Volume 38 part 1 (1993)
Continents and Countries
Nigeria | South Africa
Argentina | Brazil | Canada | United States of America
China | India | Iran | Japan | Pakistan
- Australia and Oceania
Eire - Ireland | Finland | France | Germany | Great Britain | Luxemburg | Poland | Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics | Spain
Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.
SOCIAL THEORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE
ANDERSON, PERRY. A Zone of Engagement. Verso, London [etc.] 1992. xiv, 384 pp. £39.95. (Paper: £12.95.)
This is a companion volume to Professor Anderson's English Questions, noticed in this volume, p. 298. The thirteen essays (most of them published before) offer critical assessments of leading contemporary thinkers at the intersection of history and politics. They include Geoffrey de Ste. Croix, Marshall Berman, Isaac Deutscher, Michael Mann, Norberto Bobbio, Roberto Unger, W. G. Runciman, Carlo Ginzburg, Isaiah Berlin and Fernand Braudel. An extensive original essay, "The Ends of History", discusses the work of Francis Fukuyama.
FENTRESS, JAMES and CHRIS WICKHAM. Social Memory. [New Perspectives on the Past.] Blackwell, Oxford [etc.] 1992. xii, 229 pp. £11.95.
In this book an anthropologist and an historian investigate the role of social memory on the interpretation of the past. Variation and change in historical legends, fairy tales and myths, and the writing of history itself, reflect moral and political points of view that are distinctive of time and place. The authors contrast local and national memory and consider how far each may be consciously constructed or manipulated for ideological or political ends.
FERRI, ENRICO. L'antigiuridismo di Max Stirner. [Pubblicazioni dell'Istituto di Teoria della Interpretazione e di Informatica Giuridica dell'Università "La Sapienza", Roma; 7.] Dott. A. Giuffrè Editore, Milano 1992. viii, 264 pp. L. 28.000.
This is a comprehensive study from the aspect of the philosophy of law about the thought of Max Stirner (Johann Kaspar Schmidt, 1806-1865), more especially as it appears in his principal work Der Einzige und sein Eigentum (1845). The author investigates the relation between law and force, the principles of the "Union of Egoists", the right to property of the Einzige and the political setting of Stirner's work within the range from anarchism to liberalism.
Geschichte und Psychologie. Annäherungsversuche. Hrsg. von Bedrich Loewenstein. [Geschichte und Psychologie, Band 4.] Centaurus-Verlagsgesellschaft, Pfaffenweiler 1992. 298 pp. DM 38.00.
In this collection an attempt is made to consider from diverging perspectives what contribution psychology can make to historical research. In the fourteen essays not only general theoretical issues are treated (by Peter Burke, Thomas Kornblicher, Peter Schulz-Hageleit, Michael Sonntag, Wolfgang Wippermann, the editor), but also case studies about specific subjects are presented, for example about the role of rumours (Ulrich Raulff), witch hunts (Wolfgang Freund), "August 1914" (Benjamin Ziemann) and mass shows under the Nazi regime (Helmut König).
JACOBS, JACK. On Socialists and "the Jewish Question" after Marx. [Reappraisals in Jewish Social and Intellectual History.] New York University Press, New York [etc.] 1992. xi, 300 pp. £31.95.
This work explores the attitudes and ideologies of late nineteenth and early twentieth-century Marxist and social democratic intellectuals toward Zionism, anti-Semitism, Jewish socialist movements, and the nature and future of Jewry. In six chapters Dr Jacobs discusses Karl Kautsky, Eduard Bernstein, Rosa Luxemburg, the Austro-Marxists, ideas on "the Jewish Question" amongst the Jewish socialist intelligentsia of the Russian Empire and the complex relationship between German socialists and German Jews. Parts of the book have been published before.
JAMES, C.L.R. The C.L.R. James Reader. Ed. and Introd. by Anna Grimshaw. Blackwell, Oxford [etc.] 1992. xi, 451 pp. £45.00. (Paper: £12.95.)
This volume of writings by the black socialist historian and theoretician C.L.R. James (1901-1989), compiled by Anna Grimshaw, who worked for six years as James's assistant, includes a number of key writings from his published corpus and a selection of previously unpublished documents, essays and correspondence.
Merleau-Ponty Vivant. Ed. by M.C. Dillon. [SUNY Series in Contemporary Continental Philosophy.] State University of New York Press, Albany 1991. xxxv, 224 pp. $39.50. (Paper: $12.95.)
The eight original contributions in this volume situate Merleau-Ponty's philosophy in the 1990s, reconfigurating "traditional patterns of thoughts by means of a plurality of styles which reflect each author's response to Merleau-Ponty's incomplete vision". The authors, who are inclined to neglect Merleau-Ponty's political writings, pay attention to, inter alia, his thinking about space, language, narcissism, imperatives and art.
RIGBY, S.H. Engels and the formation of Marxism. History, dialectics and revolution. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1992; distr. excl. in the USA and Canada by St. Martin's Press, New York. viii, 256 pp. £40.00.
Dr Rigby, who published a study about Marx's theory of history before (IRSH, XXXIII (1988), p. 361), in this book tries his hand at a reinterpretation of Friedrich Engels. The author wants to do justice to "the number of different discourses present within Engels' texts". Through a reconstruction of Engels's intellectual development (under the headings "The flight from Hegel" and "The return to Hegel") he criticizes the attempts to find a contrast to Marx via "selective quotation": "It is pointless to counterpose Marx against Engels when the individual works of each of the two men are so internally contradictory."
Social Theory. A Guide to Central Thinkers. Ed. by Peter Beilharz. Allen & Unwin, North Sydney 1991. v, 242 pp.
This book introduces over thirty classical and modern social theorists. The selection consists of "enthusiasms" and is not very systematic as a result. Besides thinkers like Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, Emile Durkheim, Sigmund Freud and Max Weber, attention is paid chiefly to postwar theoreticians like Louis Althusser, Pierre Bourdieu, Jacques Derrida, Julia Kristeva, Jacques Lacan, Immanuel Wallerstein and Raymond Williams.
VAROUFAKIS, YANIS. Rational Conflict. Blackwell, Oxford 1991. ix, 303 pp. £35.00.
The game-theoretical perspective adopted by present-day social scientists sees conflict as a technical difficulty calling for a technical solution. In this "distinctly polemical" book Dr Varoufakis rejects this perception as too impoverished. Using examples from industrial relations, diplomatic games, hostage crises and the law, he argues that, however disagreeable it may be within a popular culture, conflict possesses a creative edge that is in danger of being obscured if "the sirens of game theory are heeded".
WRIGHT, ERIK OLIN, ANDREW LEVINE [and] ELLIOTT SOBER. Reconstructing Marxism. Essays on Explanation and the Theory of History. Verso, London [etc.] xii, 202 pp. £34.95. (Paper: £11.95.)
Using the methods of analytical philosophy the present book argues that "a theory of history with a conceptual structure like the one Marx proposed, but with vastly diminished explanatory pretensions, is surprisingly plausible". The authors try to found this thesis in eight essays, some of which were published before. The original contributions are: "Causal Asymmetries" and "Prospects for the Marxist Agenda".
A Century of European Migrations, 1830-1930. Ed. by Rudolph J. Vecoli and Suzanne M. Sinke. [Statue of Liberty - Ellis Island Series.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1991. viii, 395 pp. Maps. $44.95.
Conceiving of long-distance migration as a strategy by which individuals cope with a variety of challenges and difficulties and not as an inevitable result of impersonal forces, this collection contains sixteen contributions about a wide variation of subjects. Besides three surveys of European overseas migration (Frank Thistlethwaite, Russell R. Menard, Dirk Hoerder), the book presents case studies about the emigration from Finland (Reino Kero), The Netherlands (Robert P. Swieringa), Norway (Jon Gjerde, Odd S. Lovoll) and Hungary (Juliana Puskás); the place of Quebec in international migrations (Bruno Ramirez) and immigrants in the Lake Superior mining region (Arnold R. Alanen), etc. Return migration is dealt with, inter alia, in a general article by Eva Morawska.
DUGRAND, ALAIN. Trotsky in Mexico. Portrait by James T. Farrell. Afterword & chronology by Pierre Broué. Transl. from the French by Stephen Romer. Carcanet, Manchester 1992. 143 pp. Ill. £12.95.
This small book about Trotsky's last years consists of four parts: a sketch of Trotsky as a private person (by Alain Dugrand), a short "Portrait of Leon Trotsky" by James T. Farrell, first published in 1940, a large number of photographs ("The Mexican Album") and an afterword by Pierre Broué.
European Expansion and Migration. Essays on the Intercontinental Migration from Africa, Asia, and Europe. Ed. by P.C. Emmer and M. Mörner. Berg, New York [etc.] 1992; distr. excl. in the U.S. and Canada by St. Martin's Press, New York. viii, 312 pp. £35.00.
Besides general contributions by the editors, this volume contains ten case studies concerning the history of intercontinental migration, treating emigration from Portugal, Ireland, Sweden, Iceland, Germany, Italy, Britain and West Africa and immigration in Latin America and the Caribbean. The authors focus on a set of seven issues: push-pull factors, the demography of sending regions, female migration, transportation, integration or isolation in receiving areas, return migration and capital movements related to migration.
The Formation of Labour Movements 1870-1914. An International Perspective. Ed. by Marcel van der Linden and Jürgen Rojahn. [Contributions to the History of Labour and Society, 2.] E.J. Brill, Leiden [etc.] 1990. xxi, 785 pp. (in 2 vols) D.fl. 320.00.
The twenty-eight articles presented in this collection mark the first stage of an international research project set up by the Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis in Amsterdam. Using a general questionnaire, each article gives a survey of the development of the working class and the labour movement in one country during the period 1870-1914, in order to simplify comparative research as a second step. Dealt with are all West-European countries, the Czech lands, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, Russia, Poland, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina and Japan. A substantial bibliography has been appended. Contributors include Franco Andreucci, Victoria E. Bonnell, Santiago Castillo, Keith Hitchins, Hans Ulrich Jost, David Kirby, Ji í Ko alka, Kazuo Nimura, Birger Simonson and Klaus Tenfelde.
Frauengeschichte - Geschlechtergeschichte. Hrsg. von Karin Hausen [und] Heide Wunder. [Reihe "Geschichte und Geschlechter", Band 1.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1992. 183 pp. Ill. DM 29.90.
The fifteen short contributions in this collection were written to give an impression of the wealth of the new German women's historiography. Among the widely varying subjects are: the female aspect of poverty relief in early modern Italy (Gisela Bock), gender relations within the symbolic discourse of the German revolution 1848-1849 (Carola Lipp) and female honour in the sixteenth century (Susanna Burghartz).
Gendered Domains. Rethinking Public and Private in Women's History. Essays from the Seventh Berkshire Conference on the History of Women. Ed. by Dorothy O. Helly and Susan M. Reverby. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1992. xiv, 349 pp. Ill. $46.75. (Paper: $15.35.)
This collection contains twenty essays presented at the Berkshire Conference on the History of Women in 1987. The contributions treat different aspects of the gendered nature of public and private spheres, like the cloistering of medieval nuns (Penelope D. Johnson) and the power of Ottoman royal women (Leslie P. Peirce). Other essays deal with the pétroleuses of the Paris Commune (Gay L. Gullickson), gender, ideology and social roles in the Garvey movement (Barbara Bair), the gendering of work and skill in U.S. newspaper printing, 1850-1920 (Ava Baron) and women in French metalworking factories, 1917-1930 (Laura Lee Downs).
GRANDJONC, JACQUES. Communisme/Kommunismus/Communism. Origine et développement international de la terminologie communautaire prémarxiste des utopistes aux néo-babouvistes 1785-1842. Tome 1: Historique. Tome 2: Pièces justificatives. [Schriften aus dem Karl-Marx-Haus, Nr 39/1,2.] Karl-Marx-Haus, Trier 1989. 559 pp. DM 35.00 per vol.
See Ahlrich Meyer's review in this volume, pp. 88-92.
Internationalism in the Labour Movement 1830-1940. Ed. by Frits van Holthoon and Marcel van der Linden. [Contributions to the History of Labour and Society, I.] E. J. Brill, Leiden [etc.] 1988. xvi, viii, 675 pp. (in 2 vols). D.fl. 265.00.
The over thirty contributions to these two volumes were presented during a conference marking the fiftieth anniversary of the Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis in Amsterdam. The essays (in English, French and German) deal with various aspects of socialist and working-class internationalism before the Second World War. In addition to general dissertations by Eric Hobsbawm and Theo van Tijn studies are included about, inter alia, the attitudes of the German Social Democratic rank and file towards popular resistance in African colonies (Gottfried Mergner), the origins of International Women's Day (Temma Kaplan), the Democratic Friends of All Nations in London during the 1840s (Christine Lattek), the strike history of the First International (Knud Knudsen), the Union Galaïco-Portugaise, 1901-1904 (Gérard Brey), the solidarity campaign of the German Communist Party among Ruhr coal miners supporting the British coal miners strike of 1926 (Larry Peterson) and the multinational labour movement in Poland, 1918-1939 (Jerzy Holzer). There is a very substantial thematically arranged bibliography.
MITTERAUER, MICHAEL. Familie und Arbeitsteilung. Historischvergleichende Studien. [Kulturstudien , Band 26.] Böhlau Verlag, Wien [etc.] 1992. 362 pp. S 476.
This sequel to Professor Mitterauer's essays on historical-anthropological family research (see IRSH, XXXVI (1991), p. 124) contains nine contributions that were previously published in, e.g., Beiträge zur historischen Sozialkunde, Geschichte und Gesellschaft and collections of essays. The subjects vary from the factors shaping historical family forms to recent forms of leisure.
Sylvia Pankhurst. From Artist to Anti-Fascist. Ed. by Ian Bullock and Richard Pankhurst. Macmillan, Basingstoke 1992. xvi, 210 pp. Ill. £40.00.
A major problem for possible biographers of the suffragist, socialist and anti-fascist Sylvia Pankhurst (1882-1960) has always been the diversity of her activities. In the present collection of essays the attempt is made to bring together some of the pieces of the puzzle. The contributions deal with Pankhurst as an art student (Hilary Cunliffe-Charlesworth), as an artist (Jackie Duckworth), as a socialist and suffragist, 1903-1914 (Les Garner), as an anti-war activist, 1914-1918 (Barbara Winslow), as a "left-wing" Communist (Ian Bullock), as an editor of New Times and Ethiopia News (Richard Pankhurst). Finally, M. Wilhelmina H. Schreuder presents information about Pankhurst's papers in the Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis in Amsterdam.
The Trotsky Reappraisal. Ed. by Terry Brotherstone and Paul Dukes. Transl. by Brian Pearce, Jenny Brine and Andrew Drummond. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 1992. x, 249 pp. £30.00.
The present collection of eighteen essays is based on papers written for a conference entitled "Trotsky after fifty years", held in Aberdeen in 1990. The contributors, among them several Russians, treat different subjects like: Trotsky and NEP (Alec Nove), Trotsky and the Comintern in 1928 (A. Vatlin), Trotsky and the Second World War (Sergei Kudriashov), a Habermasian interpretation of Trotsky's political theory (Richard Day), Trotsky and Black nationalism (Baruch Hirson) and Trotsky's conceptions concerning foreign economic relations (Agota Gueullette).
L'URSS il Mito le Masse. [Socialismo Storia/Socialism History, 1991,3.] FrancoAngeli, Milano 1991. 789 pp. L. 60.000.
The importance of the "myth" of the Soviet Union for the international labour movement is the subject of most of the over thirty contributions in this collection. The contributions (in Italian, French and English) can be divided into national case studies covering West-European and North-American countries and thematic essays about different subjects like the influence of the Armenian question, the first five-year plan and the constitution of 1936.
Workers of the World and Oppressed Peoples, Unite! The Communist International in Lenin's Time. Proceedings and DOCUMENTS of the Second Congress, 1920. Volume One. Volume Two. Ed. by John Riddell. Pathfinder, New York [etc.] 1991. Ill. $35.00 each volume; $60.00 two-volume set.
These English-language proceedings of the second congress of the Communist International (1920) form the fourth volume in a series of source publications on the history of the Comintern until 1923. Earlier volumes have been noticed in IRSH, XXX (1985), p. 240, XXXII (1987), p. 90, and XXXIII (1988), pp. 222 and 363f. "Speeches have been translated from the version that proved on examination to be the most authoritative; that was usually the version in the language used by the speaker. These translations were then edited after a close comparison with one or more of the other versions."
BROOKER, PAUL. The Faces of Fraternalism. Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Imperial Japan. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1911. ix, 397 pp. £40.00.
Dr Brooker compares Nazi Germany, fascist Italy and the 1930s imperial Japan in their aspirations to impose a type of social solidarity on a modern industrialized society, which is normally found in societies with a non-existent or primitive division of labour (Durkheim's "mechanical" solidarity) and for which he introduces the term "fraternalism". An important part of these aspirations of the study of regimes is indoctrination. The author compares the different regimes and their relative success in this respect.
CROSS, GARY. A Quest for Time. The Reduction of Work in Britain and France, 1840-1940. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1989. xi, 330 pp. $39.95.
See Lex Heerma van Voss's review in this volume, pp. 95-97.
PRYOR, FREDERIC L. The Red and the Green. The Rise and Fall of Collectivized Agriculture in Marxist Regimes. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1992. xiii, 550 pp. $59.50; £40.00.
This is both a study of the development of Marxist ideas about agriculture and an empirical investigation of the origins, organization and development of agriculture in thirty-three "Marxist" regimes. Besides a comprehensive comparative analysis of the rise and fall of state and collective farms and their structural context, the book contains appendices with a number of "research notes" (e.g., "Labor Supply and Compensation on Collective Farms: A Model"), sizeable "statistical notes" and several indices.
Eastern Europe in Revolution. Ed. by Ivo Banac. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1992. x, 255 pp. $14.25.
In this book twelve authors present their assessments of the East European revolution of 1989. The collection contains general essays by Ken Jowitt and Ivan Szélenyi and national studies of the transformation processes in Hungary (László Bruszt and David Stark), Poland (Jan T. Gross), the GDR (Norman M. Naimark), Czechoslovakia (Tony R. Judt), Romania (Katherine Verdery and Gail Kligman), Bulgaria (Maria N. Todorova), Yugoslavia (the editor) and Albania (Elez Biberaj).
The Extreme Right in Europe and the USA. Ed. by Paul Hainsworth. [Themes in Right-Wing Ideology and Politics Series.] Pinter Publishers, London 1992. xiv, 320 pp. £45.00.
This book contains twelve essays examining the post-war emergence of the extreme right on a country by country basis, with a view to assessing the nature and significance of certain contemporary socio-political phenomena. The collection includes an analytical survey by the editor and chapters on France, Germany, The Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Britain, Denmark, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Eastern Europe and Russia, and the USA.
Social Policy, Social Justice and Citizenship in Eastern Europe. Ed. by Bob Deacon. Avebury, Aldershot [etc.] 1992. x, 260 pp. £34.00.
This volume brings together thirteen essays analysing some of the first problems of social policy to surface in Eastern Europe after the revolutions of 1989. Contributions include a comparison of Finnish and Estonian economic and social performance, 1940-1990 (Jan Dellenbrant), unemployment in Hungary (Zsuzsa Ferge) and social policy development in Poland (Miroslav Ksiezopolski).
OLOYEDE, OLAJIDE. Coping Under Recession. Workers in a Nigerian Factory. [Studia Sociologica Upsaliensia, 34.] Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala 1991; Distr.: Almqvist & Wiksell International, Stockholm. xii, 177 pp. S.kr. 150.00.
This doctoral thesis (Uppsala, 1991) deals with the workers' response to the slowdown in the contemporary Nigerian economy. Partly on the basis of a case study of a leading lamp manufacturing factory Dr Oloyede suggests the importance of three factors: the effect of the economic crisis on the enterprise and on the labour process, and the level of workers' class consciousness. The workers are found to "cope" individually. Special attention is paid to the experiences of women shopfloor workers.
FURLONG, PATRICK J. Between Crown and Swastika. The Impact of the Radical Right on the Afrikaner Nationalist Movement in the Fascist Era. Wesleyan University Press, Publ. by University Press of New England, Hanover [etc.] 1991. xxi, 344 pp. Ill. $45.00.
This is a detailed study of the influence of fascism on white South Africa in the years before, during and immediately after the Second World War. Dr Furlong examines the activities of German agents and propagandists; the network of relationships among mainstream political leaders and various nationalist groups, such as the Afrikaanse Broederbond and the Afrikaanse Nasionale Studentebond; anti-Semitic fringegroups; and the quasi-fascist Ossewabrandwag. Acknowledging differences between the mainstream National Party and its more overtly pro-fascist counterparts on the far right, the author, nevertheless, concludes that the National Party gradually accommodated itself to the Radical Right ideology.
PAMPALLIS, JOHN. Foundations of the New South Africa. Zed Books Ltd, London [etc.]; Maskew Miller Longman, Cape Town 1991. viii, 327 pp. Ill. Maps. £29.95. (Paper: £9.95.)
This textbook, originally written for exiled South African students at the ANC's Solomon Mahlangu Freedom College in Tanzania, focuses on the history of the South African liberation and labour movements and on critical social processes, including the mining revolution, land dispossession, the migrant labour system and the establishment of apartheid. "Traditional" textbook topics like the Anglo-Boer War and Afrikaner nationalism are also covered.
WICKHAM-CROWLEY, TIMOTHY P. Guerrillas and Revolution in Latin America. A Comparative Study of Insurgents and Regimes Since 1956. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1991. xx, 424 pp. $59.50.
In this comparative survey of guerrilla movements in Latin America, Dr Wickham-Crowley explores the origins and outcomes of rural insurgencies from 1956 onward. Focusing on the personal backgrounds of the guerrillas themselves and on national social conditions, he attempts to explain why guerrillas have emerged strongly in certain countries but not others. In accounting for the results of these movements, the author considers under what circumstances guerrillas acquire military strength, why they do (not) secure substantial support from the peasantry in rural areas, and why only two guerrilla movements - in Cuba and Nicaragua - were able to seize power.
RANIS, PETER. Argentine Workers. Peronism and Contemporary Class Consciousness. [Pitt Latin American Series.] University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh [etc.] 1992. xi, 313 pp. $49.95.
On the basis of structured open-ended interviews this book investigates the complex combination of values and attitudes exhibited by Argentine workers. Analysing these views against the backdrop of traditional Peronist ideology and its current revival, Professor Ranis concludes that working-class militancy and anti-regime activities are distinct from revolutionary politics: the impact of Peronism among rank-and-file workers has been to make them at once social-democratic, liberal and conservative, while they uphold labour solidarity and union participation in politics.
SCHWARTZ, STUART B. Slaves, Peasants, and Rebels. Reconsidering Brazilian Slavery. [Blacks in the New World.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1992. xiv, 174 pp. Ill. $34.95.
The five essays in this volume deal with various aspects of Brazilian slavery. In the first chapter the author presents an historiographical review; then investigates labour processes, slavery and the economy, resistance and the family. Throughout his book Professor Schwartz attempts to show that the division between slavery as a system and the slaves' ability to be historical actors creates a "false dichotomy".
IACOVETTA, FRANCA. Such Hardworking People. Italian Immigrants in Postwar Toronto. [McGill-Queen's Studies in Ethnic History, 12.] McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal [etc.] 1992. xxix, 278 pp. Ill. £22.95.
After the Second World War Toronto emerged as the most popular Canadian destination for Italian immigrants, and now has more than 400,000 residents of Italian heritage. This monograph monograph describes the experiences of those working-class people who came to Toronto from southern Italy between 1945 and 1965, focusing on the relations between newly arrived immigrant workers and their families. Writing from a feminist perspective Dr Iacovetta shows that for both sexes work patterns and experiences, as well as self-perceptions, were influenced by gender relations.
PARR, JOY. The Gender of Breadwinners. Women, Men, and Change in Two Industrial Towns 1880-1950. University of Toronto Press, Toronto [etc.] 1990. xiii, 314 pp. Ill. C$45.00. (Paper: C$19.95.)
In this study the industrialization of two one-industry towns in Ontario of roughly the same size is compared: Hanover (a furniture-manufacturing centre, where most of the workers were men drawn from a German community) and Paris (a textile centre, where most of the workers were women of English origin). Combining interviews with a wide range of documents, Dr Parr considers the impact of these differences from a feminist perspective, investigating social and economic change as products of gender and class identities, recast through community sensibilities.
United States of America
BENSEL, RICHARD. Yankee Leviathan. The Origins of Central State Authority in America, 1859-1877. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1990. xi, 452 pp. Maps. £37.50. (Paper: £13.95.)
This book examines the process of state formation in the United States between 1859 and 1877. According to the author the capture of the antebellum state by the Republican party brought on the Civil War, which, in turn, permitted the development of a party-state resting on a broad economic coalition capable of fighting and winning this modern, industrial war. The party-state's leaders created a clientele of finance capitalists that then limited the development of the national state. Consequently, a new state building problem (inadequate administrative capacity) gradually replaced the old (southern separatism).
The Civil War and Reconstruction Era, 1861-1877. Ed. with an Introd. by Kenneth L. Kusmer. [Black Communities and Urban Development in America 1720-1990, Vol. 3.] Garland Publishing, Inc., New York [etc.] 1991. xii, 431 pp. Ill. $90.00.
Eighteen historical essays published between 1962 and 1985 have been photomechanically reprinted in this volume. They include a variety of case studies illustrating the social, economic and cultural impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on the lives of urban blacks, predominantly in Southern cities (Charleston, Memphis, Montgomery, New Orleans, Richmond, Savannah, etc.).
ENGLANDER, SUSAN. Class Conflict and Coalition in the California Woman Suffrage Movement 1907-1912. The San Francisco Wage Earners' Suffrage League. The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston [etc.] 1992. viii, 193 pp. £29.95.
The present mimeographed monograph chronicles the brief existence of the San Francisco Wage Earners' Suffrage League. After a description of the situation of San Francisco's female workforce and unions at the turn of the century and the historical circumstances that produced the WESL's union activists, the author reconstructs the split between union and reform suffragists, which resulted in the formation of the WESL in September 1908. Finally, the organization's short history and its contribution to the 1911 victorious campaign for woman suffrage is chronicled.
FISHBACK, PRICE V. Soft Coal, Hard Choices. The Economic Welfare of Bituminous Coal Miners, 1890-1930. Oxford University Press, New York [etc.] 1992. xi, 279 pp. £32.50.
This is a revisionist cliometric study of the bituminous coal labour market 1890-1930, focusing on wage rates, safety, company stores, company towns, strikes and violence. The author stresses the beneficial impact of competition among employers for labour; according to his analysis employers were unable to exploit local and housing monopolies because the miners had the option of moving from town to town. Nevertheless, workers were faced with "hard choices", like the choice between less dangerous jobs on the one hand and high hourly earnings and freedom from close supervision in mining on the other hand.
The German-American Radical Press. The Shaping of a Left Political Culture, 1850-1940. Ed. by Elliott Shore, Ken Fones-Wolf [and] James P. Danky. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1992. vii, 247 pp. $36.95.
This collection assembles eleven essays on German-American radical newspapers, published from the mid-nineteenth century to the Second World War. Topics include the Freie Blätter of St. Louis, 1851-1853 (Steven Rowan), the role of German 48ers in the Chicago labour movent during the Civil War era (John B. Jentz), New York City's Pionier calendar (Carol Poore), the New Yorker Volkszeitung (Paul Buhle) and the views of the German-American labour press of the political institutions of the USA (Dirk Hoerder). Hartmut Keil contributed an essay on and a list of editors/journalists of German-American radical papers until 1914.
Give Peace a Chance. Exploring the Vietnam Antiwar Movement. Essays from the Charles DeBenedetti Memorial Conference. Ed. by Melvin Small and William D. Hoover. With a Foreword by George McGovern. [Syracuse Studies on Peace and Conflict Resolution.] Syracuse University Press, New York 1992. xxi, 300 pp. $34.95. (Paper: $17.95.)
Written by veterans of the Vietnam War and participants in the organized opposition to it, this collection of fourteen essays examines how the activities of the antiwar movement affected everyday life. Relying on oral histories and archival material, the authors consider the movement's strategy and tactics, its leaders and its rank and file, and describe the difficulties encountered by peace activists in their efforts to build politically effective organizations. Contributors include Nina S. Adams, Terry H. Anderson, Charles F. Howlett, Maurice Isserman and Melvin Small.
SAUTTER, UDO. Three cheers for the unemployed. Government and unemployment before the New Deal. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1991. xii, 402 pp. Ill. £40.00; $54.95.
This monograph describes the beginnings and development of unemployment reform up to the New Deal and attempts to demonstrate that the unemployment measures of the New Deal emanated from the reformist endeavours of the Progressive Age. The author shows that as a consequence of the large-scale industrialization after the Civil War, joblessness could no longer be considered to be caused by character defects, but had to be ascribed to societal forces, with the result that from that time it became clear that traditional remedial measures could not cope with the problem adequately.
FEI XIAOTONG. From the Soil. The Foundations of Chinese Society. A Transl. of Fei Xiaotong's Xiangtu Zhongguo, with an Introd. and Epilogue by Gary G. Hamilton and Wang Zheng. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1992. ix, 160 pp. $35.00. (Paper: $11.00.)
The bulk of this book is a translation of Xiangtu Zhongguo, a set of sociological essays written by Fei Xiaotong (born 1910) shortly after the Second World War. The book is a standard text in many Chinese universities; its core thesis is that Chinese society is organized through an egocentric system of social networks different from the system based on individuals and organizations prevailing in the West.
Shanghai Gongren Yundongshi [History of Workers' Movement in Shanghai.] Vol. 1. Ed. by Shen Yiheng, Jiang Peinan and Zheng Qingsheng. Liaoning People's Publishing House, Shenyang 1991. xxxii, 661 pp. Y 14.50.
See Qi Lin's review in this volume, pp. 92-95.
WONG, WANG-CHI. Politics and Literature in Shanghai; The Chinese League of Left-Wing Writers, 1930-1936. [Studies on East Asia.] Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1991; distr. excl. in the USA and Canada by St Martin's Press, New York. v, 254 pp. £40.00.
This is a detailed account of the origins, organization, membership and activities of the Shanghai-based League of Left-Wing Writers organized by the Chinese Communist Party 1930-1936. The book focuses on the theoretical and practical issues, and defends the thesis that the initial success of the League and the later decline were largely due to personal factors.
Capitalist Development. Critical Essays. Felicitation Volume in Honour of Prof. A. R. Desai. Ed. by Ghanshyam Shah. Sangam Books, London 1990. xii, 411 pp. £24.95.
This is a Festschrift for the sociologist Dr A.R. Desai on the occasion of his seventy-fifth birthday. The volume contains twenty-one essays, treating problems of Indian development, mostly from a Marxist perspective. There are a few historical essays, for instance on the penetration of merchant capital in pre-colonial Gujarat (David Hardiman), but the majority of the contributions deals with the contemporary relationship between social classes and the state, for example the peculiarities of Indian democracy (Achin Vanaik), legal action for and against rural labour in Gujarat (Jan Breman), or agrarian movements (Nirmal Sengupta).
BAYAT, MANGOL. Iran's First Revolution. Shi'ism and the Constitutional Revolution of 1905-1909. [Studies in Middle Eastern History.] Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 1991. ix, 316 pp. £35.00.
The Iranian constitutional revolution of 1905-1909 is generally seen as a nationalist-religious movement. In this book, however, it is argued that the ayatollahs who played a visible role in the events leading to the promulgation of the constitution of 1906-1907 were neither its instigators nor its prime movers, and that the revolution marked the triumph of secularist trends. Dr Bayat detects three main ideological trends simultaneously at work: Shia radicalism, Western liberalism and Russian social democracy. Despite their mutual exclusiveness these forces were united in their common aim at curtailing the olama's authority in public life.
WOODIWISS, ANTHONY. Law, Labour and Society in Japan. From Repression to Reluctant Recognition. Routledge, London [etc.] 1992. xii, 187 pp. £35.00.
The author of this monograph reacts against the often pronounced paradox that the Japanese unions are de facto rather weak, but the jure very strong. On one level Dr Woodiwiss establishes the weakness of the trade unions with respect to their civil rights for each of the three periods into which modern Japanese history is conventionally divided. On another level, and with respect to the same historical periods, the weakness is explained structurally.
GARDEZI, HASSAN N. A Reexamination of the Socio-Political History of Pakistan. Reproduction of Class Relations and Ideology. The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston [etc.] 1991. ix, 162 pp. £29.95.
In this book a number of previously published essays by Professor Gardezi about the history of Pakistani society from the beginning of the colonial period to the present have been collected. Making use of a Marxist framework, the author analyses the different modes of production that have existed according to his views, the various stages of "peripheral accumulation", the theory and practice of population control, the role of Islam and the social developments after the death of Ziaul Haq in 1988.
AUSTRALIA AND OCEANIA
BEILHARZ, PETER, MARK CONSIDINE [and] ROB WATTS. Arguing About the Welfare State. The Australian Experience. Allen & Unwin, North Sydney 1992. vi, 183 pp.
This book surveys the development of the Australian welfare state in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Analysing the state not as a unified agent but as "a highly variable conglomeration of institutions, practices and arguments", the authors reconstruct the discussions about the purpose of the welfare state; the growth of formal and informal welfare institutions; and the structure of bureaucracy and its impact on citizens and consumers.
Bewegte Provinz. Arbeiterbewegung in mitteleuropäischen Regionen vor dem Ersten Weltkrieg. Hrsg. von Rudolf G. Ardelt und Erika Thurner. Europaverlag, Wien [etc.] 1992. 413 pp. Ill. S 388; DM 56.00.
The twenty-five, mostly short, essays in this collection focus on regional working- class populations and labour movements in Central Europe before 1914. Among the different subjects are: the proletarianization in the Tirolian Wattens (Hubert J. Auer), the early Christian-Social movement in Triest (Pietro Zovatto), women tobacco workers in Laibach/Ljubljana (Jasna Fischer), the early labour movement in South Bohemia (Ludmila Frankóva) and Italian labour migrants in the Vorarlberg (Reinhard Mittersteiner).
Ethnic Identity in Urban Europe. Ed. by Max Engman, in collab. with Francis W. Carter, A. C. Hepburn and Colin G. Pooley. [Comparative Studies on Governments and Non-Dominant Ethnic Groups in Europe, 1850-1940, Vol. VIII.]. Dartmouth Publishing Company, Aldershot 1992. xxviii, 440 pp. Maps. £35.00.
This collection focuses on the history of ethnic groups in European urban centres. Included are twelve case studies, inter alia about the Catholic community in Belfast, 1850-1940 (Anthony C. Hepburn), the Finns in St Petersburg (the editor), the Germans in Prague, 1850-1918 (Gary B. Cohen) and the Greeks in Constantinople, 1856-1908 (Constantinos Svolopoulos). Moreover, the book contains five comparative chapters about ethnic urban residential patterns (Francis W. Carter), ethnic segmentation of urban labour markets (the editor), organizational patterns of urban ethnic groups (Gary B. Cohen), etc.
FIERA, VLADIMIR CLAUDE. Les peuples slaves et le communisme de Marx à Gorbatchev. ["Faits et Représentations".] Berg International, Paris 1992. 476 pp. F.fr. 240.00.
In this book - the revised version of a doctoral thesis (Paris I - Sorbonne, 1973) Dr Fiera describes the complex relationship between the "Slavonic Question" and Socialist and Communist movements since 1848. In chronological order he deals with: the discussions in the First and Second Internationals about Panslavism, the changing attitude of the Communist International towards this question, Stalin's "Slavonic discourse" in the 1930s, the contradictory relationship between Soviet hegemony and Slavonic ideology in Eastern Europe after the Second World War and other subjects.
Foreign Language Literature on the Nordic Labour Movements/Fremdsprachige Literatur über die nordischen Arbeiterbewegungen. [By/Von] Marianne Bagge Hansen, Marja Oksa, Birgit Parding, Synnøve Standal. Ed. by/red. von Marianne Bagge Hansen [and/und] Gerd Callesen.[ABAs bibliografiske serie, 7.] Published by/herausgegeben von the Labour Movement Archives and Libraries/den Archiven und Bibliotheken der Arbeiterbewegung in Helsinki, København, Oslo, Stockholm. Arbejderbevægelsens Bibliotek og Arkiv, København 1992. 143 pp. N.kr. 95.00 (obtainable from Arbeiderbevegelsens Arkiv o Bibliotek, Youngsgata 11 C, N-0181 Oslo 1, Norway).
This bibliography registers the literature on the labour movement in the five Nordic European countries written in English, French, German, Russian, Italian and Spanish. The 1,165 titles are thematically arranged. An index is included.
Die Französische Revolution, Mitteleuropa und Italien. Hrsg. von Helmut Reinalter. [Schriftenreihe der Internationalen Forschungsstelle "Demokratische Bewegungen in Mitteleuropa 1770-1850", Band 6.] Peter Lang, Frankfurt/M. 1992. 330 pp. S.fr. 78.00.
The subject of this collection of over twenty, mostly short, papers is the influence of the French Revolution in Central Europe and Italy. The contributions vary from biographical studies, via detailed case studies - like "The assault on the house of the master butcher Lanz 1794 in Altona" (Arno Herzig) - and aspects of the history of ideas to more general theoretical and methodological dissertations.
Französische Revolution und deutsche Öffentlichkeit. Wandlungen in Presse und Alltagskultur am Ende des achtzehnten Jahrhunderts. Hrsg. von Holger Böning. [Deutsche Presseforschung, Band 28.] K. G. Saur, München [etc.] 1992. xii, 549 pp. Ill. DM 168.00.
The over twenty contributions to this collection - presented as papers at a conference in Bremen, 1989 - focus on the reception of the French Revolution in the German, Austrian and Swiss contemporary press. After five survey articles, of which Reinhart Siegert's article about the "topography of Enlightenment in Germany 1789" deserves special attention, eight detailed studies about separate regions and newspapers follow, as well as three analyses about censorship and the reactions of the authorities, and six contributions about the influences of the revolution on daily life.
De Kracht der Zwakken. Studies over arbeid en arbeidersbeweging in het verleden. Opstellen aangeboden aan Theo van Tijn bij zijn afscheid als hoogleraar Economische en Sociale Geschiedenis aan de Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht. Onder red. van Boudien de Vries, Erik Nijhof, Lex Heerma van Voss [e.a.] [IISG: Studies + Essays, 18.] Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1992. 446 pp. Ill. D.fl. 59.50.
This is a Festschrift for Professor Theo van Tijn, who died recently. Besides a biographical essay about Van Tijn (by Ad Knotter) the collection contains thirteen contributions about the social and intellectual history of the Netherlands and Belgium. Included are dissertations about the seventeenth-century treatise Het welvaren van Leiden (Jan Lucassen),the rise of the labour movement in Brussels, 1842-1867 (Daisy Devreese), Dutch Marxist historiography about 1900 (Leo Noordegraaf) and women in Dutch trade unions (Corry van Eijl and Gertjan de Groot), as well as a number of other subjects.
Die Revolution in Europa - erfahren und dargestellt. Internationales Kolloquium an der Universität -GH- Duisburg vom 19. - 21. April 1989. Hrsg. von Siegfried Jüttner. [Europäische Aufklärung in Literatur und Sprache, Band 3.] Peter Lang, Frankfurt/M. [etc.] 1991. x, 286 pp. Ill. S.fr. 73.00.
The subject of this collection of seventeen essays is the assimilation of the French revolution in European art and literature. Dealt with are, inter alia, Georg Büchner's Dantons Tod (Lothar Bornscheuer), the work of De Sade (Peter Brockmeier), of Vicenzo Monti (Frank-Rutger Hausmann), of Jean Paul (Herbert Kaiser) and Mirabeau (Edward Reichel).
Eire - Ireland
POWELL, FREDERICK W. The Politics of Irish Social Policy 1600-1990. The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston [etc.] 1992. xiv, 374 pp. £39.95.
Scrutinizing the role of "good intentions" and religious sentiment as protean influences on the acquisition of social rights, this attempt at writing a comprehensive history of Irish social policy "from below" emphazises long-term developments. The author first pays much attention to the colonial period roughly from 1600 to 1922 and continues by addressing social policy in post-Independence Ireland up to 1900 extensively.
PELTONEN, MATTI. Talolliset ja torpparit. Vuosisadan vaihteen maatalouskysymys Suomessa. Summary: Landowners and Crofters. The peasant question in Finland at the turn of the century. [Historiallisia Tutkimuksia 164.] S[ocietas] H[istorica] F[inlandiae], Helsinki 1992. 429 pp. Ill. Maps.
This monograph on "Landowners and Crofters: The Peasant Question in Finland at the Turn of the Century" reconstructs the social crisis in rural Finland in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, on the one hand including the major components of the Finnish farm economy - crop production, animal husbandry and forestry - and, on the other, the development of the world market for agricultural produce and its effects. An English summary has been appended.
BRENDER, REINHOLD. Kollaboration in Frankreich im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Marcel Déat und das Rassemblement national populaire. [Studien zur Zeitgeschichte, Band 38.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 1992. 338 pp.
While France was occupied by German troops during the Second World War, a number of French parties wanted to cooperate with the occupying forces. Dr Brender describes the radical version of this collaboration by means of the Rassemblement national populaire (1941-1944) of the former socialist Marcel Déat. He describes the prehistory and programmatic development of the RNP extensively, reconstructs the format and social composition of the organization and puts the whole in an internationally comparative perspective.
FAUCIER, NICOLAS. Dans la mêlée sociale. Itinéraire d'un militant anarcho-syndicaliste. La Digitale, Baye-29130 Quimperlé 1988. 238 pp. F.fr. 100.00.
The author of these memoirs was born in 1900 and describes his experiences as an anarcho-syndicalist from 1918. Mr Faucier tells about his activities as a trade-union militant in the Renault works, as editor of the paper Le Libertaire, his participation in the Spanish Civil War, his imprisonment during the Vichy period and his meetings with people like Pierre Pascal, Marcel Brody, Victor Serge and Makhno, and many other things.
FEELEY, FRANCIS. The French Anarchist Labor Movement and "La Vie Ouvrière", 1909-1914. [American University Studies, Series IX, Vol. 112.] Peter Lang, New York [etc.] 1991. xix, 155 pp. Ill. S.fr. 54.30.
In 1909 the revolutionary syndicalist Pierre Monatte and a number of partisans established a bi-weekly magazine, entitled La Vie Ouvrière. The present monograph describes the fortunes of this periodical up to the beginning of the First World War. It pays attention to its societal background, its staff and the changes in its contents, as well as to the nature of its criticism of capitalism and the influence of older anarchist thinkers.
GESLIN, CLAUDE. Le syndicalisme ouvrier en Bretagne jusqu'à la Première Guerre Mondiale. Espace-Ecrits, Saint Hippolyte-du-Fort 1990. 987 pp. (in 3 vols). Ill. Maps. F.fr. 1300.00.
These three richly illustrated volumes contain an extremely detailed historiography of the trade union movement in Brittany from 1869 to the beginning of the First World War. Supporting his reconstruction with tables, graphs and maps, Professor Geslin stresses the problematic relationship between the unions and Socialist organizations, which on the one hand strongly stimulated the development of the regional labour movement in the early phase, but on the other hand tried to dominate the established trade unions and allied organizations politically for a long time.
HOLTER, DARRYL. The Battle for Coal. Miners and the Politics of Nationalization in France, 1940-1950. Northern Illinois University Press, DeKalb 1992. xv, 264 pp. $35.00.
After surveying French coal-mining to 1945, this book examines the impact of nationalization on production, the complex "battle for coal" that took place as government officials, labour leaders, management personnel and mine workers struggled to increase production, and the coal strikes that rocked France in 1947 and 1948.
MAIGNIEN, CLAUDE [et] CHARLES SOWERWINE. Madeleine Pelletier, une féministe dans l'arène politique. [Collection "La part des hommes".] Les Éditions Ouvrières, Paris 1992. Ill. F.fr. 125.00.
The feminist Madeleine Pelletier (1874-1939) was active in many fields. In this biography the authors describe her varied life as a doctor, anarchist, socialist, communist, freemason and look at the woman who remained consciously celibate and spent her last years in a mental hospital.
PIERRARD, PIERRE. L'Église et les ouvriers en France (1940-1990). Hachette, n.p. [Paris] 1991. 444 pp. F.fr. 168.00.
This is a sequel to Professor Pierrard's L'Eglise et les ouvriers en France (1840-1940), published in 1984 (see IRSH, XXX (1985), p. 158). In this volume the author sketches the development of the attitude of the French Catholic Church towards the workers after the outbreak of the Second World War. He points out an important shift, which finds its expression in the movement of the "priest-labourers": gradually the Church saw the working class less and less as a social group that has to be "conquered" and more and more as "co-workers".
Les Premiers Banlieusards. Aux origines des banlieues de Paris (1860-1940). Sous la dir. d'Alain Faure. [Par] Alain Faure, Jean-Claude Farcy, Patrick Gervaise, Françoise Dubost, Annie Fourcaut [et] Béatrice Cabedoce. ["Rencontres à Royaumont".] Créaphis, Paris 1991. 285 pp. Ill. Maps. F.fr. 195.00.
In seven essays this beautifully designed book treats different aspects of the history of the suburbs of Paris in the period 1860-1940. After a very extensive socio-geographical survey by Jean-Claude Farcy, there follow sketches of the living and working conditions (by the editor) and the jardins ouvriers (by Béatrice Cabedoce), and several local case studies.
RADELET, MICHEL. Mutualisme et syndicalisme. Ruptures et convergences de l'Ancien Régime à nos jours. Préface de Henri Hatzfeld. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris 1991. 205 pp. F.fr. 104.00.
This doctoral thesis (Paris I) by the Secretary General of the Fédération Nationale de la Mutualité Française reconstructs the changing relationship between the trade unions and mutual insurance societies. Starting from the "common roots" of the two organizations the author describes how they grew apart from 1848 and re-approached each other in the 1970s. Within this context the tensions within the mutualist movement itself are also discussed, which resulted in a crisis in 1984.
REID, DONALD. Paris Sewers and Sewermen. Realities and Representations. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1991. ix, 235 pp. Ill. £31.95.
Against the backdrop of the expansion of the Paris sewer system during the Second Empire and the Third Republic this book attempts to show that observing how labourers like cesspool cleaners and sewermen present themselves and are represented by others is a way to reflect on the foundations of everyday life. "For bourgeois urbanites, the sewer became the repository of latent anxieties about disease, disorder, and anarchy. The sewermen themselves formed a model army of labor in an era of social upheaval in the workplace. [...] They were among the first French manual laborers to win the eight-hour day, paid vacations, and other benefits."
Repression et prison politiques en France et en Europe au XIXe siècle. [Par] Philippe Vigier, Alain Faure, Claude Latta e.a. [Pierres de mémoire.] Créaphis, Paris 1990. 329 pp. F.fr. 190.00.
This collection contains twenty essays about repression and resistance. Apart from a contribution about (dis)order during the Spanish Década Ominosa (Eric Beaumatin) the papers are concerned with nineteenth-century France. Among other subjects, the suppression of the second revolt of the canuts in Lyons (1934), of sympathizers of the Commune in the Bordelais (Jean Cavignac), of striking miners at the end of the century (Diana Cooper-Richet) and of Polish immigrants (Slawomir Kalmbka) are dealt with. Much attention is paid to the victims of oppression and their experiences too.
ROGERS, SUSAN CAROL. Shaping Modern Times in Rural France. The Transformation and Reproduction of an Aveyronnais Community. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1991. xv, 231 pp. Ill. $14.95.
Challenging the notion that modernization is a homogenizing process, Dr Rogers focuses on the French farming community "Sainte foy" (Aveyron) during a period of rapid change (1945-1975). Using ethnographic field data and archival material that she collected as a participant-observer, the author shows that an allegedly pre-industrial social form, the ostal, became increasingly common as the community grew more prosperous and more involved in national and international markets.
ROUSSEAU, GUY. Le temps du gouyat. L'enracinement socialiste dans le Puy-de-Dôme (1870-1914). Préface de Madeleine Reberioux. Institut d'Études du Massif Central, Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand 1991. ii, 349 pp. Maps. F.fr. 140.00.
The roots of the socialist movement in the Puy-de-Dôme in the years 1870-1914 are the subject of this study (Thèse de troisième cycle, 1982). The book is divided into three parts: a chronological narrative, an analysis of the propaganda and ideology, and an analysis of the social bases of socialism in the region.
BERING, DIETZ. The Stigma of Names. Antisemitism in German Daily Life, 1812-1933. Transl. by Neville Plaice. Polity Press, Cambridge 1992. xii, 345 pp. £39.50.
This is the English version of Der Name als Stigma, noticed in IRSH, XXXIII (1988), pp. 236f. Making use of the extensive documentation about Jewish requests for changes of name in the years 1840-1867 and 1900-1932 in the Zentrale Staatsarchiv Merseburg and the Geheime Staatsarchiv Berlin/Dahlem the author deduces an order of preference of given and family names that were considered as "typically Jewish" by anti-Semites - a stigmatization that is then set in a historical context.
Bürger in der Gesellschaft der Neuzeit. Wirtschaft - Politik - Kultur. Hrsg. von Hans-Jürgen Puhle. [Bürgertum, Band 1.] Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1991. 273 pp. DM 58.00.
The eleven, partly comparative, essays in this volume deal with the development of the German bourgeoisie (Bürgertum) up to the nineteenth century. Included are contributions about civil liberties in medieval cities (Klaus Schreiner), merchants, Verleger and entrepreneurs during the Ancien Régime (Axel Flügel), entrepreneurs in Bremen and Bristol, 1870-1914 (Hartmut Berghoff and Roland Möller), the origins of the German petty bourgeoisie in the 1850s and 1860s (Hans-Ulrich Wehler) and the development of the German Katholikentage, 1871-1913 (Josef Mooser).
HERZER, MANFRED. Magnus Hirschfeld. Leben und Werk eines jüdischen, schwulen und sozialistischen Sexologen. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1992. 189 pp. Ill. DM 34.00.
Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935) was one of the founders of German sexuology, a Social Democratic reform politician and a leading activist of the early gay movement. This book is a concise, illustrated biography of this "Jewish, gay and socialist sexuologist".
OBST, DIETER. "Reichskristallnacht". Ursachen und Verlauf des antisemitischen Progroms vom November 1938. [Europäische Hochschulschriften, Reihe III, Geschichte und ihre Hilfswissenschaften, Band 487.] Peter Lang, Frankfurt [etc.] 1991. xii, 371 pp. DM 97.00; S.fr. 80.00; $64.80; £34.00.
This doctoral thesis (Bochum, 1989) deals with the question of how the Reichskristallnacht was possible, a progrom contrary to all existing legal and moral standards. Making use of a large quantity of new source material the author describes the aggravation of anti-Jewish policy in 1938, the extension of the progroms throughout the Reich, the behaviour of those carrying out the progrom, of state officials and of the population that kept aloof.
POHL, KARL HEINRICH. Die Münchener Arbeiterbewegung. Sozialdemokratische Partei, Freie Gewerkschaften, Staat und Gesellschaft in München 1890-1914. [Schriftenreihe der Georg-von-Vollmar-Akademie, Band 4.] K. G. Saur, München [etc.] 1992. 580 pp. DM 68.00.
This comprehensive study of the labour movement in Munich in the period 1890-1914, which was accepted as a Habilitationsschrift by the University of Bielefeld in 1989, not only describes the historical environment in which the movement developed (the city's socio-economic structure and religious and political culture), but also the living conditions of the local working class, the organizational forms of the resistance (with as its three components: the Social Democratic Party, the trade unions and the consumer co-operatives) and the political interventions on the municipal level.
Quellen zur Geschichte der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung im 20. Jahrhundert. Begründet von Erich Matthias. Hrsg. von Klaus Schönhoven und Hermann Weber. Band 10. Die Industriegewerkschaft Metall in der frühen Bundesrepublik. Bearb. von Walter Dörrich und Klaus Schönhoven. Bund-Verlag, Köln 1991. lviii, 752 pp. DM 118.00.
This bulky volume is a new part of an ongoing multi-volume publication of sources concerning the history of the German trade-union movement from 1914 (see IRSH, XXXVII (1992), p. 140 for further references). This book reconstructs the development of the largest West German trade union, the IG Metall, from the establishment of the Hauptverwaltung in 1950 to the fourth union congress in 1956. The backbone of the publication consists of the minutes of the executive board, completed with correspondence and other records.
ROHE, KARL. Wahlen und Wählertraditionen in Deutschland. Kulturelle Grundlagen deutscher Parteien und Parteiensysteme im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. [Neue Historische Bibliothek.] Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/M. 1992. 308 pp. DM 24.00.
This is a comprehensive socio-historical interpretation of the German electoral process from the 1860s up to the 1980s. The author sketches the period of the "primitive political accumulation" in the nineteenth century, the three "camps" (Lager) that sprang from this (Catholic, national and socialist), the rise of the NSDAP and the way in which the Lager-system was transcended after 1945. The book contains an extensive appendix with maps and tables about the electorate's behaviour.
ROSEMAN, MARK. Recasting the Ruhr, 1945-1958. Manpower, Economic Recovery and Labour Relations. Berg, New York [etc.] 1992; distr. excl. in the US and Canada by St Martin's Press, New York. xv, 358 pp. £42.00.
In 1945 Ruhr pits faced enormous gaps in the workforce as a result of wartime losses and pre-war difficulties in recruiting young labour. This revised doctoral thesis (Warwick, 1987) analyses the measures to win new labour for the Ruhr and the attempts to turn the newcomers into productive and settled miners. In so doing the author pays attention to the origins and limitations of the Wirtschaftswunder, the impact of and response to the enormous population mobility after the war and the nature of post-war industrial relations.
RUNGE, IRENE [und] UWE STELBRINK. George Mosse: "Ich bleibe Emigrant". Gespräche mit George L. Mosse. Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1991. 121 pp. DM 16.80.
This small book consists of a long interview with Professor George L. Mosse, in which this historian, born in Germany in 1918, expounds to his two East-German interviewers his view of twentieth-century German history, both from an autobiographical perspective and on the basis of his extensive studies.
SCHÖNWÄLDER, KAREN. Historiker und Politik. Geschichtswissenschaft im Nationalsozialismus. [Historische Studien, Band 9.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1992. 440 pp. DM 68.00.
This doctoral thesis (Marburg, 1990) reconstructs the fortunes of the study of history under National Socialism. The author dissociates himself from the frequently heard opinion that the Gleichschaltung of historiography had in fact already failed in 1937 and that German historians were only mixed up with Nazism to a limited extent. On the basis of an ample study of literature Dr Schönwalder demonstrates that many German historians allowed themselves to be utilized to legitimize the Third Reich, including its war and conquests.
SCHROEDER, WOLFGANG. Katholizismus und Einheitsgewerkschaft. Der Streit um den DGB und der Niedergang des Sozialkatholizismus in der Bundesrepublik bis 1960. [Reihe: Politik- und Gesellschaftsgeschichte, Band 30.] Verlag J. H. W. Dietz Nachf., Bonn 1992. 449 pp. DM 75.00.
The tense relation between Catholicism and the united trades union federation DGB in Germany after the Second World War (1945-1960) is the focal point of this doctoral thesis (Giessen, 1991). To some extent this is a sequel to Dr Michael Schneider's history of the Christian trade unions 1894-1933 (see IRSH, XXVIII (1983), p. 271). Besides a chronological reconstruction the author presents an extensive analysis of the "institutional and personal competition in the Christian-Social camp" and biographies of important personalities (Goetz Briefs, Oswald von Nell-Breuning, Matthias Föcher, Jakob Kaiser, Johannes Even and Herbert Reichel).
BROOKE, STEPHEN. Labour's War. The Labour Party during the Second World War. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1992. xiii, 363 pp. £40.00.
In this history of Labour during the Second World War(a revised version of a doctoral thesis, Oxford 1988) the author calls into question the common opinion about the existence of an atmosphere of consensus between the political parties and within the Labour Party itself during the war. The author starts with the history of Labour (1931-1939) and the influence this had on the developments during the war. Then he examines the influence of the war on the party's ideology and policy, and demonstrates how the effects of the war contributed to the strong position of Labour in the 1945 elections.
Conflict and Community in Southern England. Essays in the Social History of Rural and Urban Labour from Medieval to Modern Times. Ed. by Barry Stapleton. Alan Sutton, Stroud; St. Martin's Press, New York 1992. xvii, 253 pp. Maps. £35.00.
This collection of eleven essays is concerned with the lives of working people in both rural and urban environments in southern England from medieval times to the end of the nineteenth century. Included are, inter alia, contributions about popular disorder, 1250-1450 (D. G. Watts), the relationship between lords and tenants in fifteenth-century Wiltshire (J. N. Hare), industrial conflict in eighteenth-century Exeter (J. Rule), criminal gangs in rural areas, 1790-1860 (R. Wells) and the poor in Victorian Bath (G. Davis).
HOWKINS, ALUN. Reshaping Rural England. A social history 1850-1925. HarperCollinsAcademic, London 1991. xiii, 305 pp. £35.00. (Paper: £11.95.)
In this monograph Dr Howkins describes the transformation of rural England from the 1850s to the interwar years. The author accounts for three major phases of change in England's rural economy, focusing on regional diversity and the lives of the rural poor. The first, paternalistic phase of the mid-nineteenth century was an apparently stable and economically successful era, which concealed widespread poverty and disorder. The second phase followed the collapse of the grain market in the 1870s and saw the emergence of trade unions. The final phase augured a new rural society, reshaped by rapid change in agricultural production and the horror of war.
KENYON, TIMOTHY. Utopian Communism and Political Thought in Early Modern England. Pinter Publishers, London 1989. x, 286 pp. £27.50.
See Norah Carlin's review in this volume, pp. 85-87.
MITCH, DAVID F. The Rise of Popular Literacy in Victorian England. The Influence of Private Choice and Public Policy. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 1992. xxiii, 340 pp. £32.95.
In this monograph Dr Mitch studies the rise of popular literacy in Victorian England as the result of "strong interactions" between the development of education policy measures by the church and the state on the one hand and the rise of popular demand for literacy on the other hand. Examining the changes in the costs and benefits of acquiring literacy, the author establishes that literacy offered opportunities for occupational advancement for some but not all of those of working-class origins and that those opportunities gradually increased.
Religion and Irreligion in Victorian Society. Essays in Honor of R. K. Webb. Ed. by R.W. Davis and R.J. Helmstadter. Routledge, London 1992. ix, 205 pp. £35.00.
This Festschrift for Professor R. K. Webb deals with a variety of themes, times and places. Contributions include "Popular irreligion in early Victorian England" (I. D. McCalman), "Between Genesis and geology: Darwin and some contemporaries in the 1820s and 1830s" (Sandra Herbert), "Christianity and the state in Victorian India: confrontation and collaboration" (Ainslee T. Embree) and "Spiritualism and the First World War" (J. M. Winter).
Rewriting the Victorians. Theory, history, and the politics of gender. Ed. by Linda M. Shires. Routledge, New York [etc.] 1992. xiv, 196 pp. Ill. £35.00. (Paper: £ 10.99.)
This collection of ten essays analyses power relations between men and women in the Victorian period. Contributions cover diverse topics, including sex and political economy in the Edinburgh Review, ideologies of bourgeois motherhood in the mid-Victorian era (Sally Shuttleworth), the river in George Eliot's The Mill on the Floss, the cult of the male genius in Victorian painting (Susan P. Casteras) and Elizabeth Gaskell's My Lady Ludlow (Christine L. Krueger).
TSUZUKI, CHUSHICHI. Tom Mann, 1856-1941. The challenges of Labour. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1991. xiv, 288 pp. Ill. £35.00.
Professor Tsuzuki, who formerly published, inter alia, a biography of Eleanor Marx (IRSH, XIII (1968), p. 129.), in this book describes the life and work of Tom Mann (1856-1941); this subject is also treated in a book by Joseph White (IRSH, this volume, p. 000), which was published almost simultaneously. The author specially emphasizes the London dock strike of 1889 and Mann's role in British and international trade unionism.
WHITE, JOSEPH. Tom Mann. [Lives of the Left.] Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1991; distr. excl. in the USA and Canada by St. Martin's Press, New York. xiv, 242 pp. £29.95.
This biography of Tom Mann (1856-1941) interprets Mann's leadership of the Great London Dock Strike of 1889, his position as the Independent Labour Party's National Secretary and his role as a key leader of the Australian labour movement in the years 1902-1910. In addition, attention is paid to Mann's advocacy of syndicalism in Britain during the "Labour Unrest" of 1910-1914 and his role in the CPGB during the interwar years.
SCUTO, DENIS. Sous le signe de la grande grève de mars 1921. Les années sans pareilles du mouvement ouvrier luxembourgeois 1918-1923. Éditpress, Luxembourg 1990. 464 pp. Ill. L.fr. 1250.00.
This richly illustrated monograph reconstructs the course of the strike wave that overran Luxemburg in the years 1919-1923. After a survey of the socio-economic development of the Grand-Duchy in the period 1870-1918, the author presents a detailed description of the rise of factory councils, the first local strikes and the influence of the October Revolution. He then pays much attention to the big strike of March 1921 and its after-effects. In an appendix biographies of thirteen persons who played an important part in the conflicts are attached.
CORRSIN, STEPHEN D. Warsaw Before the First World War: Poles and Jews in the Third City of the Russian Empire 1880-1914. East European Monographs, Boulder 1989; distr. by Columbia University Press, New York. vi, 183 pp. $32.00.
This study examines selected aspects of demographic, social and political change in Warsaw from the early 1880s to the First World War, focusing on the shared and separate development of the Polish and Jewish communities. After a survey of the city's history under Russian rule Dr Corssin describes demographic, spatial and socio-economic trends, the rise of both the Polish and Jewish periodical presses and the Polish attempts to respond to the "Jewish Question" during the Duma elections, 1906-1912.
HUNDERT, GERSHON DAVID. The Jews in a Polish Private Town. The Case of Opatów in the Eighteenth Century. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 1992. xvi, 242 pp.
Drawing on original documents in several languages Professor Hundert discusses the history of the Jewish community in eighteenth-century Opatów (Kielce region). Supporting his argument with maps and tables the author covers such topics as Jewish-Christian relations, communal organization, the family and the status of women, and the effect of the Polish political system on Jewish life.
Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
FILTZER, DONALD. Soviet Workers and De-Stalinization. The consolidation of the modern system of soviet production relations, 1953-1964. [Soviet and East European Studies, 87.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1992. xv, 318 pp. £40.00.
In this sequel to his Soviet Workers and Stalinist Industrialization (IRSH, XXXV (1990), pp. 433-453), Dr Filtzer examines the position of Soviet industrial workers during the Khrushchev period comprehensively. The author argues that the main concern of Khrushchev's labour policy was to remotivate an industrial population left demoralized by the Stalinist terror. Yet this "de-Stalinization" had to be carried out without undermining the essential power and property relations on which the Stalinist system had been built. Dr Filtzer demonstrates that labour policy had to be limited to superficial gestures of liberalization and tinkering with incentive schemes.
New Perspectives in Modern Russian History. Selected Papers from the Fourth World Congress for Soviet and East European Studies, Harrogate, 1990. Ed. by Robert B. McKean. Macmillan, Basingstoke 1992, in assoc. with the International Council for Soviet and East European Studies. xii, 287 pp. £45.00.
This book contains twelve papers from the Fourth World Congress for Soviet and East European Studies (1990), devoted mainly to the history of tsarist Russia between 1881 and 1917. Contributions include: "Did the Stolypin Land Reform Destroy the Peasant Commune?" (Judith Pallot), "Government Actions and Peasant Reactions during the Stolypin Reforms" (David A. J. Macey), "The Bureaucracy and the Labour Problem, June 1907-February 1917" (Robert B. McKean) and "Russian Nationalism and Tsarist Nationalities Policies in Semi-Constitutional Russia, 1905-14" (Heinz-Dietrich Löwe).
Russian Peasant Women. Ed. by Beatrice Farnsworth [and] Lynne Viola. Oxford University Press, New York [etc.] 1992. vii, 304 pp. £13.50.
The fourteen case studies in this collection pay attention to the Russian peasant women, both before and after the Revolution. Among the subjects dealt with are, inter alia: their precarious sexual position (Christine D. Worobec), family relations (Beatrice Farnsworth), midwifery (Samuel C. Ramer), divorce and property rights in the 1920s (Beatrice Farnsworth), the role of women in Soviet agriculture (Norton D. Dodge and Murray Feshbach), and rural women and Glasnost (Susan Bridger).
WOROBEC, CHRISTINE D. Peasant Russia. Family and Community in the Post-Emancipation Period. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1991. xiv, 257 pp. Ill. $39.50.
Penetrating "the very fibers of Russian peasant society in the decades immediately following emancipation" is the central aim of this study. Drawing on judicial, folklore and household records Dr Worobec shows in detail how, through courtship and marriage rituals and through such social restrictions as property devolution practices, patriarchalism, and penalties for deviant behaviour, Russian peasants developed a variety of economic and social strategies to cope with their harsh environment and the demands of the state.
GRAHAM, HELEN. Socialism and war. The Spanish socialist party in power and crisis 1936-1939. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1991. xii, 327 pp. £35.00.
See Reiner Tosstorff's review in this volume, pp. 98-100.