Volume 38 part 2 (1993)


General Issues
Continents and Countries

Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.

General issues


EHRENBERG, JOHN. The Dictatorship of the Proletariat. Marxism's theory of Socialist Democracy. Routledge, New York [etc.] 1992. ix, 203 pp. $49,95
This book's central claim is that Marx's, Engels's and Lenin's conceptions of both capitalism and communism where expressed most completely in the theory of "the dictatorship of the proletariat". According to the author the dictatorship of the proletariat is the democratic content of socialism as Marx, Engels and Lenin saw it. In this book Dr Ehrenberg traces the origins and the development of the concept of the dictatorship of the proletariat in the work of the three theorists and discusses the consequences of renewing the centrality of the concept for contemporary communism.

LEBOWITZ, MICHAEL A. Beyond Capital. Marx's Political Economy of the Working Class. Macmillan, Basingstoke 1992. xii, 187 pp. £14.99.
In this book professor Lebowitz argues that Marx's failure to write his planned book on wage-labour and the subsequent ignorance of Marx's method by most Marxist theorists has resulted in a one-sided Marxism: economically determinist, reductionist and not paying attention to human experience. He explores the theoretical possibilities of going beyond the one-sided economic approach in Marx's Capital and attempts to elaborate the concept of wage-labour, which is only latent in Capital, in a manner consistent with Marx's method.

SWEDBERG, RICHARD. Joseph Schumpeter. His Life and Work. Polity Press, Cambridge 1991. vii, 293 pp. Ill. £22.50.
In this biographical essay it is argued that Joseph Schumpeter (1883-1950) was very much influenced by Max Weber's notion of Sozialökonomik, in which economic theory and economic history were combined. Although, according to Professor Swedberg, Schumpeter's work can well be understood without knowledge of his private history, the understanding of his work is greatly heightened by knowing more of his personal life, which was a very eventful one. The author argues that new sources, personal letters, as well as unpublished writings, show that Schumpeter was a much more complex person and thinker than is commonly thought.

Understanding the Enterprise Culture. Themes in the Work of Mary Douglas. Ed. by Shaun Hargreaves Heap and Angus Ross. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 1992. vi, 227 pp. £35.00.
In the present collection, which originated in a conference around the work of the British cultural anthropologist Mary Douglas, the social and cultural implications of a renewed "enterprise culture", as propagated by modern advocates of the free market-economy, led by Margaret Thatcher, are discussed. All the authors base their contribution on the "Grid Group" cultural theory of Mary Douglas, who contributes three essays to this collection: on consumer motivation, on the structuring of our perceptions of risk (especially the risks of modern technology) by social institutions and the nature of the person in an enterprise culture.

VARGA, CSABA. Codification as Socio-historical Phenomenon. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1991. viii, 391 pp. Ft 935.00.
In the present study the author studies the codification of law in the context of political and economic rationalization. The book is a survey of the socio-economic factors of codification in Ancient China, Mesopotamia, Ancient Rome, the Middle Ages, the absolutist states and the period of the classical-type of codification in Napoleonic France and nineteenth century Europe. He offers a theoretical framework for the explanation of the functions and types of codification.

WARING, STEPHEN P. Taylorism Transformed. Scientific Management Theory Since 1945. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 1991. xi, 288 pp. $34.95.
Contrary to the standard interpretation, dominated by Chandler's The Visible Hand (1977), Dr Waring argues that political and moral assumptions underlie business management theories, and that therefore the history of recent American business management ideas should be examined and interpreted as history of political theory. In the book several modern management theories, designed to solve the problems created by Taylorism, are examined, including organization theory, computer simulation, management by objectives, sensitivity training, job enrichment, and Japan orientated innovations, such as quality control circles. The author concludes that, despite their differences, ultimately all modern business management theories accept the legitimacy of bureaucratic management.


Bibliografia gramsciana. 1922-1988. A cura di John M. Cammett. Pref. di Nicola Badaloni. [Annali 1989, Fondazione Istituto Gramsci.] Editori Riuniti, Roma 1991. xxiii, 457 pp. L. 75.000.
The present book consists of an annotated bibliography of publications on the life and thought of Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937). The bibliography describes 7061 publications in 28 languages. All the titles that are not in a well-known Western European language, have been translated into English. Descriptive notes, dates and the Index of Subjects are in English as well.

Von Aufbruch und Utopie. Perspektiven einer neuen Gesellschaftsgeschichte des Mittelalters. Für und mit Ferdinand Seibt aus Anlaß seines 65. Geburtstages. Hrsg. von Bea Lundt und Helma Reimöller. Böhlau Verlag, Köln [etc.] 1992. x, 455 pp. Ill. DM 98.00.
This Festschrift for Ferdinand Seibt, aims, according to the editors, to be more than an obligatory tribute to a celebrated well-known mediaevist. The twenty-six authors deal with a wide variety of topics, including the past and present of lay literacy (Ivan Illich), the concept of "work" in Capitulare de villis (Ludolk Kuchenbruch) and the social history of body movements (August Nitschke).


The Development of Wage Forms in the European Construction Industry. Proceedings.International Scientific Conference. [By] Jörn Janssen. Ed.: Linda Clarke. Sponsored by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and Fachhochschule, Dortmund 1990. 246 pp.
The present mimeographed book contains the proceedings of an international conference in Dortmund, Germany, 4-6 October 1990, According to the editor, this conference was the first step in establishing an international research cooperation on the development of wage forms in Europe. The choice for the construction sector was partly decided by the circumstance that this sector has a similar status in the countries examined. Included are contributions on Great-Britain, East- and West-Germany, Czechoslovakia, France and Hungary.

LIEVEN, DOMINIC. The Aristocracy in Europe, 1815-1914. [Themes in Comparative History.] Macmillan, Basingstoke 1992. xxv, 308 pp. £10.99.
This study traces the response of the German, English and Russian aristocracy to the challenges to their position as a ruling class in the period 1815-1914. The author investigates the wealth, economic activities, values, daily lives, education, culture, occupations and political roles of the three European aristocracies, and compares their differing responses to the threat to their historical position as it occurred in the nineteenth century.

SHAMMAS, CAROLE. The Pre-industrial Consumer in England and America. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1990. xi, 319 pp. £35.00.
The present book examines the changes in de relationship between what rural households produced themselves and what they bought in the market in England and America in the period before industrialization and mass urbanization, i.e. 1650-1750. Based on early modern data, the author concludes there was a strong growth in the selling of groceries and semi-durables, and examines new ways of distribution and the effects on diets and domestic environment. The comparison between England and America is of particular interest, professor Shammas argues, because the two were linked by trade and culture, while their material situation differed greatly. CONTINENTS AND COUNTRIES


BERMAN, BRUCE [and] JOHN LONSDALE. Unhappy Valley. Conflict in Kenya & Africa. Book One: State & Class. Book Two: Violence & Ethnicity. [Eastern African Studies.] James Currey, London; Heinemann Kenya, Nairobi; Ohio University Press, Athens 1992. xvi, 504, viii pp. (in 2 vols). Maps. £9.95; 9.95.
This two-volume book, parts of which were published before as early as 1976, is a reference book for the history of Kenya from the beginning of imperialism (1895) up to the present, as well as a discussion of more general ideas about colonialism in Africa. The authors cover a wide variety of themes, including, inter alia, the forming of the colonial state, the political economy of colonialism and the shortcomings of the structuralist Marxist state-theory for the study of colonialism in Africa. Book two is entirely devoted to the origins of the Mau Mau and a discussion of its political and social ideals.

DAVIDSON, BASIL. The Black Man's Burden. Africa and the Curse of the Nation-State. James Currey, London 1992. xi, 355 pp. £25.00. (Paper: £9.95.)
In this book the author, a well-known writer on modern African history, seeks the causes of Africa's present political crisis in the adoption by the Africans of the European form of nationalism, or "nation-statism", as he describes it. He compares the Eastern European developments from 1989 onward to the developments of the African nations in the 1980s, concluding that a solution of the political crisis in these two parts of the world may lay in the development of participatory structures within a wide regionalist framework, as those developed, for example, in the European Community.

Democracy and Socialism in Africa. Ed. by Robin Cohen and Harry Goulbourne. [African Modernization and Development Series.] Westview Press, Boulder [etc.] 1991. xv, 272 pp. £26.50.
Recent developments in postcolonial Africa from democratic centralism towards a more pluralistic democracy are the reason for this volume. In thirteen essays fourteen authors examine the extent to which popular demands for democracy are both subverting and enriching the postcolonial order in Africa. Besides general dissertations about economic democracy, the state and civil society, the impact of economic crisis on women and agrarian reform, the book contains case studies about the recent developments in South Africa, Uganda, Ghana, the Sudan, Botswana and the southern African region.


TAREKE, GEBRU. Ethiopia: Power and Protest. Peasant revolts in the twentieth century. [African Studies Series, 71.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1991. xxi, 272 pp. Maps. £35.00.
This book contains an examination of the ambience of rural protest in twentieth-century Ethiopia and mainly focuses on three major insurrections that occurred between 1941 en 1970. The author seeks to determine the extent to which the peasant revolution foreshadowed the revolution of 1974, which overthrew the imperial regime of Haile Selassie I. Dr Tareke concludes that these revolts were not a consequence of capitalist commercialization and exploitation, but were connected with the rise of a modern, bureaucratic, multi-ethnic state.

South Africa

BASKIN, JEREMY. Striking Back. A History of Cosatu. Ravan Press, Johannesburg 1991. xv, 488 pp. Ill. R 32.95.
In the present book the author, national co-ordinator of the Congress of South African Trade Unions (Cosatu), examines the the prehistory and development of Cosatu, the largest trade-union federation of South-Africa, which was founded in November 1985, and has played a major role in the political democratization process and the anti-Apartheid struggle. Subjects are, inter al., the difficult process of uniting the various trade-unions before 1985, the mineworkers' strike of late 1986 and early 1987, the reaction and repression by the government and employers, the near collapse of Cosatu as a consequence of this and the reconstruction from 1989.

FORMAN, LIONEL. A Trumpet from the Housetops. Selected Writings. Ed. by Sadie Forman & André Odendaal. [UWC Mayibuye History Series No. 7.] Zed Books Ltd, London; Ohio University Press, Athens; David Philip, Cape Town 1992. xlii, 230 pp. Ill. $55.00; £32.95. (Paper: $19.95; £12.95.)
Lionel Forman was a prominent anti-apartheid activist, who died of a heart disease in 1959 at the age of 31. He achieved prominence as a national and international student leader, a defence lawyer, a party activist, a newspaper editor, a Marxist theoretician and a popular historian. Much of his writing, a representative selection of which is included in this book, deals with two of his main intellectual concerns: rediscovering and rewriting South Africa's history from a majoritarian perspective and stimulating socialist debate, particularly on the controversial issue of the national question.


Zanzibar Under Colonial Rule. Ed. by Abdul Sheriff [and] Ed Ferguson. [Eastern African Studies.] James Currey, London; Heinemann Kenya, Nairobi; Historical Association of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam; Ohio University Press, Athens 1991. ix, 278 pp. Ill. £30.00. (Paper: £9.95.)
In this collection of eight essays the authors deal with the economic and the social development of Zanzibar from the abolition of the slave trade in 1873 to formal independence in 1963, with a postscript on the revolution in 1964. Among the subjects dealt with are: the peasantry (the first editor), the working class (George Hadjivayanis and the second editor) and the social dynamics of the 1964 Revolution (A.M. Babu).


The Meaning of Freedom. Economics, Politics, and Culture After Slavery. Eds.: Frank McGlynn and Seymour Drescher. [Pitt Latin American Series.] University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh [etc.] 1992. viii, 333 pp. $44.95. (Paper: $17.95.)
This volume of essays is the outcome of an interdisciplinary conference, held at the University of Pittsburgh in August 1988, on the aftermath of slavery in the Caribbean and the southern United States. The contributors deal with economic development in postemancipation societies (Pieter C. Emmer, Stanley L. Engerman, Jay R. Mandle and Gavin Wright) and the varying social, political and cultural processes of change, brought about by the abolition of slavery.


BORGES, DAIN. The Family in Bahia, Brazil 1870-1945. Stanford University Press, Stanford 1992. ix, 422 pp. $52.50.
This study aims to trace the survival and transformation of traditional patterns of family life in Bahian society in the period 1870-1945. Focusing on middle- and upper-class families, the author examines the relationship between families and cultural change from the point of view of institutions (the Catholic church, medicine, law, organized politics). Professor Borges notices a change from a patriarchal family-model to a more conjugal and nuclear model, as a result of the economic development and urbanization, which was partly similar to the developments in Europe and the United States in the same period. Nevertheless, according to the author, Bahian families maintained many traditional values and kinship networks.


WHITEHORN, ALAN. Canadian Socialism. Essays on the CCF-NDP. Oxford University Press, Toronto 1992. viii, 296 pp. £13.95.
This book consists of nine essays by Professor Whitehorn on the history of the New Democratic Party (NDP) and its predecessor, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF). Topics include party manifestos, national conventions and election campaigns, as well as biographical profiles of the federal leaders T.C. Douglas, David Lewis and Ed Broadbent. The book opens with a survey of the party's history and of its historiography, which makes it a reference work on the CCF-NDP history.

United States of America

The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. Ed. by Jack P. Greene and J.R. Pole. Blackwell, Oxford 1991. xvi, 845 pp. Ill. £60.00.
In this bulky, richly illustrated volume 75 authors from all over the Western world deal with various aspects of the American Revolution. The encyclopedia deals with the international and social context of the Revolution, the events during the years 1748-1787, the impact of the changes on the American and foreign societies, and relevant politico-philisophical concepts. A large number of revolutionary biographies has been appended, as well as suggestions for further reading with every article and an extensive chronological table.

The CIO's Left-Led Unions. Ed. by Steve Rosswurm. [Class and Culture Series.] Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick [etc.] 1992. xviii, 250 pp. $17.00.
This collection of ten essays explores the history of eleven left-led unions in the United States, that were among the many left-wing unions expelled by the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) in 1949 and 1950. Some of the contributors deal with specific aspects of several unions (Bruce Nelson, Nancy Quam-Wickham, Karl Korstad, Rosemary Feurer), others deal with the impact of the anti-communism of the state (Ellen W. Schrecker) and of the Catholic Church (the editor).

COLDHAM, PETER WILSON. Emigrants in Chains. A Social History of Forced Emigration to the Americas 1607-1776. Alan Sutton, Stroud (Gloucestershire) 1992. iv, 188 pp. £14.99.
According to the author the number of British prisoners transported to America has been strongly underestimated until now. Mr Coldham estimates that some 50,000 men, women and children were deported to the American colonies in the period between 1607 (the time of the first English settlements in Virginia) and 1776. In this book he describes the very strict judicial system, which was the direct cause of the very high number of prisoners owing to its high penalties, the development of the transportation system and the fortunes of the deported prisoners, most of whom did not return to Britain.

DAWLEY, ALAN. Struggles for Justice. Social Responsibility and the Liberal State. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) 1991. xii, 538 pp. Ill. £22.25.
In the present study Dr Dawley argues that "the crux of American history from the 1890s to the 1930s was the imbalance between a bustling society and the existing liberal state". The author divides the development of this collision between state and society, between individual liberty and social justice into three stages, 1890s-1913, 1914-1924, and 1925-1938, in which, as he argues, traditional liberalism changed through progressivism and managerial liberalism to the social liberalism of Roosevelt's New Deal.

DEVLIN, GEORGE A. South Carolina and Black Migration, 1865-1940. In Search of the Promised Land. [Garland Studies in Historical Demography.] Garland Publishing, Inc., New York [etc.] 1989. vi, 403 pp. $85.00.
In this mimeographed dissertation (University of South Carolina, 1984) the author argues that black migration was an integral part of the history of the state of South Carolina in the period 1865-1940. Dr Devlin distinguishes three stages of black migration: 1865-1880, the years of self-contained migration within the state; 1880-1890, the years of migration to the American Southwest and Africa; and the final stage 1900-1940, in which period the North became the main destination. He argues that black migration caused a demographic shift from a black to a white majority in South Carolina, but that it also created a political base to improve conditions for the blacks in South Carolina.

DOWD, GREGORY EVANS. A Spirited Resistance. The North American Indian Struggle for Unity, 1745-1815. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 1991. xxvi, 261 pp. Ill. Maps. $24.95.
In this study Professor Dowd tells the story of the four principal North American Indian nations in the period 1745-1815. They came to think of themselves as a united people and launched an intertribal campaign to challenge Anglo-American expansionism. The author also describes the opposition among the American Indians to this movement of unity and argues that the ultimate failure of the Indian struggle was not so much the result of intertribal enmity, as of the division within Indian communities, colonial influence on Indian government, and the sheer force of the Anglo-American campaign.

GLICKSTEIN, JONATHAN A. Concepts of Free Labor in Antebellum America. Yale University Press, New Haven [etc.] 1991. ix, 514 pp. £32.00.
This monograph examines the views on the intrinsic character of manual labor during three decades before the Civil War, the traditions of thought that helped shape these views and the way these perceptions of various forms of manual work influenced responses to key social and political developments of the period. The author explores how industrial capitalism reinforced the perceived centuries-old division between manual and mental labor, and he examines some of the principal arguments used to justify or rationalize why the most disagreeable work was performed by the stigmatized or powerless groups: enslaved and free blacks, immigrants and women.

HABER, SAMUEL. The Quest for Authority and Honor in the American Professions, 1750-1900. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago [etc.] 1991. xiv, 478 pp. $45.95; £31.95.
This study distinguishes three stages in the development of the American professions (ministers, lawyers and doctors) (1) 1750-1830: the establishment of the British gentlemanly professions and their accompanying authority and honour in the United States by the introduction of licensing legislation, the establishment of associations and development of a gentlemanly lifestyle. (2) 1830-1880: a serious lowering in the status by the levelling impetus, arising from the vigorous growth of modern capitalist society. (3) 1880-1900, a period in which most of the traditional authority and honour of the learned professions was restored and carried into the polarized industrial world.

Keepers of the Revolution. New Yorkers at Work in the Early Republic. Ed. by Paul A. Gilje and Howard B. Rock. [DOCUMENTS in American Social History.] Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1992. xx, 288 pp. Ill. $43.95. (Paper: $16.45.)
The present book provides a collection of documents on the daily lives of ordinary New Yorkers in the early years of the United States of America (ca 1776-1830). The editors give a general introduction to New York after independence and then devote sections of the book to apprentices, journeymen, master craftsmen, waterfront workers, African Americans and women. DOCUMENTS include advertisements, courtcase testimony, newspaper reports, pamphlets, appeals to Congress, as well as autobiographies and reminiscences.

KRAUSE, PAUL. The Battle for Homestead 1880-1892. Politics, Culture, and Steel. [Pittsburgh Series in Social and Labor History.] University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh [etc.] 1992. xiv, 548 pp. Ill. $39.95. (Paper: $19.95.)
The present book describes the prehistory and the course of one of the most famous industrial conflicts in American history, the Homestead lockout, which in the end led to the Homestead Battle on 6 July 1892. The author not only presents an extensive description of the conflict itself, but also examines the backgrounds, such as the technical developments in the steel industry, which led to a monopolization in the steel industry under the leadership of Andrew Carnegie and the growth of the labour movement in the decades preceding the Homestead lockout.

MORALEY, WILLIAM. The Infortunate. The Voyage and Adventures of William Moraley, an Indentured Servant. Ed. with an Introd. and Notes by Susan E. Klepp and Billy G. Smith. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park (PA) 1992. xiv, 178 pp. Ill. Maps. $25.00. (Paper: 12.95.)
The present book is an annotated edition of the autobiography of William Moraley, an eighteenth century Englishman, who went to America in 1729 as an indentured servant and returned to England after five years. According to the editors, Moraley's account is an important source on the social history of pre-revolution America. In the introduction the editors discuss Moraley's life and the relation of his biography to contemporary literature. They also compare Moraley's life with the life and career of his famous contemporary, Benjamin Franklin.

MURPHY, TERESA ANNE. Ten Hours' Labor. Religion, Reform, and Gender in Early New England. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1992. xii, 231 pp. $32.95.
In this study of the struggle for the ten hours' labour day across the region of the New England mill towns in the 1830s and 1840s, Professor Murphy describes the different patterns of labour organizing and the important role of religion in this. She aims to show how the disccusion of moral reform provided skilled and unskilled workers with arguments with which to confront employers, and provided women with an entrée into the labour movement of the 1840s.

NADEL, STANLEY. Little Germany. Ethnicity, Religion, and Class in New York City, 1845-80. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1990. viii, 242 pp. Ill. $37.50.
In the period between 1845 and 1880 the German-speaking population of New York City's Lower East Side swelled from 33,000 to 350,000. In the present book Dr Nadel argues that Little Germany, as this ethnic enclave was commonly called, became prototypical for the large foreign-language communities that developed in American cities at the end of the nineteenth century, while describing the demographic, social, economic, and cultural history of the population of Little Germany.

STADUM, BEVERLY. Poor Women and Their Families. Hard Working Charity Cases, 1900-1930. [SUNY Series in American Labor History.] State University of New York Press, Albany 1992. xxviii, 235 pp. $16.95.
Focusing on case records of 300 women, whose families were supported by the Minneapolis charity agency between 1900 and 1930, Professor Stadum in this study describes how these women tried to cope with their situation of impoverishment, pursuing multiple strategies for survival, and playing a variety of roles: as a mother and homemaker, as a paid wage earner, as a wife and as a charity recipient.

STROM, SHARON HARTMAN. Beyond the Typewriter. Gender, Class, and the Origins of Modern American Office Work, 1900-1930. [Women in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1992. xvii, 427 pp. $42.50.
Covering the early years (1900-1930) of the modern office in the United States, when in the development of new economic and managerial structures a vast office labour force was recruited among young women with some higher eduction, Professor Strom examines working conditions and practices in this study. He focuses on the influences of scientific and personnel management on workplaces, hierarchies and the position of women. The author argues that businessmen manipulated concepts of scientific management in order to maintain male dominance and that women responded to these conditions in various ways, using their jobs as a means of pursuing friendships, education and independence.

WALKER, THOMAS J.E. Pluralistic Fraternity. The History of the International Worker's Order. [Modern American History.] Garland Publishing, Inc., New York [etc.] 1991. xi, 157 pp. $48.00.
This study aims to provide a historical and critical analysis of the International Worker's Order (IWO), a mutual aid and benefit society for over a million immigrant, first generation and native Americans, which operated from 1930 until its demise in 1954. The IWO was established by and operated under the auspices of the Communist Party of America. According to the author it was pluralistic in the sense that it represented fifteen semi-autonomous nationality groups.

WYSZKOWSKI, CHARLES. A Community in Conflict. American Jewry During the Great European Immigration. University Press of America, Lanham [etc.] 1991. xix, 363 pp. $44.50.
This study explores the views and the reactions of the English-speaking and Americanized sectors of the Jewish community, as they appeared in The American Hebrew in the years 1879-1884, 1894-1898, and 1903-1908. In these three periods, which mark three waves of immigration of Jews from Eastern Europe, the main issues were, according to this book, immigration, anti-Semitism and religious life. The author concludes that the views in The American Hebrew, the third largest Jewish weekly newspaper, were defined by the need for far-reaching assimilation and consolidation of the status quo for the Jewish minority that was already there.



BERNHARDT, KATHRYN. Rents, Taxes, and Peasant Resistance. The Lower Yangzi Region, 1840-1950. Stanford University Press, Stanford 1992. xiii, 326 pp. Maps. $37.50.
Focusing on the commercially advanced lower Yangzi region during the period 1800-1950, the author in this study examines the change in landowner-tenant and state-landowner relations. Dr Bernhardt argues that as the tax burden on the landlords increased owing to expanding levies by the state, while the rents received by landlords declined as a result of both state interference and peasant resistance, landlordism in the Yangzi region nearly collapsed, causing the destruction of the old social and political system, even before the Communist Party's rise to power.

CHAN, MING K. and ARIF DIRLIK. Schools Into Fields and Factories. Anarchists, the Guomindang, and the National Labor University in Shanghai, 1927-1932. Duke University Press, Durham [etc.] 1991. xi, 339 pp. £45.00.
This study examines the history and the historic meaning of the short-lived National Labor University in Shanghai (1927-1932). The authors set the institution within a context of anarchist social ideals and educational experiments with labour education in Europe, which the Labor University's founders used as models (e.g. the Labour University at Charleroi, Belgium, Ruskin College Oxford and Rand school of Social Sciences, New York). The authors argue that the, originally anarchist ideal of labour-learning precedes the Marxist program of the Cultural Revolution.

CHANG, SIDNEY H. and LEONARD H. D. GORDON. All Under Heaven ... Sun Yat-sen and His Revolutionary Thought. Hoover Institution Press, Stanford 1991. xvii, 253 pp. Ill. $29.95. (Paper: $20.95.)
In this intellectual biography the authors aim to present a new insight into the career of Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925) as a revolutionary activist and theorist, drawing on new archival and documentary material. In the first part Dr Cahan and Dr Gordon give a chronological account of Sun's life, in the second part they discuss his ideas. The authors focus especially on the San Min Chu I, the ideological doctrine Sun developed as a new political and economic framework for China.

DIKÖTTER, FRANK. The Discourse of Race in Modern China. Stanford University Press, Stanford 1992. xiv, 251 pp. Ill. $29.50.
The emergence of racial stereotypes in China during the nineteenth century, the gradual formation of a racial discourse at the turn of the century, the conceptualization of racial nationalism at the beginning of the 1910s, and the institutionalization and habituation of this discourse by the academic community in the 1920s and 1930s: these are the main topics that Dr Dikötter deals with in the present study. Basing himself on various sources, from Chinese academic handbooks to pamphlets and caricatures, and making comparisons with Western notions of race, he argues that the racial discourse was largely due to indigenous developments, with only a minimal relationship to Western thought.

SCHRECKER, JOHN E. The Chinese Revolution in Historical Perspective. [Contributions to the Study of World History, no. 19.] Greenwood Press, New York [etc.] 1991. xx, 240 pp. $18,95
In this general study the author aims to give a self-contained survey of the social and political history of China in the 19th and 20th centuries and at the same time he tries to relate this era of revolution to the preceding period by describing the earlier history of China. Applying the traditional Chinese concepts from the pre-1800 period fengjian and junxian to the modern period and to the Western sociopolitical system, he concludes that traditional Chinese society has erroneously been understood as static and backward as far as social politics are concerned.

SO, WAI-CHOR. The Kuomintang Left in the National Revolution 1924-1931. [East Asian Historical Monographs.] Oxford University Press, Hong Kong [etc.] 1991. xiii, 290 pp. £30.00.
This book examines the meaning and significance of the Kuomintang Left from the Reorganization of the Kuomintang in the years 1924 to 1931, when the Left stopped being a serious oppositional force to the Nationalist regime. The author argues that a Leftist alternative did exist after the party purge in 1927, when Chiang Kai-shek shed all ties with the Soviet Union and put the marxist revolutionary tendency out of action, and that this alternative would have prevented the Kuomintang regime from alienating itself from the population.

WASSERSTROM, JEFFREY N. Student Protests in Twentieth-Century China. The View from Shanghai. Stanford University Press, Stanford 1991. xi, 428 pp. Ill. 45.00.
In this study Dr Wasserstrom aims "to show how one important urban social group, Shanghai students, have experienced and helped shape the course of the Chinese Revolution". Limiting himself to two case studies of student protest movements in the Warlord era (1911-1927), and two in the Nationalist period (1927-1949), the author argues that less emphasis must be put "upon tracing the relationship between student protesters and political parties or upon analyzing the attractions of specific ideologies". This book is primarily concerned with the symbolic meaning of student protests and the process by which students were able to translate collective anger into effective collective action.


SEN, SUKOMAL. May Day and Eight Hours' Struggle in India. A Political History. K P Bagchi & Company, Calcutta [etc.] 1988. xxiv, 223 pp. Ill. Rs. 120; $ 12.00.
In the first part of the present book Mr. Sen presents a survey of the history of the eight hours' struggle in the United States, which served as an inspiration for the eight hours' struggle in India, described in part two. In the last part the author concentrates on the history of the observance of May Day in India, where it did not become an official holiday until 1947.

Social Reform Movements in India. A Historical Perspective. Ed. by V.D. Divekar. In collab. with G.T. Kulkarni and M.R. Kantak. Popular Prakashan, Bombay 1991. xxi, 119 pp. Rs. 150.00.
This book is a collection of eight articles on social reform and social reform movements in the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries, which were originally presented at a seminar in May 1986. The history of social reform in several parts of India is dealt with, such as that in Bengal (B. Debroy) and Karnataka (K. Shripati Shastry), as well as the history of specific movements. One article treats the issue of women and social reform (Kumud Pore).


NEAR, HENRY. The Kibbutz Movement. A History. Vol. I. Origins and Growth, 1909-1939. [Littman Library of Jewish Civilization.] Oxford University Press, Oxford 1992. xviii, 431 pp. Ill. £55.00.
In this first volume of a two-volume work the author, a member of a Kibbutz himself, covers the beginning period of the Kibbutz movement, 1909-1939, analyzing the political, economic and social development of the Kibbutz movement, as well as the youth movements from which the kibbutz members came. Dr Near pays special attention to the development of the kibbutz community as such and has added excerpts from historical sources to give an insight into the changing quality of kibbutz life as experienced by its members.


LEUPP, GARY P. Servants, Shophands, and Laborers in the Cities of Tokugawa Japan. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1992. xiii, 237 pp. $29.95; £22.50.
Professor Leupp analyses the emergence of an urban proletariat in Tokugawa Japan (1603-1868), a period of great economic change, when traditional corvée and hereditary workers were more and more replaced by contracted or hired workers. The author argues that as class relations were gradually expressed in money, employers and employees dealt with each other on increasingly hostile terms, and that therefore the government began regulating these class regulations in a way very similar to that in which early modern European governments did.


PETEET, JULIE M. Gender in Crisis: Women and the Palestinian Resistance Movement. Columbia University Press, New York 1991. x, 245 pp. $16.00.
In the present study the author explores the role of politically active Palestinian women in the Palestinian resistance movement in Lebanon in the period from 1968 through 1982. Ms Peteet examines what role the women played in the process of developing a culture of resistance in the Palestinian exile society in Lebanon and discusses how this changed the relations between men and women.


Syria. Society, Culture, and Polity. Ed. by Richard T. Antoun and Donald Quataert. [SUNY Series in Middle Eastern Studies.] State University of New York Press, Albany 1991. xxi, 165 pp. $44.95. (Paper: $14.95.)
The present volume offers a multi-disciplinary survey of the social, political and cultural developments in Syria in the last few decades. In seven contributions political scientists, anthropologists, historians and literateurs cover a variety of subjects, such as the political culture, the relationship between class and state under the Ba'th regime, religious ideology, land reform, emancipation of women, and the relationship between Syria and the Soviet Union.



GILDING, MICHAEL. The making and breaking of the Australian family. Allen & Unwin, North Sydney 1991. x, 171 pp. Ill. A$17.95.
This study, a revised doctoral thesis (Macquarie University, 1984) considers the Australian family as a product of both regulation from above and improvisation from below. The history of the Australian family is described by exploring the construction of the key components in the ordering of the postwar family. In the final chapter the results for the post-war era are explored, including the decline of the "traditional" family from the 1970s onward, leading to a great variety of household forms.

TRIGGER, DAVID S. Whitefella comin'. Aboriginal responses to colonialism in northern Australia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1992. xiv, 250 pp. Ill. Maps. £30.00; $59.95.
In this historical and ethnographic study the author analyses the responses of Aboriginal people to the intrusion of white Australians in Doomadgee, a Queensland settlement administered by the Brethren missionaries from 1903 until 1983. Dr Trigger examines the incorporation of the Aboriginals into the pastoral industry and their reactions to both the authoritarianism and paternalism of Christian missionaries and to the influence of government policies and administrative practices.


BRACEWELL, CATHERINE WENDY. The Uskoks of Senj. Piracy, Banditry, and Holy War in the Sixteenth-Century Adriatic. Cornell University, Ithaca [etc.] 1992. xiv, 329 pp. Ill. Maps. $49.50.
The uskoks of Senj were infamous martial bands, active in Croatia in the period between the 1530s and the 1620s, raiding the Ottoman hinterland, the Venetian possessions in Dalmatia and the shipping on the Adriatic. The present book deals with the uskoks as a social phenomenon, paying attention to their origins, their military and social organization, their plunder economy, their mental world and their relations with other groups in the region. Dr Bracewell explains the success of the uskoks from their functioning as an outlet for popular protest, among other factors.

MAYER, ARNO J. Why Did the Heavens Not Darken? The "Final Solution" in History. Verso, London [etc.] 1990. xvii, 508 pp. £39.95. (Paper: £12.95.)
In his controversial new study Professor Mayer argues that although Hitler was always viciously anti-Semitic, the genocide, or Judeocide as Mayer says, was no part of his plan from the start, but was triggered by the foundering of the Nazis' massive campaign against Russia. According to Professor Mayer, anti-Bolshevism was closely linked to anti-semitism. Mayer sets the Judeocide in its historical context by examining both the prewar political situation in Europe and some analogous events in the distant past.


KONRAD, HELMUT [und] MANFRED LECHNER. "Millionenverwechslung": Franz Olah, Die Kronenzeitung, Geheimdienste. Böhlau Verlag, Wien [etc.] 1992. 203 pp. S 178.80.
In this collection of two studies the authors attempt to characterize post-war Austrian political history by means of case studies of two projects, that took place in the grey zone of politics during the period 1953-1964: the Sonderprojekt, in which under cover of a timber yard an anti-communist para-military organisation was set up, and the Kronen-Zeitung, in which through the reestablishment of a newspaper anti-leftwing propaganda was circulated. In both projects a key figure of Austrian politics, Franz Olah, chairman of the ÖGB (Austrian Trade Union Confederation), played a major role. Although Olah was tried for his illegal activities and sentenced to a year in prison, his action was characteristic for the political climate in Austria, according to the authors.


Arbejderhistorie i Danmark. En litteraturoversigt. Udarbejdet af Jens Erik Kofoed Pedersen. [ABAs bibliografiske serie, 8.] Arbejderbevægelsens Bibliotek og Arkiv, København 1992. 42 pp. (Available free of charge.)
This bibliography, a publication of the Arbejderbevægelsens Bibliothek og Arkiv, Copenhagen, presents a survey of recent literature (from the early 1970s) in the field of the history of the labour movement in Denmark.


BRÉCY, ROBERT. La Chanson de la Commune. Chansons et poèmes inspirés par la Commune de 1871. Editions Ouvrières, Paris 1991. 275, xxxi pp. Ill. F.fr. 350.00.
The present, richly illustrated, book contains a large collection of songs and poems that are all related to the events in France during the Second Empire, the Franco-German War of 1870, the siege of Paris and the Commune of 1871 and its aftermath. The work of well-known poets, such as Eugène Pottier, Louise Michel and Jean-Baptiste Clément, as well as the work of less famous poets are set in their historical context by the author, an authority on the Commune, who also provides a historical introduction.

BRIDGFORD, JEFF. The Politics of French Trade Unionism. Party--union relations at the time of the Union of the Left. Leicester University Press, Leicester [etc.] 1991. ix, 196 pp. £35.00.
This book examines the relations in France in the 1970s between trade union confederations (Confédération Générale du Travail and Confédération Français Démocratique du Travail) and the poltical parties of the Union of the left (Parti Socialiste and Parti Communiste Français). The author argues that despite formal statements of autonomy, there are functional and personnel linkages, which established patterns of dependance and influence between trade unions and political parties. The study concentrates on the forms these relations took and on their consequences for trade unionism and industrial relations.

CLOUET, STEPHANE. De la rénovation à l'utopie socialistes. Révolution constructive, un groupe d'intellectuels socialistes des années 1930. Presses Universitaires de Nancy, Nancy 1991. 249 pp. Ill. Maps. F.fr. 190.00.
This doctoral thesis (Nancy, 1991) provides a collective biography of a group of eleven young socialist intellectuals, called Révolution constructive, which was active within the French socialist party, the S.F.I.O., and the trade union movement, the C.G.T., between 1928 and 1935. Among the best known were Pierre Dreyfus, Claude Lévi-Strauss and Robert Marjolin. According to Dr Clouet, this group, inspired by the historian G. Lefranc, tried to renew French socialism in the direction of a third way between capitalism and communism, based on planisme.

CORBIN, ALAIN. Le Temps, le Désir et l'Horreur. Essais sur le dix-neuvième siècle. [Collection Historique.] Aubier, Paris 1991. 247 pp. F.fr. 108.00.
In this collection of thirteen essays, all published before between 1985 and 1990, Professor Corbin deals with a wide range of topics, concerning the history of mentality and daily life in nineteenth-century France. Topics included are, inter alia, the arithmetic of the days in the nineteenth century, the nineteenth century as "the great age of laundry", the bad education of prostitutes in the nineteenth century, the hereditary form of syphilis or the impossibility of redemption, the little bible of young spouses and reflections on the genealogy of the image of Paris.

HUNT, LYNN. The Family Romance of the French Revolution. Routledge, London 1992. xvi, 213 pp. Ill. £19.99.
In this study Professor Hunt uses "family romance", an originally Freudian term, describing the fantasy of being freed from one's family and belonging to one of higher social standing, in a much broader social and cultural context to analyze the collective, unconscious images of the familial order that underlie, according to the author, the revolutionary policies during the French Revolution. She uses a wide variety of source material: novels, engravings, paintings, speeches, newspaper editorials, pornographic writing and revolutionary legislation about the family.

Die Karikatur zwischen Republik und Zensur. Bildsatire in Frankreich 1830 bis 1880 - eine Sprache des Widerstands? Hrsg. und Red.: Raimund Rütten, Ruth Jung, Gerhard Schneider, unter Mitarb. von Gerhard Landes, Dieter Schmidt und Bernd Wilczek. Jonas Verlag, Marburg 1991. 502 pp. Ill. DM 86.00.
This large and richly illustrated volume contains the contributions to a colloquium held in May 1988 at the University of Frankfurt on the specificity, effectiveness and influence of the political cartoon in France between 1830 and 1880. In three chronologically defined sections 35 authors treat a wide variety of themes and subjects concerning the history of the political cartoon, such as iconographic tradition and social change, diversity and limitations of the political cartoon, and the standard bearer in the iconography of the Paris Commune.

McCONNELL, SCOTT. Leftward Journey. The Education of Vietnamese Students in France 1919-1939. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick [etc.] 1988. xix, 195 pp. £26.95.
In this revision of his doctoral thesis (Columbia University) the author examines the causes and consequences of the Vietnamese student migration to France after 1918. According to the author, the influence of Communism on the Vietnamese students was greater than that of any other political movement. Dr McConnell mentions three causes for this. First, the indecision of the French government in developing a political alternative for the colonial system in Vietnam; second, the social and cultural development of the Vietnamese students during their stay in France; and third, the success of the Communists in developing an anti-colonial strategy that fitted in with the experience of the migrant students.

War and Society in Twentieth-Century France. Ed. by Michael Scriven and Peter Wagstaff. Berg, New York [etc.] 1991; distr. excl. in the US and Canada by St. Martin's Press, New York. xii, 304 pp. Ill. £40.00.
This collection of sixteen essays aims to give insight into the different ways in which war has been experienced by the French nation in this century. The essays offer a variety of historical contexts and differing ideological and methodological perspectives. They are grouped in 7 parts: "the French people at war (1914-1945)", "resistance and collaboration", "war, the military and the state", "social control and the art of persuasion", "the language and discourse of war", "internecine war".


BRUER, ALBERT A. Geschichte der Juden in Preußen (1750-1820). Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1991. 531 pp. DM 78.00.
In the present doctoral thesis (Munich, 1989) the author describes the years 1750-1820 as a period of transition for Prussia as a whole and for the Prussian Jews. Dr Bruer describes how under the influence of new Bildungsideale and educational principles the jewish minority itself initiated more far-reaching assimilation while the liberal Bürgertum introduced substantial reforms, which implied greater freedom for the entire Jewish population in Prussia and finally led to the Emanzipationsedikt in 1812 and bürgerliche Gleichberechtigung. After the collapse of the old Prussia as a result of the war with Napoleon the conservative reaction tried in vain to reverse the freedom acquired. Dr Bruer argues that besides positive reactions to the emancipation of the Jewish minority there also were negative ones based on principle, such as e.g. from the side of well known philosophers like Kant and Fichte.

WEERTH, GEORG. Sämtliche Briefe. Hrsg. und eingel. von Jürgen-Wolfgang Goette unter Mitw. von Jan Gielkens. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1989. 1055 pp. (in 2 vols). Ill. DM 248.00.
These two volumes contain the complete collection of 491 letters of and (partly shortened) letters to Georg Weerth (1822-1856), who was described by Friedrich Engels as the first and most important poet of the German proletariat. Weerth was a friend of Marx and Engels and a serial editor of the Neue Rheinische Zeitung in the years 1848 and 1849, before he returned to his initial occupation of travelling salesman, which brought him to Central and South America several times. According to the editor Weerth's letters offer a very well written beginning of the literature on the social problems of industrialisation.

WEINSTEIN, JOAN. The End of Expressionism. Art and the November Revolution in Germany, 1918-19. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago [etc.] 1990. xiv, 332 pp. Ill. $39.95.
The present book describes how a group of expressionist artists, among them painters like Pechstein, Rottluf, Klee, architects like Taut and Gropius, and graphic artists like Felixmüller and Dix, embraced the revolution in Germany in November 1918, hoping to make an important contribution to that revolution through their art and, at the same time, to change the social position of art and art production. The author describes the organizations they created following the revolutionary workers' and soldiers' councils, and argues that the disillusionment of these artists with the failure of the revolution marked the end of expressionism as a movement.

WEISSMANN, KARLHEINZ. Schwarze Fahnen, Runenzeichen. Die Entwicklung der politischen Symbolik der deutschen Rechten zwischen 1890 und 1945. Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 1991. iv, 344 pp. Ill. DM 54.00.
This dissertation (Brunswick, 1989) on the development of political symbolism of the German right between 1890 and 1945 defines the political symbol not only as a means of communication, but also as an expression of collective experiences and mentalities. The author argues that political symbolism acquired this double function around 1890, when the revolutionary myth of progressive liberalism was replaced by a myth of conservative nationalism, especially in the popular right-wing movement in Germany. According to Dr Weißmann the success of the nazi propaganda was based on their ability to use this new function of the political symbol in an effective manner.

Great Britain

BERGHOFF, HARTMUT. Englische Unternehmer 1870-1914. Eine Kollektivbiographie führender Wirtschaftsbürger in Birmingham, Bristol und Manchester. [Bürgertum, Band 2.] Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1991. 387 pp. DM 96.00.
The aim of this dissertation (Bielefeld, 1990) is to provide a representative collective biography of the leading citizens in the economic field in Birmingham, Bristol and Manchester during the period 1870-1914, witn the purpose of making an evaluation of the development of the British economy in this period. The thesis of an "entrepreneurial decline", which would have been caused by the gentrification of the British entrepreneurs, is, according to Dr Berghoff, largely falsified by the findings of prosopography.

BIAGINI, EUGENIO F. Liberty, Retrenchment and Reform. Popular Liberalism in the Age of Gladstone, 1860-1880. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1992. xii, 476 pp. Ill. £45.00; $74.95.)
The present book sets out to give a new explanation of the large popular support for the Liberal Party in the period between 1860 and 1880. In contrast with the "labour aristocracy"-theory, the author explains the popular support from the convincing solutions to some of the important problems of the time that the Liberal programme offered. Dr Biagini examines Liberal attitudes towards issues of social and economic reform, and the interaction between the party and its supporters in these matters, while focusing on the interrelation between rational arguments and emotional factors, taking as an example the theme of democratic "Reform".

BOYER, GEORGE R. An Economic History of the English Poor Law 1750-1850. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1990. xiii, 297 pp. £27.50.
The present study examines the economic role played by the English Poor Law during the period 1750 to 1850. It focuses on the development and persistence of policies providing relief outside workhouses to unemployed and underemployed able-bodied labourers, and the effect of such policies on the rural labour market, wages, profits, birth rates and migration. Professor Boyer shows that outdoor relief payments to unemployed labourers were an integral part of farmers' cost-minimizing labour contracts in the grain-producing southeast of England.

BUCHANAN, TOM. The Spanish Civil War and the British Labour Movement. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1991. xvii, 250 pp. £25.00.
Whereas there are several studies on the reaction of the Labour Party to the Spanish Civil War, this is the first detailed study on this subject. Dr Buchanan bases himself partly on previously unavailable TUC archives. In his findings the author challenges the prevailing view that the labour leadership betrayed the Spanish Republic and that this polarized the movement along 'left' versus 'right' lines. Instead, he argues that the overriding concern of the major leaders was to defend labour's institutional interests against political destabilisation and that this policy was in line with the ideas of the party's majority.

CLARKE, LINDA. Building Capitalism. Historical change and the labour process in the production of the built environment. Routledge, London [etc.] 1992. xv, 316 pp. Ill. Maps. £65.00. (Paper: £19.99.)
Drawing from a wide range of original material relating to London from the mid-eighteenth to the early nineteenth centuries the author provides a description of the developments in the building sector in London, focusing on the new working class community of Somers Town. Dr Clarke argues that changes in the built environment reflect changes in the production process and, in particular, the development of wage labour, and that from the mid-eighteenth century onward these developments mark the transition from artisanal to industrial, capitalist production.

DAVIES, A. J. To Build a New Jerusalem. The British Labour Movement from the 1880s to the 1990s. Michael Joseph, London 1992. vii, 344 pp. Ill. £18.99.
Mr Davies, a former librarian of the Karl Marx Memorial Library and a tutor in adult education, in this handbook provides a chronological survey of the political history of the British labour movement from the 1880s to the 1990s. It is intended especially for the general reader. In his final chapter, in which he discusses the perspectives for Labour in the future, the author argues that the Labour Party should break with "labourism", the typically British tradition of strong trade union influence on the political branch of the labour movement, if it is to have any future at all.

DEVINE, FIONA. Affluent Workers Revisited. Privatism and the Working Class. [Edinburgh Education and Society Series.] Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 1992. vi, 234 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £14.95.)
This book aims to give a qualitative re-evaluation of the Affluent Worker study (1968) by John Goldthorpe and others, a critical case study of the embourgeoisement thesis, based on interviews with manual workers and their wives in Luton, Great Britain. In her re-study the author suggests that, contrary to the predictions of the 1968 study, working-class lifestyles have neither become exclusively family-centred, nor entirely home-centred. Dr Devine concludes that aspirations for material wellbeing form a crucial component of collective working-class identity, as well as criticism of trade unions and the Labour Party for their failure to change the distribution of resources in Britain.

DEVINE, T.M. The Great Highland Famine. Hunger, Emigration and the Scottish Highlands in the Nineteenth Century. Research Assistant: Willie Orr. John Donald Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh 1992. xviii, 349 pp. £20.00.
Although the Highland famine (1846-1855) did not have the same horrendous immediate effect on death rates as the Great Famine in Ireland, the term famine is correct, according to the present book, because of the momentous demographic and social consequences of the potato crop failure in the years 1846-1855. In the first part the author identifies the origins, nature and demographic effects of the crisis. The second part examines the varied responses of landlords government, lowland charities and the people themselves to the emergency, whereas in the last part the pattern of emigration and migration, the forces that shaped the outward movement and the impact of the famine on the development of Highland society in the medium and long terms are described.

DUPUIS, SERGE. Robert Owen. Socialiste utopique 1771-1858. [Sciences sociales.] Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris 1991. v, 361 pp. F.fr. 150.00.
This biography is the first larger biography of Robert Owen in French since Edouard Dolléans' Robert Owen: 1771-1858 (1905). The book is divided into three parts: the sources of and influences on Owen's ideas and work; the new social system he developed in New Lanark (1800-1824) and his utopian search (1824-1858). The aim of this study is to show to what extent Owenism springs from ideas current in his time and how he influenced later scientific and revolutionary socialism, as well.

KAY, DIANA and ROBERT MILES. Refugees or Migrant Workers? European Volunteer Workers in Britain 1946-1951. [Critical studies in racism and migration.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1992. vi, 229 pp. £40.00.
Between 1946 and 1949 some 80,000 men and women were recruited from the Displaced Persons camps in Germany and Austria to work in Britain; this came to be known as the European Volunteer Worker (EVW) scheme. In this history and analysis of the EVW scheme the authors examine the British government policy and the responses of the trade union movement. They argue that the scheme marked the intervention of the state into the organization of the domestic labour market, and that maintaining a special and subordinate position of the EVW in the workforce reinforced existing national, racial and sexual divisions.

KNOWLES, CAROLINE. Race, Discourse and Labourism. Routledge, London 1992. xii, 206 pp. £40.00.
This study deals with the development of Labour politics towards race relations, racial tension and racial inequality, from the 1930s onward. The author applies the analytical techniques of Foucauldian discourse analysis to explore the race concept of Labourism. She concludes that despite Labour's conception of social justice, the Labour Party has not only tolerated racial inequality and racist practices, but actually has given direction to it.

Liberty Secured? Britain Before and After 1688. Ed. by J.R. Jones. [The Making of Modern Freedom.] Stanford University Press, Stanford 1992. xi, 407 pp. $42.50.
In the present collection the Revolution of 1688-1689 is considered an important stage in the processes of change affecting all aspects of British life in the last decades of the seventeenth century. Included are, inter alia, a contribution on the comparison of English and Dutch liberties (by the editor), two contributions on the 1689 convention (Howard Nenner and John Miller), and two contributions on the consequences of the Revolution for the freedom of the press (Lois G. Schwoerer and G.C. Gibbs), and for religious liberty (Gordon J. Schochet and R.K. Webb).

NEAVE, DAVID. Aid in the Victorian Countryside: Friendly Societies in the Rural East Riding 1830-1914. [Monograph in Economic and Social History.] Hull University Press, Hull 1991. x, 168 pp. £7.50.
On the basis of his study of the region of the East Riding the author concludes that affiliated orders of friendly societies in the Victorian Age (1830-1914) played a much larger role in the rural communities than was assumed up to now, its membership covering just under half the grown male population, which makes them the major form of organization of labourers, both urban and rural. Dr Neave's findings show that the benefits members received were by no means insignificant and that the societies played an important role in the development of a clearly distinguishable rural working class culture.

SIMEY, MARGARET. Charity Rediscovered. A Study of Philanthropic Effort in Nineteenth-Century Liverpool. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool 1992. ix, 150 pp. £8.50.
This book is a reprint of Charitable effort in Liverpool in the nineteenth century, which was first published in 1951. In this study, charity in Liverpool is not only seen as "good works", but as a remarkable response of a developing urban society to the demands made upon it by rapid growth and change, transforming the concept of relief of poverty as a moral option for the individual to that of a collective responsibility for the welfare of the community as a whole. The author added a new preface to this reprint, in which she argues that the relevance of this study is now more compelling than ever, in the light of the crisis of the modern Welfare State.


BURAWOY, MICHAEL and JANOS LUKACS. The Radiant Past. Ideology and Reality in Hungary's Road to Capitalism. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1992. xvi, 215 pp. $24.95.
The Radiant Past, a banter of A. Zinoviev's The Radiant Future on the one hand contains a comparison of the industrial enterprise, especially at the level of the shopfloor, under state socialism and capitalism. In addition it presents an analysis of the Hungarian economic developments in the 1980s. The book contains many thought provoking observations especially by Burawoy, who worked as a labourer in Hungarian factories several times and learnt Hungarian for this purpose. Nonetheless, the material presented only partly supports the overall interpretation.


ZAPPI, ELDA GENTILI. If Eight Hours Seem Too Few. Mobilization of Women Workers in the Italian Rice Fields. [SUNY Series on Women and Work.] State University of New York Press, Albany 1991. xiv, 396 pp. Ill. $19.95.
This study describes the history of the mobilization of the mondariso, the women weeders in the rice fields in the Po valley, 1861-1916, who from 1901 onwards were mobilized by the Socialist Party. The book focuses on the conditions under which the mobilization took place and the specific forms this took as a consequence of conditions prevailing in pre-World War I Italy, the role of gender and the role of and the interactions among the government, the Socialist Party, workers' and employers' organizations.

The Netherlands

PELT, WILHELMUS FRANCISCUS STANISLAUS. Vrede door Revolutie. De CPN tijdens het Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (1939-1941). SDU Uitgeverij, 's-Gravenhage 1990. 398 pp. Ill. D.fl. 62.50.
In the present dissertation (University of Amsterdam, 1990) the policies of the Dutch communist party (CPN) and their relation to the Comintern policies in the period between the Molotov-Von Ribbentrop Pact in 1939 and Hitler's attack on the Soviet Union in 1941 are examined and compared to the policies of other communist parties in Europe. The author concludes that the CPN, under the leadership of Paul de Groot, followed a relatively autonomous course, which enabled the party to play a major role in the Dutch resistance, and that this period, although one of the most difficult, was also the most glorious for the CPN.


MARTINSON, FLOYD M. Growing Up in Norway, 800 to 1990. With a Foreword by Per Egil Mjaavatn. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbonsdale [etc.] 1992. xiii, 246 pp. $29.95.
This book provides an ethnographic study of the everyday life of children in Norway from the ninth century to the last decade of the twentieth century. Professor Martinson discusses five views on children that have influenced the lives of Norwegian children through the ages: as property of their family, as participants in economic and social life, as inherently evil creatures, as incomplete adults and as citizens with freedoms and rights. He describes how in the twentieth century the care and supervision of children, once the sole responsibility of the family, has become a public concern.


CUNHA, CARLOS A. The Portuguese Communist Party's Strategy for Power, 1921-1986. [Modern European History.] Garland Publishing, Inc., New York [etc.] 1992. xx, 411 pp. $89.00.
Contrary to the Eurocommunist parties in Italy, France and Spain, the Portuguese Communist Party (PCP) has hardly been the subject of serious study. After a general discussion of the theoretical literature on political parties and an introduction to the Portuguese political system, Dr Cunha presents a concise description of the development of the PCP from the 1920s until 1974. He then pays extensive attention to the events during the revolution of 1974.

Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

SINYAVSKY, ANDREI. Soviet Civilization. A Cultural History. Transl. from the Russian by Joanne Turnbull, with the ass. of Nikolai Formozov. Arcade Publishing, New York 1990. xii, 291 pp. $24.95.
This book is a literary history of the Soviet Union in two senses: it is written by a (dissident) Russian novelist and it looks at Soviet civilization through the eyes of Soviet literature. Mr Sinyavsky uses a broad definition of civilization, including a way of life, a psychology, a regime and politics, exploring "not so much the history of Soviet civilization as the theory and even what I might call the metaphysics". In an author's note for this English edition Mr Sinyavsky expresses his scepticism concerning the most recent changes in Russia.
STITES, RICHARD. Russian popular culture, entertainment and society since 1900. [Cambridge Soviet Paperbacks, 7.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1992. xvii, 269 pp. Ill. £30.00 (Paper: £9.95); $14.95.
This study aims to cover the history of Russian popular culture from 1900 onward, focusing on the entertainment arts and their consumers. This includes detective and science fiction reading, popular songs, jokes, movies, the stage, radio and television. Professor Stites argues that there are two factors peculiar to Russian popular culture: the impact of political forces (i.e. the Revolution of 1917 and Stalinism), and its relative conservatism and homogeneity.

Women and Society in Russia and the Soviet Union. Ed. by Linda Edmondson. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1992. ix, 233 pp. £35.00; $54.95.
Spanning the last decades of tsarist Russia, the 1917 revolutions and the Soviet period, this volume aims to demonstrate the diversity of recent research on women and gender relations in Russia and the Soviet Union. Included are, inter alia, a contribution on representations of women in Russian popular entertainments, 1870-1910 (by Catriona Kelly), "Women's rights, civil rights and the debate over citizenship in the 1905 Revolution" (Linda Edmondson), a contribution on prostitution in post-revolutionary Russia (by Elizabeth Waters) and "Glasnost and the woman question" (by Mary Buckley).

WYNN, CHARTERS. Workers, Strikes, and Pogroms. The Donbass-Dnepr Bend in Late Imperial Russia, 1870-1905. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1992. xv, 289 pp. Ill. $39.50; £30.00.
In this study of the working class and labour movement in Russia's primary steel and mining region between 1870 and 1905 Professor Wynn argues that apart from being a revolutionary force of importance (which is the prevailing historiographical image) the working class of the Donbass-Dnepr Bend was at the same time dangerously reactionary, committing devastating pogrom-like attacks on Jews, radical students and artisans. Focusing on the masses of young, unskilled workers (rather than on the elite of labour-movement and revolutionary leaders) the author finds traces of this "low consciousness" and ethnic rivalries in the violent frontier culture of this region.


ACKELSBERG, MARTHA A. Free Women of Spain. Anarchism and the Struggle for the Emancipation of Women. Indiana University Press, Bloomington [etc.] 1991. xvi, 229 pp. Ill. $39.95. (Paper: $14.95.)
This study deals with the history and significance of the Mujeres Libres, an organization founded in 1936 by groups of women in Madrid and Barcelona, dedicated to the liberation of women from "their triple enslavement to ignorance, as women, and as producers". The organization is set in the context of anarcho-syndicalist and communalist anarchist theory and practice. The founding and development is described against the historical background of the anarchist movement as a whole.

SHUBERT, ADRIAN. A Social History of Modern Spain. Unwin Hyman, London [etc.] 1990. x, 292 pp. Maps. £35.00. (Paper: £12.95.)
Covering the period from the Napoleonic invasion in 1808 to the victory of the Socialist Party in the 1982 elections, and treating a large range of subjects, this study aims to clarify the social background to what the author takes to be the two central events of modern Spanish history: the Civil War of 1936-1939 and the democratic transition of 1975-1982. According to Dr Shubert Spain was not so much an exception as is commonly argued by political historians, but was in the mainstream of European history.

ZIRAKZADEH, CYRUS ERNESTO. A Rebellious People. Basques, Protests, and Politics. University of Nevada Press, Reno [etc.] 1991. xii, 260 pp. $29.75.
This book is a reinterpretation of the evolution of Basque political violence since the late 1960s. According to Dr Zirakzadeh, the standard explanation based upon the modernization theory views Basque political violence primarily in terms of cultural disruption and anxiety, caused by sudden changes of a traditional, (semi-)rural society. The author argues that this should be complemented by emphasizing the existence of economic problems, the indirect effects of other, largely nonviolent local political and social struggles and the informing role of formal ideologies, to understand all characteristics of the ETA violence since the 1960s.


ZOPFI, EMIL. Die Fabrikglocke. Vom Aufstand der Glarner Stoffdrucker gegen die Zeit. Limmat Verlag Genossenschaft, Zürich 1991. 277 pp. S.fr. 34.00.
In the form of a historical reportage this book presents a "factionalized" account of the first strike in the history of Switzerland. On February 21th, 1837, the workers of the textile printing factory Egidius Trümpy in Glarus left the factory building and gathered on the street. Reason for this strike was the introduction of a time clock. According to the author the introduction of the time clock symbolizes the employer's seizing power over the time of the worker and the strike thus marks the first occasion that the Swiss labour movement formulates its classical demands for control over working hours and wages.