengthened. The authors analyze these developments and also take into account the role of the Deutsche Arbeitsfront and personnel management.

" ... die SPD aber aufgehort hat zu existieren". Sozialdemokraten unter sowjetischer Besatzung. Hrsg. von Beatrix W. Bouvier [und] Horst-Peter Schulz. Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachf., Bonn 1991. 328 pp. DM 29.80.
This book contains fourteen "accounts" based on extensive interviews of members and officers of the Social Democratic Partv in East Germanv concerning the first few years after the end of the Second World War. The contributions present an insight into the construction of the SPD in the formerly Soviet dominated zone, the union of the SPD with the Communist Party (KPD) and the later consequences for social-democrats: political oppression, arrests, etc.

Staatsarchiv Bremen. Bearb. von Werner Garbas und Margot Muller. Unter Mitarb. von Peter Fricke und Henning Fulle. [Inventar zur Geschichte der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung in den staatlichen Archiven der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Reihe C, Band 1.] Colloquium Verlag, Berlin 1991. xxx, 262 pp. DM 168.00.
This is the first volume of a series of surveys of archives concerning the German labour movement that have been made accessible. The present book contains a detailed systematic summary of materials in the Staatsarchiv Bremen relative to the period up to 1945.

ZIMMERMANN, CLEMENS. Von der Wohnungsfrage zur Wohnungspolitik. Die Reformbewegung in Deutschland 1845-1914. [Kritische Studien zur Geschichtswissenschaft, Band 90.] Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Gottingen 1991. 313 pp. Ill. DM 48.00.
The rise and early history of housing-reform policies (up to 1914) in Germany is the subject of this Habilitationsschrift (Heidelberg, 1989- 1990). The book starts with an analysis of the bourgeois housing-reform movement till about 1870, goes on treating the attention paid to the problem by the champions of "social hygiene" and finishes by paying attention to the factors that promoted state intervention and those that rendered it more difficult.

Great Britain

ANDERSON, PATRICIA. The Printed Image and the Transformation of Popular Culture 1790-1860. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1991. xi, 211 pp. Ill. £ 30.00.
This well-illustrated study demonstrates how the widening dissemination of print in nineteenth-century England transformed popular cultural experience to the extent that. by 1840, an essentially modern mass culture had begun to develop. Focusing on four illustrated weekly magazines (the Penny Magazine, Reynold's Miscellany, the London Journal, and Cassell's Illustrated Family Paper) Dr Anderson shows that, although in general people's pictorial experience expanded, high art remained very largely the preserve of a privileged few.

COLEMAN, D.C. Myth, History and the Industrial Revolution. The Hambledon Press, London [etc.l 1992. xii. 225 pp. £ 32.00.
Of the ten essays collected in this volume nine were published before in the years 1953- 1988. All are concerned with the "Industrial Revolution", either as idea or as reality. Included are, inter al., "Proto-industrialization: A Concept Too Many", "Adam Smith, Businessmen and the Mercantile System in England", "Industrial Growth and Industrial Revolutions" and "The Uses and Abuses of Business History".

CRONIN, JAMES E. The Politics of State Expansion. War, State and Society in Twentieth-Century Britain. Routledge, London [etc.] 1991. x, 308 pp. £ 10.00.
In the present book Professor Cronin provides an analysis of the expansion of the British state in the twentieth century and outlines the constant struggle between those in favour of this process (Labour, the unions, reforming bureaucrats. and intellectuals) and its opponents (Conservatives, upper- and middle-class taxpayers, organized business and the City, higher civil servants). Although the opposition formed the strongest contestant in ttle struggle, the British state did grow in this period. The author explains this to be a conse4uence of World War I and II: the wars necessitated many temporary measures which in the long run turned out to be lasting.

DAVIS, GRAHAM. The Irish in Britain 1815-1914. Gill and Macmillan, Dublin 1991. viii, 248 pp. f 12.99.
This is the only major survey of Irish settlement in Britain in the nineteenth-century to have appeared in the past thirty years. Dr Davis establishes that it was the ubiquity of the Irish, pursuing low paid jobs during the boom years of the industrial revolution. that most aroused native hostility to them. The dispersal of Irish immigrants and settlers throughout England. Scotland and Wales was surprisingly wide; Irish experience varied according to the scale of settlement and depended on local personalities and circumstances.

LAYBOURN, KEITH. A History of British Trade Unionism c. 1770-1990. Alan Sutton, Stroud 1992. vi, 238 pp. 111. f 24.00.
In this book, intended for the general reader rather than for the specialist. Dr Laybourn tries "to produce a clear pathway through the forest of detailed research which has appeared in recent years" on British trade-union history. He describes and evaluates the major developments in the evolution of the trade-union movement from 1770, focusing upon both the institutional nature of trade-union growth and the rank-and-file experience, which has been the subject of discussion in recent years.

NARDINELLI CLARK. Child Labor and the lndustrial Revolution. Indiana University Press, Bloomington [etc.] 1990. x. 194 pp. f 25.00.
This is a "revisionist" interpretation of child labour during the Industrial Revolution. The author considers the employment of children in factories as a sensible response by families and firms to the economic conditions of the time. When those conditions changed (by technological progress, which tended to increase the skill. training and reliability of industrial workers, and by the rise of family incomes) child labour disappeared.

Popular Politics, Riot and Labour. Essays in Liverpool History 1790-1940. Ed. by John Belchem. [Liverpool Historical Studies, 8.] Liverpool University Press, Liverpool 1992. xii, 257 pp. Maps. £ 11.75.
This collection of nine essays covers a variety of topics related to the "peculiarities" of Liverpool throughout the nineteenth century and beyond. Contributions include "Popular Politics in Liverpool in the Chartist Era" (Kevin Moore), "The Political and Associational Culture of the Irish Immigrant Community in 1848" (the editor), "Riotous Liverpool" (Anne Bryson), "The Salvation Army and Street Disturbances in Liverpool, 1879-1887" (Norman H. Murdoch), "More than One Working Class: Protestant and Catholic Riots in Edwardian Liverpool" (John Bohstedt) and "Liverpool Lahour Party and Women, 1918-1939" (Sam Davies).

SAAB, ANN POTTINGER. Reluctant Icon. Gladstone, Bulgaria, and the Working Classes. 1856- 1878. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1991. ix, 257 pp. $ 47.95.
In 1876 a series of massacres in the Ottoman province of Bulgaria scandalized Britain. As a result a protest movement arose under the leadership of William Ewart Gladstone, which led to a shift in British policy. The present monograph analyzes these events and explores the nascence and maturation of the militant, extra-parliamentary, multiclass protest movement, which mobilized the anger of groups previously outside "high" politics, such as newly enfranchized working men.

SMITH JUSTIN DAVIS. The Attlee and Churchill Administrations and Industrial Unrest (1945-55): A Study in Consensus. Pinter Publishers, London [etc.] 1990. vii. 171 pp. f 29.50.
The present study examines government handling of industrial unrest in the decade following the end of the Second World War. The first part looks at the Attlee Government's response to the wave of unofficial strikes after 1945. The second part deals with the return of a Conservative administration under Winston Churchill. Comparing Churchill's handling of industrial unrest with Attlee's. the author concludes that both "adopted a similar approach".

WOOD, PETER. Poverty and the Workhouse in Victorian Britain. Alan Sutton. Stroud (Gloucestershire) 1991. viii. 199 pp. Ill. £ 14.95.
This illustrated book examines the role of worl;houses of the New Poor Law of 1834 to the 1880's in the context of contemporary values and convictions: the Victorian concept of respectabilitv and the associated belief in the virtues of thrift and self-help gave rise to the prevailing ethics, which allowed the poor to be divided into "deserving" and "undeserving" groups. The work pays much attention to the, at times conflicting, relationship between central and local government, financial constraints and early efforts at institutional relief.


SANT CASSIA, PAUL, with CONSTANTINA BADA. The Making of the Modern Greek Family. Marriage and Exchange in Nineteenth-Century Athens. [Cambridge Studies in Social and Cultural Anthropology, 77.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1992. xv, 278 pp. 111. f 35.00.
Relying on matrimonial contracts, travellers' accounts, memoirs and popular literature, the authors show how during the nineteenth century new forms of marriage. kinship and property transmission evolved in Athens. The mercantile group which superceded and incorporated previous elites and went on to dominate the new resources of the nation state, developed its own. relatively mobile. system of property transmission. Economic and political pressures resulted in a distinctive ethic of family life; the position of women was affected by the growth of the dowry and massive cash transactions.


Cultura, istruzione e socialismo nell'eta giolittiana. A cura di Lino Rossi. Scritti di: C.G. Lacaita, L. Ambrosoli, P. Audenino [e.a.] Franco Angeli, Milano 1991. 553 pp. L. 50.000.
This volume contains approximately twenty essays on "Socialist culture and education in Giolittian Italy". Most contributions are regional case studies (of Milan, Trieste, Genoa, Bologna, Rome, Reggio, Emilia, Parma, Romagna, and Tuscany, among others). In addition, the socialist teacher Linda Malnati and the ideas of Gaetano Salvemini are treated.

GRAMSCI, ANTONIO. Prison Notebooks. Volume 1. Ed. with Introd. by Joseph A. Buttigieg. Transl. by Joseph A. Buttigieg and Antonio Callari. [European Perspectives.] Columbia University Press, New York 1991 [recte 1992]. xxiii, 608 pp. Ill. $ 52.00.
This is the initial volume of the first complete critical edition of Antonio Gramsci's Prison Notebooks to appear in English. The translation is based on the edition Quaderni del Carcere, prepared by Valentino Gerratana. The present volume contains the richly annotated Notebooks 1 and 2 (1929-1933). In his long introductory essay, the editor and translator Joseph A. Buttigieg describes the development of Gramsci's project and the circumstances surrounding the composition of the Notebooks. He also provides a chronology of Gramsci's life.

LAVIGNA, CLAIRE. Anna Kuliscioff. From Russian Populism to Italian Socialism. [Modern European History. Italy.] Garland Publishing, Inc., New York [etc.] 1991. xiv, 245 pp. $ 60.00.
This doctoral thesis (Rochester. 1971) contains a political biography of Anna Kuliscioff (1857-1925), the Russian emigrant who played so important a part in the Italian socialist movement. Dr LaVigna concentrates upon the years 1890 to 1913, "when Turati, Kuliscioff and their political friends exercised their greatest influence upon socialism in Italy"; the preceding years are also dealt with fairly extensively, but the period after 1913 is discussed in a few pages.


SCHMIDT, JOCHEN. Populismus oder Marxismus. Zur Ideengeschichte der radikalen Intelligenz Rumaniens 1875-1915. [Wissenschaftliche Reihe; Tubinger Gesellschaft, Band I.] Verlag der Tubinger Gesellschaft, Tubingen 1992. Ixiii, 280 pp. DM 68.00.
The focal point of this work is the history of social democracy in the Kingdom of Rumania before the First World War, paying special attention to theoretical and programme discussions. The author considers the (large) Russian influence on the radical intelligentsia and the relations with the Second International, among other subjects.

Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

HUGHES, JAMES. Stalin, Siberia and the Crisis of the New Economic Policy. [Soviet and East European Studies: 81.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1991. xiv, 260 pp. f 30.00.
This is an examination of the crisis of the NEP from a Siberian perspective. Using publications of the Siberian party and statistical investigations of the countryside, Dr Hughes studies party-peasant relations, the kulak question, Stalin's patron-client network in the provinces, the regional impact of the grain crisis and the use of emergency measures to overcome the crisis. The author concludes that Stalin's experience of conditions which were unique to Siberia accelerated his negative reappraisal of the NEP and initiated the descent into the cataclysm of his "revolution from above" in late 1929.

Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History. Ed. by John D. Klier and Shlomo Lambroza. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.l 1992. xx, 393 pp. Ill. Maps. £ 45.00; $ 59.95.
Three major waves of anti-Jewish rioting in Southern Russia and Russian Poland (1881-1884, 1903-1906, 1919-1921) are examined in this collection of eleven essays. The contributors look at the role of violence in Russian society; prejudices and stereotypes; the work of the tsarist regime (esp. the police and the army) and the impact of the pogroms on the sense of Jewish identity and security in the Empire. In a concluding essay Professor Hans Rogger broadens the study by comparing these riots with both pogroms in Western and Central Europe and outbreaks of anti-Negro violence in the United States during the same period. A bibliographical essay has been appended.

Russia in the Era of NEP. Explorations in Soviet Society and Culture. Ed. by Sheila Fitzpatrick, Alexander Rabinowitch, and Richard Stites. [Indiana-Michigan Series in Russian and East European Studies.] Indiana University Press. Bloomington [etc.] 1991. viii, 344 pp. $ 35.00. (Paper: $ 1295 )
The era of the New Economic Policy (1921-1929) was a time of transition from what tsarist Russia had been to what Soviet Russia would become. The present volume of eighteen essays explores the social history of Russia during NEP. Among themes considered are social and cultural interactions between urban Russia and the countryside; the status of the family and of working-class women; problems of class identity and class consciousness; labour conflict and private trade; tensions in village life; and aspects of urban and rural culture such as popular literature and songs, the press, the revolution in Soviet intellectual life and Bolshevik ritual building.

VOLKOGONOV, DMITRI. Stalin. Triumph and Tragedy. Ed. and transl. by Harold Shukman. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London 1991. xxvii, 642 pp. Ill. f 29.95.
The present book is the acclaimed Stalin biography by General Volkogonov, based partlv on previously inaccessible material from the former Institute of Marxism-Leninism. The author makes a detailed reconstruction of the life and work of the Vozhd and the emergence of Stalinism as a social system, whose "deepest corruption [...] was in removing man as such from the centre of society's goals, and in replacing him with the state as a machine which magnified one man only.


SlERRA ALVAREZ, JOSE. El obrero sonado. Ensayo sobre el paternalismo industrial (Asturias, 1860-1917). Siglo veintiuno editores, Madrid 1990. xii, 276 pp. Ptas 2075.
This is a dissertation about the paternalism of entrepreneurs in general and in Asturia, 1 X60- 1917, in particular. The author analyzes paternalism as a strategy combining industrial disciplining and social policy with the "model worker" as its programmed goal. An extensive general theoretical expose is followed by a specific analysis of the Asturian case.


HRYNIUK, STELLA. Peasants with Promise: Ukrainians in Southeastern Galicia 1880-1900. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, Edmonton 1991. xx, 299 pp. Ill. Maps.
Focusing on the Ukrainian peasant population in Southern Podillia (Eastern Galicia) this revised doctorate thesis (Manitoba, 1985) studies various aspects of agricultural and socio-cultural development in the years 1880-1900. Attention is paid to, among other subjects, transportation and communication, education, landholding, land use, public health and changing attitudes.