Volume 38 part 3 (1993)


General Issues
Continents and Countries

Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.

General Issues


Brocker, Manfred. Arbeit und Eigentum. Der Paradigmenwechsel in der neuzeitlichen Eigentumstheorie. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1992. xii, 622 pp. DM 86.00.
This doctoral thesis (Cologne, 1990) examines the problem that is still alive in the philosphy of law of how private property can be legitimized and from which normative suppositions it can be derived. The author's aim is to make the historical analysis of this problem applicable to the contemporary (e.g. constitutional) discussions about the roots of private property. Dr Brocker focuses on John Locke's labour theory of property, which still serves as a basis for the laws of property today and he sets out to show why this theory is no longer tenable and how private property can be legitimized and put on a different theoretical legal foundation.

The Cambridge Companion to Marx. Ed. by Terrell Carver. [Cambridge Companions.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1991. xiii, 357 pp. £12.95; $17.95.
This is the first of a series of "companions" to major philosophers to be published in the next few years. Apart from a substantial bibliography based on current debates, this collection of thirteen contributions provides a comprehensive coverage of the major areas of Marx's work: inter alia political philosophy (Alan Gilbert), moral philosophy (Jeffrey Reiman), aesthetics (William Adams), logic (Lawrence Wilde), and the philosophy of science (James Farr), history (Terence Ball) and religion (Denys Turner). Special attention is paid to challenges to Marx's thought from feminism (Susan Himmelweit) and gender theory (Jeff Hearn).

Elliott, Anthony. Social Theory and Psychoanalysis in Transition. Self and Society from Freud to Kristeva. Blackwell, Oxford [etc.] 1992. vii, 278 pp. £12.95.
Based on a reconsideration of the importance of Freud for social and political theory, Dr Elliot analyses and criticizes the leading theories in social and psychoanalytic thought (inter alia Adorno, Althusser, Castoriadis, Habermas, Lacan, Laclau, Marcuse). On this basis he formulates the outlines of a new theoretical view on the relationship between the self and society, arguing for the importance of the imaginary and the unconscious as key concepts through which issues about the self and self-identity, ideology and power, sexual difference and gender, should be understood.

Frontiers in Social Movement Theory. Ed. by Aldon D. Morris and Carol McClurg Mueller. Yale University Press, New Haven [etc.] 1992. xii, 382 pp. $50.00; £30.00. (Paper: $20.00; £11.50.)
In the 1970s the theory of "resource mobilization", as developed by John McCarty and Mayer Zald, William Gamson, Anthony Oberschall and Charles Tilly became dominant in sociological social-movement research. The present collection of fifteen essays, based on a conference held at the University of Michigan in 1988, discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the new approach. Attention is paid especially to the construction of meaning, consciousness, symbols and collective identities.

Harris, Richard L. Marxism, Socialism, and Democracy in Latin America. [Latin American Perspectives Series.] Westview Press, Boulder [etc.] 1992. xiii, 234 pp. $42.95. (Paper: $16.95.)
The Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, established in 1964 by Richard Hoggart, and, since 1969 for many years under the leadership of Stuart Hall, has become well known internationally as a result of its innovating studies of present-day (British) culture. In this book the achievements, strengths and weaknesses of the "gramscianism" supported by the centre are studied more or less systematically. Dr Harris recognizes many merits, but he also points out the inclination "to close off its investigations of social reality".

Müller, Hans-Peter. Karl Marx über Maschinerie, Kapital und industrielle Revolution. Exzerpte und Manuskriptentwürfe 1851-1861. [Studien zur Sozialwissenschaft, Band 80.] Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen 1992. xvi, 434 pp. DM 86.00.
The core of this book consists of an historically critical edition of so far unpublished excerpts and manuscripts of Marx from the period 1851-1861. Preceding these the editor presents a very extensive sketch of the intellectual context, within which the texts are to be situated, and gives an interpretation, focusing on the concepts "industrial revolution" and "machinery".

Open Marxism. Ed. by Werner Bonefeld, Richard Gunn and Kosmas Psychopedis. Vol. I. Dialectics and History. Vol. II. Theory and Practice. Pluto Press, London [etc.] 1992. xx, 179 pp.; xviii, 172 pp. £35.00; 35.00; (Paper £12.95; 12.95.)
The ten essays in these two volumes defend an anti-causalist and anti-teleological "open Marxism", which, according to the editors, "offers to conceptualise the contradictions internal to domination itself". Contributions include "Between Philosophy and Science: Marxian Social Economy as Critical Theory" (Hans-Georg Backhaus), "The Bourgeois State Form Revisited" (Heide Gerstenberger), "Against Historical Materialism: Marxism as First-Order Discourse" (Richard Gunn) and "Crisis, Fetishism, Class Composition" (John Holloway).

Other histories. Ed. by Kirsten Hastrup. [European Association of Social Anthropologists.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1992. viii, 133 pp. £9.99.
Using historical and ethnographic material, the seven contributors to this book focus on the historical scene in Europe to show how cultural concepts act as forces of historical causation, starting from the assumption that "the uniqueness and the unity of European history must be dismantled" because "[in] Europe as elsewhere there is a multiplicity of histories". Among the themes dealt with are: pagan survivals in European culture (João de Pina-Cabral), the Corsican system of blood revenge (Anne Knudsen) and Icelandic collective representations of the world (Kirsten Hastrup).

Picchio, Antonella. Social reproduction: the political economy of the labour market. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1992. xii, 193 pp. £30.00.
The present book focuses on the relationship between the process of production and the process of social reproduction of the labouring population. It aims to restore that relationship to the central place it had in the economic analyses of Smith, Ricardo and Marx. Thus, Professor Picchio's argument is directly opposed to those political economists who explain the hight of wages from the supply-and-demand mechanism and thus obscure important exogeneous aspects - in particular the role of the state in the process of social reproduction and women's work of reproduction. According to the author, an examination of the British Poor Law report of 1909 and of the women's labour market in several European countries shows that what thus disappeared from theory remained crucial for economic policy.

Racism, the City and the State. Ed. by Malcolm Cross and Michael Keith. Routledge, London [etc.] 1993. viii, 234 pp. £13.99.
Bringing together authors addressing urban social theory, contemporary cultural change and the analysis of racial subordination, this volume aims to demonstrate that the city provides the institutional framework for racial segregation. The book contains twelve contributions on, inter alia, "The postmodern city and the social construction of ethnicity in California" (Michael Peter Smith and Bernadette Tarallo), "Migration and the racialization of the postmodern city in France" (Sophie Body-Gendrot), "Residential segregation and the politics of racialization" (Susan J. Smith) and "Aspects of nationalism and black identities in post-imperial Britain" (Harry Goulbourne).

Reexamining Democracy. Essays in Honor of Seymour Martin Lipset. Eds: Gary Marks [and] Larry Diamond. Sage Publications, Newbury Park [etc.] 1992. xi, 365 pp. £36.95.
This is a Festschrift for Professor Seymour Martin Lipset, the prolific American political scientist. The fifteen essays in the collection are devoted to the rethinking of democracy. Topics include: democracy in permanently divided systems (James S. Coleman), the concept of national development, 1917-1989 (Immanuel Wallerstein), state formation and social policy in the United States (Theda Skocpol) and the insurgent origins of union democracy (Maurice Zeitlin and Judith Stepan-Norris). A list of Professor Lipset's publications has been appended.

Sciulli, David. Theory of societal constitutionalism. Foundations of a non-Marxist critical theory. [The Arnold and Caroline Rose Monograph Series of the American Sociological Association.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1992. vii, 366 pp. £37.50; $59.95.
The present study deals with the question of which factors make a given society more or less susceptible to social authoritarianism. Professor Sciulli argues that only by the analytical distinction between the circumstance whether a social order within any organization, institution or sector of a modern civil society is based on actors' demonstrable social control or on their possible social integration can a nation state's susceptibility to social authoritarianism be evaluated. On the basis of this theory of societal constitutionalism the author argues that the presence of social authoritarianism is independent of whether an economy is market-based or centrally controlled and of cultural traditions.

Shaping Technology/Building Society. Studies in Sociotechnical Change. Ed. by Wiebe E. Bijker and John Law. [Inside Technology.] The MIT Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1992. ix, 341 pp. Ill. $40.50.
This collection of twelve essays carries forward the project of creating a theory of technological development and implementation, which was started in The social construction of technological systems (1987), of which the first editor of the present collection was also co-editor. The essays address the question of how technologies become stabilized, how they attain their final form and use that is generally accepted. The first three essays deal with the question of whether technologies have common life cycles, three contributions deal with the interactions between shaping technology and its social context, while the last essays focus on the theory of social and technological change.

The Social Construction of Illness. Illness and Medical Knowledge in Past and Present. Ed. by Jens Lachmund and Gunnar Stollberg. [Medizin, Gesellschaft und Geschichte, Beiheft 1.] Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 1992. 182 pp. Ill. DM 68.00.
In contrast to social and historical studies that limit their interest to social and historical epidemiology or to the institutional organization of illness by professions, insurances or health politics, the thirteen contributions in this collection study illness from a social constructionist perspective, i.e. as a social phenomenon. Five contributions focus on the historical perspective on health and illness, while seven deal with aspects of contemporary medical knowledge and illness.

State Theory and State History. Ed. by Rolf Torstendahl. [Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences Series.] Sage Publications, London [etc.] 1992. viii, 264 pp. £35.00.
Encompassing the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, this collection of ten contributions offers an international comparative analysis of change in key institutions of the state from a historical perspective, focusing on specific developments in social and political institutions and their relations to the overall concept of the state as the formal centre of a social network. Contributions are, inter alia, "Refocusing the debate on the role of the state in capitalist societies" (Robert Hanneman and J. Rogers Hollingsworth), "The right to vote and the four world routes to/through modernity" (Göran Therborn), and "Particularism versus universalism within a strong state: the case of the French Jewish civil servant" (Pierre Birnbaum).

Tilman, Rick. Thorstein Veblen and His Critics, 1891-1963. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1992. xxi, 356 pp. $39.50; £30.00.
The present book deals with the work of the influential American political economist Thorstein Veblen (1857-1929) and the response to it by his critics in the first half of this century, who represent a wide range of political points of view and scholarly disciplines. Focusing on the doctrinal and theoretical facets of Veblen's political economy, Professor Tilman tries to assess the weight of the critics' reactions and to expose their, sometimes mistaken, interpretations of Veblen's work.

What is a Case? Exploring the foundations of social inquiry. Ed. by Charles C. Ragin and Howard S. Becker. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1992. viii, 242 pp. £30.00; $49.95. (Paper: £11.95; $15.95.)
In this collection the first editor in his introduction distinguishes four fundamentally different approaches to case based research, organized around two dichotomies in how cases are conceived: as empirical units or theoretical constructs and as examples of general phenomena or as specific phenomena. How much research work is characterized by a hybrid of these basic approaches is demonstrated in the eleven contributions: e.g. in "What do cases do? Some notes on activity in sociological analysis" (Andrew Abbott), "Case studies: history or sociology" (Michel Wieviorka) and Cases, causes, conjunctures, stories, and imagery" (the second editor).

Workers' Expressions. Beyond Accomodation and Resistance. Ed. by John Calgione, Doris Francis, and Daniel Nugent. [SUNY Series in the Anthropology of Work.] State University of New York Press, Albany 1992. vii, 233 pp. Ill. $16.95.
"The studies in this volume analyze the cultural, political, social, and day-to-day expressions of workers throughout the world in a range of contexts not commonly observed in the anthropology of work." The aim of the editors is to show that the labour process is itself a cultural process. Contributions include inter alia: "Working in time: music and power on the job in New York" (John Calagione), "Work and worship: changing images and changing lives in West Bengal" (Eva Friedlander) and "Work and Gusto: gender and re-creation in a North Mexican pueblo" (Ana Maria Alonso).


"Andere" Biographien und ihre Quellen. Biographische Zugänge zur Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung. Ein Tagungsbericht. Hrsg. von Manfred Lechner und Peter Wilding. [Veröffentlichung des Ludwig Boltzmann Instituts für Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung.] Europaverlag, Wien [etc.] 1992. 176 pp. S 248; DM 35.00.
In this collection, containing the results of the seventh bilateral seminar on the history of the German and Austrian labour movements (Leipzig, 1991), the authors aim to present the state of the art of the theoretical starting-points and developments in writing biography, a survey of recent individual and collective biographies, and a discussion on how to deal with different types of sources.

Aufstieg und Zerfall der Komintern. Studien zur Geschichte ihrer Transformation (1919-1943). Hrsg. von Theodor Bergmann [und] Mario Keßler. [Podium Progressiv, 11.] [Pahl-Rugenstein, Bonn] 1992. 264 pp. DM 21.80.
Most of the fourteen contributions to this collection focus on the crucial period between 1924 and 1928 in the history of the Comintern, from the death of Lenin to the sixth World Congress of the Comintern, when, according to the editors, the Comintern definitely came under the despotic power of Stalin and his followers, and, according to Trotsky, the bureaucratic degeneration of communism began. This transformation is the main theme of this collection. Moreover, attention is paid to the relation between the USPD and the Komintern between 1917 and 1919 (Dieter Engelmann) and to the Comintern's attitude to the Jewish question. The second editor explores the consequences of this transformation in the 1930s.

Centenaire Jules Humbert-Droz. Colloque sur l'Internationale communiste. La Chaux-de-Fonds 25-28 septembre 1991. Actes. Fondation Jules Humbert-Droz, La Chaud-de-Fonds 1992. S.fr. 220.00.
These are the proceeedings of the Jules Humbert-Droz colloquium, held in La Chaux-de-Fonds in September 1991. The twenty-nine essays included treat four subjects: the role of Humbert-Droz in the Communist International, the relations between different national (Westeuropean) sections and the Comintern, internal and external oppositions to the Comintern, like Bordigism en Trotskyism, and the way in which the Comintern as such functioned.

Church and City 1000-1500. Essays in honour of Christopher Brooke. Ed. by David Abulafia, Michael Franklin and Miri Rubin. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1992. xxiv, 354 pp. Ill. £55.00; $79.95.
This Festschrift for Professor Christopher Brooke addresses two areas of medieval history that are also central issues in the oeuvre of the man honoured: urban and religious life. The fourteen essays explore the coexistence of religious ideas and ecclesiastical institutions with urban practices and townspeople, 1000-1500. They deal with such diverse topics as theology and the commercial revolution in northern France (Anna Sapir Abulafia), Burgos in the thirteenth century (Peter Linehan) and crown, church and synagogue in Majorca, 1229-1343 (David Abulafia).

The Formation of National Elites. Ed. by Andreas Kappeler, in collab. with Fikret Adanir and Alan O'Day. [Comparative Studies on Governments and Non-Dominant Ethnic Groups in Europe, 1850-1940, Vol. VI.] New York University Press, New York; Dartmouth Publishing Company, Aldershot 1992. xxii, 351 pp. Maps. £35.00.
This collection of thirteen essays focuses on those personalities who took a decisive part in European national movements - as organizers, patrons, cultural figures, artists or scientists. The theme is explored through geographical case studies of Poles, Macedonians, Ukrainians, etc., and through comparative studies on social characteristics, the role of educational institutions, national organizations, channels of communication and historical myth-building.

Frühe Neuzeit - Frühe Moderne? Forschungen zur Vielschichtigkeit von Übergangsprozessen. Hrsg. von Rudolf Vierhaus und Mitarbeitern des Max-Planck-Instituts für Geschichte. [Veröffentlichungen des Max-Planck-Instituts für Geschichte, 104.] Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1992. 467 pp. DM 96.00.
The period of early modern history as a period of social transformation is studied from various points of view in this collection of nineteen essays. Attention is paid to, among other subjects, the changes of royal courts (Albert Cremer), of family and kinship (Jürgen Schlumbohm), of the sense of time among farmers (Jan Peters), of religion (Gérald Chaix, Peter Kriedte, Patrice Veit) and of reading habits (Hans Medick, Hans Erich Bödeker, John Brewer).

Füredi, Frank. Mythical Past, Elusive Future. History and Society in an Anxious Age. Pluto Press, London [etc.] 1992. ix, 310 pp. £35.00.
In this book Professor Füredi aims to explain why history is in such demand today, meanwhile providing a survey of contemporary discussions on history in Great Britain, Germany, Japan and the United States. The author suggests that anxiety about the future has stimulated the debate on the function and meaning of history, both on the left and on the right, whereas the veneration of the past reflects a general mood of conservatism. He argues for a new approach to history, one that looks towards the potential for progress in the spirit of the Enlightenment.

Guttridge, Leonard F. Mutiny. A History of Naval Insurrection. Ian Allan Publishing, Shepperton 1992. ix, 318 pp. Ill. £16.95.
This book is a collection of popularized stories of famous mutinies from the Bounty (1789) to the Constellation (1972). By sketching the diversity of situations that have been labelled as mutiny, the author claims to give a more precise definition of the term.

Holzinger, Hans. Die geschichtliche Entwicklung der sozialen Sicherung bei Arbeitsunfähigkeit. [Hochschulsammlung Philosophie: Sozialwissenschaft, Band 21.] HochschulVerlag, Freiburg 1992. 343 pp. DM 84.80.
Insurances against inability to work are the subject of this doctoral thesis (Freiburg/Br., 1991). After a survey of the ways in which the ancient Greeks and Romans dealt with the problem Dr Holzinger sketches the further European development during the middle ages and the early modern period. Finally he deals extensively with the insurances against illness and inability to work in Germany from the last decades of the nineteenth century.

The Industrial Revolution and Work in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Ed. by Lenard R. Berlanstein. [Rewriting Histories.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1992. xvi, 176 pp. £10.99.
In addition to a very concise introduction by the editor this collection contains the (shortened) reprints of nine articles about the European "Industrial Revolution" and its social consequences. Included are contributions by David Cannadine, Christopher H. Johnson, Theresa McBride, James S. Roberts, Raphael Samuel, Joan Wallach Scott, William H. Sewell, Jr, Peter N. Stearns and Charles Tilly.

Lazonick, William. Organization and Technology in Capitalist Development. [Economists of the Twentieth Century.] Edward Elgar, Aldershot 1992. xvii, 290 pp. £45.00.
From the 1970s Professor Lazonick has made important contributions to the historiography of labour relations (compare IRSH, XXXVII (1992), pp. 405-407). The present book contains reprints of nine of his articles. Included are, among others, essays about the British cotton industry, the decline of the British economy, the "Horndal effect" in early U.S. manufacturing, and the rise and fall of managerial capitalism in American industry.

Mitterauer, Michael. A History of Youth. Transl. by Graeme Dunphy. [Family, Sexuality and Social Relations in Past Times.] Blackwell, Oxford [etc.] 1992. x, 256 pp. £40.00.
This is the English translation of Sozialgeschichte der Jugend (1986), which was noticed in IRSH, XXXII (1987), p. 283.

Morton, Marian J. Emma Goldman and the American Left. "Nowhere at Home". [Twayne's Twentieth-Century American Biography Series, No. 14.] Twayne Publishers, New York 1992. xi, 183 pp. Ill.
In this political biography Professor Morton aims to synthesize previous scholarship and, at the same time, provide a fresh perspective on the life and work of Emma Goldman (1869-1940). The author relies heavily on Goldman's autobiography Living my life (1931), but somewhat corrects Goldman's self-image of being "nowhere at home". According to her biographer Goldman's home was in the American left, as for several decades she was the American left.

Naarden, Bruno. Socialist Europe and Revolutionary Russia: Perception and Prejudice 1848-1923. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1992. vii, 595 pp. £50.00.
This book deals with perceptions and "images" of Russia held by European socialists between the revolutions of 1848 and the firm establishment of the Soviet Union in the early 1920s, paying special attention to the period from 1905. Those people and matters have been emphasized which, according to the author, provide "the most insight into the 'Russian question'". Therefore, the Mensheviks play a more important role in his account than the Bolsheviks or the Bundists, while more information is found about German social democracy than about British or Belgian socialism.

Paine, Thomas. Rights of Man. Ed., with introd. and notes by Gregory Claeys. Hackett Publishing Company, Indianapolis [etc.] 1992. xxix, 240 pp. £18.95. (Paper: £3.95.)
Professor Claeys, who published a major study of Thomas Paine some years ago (IRSH, XXXV (1990), p. 296), now presents a new edition of Paine's Rights of Man. The text printed is that of the second edition of part one (1791) and the first edition of part two (1792). The editor has provided a substantial introduction and explanatory notes.

Porter, Gerald. The English Occupational Song. [Acta Universitatis Umensis, Umeå Studies in the Humanities 105.] University of Umeå, Umeå 1992. 184 pp. Ill. S.kr. 150.00.
According to the author of this doctoral thesis (Umeå 1992) occupational songs must be placed between rhythmic work songs and labour songs, in that mentioning the occupation of the protagonist is not merely illustrative, but is essential to the song. The book studies how occupations are represented as carriers of social or symbolic meaning, as erotic metaphor or as a challenge to orthodoxy in the English occupational song. Dr Porter concludes that occupation is one of the most stable elements in song transmissions and that in song women often transgress work roles and job barriers to subvert patriarchal positions.

Religion, State and Ethnic Groups. Ed. by Donal A. Kerr, in collab. with Mordechai Breuer, Sheridan Gilley and Ernst Christoph Suttner. [Comparative Studies on Government and Non-Dominant Ethnic Groups in Europe, 1850-1940, Vol. II.] New York University Press, New York; Dartmouth Publishing Company, Aldershot 1992. xix, 323 pp. Maps. £35.00.
In addition to an introductory editorial essay this volume contains eleven case studies of the role of religion in the interaction between European governments and ethnic groups. Attention is paid to Albania, 1850-1940 (Max Demeter Peyfuss), Britain (Sheridan Wayne Gilley, Robert Tudur Jones), Catalonia, 1800-1929 (Santiago Petschen), the Habsburg Monarchy (Robin Okey, Ernst Christoph Suttner), Ireland, 1850-1940 (the editor), Italy, 1860-1945 (Vittorio Peri), Norway, 1850-1940 (Einar-Arne Drivenes), Poland, 1795-1918 (Boles aw Stanis aw Kumor), and orthodox judaism in eastern and western Europe (Mordechai Breuer).

Rewriting the history of madness. Studies in Foucault's Histoire de la folie. Ed. by Arthur Still and Irving Velody. Routledge, London [etc.] 1992. x, 225 pp. £35.00.
This is a collection of essays centred around a paper by a specialist on the work of Michel Foucault, Colin Gordon, which claims that major critics of the first English edition of Madness and Civilization (1967) have failed to take note of the depth of Foucault's researches because they depended on the English translation of the abridged edition of Maladie mentale et psychologie, which appeared in French in 1965 as Histoire de la folie. The other essays treat the significance of Foucault's work for modern thought in a variety of disciplines. The book also provides an annotated bibliography of anglophone reactions to Madness and Civilization.

Subaltern Studies. Vol. VII. Writings on South Asian History and Society. Ed. by Partha Chatterjee and Gyanendra Pandey. Oxford University Press, Delhi [etc.] 1992. x, 272 pp. Rs. 350.
Nation, community, religion and language are the main themes running through this seventh volume of Subaltern Studies. Apart from a contribution of Terence Ranger about communalism in colonial Southern Rhodesia, the essays included all deal with India. Treated are: the construction of an imagined historical past by Indian nationalism (Sudipta Kaviraj), Sri Ramakrishna and the Calcutta middle class (the first editor), the use of caste sanctions in Swadeshi and Non-Cooperation movements (Ranajit Guha), the gurus of the Satnami sect (Saurabh Dube), a medieval Jewish merchant in Mangalore and his Indian slave (Amitav Ghosh) and the place of law in subaltern activity (Upendra Baxi).

Tonkens, Eltjo. De geschiedenis van de Protestants-Christelijke Arbeiders Internationale. Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1992. 79 pp. D.fl. 21.50.
This booklet examines the history of the Protestant Workers' International, which was founded in 1928 and in fact ceased to exist in 1967. As an initiative of Swiss, Dutch and German christian labour movement activists, this organization was founded, not as an alternative for the existing international christian labour movement federation, but as a workers' organization, arising from the oecumenical movement, with reflection and study as its goals. The author focuses on the consistency of the body of ideas that lay behind it and on the relation with the West-German christian labour movement in the late 1940s.

Tonkin, Elizabeth. Narrating Our Pasts. The social construction of oral history. [Cambridge Studies in Oral and Literate Culture, 22.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1992. xiii, 171 pp. Ill. Maps. £27.95. (Paper: $49.95.)
This study looks at how oral histories are constructed and how they should be interpreted. Professor Tonkin, a social anthropologist, argues that oral accounts of the past, just like written histories, have their shaping genres and aesthetic conventions and that they likewise have to be interpreted through these. The author illustrates her argument with a range of examples of memory, narration and oral tradition from Europe, the Americas, and with special attention for oral histories from the Jlao Kru of Liberia, with whom she carried out extensive research.

Writing Women's History. Ed. by Michelle Perrot. Transl. by Felicia Pheasant. From an original idea by Alain Paire. Blackwell, Oxford [etc.] 1992. xi, 180 pp. £35.00. (Paper: £13.95.)
This is an English translation of Histoire des femmes est-elle possible? (1984), a collection of twelve essays, which aimed to give the state of the art of French historiography of women's history, from ancient to twentieth-century history, also paying attention to theoretical and methodological developments. Contributions are, inter alia: "Methods and effects of women's history" (Arlette Farge), "The oral sources for women's history" (Sylvie Vandecasteele-Schweitzer and Danièle Voldman), "Masculine and feminine: the historiographical use of sexual roles" (Jacques Revel), and "Women, power and history" (the editor). In a preface to this English edition Professor Perrot sketches a short genealogy of French women's history from the perspective of 1992.


White, Dan S. Lost Comrades. Socialists of the Front Generation 1918-1945. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1992. xi, 255 pp. Ill. $41.95.
Following British, Belgian, French and German socialists, who all became politically active by their experience of the First World War (inter alia Oswald Mosley, Hendrik de Man, Marcel Déat and Theodor Haubach), Professor White in this study aims to show parallels in their efforts and ultimate failure to renew socialism, to carry it beyond Marxism and the working class. Though agreeing in their response to the dangers of fascism (counterpropaganda) and to the world depression in the 1930s (planism), they diverged in their later reaction towards nazism from collaboration (De Man) to anti-Nazi resistance (Haubach).


Chapman, Paul K. Trouble on Board. The Plight of International Seafarers. Introd. by Clifford B. Donn. ILR Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1992. xxxi, 176 pp. $32.00. (Paper: $14.95.)
The often miserable conditions under which the 1.2 million international seafarers have to do their jobs are the subject of this book, written by the founder of the Center for Seafarers' Rights, a division of the Seamen's Church Institute of New York and New Jersey. Mr Chapman, an ordained American Baptist minister, draws on the experience of port chaplains throughout America and other parts of the world. They often are the only people to gain the confidence of seafarers. In the last chapter the author makes suggestions for improving the seafarers' working conditions, inter alia, by stimulating workers' associations.

Graham, Keith. Karl Marx, Our Contemporary. Social Theory for a Post-Leninist World. Harvester Wheatsheaf, New York [etc.] 1992. x, 182 pp. $59.50.
Scrutinizing some basic terms in Marx's vocabulary and the use to which he put them, this book suggests that Marxian theory is sufficiently subtle and rich, and is expressed at such a level of generality and abstraction, as to be of contemporary interest. According to Dr Graham, Marx's views "are not essentially about nineteenth-century capitalism; they are about capitalism as such, which happened to be exemplified in a particular way in his own time". CONTINENTS AND COUNTRIES


Racines Bantu / Bantu Roots. Éd. par Th. Obenga et S. Souindoula. Centre International des Civilisations Bantu, Libreville (Gabon). [Sépia, Paris 1991.] 276 pp. Ill. F.fr. 100.00.
In this bi-lingual collection a comprehensive survey of the anthropological and cultural history of the Bantu is presented. The thirteen contributions deal with, inter alia, the prehistory of the lower Sahara-region (Francis Van Noten), mutual influences between man and the ecosystems in the Bantu world (Makuta Kabala), the history of the Bantu world (Théophile Obenga), the linguistic reality of the Bantu world (J. Kwenzi-Mikala and S. Souindoula), beliefs and knowledge (Tulu Kia Mpansa Buakasa), Bantu art in central and eastern Africa (Joseph Cornet) and rhythms and music (Mbuyamba Lupwishi).


Widner, Jennifer A. The Rise of a Party-State in Kenya. From "Harambee!" to "Nyayo!" University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1992. xxiii, 283 pp. $45.00.
In this book Professor Widner charts the transformation of the Kenya African National Union (KANU) from a weak, loosely organized political party under Kenya's first president Jomo Kenyatta (1963-1978), into an arm of the president's office, with "watchdog" youth wings and strong surveillance and control functions, under the presidency of Daniel arap Moi (1978- ). Using a political-economy approach, the author suggests that single-party systems, such as in Kenya, have an inherent tendency to become single-party regimes in which the chief of state actively uses the party as a means of social control.


Boone, Catherine. Merchant Capital and the Roots of State Power in Senegal 1930-1985. [Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1992. xv, 299 pp. £40.00; $59.95.
The author of this study aims to unravel the paradoxical relationship between the postcolonial state in Africa and capitalist development, by means of an analysis of the developing political system and the economy of postcolonial Senegal. Tracing the changes in its political economy, Professor Boone argues that the political and economic processes that promoted the rise of postcolonial Senegal compromised the possibilities for capitalist development.

South Africa

Allen, V.L. The History of Black Mineworkers in South Africa. Vol. I. The Techniques of Resistance 1871-1948. The Moor Press, Keighly 1992. xx, 491 pp. Ill. £18.00.
In this first part of a two-volume history of black mineworkers in South Africa, Professor Allen, the well-known British specialist on trade unionism in mining, covers the period from 1871, when serious diamond digging began, to the 1946 Mineworkers' Strike and its aftermath up to the elections of 1948. Professor Allen has written this history at the invitation of the National Union of Mineworkers in South Africa, focusing on the experience of the ordinary black mineworkers.

Berger, Iris. Threads of Solidarity. Women in South African Industry, 1900-1980. Indiana University Press, Bloomington [etc.]; James Currey, London 1992. xiv, 368 pp. £35.00. (Paper: £11.95.)
This study traces the history of black and white women as industrial workers and trade unionists in South Africa between 1900 and 1980. Professor Berger pays attention to women's changing place in both regular and casual work. Drawing on comparative labour history and feminist theory she documents how from the late 1920s through World War II, white women filled much of the demand for cheap labour in the rapidly growing garment, textile, and food processing industries, and how in the following decades black workers gradually replaced whites.


Wahlers, Gerhard. CLAT: Geschichte einer lateinamerikanischen Gewerkschaftsinternationale. [Beiträge zur Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Band 12.] Verlag M. Wehle, Witterschlik/Bonn 1990. x, 577 pp. DM 82.24.
This Ph.D. thesis (Münster, 1990) presents a history of the origins and development of the Central Latinoamericana de Trabajadores (CLAT), founded in 1954 as a Christian confederation of Latin-American unionists, up to its seventh congress in Costa Rica in 1977. According to the author, the CLAT developed in this period from a traditionally organized, rather powerless international trade-union organization to a radicalized international Trade-Union Central, fighting for all those underprivileged in Latin America.

The Bahamas

Craton, Michael and Gail Saunders. Islanders in the Stream. A History of the Bahamian People. Vol. One. From Aboriginal Times to the End of Slavery. The University of Georgia Press, Athens [etc.] 1992. xxiii, 455 pp. Ill. Maps. $60.00.
This book is the first of a two-volume comprehensive chronicle of the Bahamian people. This volume covers the period from c. 500-1838, that is, from the traceable Lucayan origins to the abolition of slavery on the islands. Using an integrative cliometric approach, the authors aim to describe and explain the evolution of a Bahamian national identity within the comparative framework of neighbouring territories in similar circumstances.


Bryan, Patrick. The Jamaican People 1880-1902. Race, Class and Social Control. [Warwick University Caribbean Studies.] Macmillan Caribbean, Basingstoke 1991. xiv, 300 pp. £10.95.
The period after the abolition of slavery but before the introduction of universal adult suffrage is analysed in this monograph. Beginning with an examination of the changing nature of the plantation economy in the late-nineteenth century and the altered relations between employers and workers, Dr Bryan discusses the tensions arising from white hegemony. Aspects like Crown Colony government, law and order, religious and social structure, childhood, youth and education, labour, health and poor relief and the black middle class are explored in the context of race, class, and ethnicity.


Albro, Ward S. Always a Rebel. Ricardo Flores Magón and the Mexican Revolution. Texas Christian University Press, Fort Worth 1992. xv, 219 pp. Ill. $24.95.
Ricardo Flores Magón (1873-1922) is often described as the primary force behind the Mexican revolution of 1910. This study concentrates on the transformation of Flores Magón from a liberal journalist, working in Mexico in 1900, to the radical anarchist in exile in the United States he had become after 1910. It sets his changing ideas in the context of the liberal movement in Mexico, government suppression, the development of Flores Magón's own "Partido Liberal Mexicano" in exile in the United States, and the failing attempts at revolution in 1906 and 1908.

Gosner, Kevin. Soldiers of the Virgin. The Moral Economy of a Colonial Maya Rebellion. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson [etc.] 1992. xiv, 227 pp. $29.95.
An apparition of the Virgin Mary in the summer of 1712 triggered a rebellion of Maya-indians in southern Mexico. Reconstructing the causes and effects of this revolt Professor Gosner explores the origins of the Maya civil and religious hierarchy, the role of shamanism in political culture and the fate of the native nobility after the Spanish conquest. He characterizes the rebellion as a defence of the Maya moral economy, supporting his argument by showing how political and economic demands under the colonists had challenged basic norms concerning ritual and power to the limit.


Vertovec, Steven. Hindu Trinidad. Religion, Ethnicity and Socio-Economic Change. [Warwick University Caribbean Studies.] Macmillan Caribbean, London [etc.] 1992. xii, 272 pp. Ill. Maps. £12.95.
Against a background of a general and comparative treatment of Indian migration this book charts the developments of Hindu society and culture in Trinidad, from pre-migration conditions in the beginning of the nineteenth century through settlement and growth on the island, to recent economic shifts and organizational trends. The author describes the evolution of many Hindu socio-cultural forms, as well as current modes of Hindu religious activity, underscoring their importance in everyday life for individuals, families and local communities.

United States of America

Aronowitz, Stanley. False Promises. The Shaping of American Working Class Consciousness. With a New Introd. and Epilogue. Duke University Press, Durham [etc.] 1992. xlv, 470 pp. £33.20.
This is a reprint of the original publication of 1973 (see IRSH, XIX (1974), p. 290f.), with a new introduction and epilogue. In his new introduction Professor Aronowitz gives a survey of the developments and still existing white spots in the historiography of American labour history, whereas in the epilogue he re-evaluates the developments of labour and the labour movement in the United States in the past twenty years, starting from his conclusions in 1973.

Bremner, Robert H. The Discovery of Poverty in the United States. With a New Introd. by Walter I. Trattner. Afterword by Robert H. Bremner. [Philanthropy and Society.] Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick [etc.] 1992. xxxv, 364 pp. Ill. $21.95.
The present book is a reprint of a study, published in 1956 under the title From the depths. The discovery of poverty in the United States (see IRSH, III (1958), p. 147). It contains an introduction by professor Trattner and a newly written afterword by the author, in which he states, concerning present-day developments in the United States, that "President Reagan and Bush have been [...] overconfident of the willingness and ability of philanthropy to relieve government of responsibility for the care of the poor".

Cannon, James P. James P. Cannon and the Early Years of American Communism. Selected Writings and Speeches 1920-1928. Prometheus Research Library, New York 1992. xvi, 624 pp. Ill. $14.50.
In the 1920s the later Trotskyist James P. Cannon (1890-1974) played a key role in American communism. This book includes some of Cannon's writings of these years on, inter alia, the Farmer-Labor movement and the 1924 presidential candidacy of Robert M. La Follette; the building of an opposition to John L. Lewis in the miners' union; the role of party supporters in the leadership of the New York garment workers unions; and the Sacco-Vanzetti campaign in 1927.

Costain, Anne N. Inviting Women's Rebellion. A Political Process Interpretation of the Women's Movement. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 1992. xx, 188 pp. $28.00.
In this examination of the development of the American women's movement from the 1960s to the present day, Professor Costain expresses her preference for a "political process" interpretation, instead of an interpretation of the women's movement as a traditional social movement. Her exploration includes an analysis of the sympathetic political climate in the late 1960s and the resulting federal government's role in facilitating the movement's success (especially the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment), which caused a lack of tactical skills within the women's movement.

Creole New Orleans. Race and Americanization. Ed. by Arnold R. Hirsch and Joseph Logsdon. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge [etc.] 1992. xiii, 334 pp. Ill. Maps. £14.50.
In this collection of six essays the peculiar ethnic composition and history of New Orleans are explored: "Colonial New Orleans: a fragment of eighteenth century French ethos" (Jerah Johnson), "The formation of Afro-Creole culture" (Gwendolyn Midlo Hall), "The foreign French" (Paul F. Lachange), "Creoles and Americans" (Joseph G. Tregle, Jr), "The americanization of black New Orleans, 1850-1900" (Joseph Logsdon and Caryn Cossé Bell) and "Simply a matter of black and white: the transformation of race and politics in twentieth century New Orleans" (Arnold R. Hirsch).

Diggins, John Patrick. The Rise and Fall of the American Left. W.W. Norton & Company, New York [etc.] 1992. 432 pp. Ill. $22.95; £15.95.
In this comprehensive survey, an expanded version of The American left in the twentieth century (1973), Professor Diggins distinguishes four consecutive eruptions of the American Left: 1) the Lyrical Left, during the years of the First World War ; 2) the Old Left, during the Depression; 3) the New Left, during the 1960s and 4) the contemporary Academic Left. The author stresses that the American Left was and is rooted in native American soil and is not only derived from European socialist thought.

Divided Houses. Gender and the Civil War. Ed. by Catherine Clinton and Nina Silber. Oxford University Press, New York [etc.] 1992. xvii, 418 pp. Ill. £37.50.
In this collection of eighteen essays (all but four original) the contributors focus on the history of the American Civil War seen through the prism of gender. Contributions include, inter alia, "The civil war as a crisis in gender (LeeAnn Whites), "'It's a man now': gender and African American men" (Jim Cullen), "Acting her part: narratives of Union women spies" (Kristie Ross), "Wartime dialogue on illicit sex: white women and black men" (Martha Hodes), "Warwork and the crisis of domesticity in the North" (Jeanie Attie), and "Reshaping the bonds of womanhood: divorce in reconstructing North Carolina" (Victoria Bynum).

Eggert, Gerald G. Harrisburg Industrializes. The Coming of Factories to an American Community. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park 1993. xix, 412 pp. Ill. $35.00.
In this history of the industrialization of the community of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, from the 1850s to the end of the nineteenth century, Professor Eggert characterizes it as "second-stage" or imitative, thus distinguishing it from the industrialization in early centres (such as Pittsburgh), where the introduction of new technologies had far more devastating social consequences. The introduction of an industrial order was much less disruptive in Harrisburg than in major industrial cities, because it did not alter the existing economic and social order so profoundly.

Fischer, Claude S. America Calling. A Social History of the Telephone to 1940. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1992. xv, 424 pp. Ill. $25.00.
Using case studies of three Californian communities, Professor Fischer chronicles the history of the telephone from its introduction at the beginning of the twentieth century, via its integration into the private lives and activities of average Americans in the first decades of this century, to its development into an essential part of modern life by 1940. The author draws the conclusion that the telephone supported a wide-ranging network of social relations and played a crucial role in many aspects of community life, especially for women.

Gender and American History Since 1890. Ed. by Barbara Melosh. [Rewriting Histories.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1993. xii, 308 pp. Ill. £35.00. (Paper: £12.99.)
This collection of ten essays - two of them original - explores the meaning and signifance of gender in US-American history since 1890. Topics include, inter alia: The new sexual discourse of the 1920s and 1930s (Christina Simmons), the Chicago furnished-room districts (Joanne Meyerowitz), Ida B. Wells's anti-lynching campaign, 1892-1894 (Gail Bederman), women rayon workers' participation in a strike in Tennessee 1929 (Jacquelyn Dowd Hall) and family violence (Linda Gordon).

Kaufman, Bruce E. The Origins & Evolution of the Field of Industrial Relations in the United States. [Cornell Studies in Industrial and Labor Relations, No. 25.] ILR Press, Ithaca 1993. xv, 286 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £19.95.)
The present book aims to give a historical survey of the origins and development of industrial relations as a distinct academic subject and field of study in the United States as well as an analysis of the factors that contributed both to the field's ascendancy in the 1950s and its decline in the 1980s. The author dates the beginning of industrial relations as an academic subject in 1920, and concludes that the decline of the field can largely be blamed on the decline of union density and power in the United States.

Klehr, Harvey and John Earl Haynes. The American Communist Movement. Storming Heaven Itself. [Social Movements Past and Present.] Twayne Publishers, New York 1992. xiii, 210 pp.
The present book aims to provide a comprehensive, critical history of the American Communist Party from its origin in 1919 to 1990, focusing on the political party as such as well as on the social movement behind it. The authors examine the effect of the party's ideas on the mainstream of American politics and culture, and also pay attention to the subservience to Moscow and the internal disputes and purges.

Labor Law in America. Historical and Critical Essays. Ed. by Christopher L. Tomlins and Andrew J. King. [The Johns Hopkins Symposia in Comparative History.] The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 1992. vi, 355 pp. $55.00; £45.50.
This collection of eleven essays explores the range of labour's legal experience in America from the colonial period to the late twentieth century. Contributions included are, inter alia, "The Philadelphia Cordwainers' Case of 1806; the struggle over alternative legal constructions of a free labor market" (Robert J. Steinfeld), "Hidden dimensions in labor law history: gender variations on the theme of free labor" (Lea S. VanderVelde), "Law and the shaping of labor politics in the United States and England" (William Forbath), and "In the shadow of the law: institutional aspects of postwar U.S. union decline" (Joel Rogers).

Meyer, Stephen. "Stalin over Wisconsin". The Making and Unmaking of Militant Unionism, 1900-1950. [Class and Culture.] Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick (N.J.) 1992. xi, 265 pp. $45.00.
This study aims to explore the making and unmaking of militant industrial unionism in the period 1900-1950, on the basis of the case study of the workers of the Allis-Chalmers plant in West Allis, Wisconsin, and the building and destruction of their left-wing union. Professor Meyer analyses the technical and social transition from batch to mass production, the social and cultural world of the workers, and the factional struggles on the shop floor and picket line. He also examines the campaign against union leftists, following the CIO's entry into Wisconsin politics and the rise of Joseph McCarthy.

Reidy, Joseph P. From Slavery to Agrarian Capitalism in the Cotton Plantation South. Central Georgia, 1800-1880. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 1992. xiv, 360 pp. Ill. Maps. $45.00.
Focusing on central Georgia as a representative cotton plantation region, Professor Reidy examines the spread of slavery in the antebellum period and the subsequent emancipation of some four million slaves as a result of the Civil War. The author sets these changes within the larger context of capitalist development in the North and the abolition of slavery elsewhere in the Americas. He tries to elucidate the interaction between global economic developments and the lives of ordinary southerners.

"The River Ran Red": Homestead 1892. David P. Demarest, Jr, General Ed.; Fannia Weingartner, Coordinating Ed. With an Afterword by David Montgomery. [Pittsburgh Series in Social and Labor History.] University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh [etc.] 1992. xii, 232 pp. Ill. $39.95. (Paper: $19.95.)
This richly illustrated book commemorates the one-hundredth anniversary of the Homestead Strike of 1892, which also was the subject of Paul Krause's study which was noticed before (see IRSH, this volume). The editors of the present book aim to recreate the events in excerpts from contemporary newspapers and magazines, first-hand accounts, quotations from the congressional investigation that resulted from the strike, and reproductions of sketches and photographs. At the same time, contributions of a team of historians describe the historical context. Contributors are, inter alia, Joseph Frazier Wall on the role of Andrew Carnegie and David Montgomery on the significance of the Homestead Strike for the present.

Sims, Beth. Workers of the World Undermined. American Labor's Role in U.S. Foreign Policy. South End Press, Boston 1992. iv, 139 pp. $9.00.
In this comprehensive study of the international activities of the AFL-CIO the author aims to demonstrate that the U.S. labor union's foreign policy has constantly been directed towards prohibiting the formation of militant independent workers' movements in Latin America, Asia, Africa and Europe. It is claimed that the AFL-CIO and its four international institutes, along with its International Affairs Department and European office, cooperate with government agencies and conservative private organizations to prevent workers to rebel against the power of transnational capital.

Society and Culture in the Slave South. Ed. by J. William Harris. [Rewriting Histories.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1992. ix, 245 pp. £10.99.
This collection of nine essays - all published before - introduces some of the central debates about the nature of society and culture in the Old South. Besides substantial excerpts from the work of Eugene Genovese and Elizabeth Fox-Genovese contributions have been included about the profitability of slavery, the relations between masters and slaves and the relations between women and men.

Tunnell, Ted. Crucible of Reconstruction. War, Radicalism and Race in Louisiana, 1862-1877. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge [etc.] 1992. xi, 257 pp. Maps. £9.50.
This is a reprint of the study of the political events in Louisiana from the Federal occupation of New Orleans in 1862 to the fall of the Radical Republicans in 1877, originally published in 1984. During this period Louisiana witnessed not one, but three Reconstructions. The author aims to show how the destructive factionalism that crippled the Republican regimes was actually rooted in a larger "crisis of legitimacy", in which Louisiana whites viewed Republican leaders not as legitimate leaders but as criminal usurpers, and in which neither a "policy of peace" nor a "policy of force" proved successful.

Turbin, Carole. Working Women of Collar City. Gender, Class, and Community in Troy, New York, 1864-86. [Women in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1992. xii, 231 pp. $39.95.
Using the history of working women of Troy, New York, ("Collar City") in the period 1864-1886 as a case study, Professor Turbin explores what has made working women successful at organizing labour activity in spite of obstacles that were mainly determined by gender differences. The author discusses the labour struggles in 1864, 1869 and 1886, and concludes that gender ideologies among female workers differed along lines of religious and ethnic backgrounds, which leads her to conclude that gender differences are far more subtle and complex than is commonly supposed.

Zonderman, David A. Aspirations and Anxieties. New England Workers and the Mechanized Factory System 1815-1850. Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 1992. ix, 357 pp. £35.00.
This is an attempt at a "working-class intellectual history", reconstructing the complex debate among antebellum New England workers concerning the perils and promises of the factory system. Professor Zonderman examines this debate through the workers' ideas about new machine technology, factory buildings, social relations of production between operatives and managers, rules and regulations, and wage labour. Attention is also paid to the evolving patterns of labour protest, including strikes and mass petitioning.


Schendel, Willem van. Three Deltas. Accumulation and Poverty in Rural Burma, Bengal and South India. [Indo-Dutch Studies on Development Alternatives, 8.] Sage Publications, New Delhi [etc.] 1991. 344 pp. Maps. £35.00.
This is an ambitious comparative analysis of the development of three societies situated in important Asian river deltas: Lower Burma, Bengal and the Kaveri delta in South India, between the 1750s and the 1980s. Focusing on social relations of surplus extraction, Professor Van Schendel explores the historical transformations in the three areas and concludes that the spreading mass poverty in these three deltas did not result from "natural" scarcity, "backwardness", a "faceless imperialism" or after-effects of colonialism, but from the specific local structures of accumulation.


Chandler, David P. The Tragedy of Cambodian History. Politics, War, and Revolution since 1945. Yale University Press, New Haven [etc.] 1991. xiii, 396 pp. Ill. Maps. $44.00; £25.00.
This monograph presents the history of Cambodia from the end of the Second World War to the overthrow of the Pol Pot regime by Vietnamese troops in 1979. Drawing on interviews and archival material Professor Chandler describes Cambodia's brief spell of independence from Japan after 1945; the long and complicated rule of Norodom Sihanouk; the bloodless coup of 1970, which deposed Sihanouk and put in power the feeble, pro-American government of Lon Nol; and the revolution in 1975, which ushered in the horrors of the Democratic Kampuchean dictatorship.


Benton, Gregor. Mountain Fires. The Red Army's Three-Year War in South China, 1934-1938. [Philip E. Lilienthal Imprint.] University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1992. xlvi, 639 pp. Maps. $70.00.
This book tells the lost history of the Communist guerrillas, who were left behind as a rearguard in southern China in 1934 to defend what was left of the Chinese Soviet Republic, and to tie down the Nationalist government forces, while Mao Zedong started his, later famous, Long March. What followed was a three-year guerrilla war, which in Chinese historiography is completely overshadowed by Mao's Long March. After the start of the Anti-Japanese War in 1937, the remains of this decimated guerrilla army came down from their mountain hideouts and was regrouped to form the New Fourth Army.

Honig, Emily. Creating Chinese Ethnicity. Subei People in Shanghai, 1850-1980. Yale University Press, New Haven [etc.] 1992. xv, 174 pp. Maps. $27.00; £18.95.
In this new book Professor Honig, who formerly published an important monograph on women workers in Shanghai cotton mills (IRSH, XXXII (1987), pp. 281f.), describes the daily lives, occupations and history of the immigrant Subei people in Shanghai (mainly unskilled labourers) from the mid-nineteenth century. She also uses the Subei people as a case study to examine how local origins - not race, religion or nationality - came to define ethnic identity among the overwhelmingly Han population in China.

Ladany, Laszlo. Law and Legality in China. The Testament of a China-watcher. Ed. by Marie-Luise Näth with a preface and concluding chapter by Jürgen Domes and Marie-Luise Näth. Hurst & Company, London 1992. xii, 179 pp. £25.00.
This book is a posthumously published work by the well known sinologist Dr Ladany (1914-1990), a Jesuit priest, fervent anti-communist and editor of the Chinese News Analysis, which was published from 1953 to 1982 in Hong Kong, and author of The Communist Party of China and marxism, 1921-1985: a self-portrait (1988) (see Gregor Benton's review in IRSH, XXXIII (1988), p. 354-357). In the present study the author aims to illustrate the antipathy of Mao Zedong to law, even when renewed according to Marxist doctrine, and also to age-old customary Chinese concepts of acceptable behaviour. According to the author, this created a mental and spiritual void in a whole generation of Chinese, possibly with severe consequences for the future of China. Professor Jürgen Domes has provided a short introduction on the author.


Damodaran, Vinita. Broken Promises. Popular Protest, Indian Nationalism and the Congress Party in Bihar, 1935-1946. Oxford University Press, Delhi [etc.] 1992. xiii, 398 pp. Ill. Rs. 500; £18.95.
This book examines the nationalist movement in one major Indian province, Bihar, during the 1930s and 1940s. According to Dr Damodaran, Bihar was in the vanguard of popular nationalism. She concentrates on the relationship between the most important nationalist movement, Congress, and its mass base. This relationship changed dramatically, when Congress assumed office for the first time in 1937, and large-scale peasant agitations for restoring peasant rights emerged. It was strongly influenced by the mass upsurge of the Quit India Movement in 1942.

Judge, Paramjit S. Insurrection to Agitation. The Naxalite Movement in Punjab. Popular Prakashan, Bombay. vii, 190 pp. Rs. 200.
The Naxalite movement, which started as a peasant revolt in 1967 in Naxalbari, West Bengal, is unique in Indian history, as, up to now, it was the only social movement to transcend a particular region or state and to become a national phenomenon. In the present study Dr Judge concentrates on Punjab, one of the most prosperous agrarian states of India, which experienced the Naxalite movement with its own peculiarities. His aim is to identify the social and economic forces related to the emergence of the movement and to examine the role of ideology and popular support in its development, as well as its effect on social, cultural and political life in Punjab.

Peasant Resistance in India 1858-1914. Ed. by David Hardiman. [Oxford in India Readings, Themes in Indian History.] Oxford University Press, Delhi [etc.] 1992. ix, 304 pp. £9.95.
Besides an extensive and thorough introduction by the editor, this collection contains eight reprints of important articles about peasant resistance in India between the Rebellion of 1857 and the mass movements of the nationalist era. Included are essays about the play Neel-Darpan (1860) on planters' atrocities (Ranajit Guha), the Pabna Agrarian League, 1873 (Kalyan Kumar Sen Gupta), Moplah Violence (Conrad Wood), the Deccan riots of 1875 (Ravinder Kumar, I.J. Catanach, Neil Charlesworth), the Punjab disturbances of 1907 (N. Gerald Barrier) and conflicts about forest produce (Madhav Gadgil and Ramachandra Guha).

Singha Roy, Debal K. Women in Peasant Movements. Tebhaga, Naxalite and After. Manohar, New Delhi 1992. ix, 158 pp. Rs. 175.
The present book traces the form, direction and dynamics of working-class rural women's participation in the peasant movements in West Bengal, focusing on the radical Tebhaga movement of 1946-1947 and the Naxalite movements of 1967-1971, and the "reformative" peasant movements of the 1970s and 1980s. Dr Sinha Roy argues that the ideological framework of the radical peasant movements enabled women to manifest their latent discontent, not only against landowners, but also against all kinds of marginalization and subjugation, whereas the ideological framework of contemporary reformative movements offers very little scope to manifest this discontent.

The World of the Rural Labourer in Colonial India. Ed. by Gyan Prakash. [Themes in Indian History.] Oxford University Press, Delhi [etc.] 1992. ix, 310 pp. Rs. 275.
In addition to an extensive and informative introduction by the editor this collection contains eight reprints of important articles about agricultural labourers in colonial India. Besides survey articles (S.J. Patel, Dharma Kumar, J. Krishnamurty), the book consists of case studies of the Deccan districts in the late nineteenth century (Jairus Banaji), Central and South-East Punjab (Neeladri Bhattacharya), South Gujarat (Jan Breman), South Bihar (the editor) and a dissertation on tribal migration (Crispin Bates and Marina Carter).


Kimmerling, Baruch [and] Joel S. Migdal. Palestinians. The Making of a People. The Free Press, New York; Maxwell Macmillan Canada, Toronto; Maxwell Macmillan International, New York [etc.] 1993. xix, 396 pp. Ill. Maps. $29.95.
The present study of the Palestinian people from the end of the Ottoman occupation in the 1830s to the present day has been written from the point of view that chances for peace between Palestinians and Israel can be improved by reaching an agreement about the evaluation of the historical events that have shaped the present situation. The authors argue that the Palestinians came into existence as a people largely through their interaction with the Jewish people and the state of Israel.


Biographisches Lexikon zur Geschichte der demokratischen und liberalen Bewegungen in Mitteleuropa. Bd. 1. (1770-1800). Hrsg. von Helmut Reinalter, Axel Kuhn [und] Alain Ruiz. [Schriftenreihe der Internationalen Forschungsstelle "Demokratische Bewegungen in Mitteleuropa 1770-1850", Band 7.] Peter Lang, Frankfurt/M. 1992. xix, 224 pp. DM 40.00; S.fr. 33.00.
This lexicon fits into the growing interest in the Enlightenment and the consequences of the French Revolution in Central Europe, as a result of which, according to the editors, the need has been created for reliable and detailed information on the lives and political and publishing activities of all those in Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bohemia and Switzerland, who in the last three decades of the eighteenth century criticized the class nature of society (Privilegienordnung) and opposed the traditional authorities. Included are persons belonging to various currents, from moderate to radical, and in addition to well known persons (e.g. Immanuel Kant) quite a number of forgotten figures are described as well. With each lemma relevant publications and literature are mentioned.

Bíró, Sándor. The Nationalities Problem in Transsylvania 1867-1940. A Social History of the Romanian Minority Under Hungarian Rule, 1867-1918 and of the Hungarian Minority Under Romanian Rule, 1918-1940. Transl. from the Hungarian Original by Mario F. Fenyo. [East European Monographs, No. CCCXXXIII.] Social Science Monographs, Boulder; distr. by Columbia University Press, New York 1992. xix, 744 pp. $38.00.
This book is an English translation of the Hungarian study Kisebbségben és többségben. Románok és magyarok 1867-1940, which was completed in 1975, but eventually published in Switzerland in 1989. The study deals with the relations between Rumania and Hungary, concerning the region of Transsylvania, in the period 1867-1940. Dr Bíró (1907-1975) examines the history of the Rumanians, who lived in this region under Hungarian rule from 1867-1918, and of the Hungarians, who lived under Rumanian rule from 1918-1940, paying special attention to economic factors, language problems, religion, national and ethnic cultures, and conditions of human and citizen's rights.

The European Experience of Declining Fertility, 1850-1970. The Quiet Revolution. Ed. by John R. Gillis, Louise A. Tilly and David Levine. [Studies in Social Discontinuity.] Blackwell, Cambridge (MA) [etc.] 1992. xiii, 385 pp. £45.00.
In the fifteen essays of this multidisciplinary collection the European demographic transition of the nineteenth century is studied from various points of view. Besides "A Nonspecialist's Guide to the Current Debate" (George Alter), contributions have been included about, among other subjects, "Mothers and the State in Britain, 1904-1914" (Ellen Ross), changing conjugal relations (Wally Seccombe), the mythology of childhood (Mary Jo Maynes) and demographic nationalism (Susan Cotts Watkins).

Mason, David S. Revolution in East-Central Europe. The Rise and Fall of Communism and the Cold War. Westview Press, Boulder [etc.] 1992. xiv, 216 pp. Ill. Maps. $8.95.
This is a comprehensive survey of the ending of the Cold War and the recent developments in Central and Eastern Europe, especially directed at students of international relations. The author reviews different theories of social, economic and political change applicable to Central and Eastern Europe. Included are suggestions for further reading, a listing of video resources on the subject, available in the United States, a chronology, a glossary and suggested questions for discussion with every chapter.

Nationalrevolutionäre Bewegungen in Südosteuropa im 19. Jahrhundert. Hrsg. von Christo Choliol ev, Karlheinz Mack und Arnold Suppan. Mit einer Einl. von Richard Georg Plaschka. [Schriftenreihe des Österreichischen Ost- und Südosteuropa-Instituts, Band XX.] Verlag für Geschichte und Politik, Wien 1992; R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München. 286 pp. S 480.
The twenty-five short essays in this collection deal with national-revolutionary movements in south-eastern Europe during the nineteenth century. Special attention is paid to the structure, ideology and dynamics of the Bulgarian movement and the reception of this movement in other south-European countries, Russia and Germany. Other contributions discuss the typology of "Illyrism" and the activity of the Slovenian social democrats during the Balkan war of 1912-1913.

Reinicke, Helmut. Wilde Kälten 1492. Die Entdeckung Europas. Verlag für Interkulturelle Kommunikation, Frankfurt 1992. 196 pp. Ill. DM 26.80.
In this literary and philosophical book the author dates the discovery of Europa in a metaphorical sense in 1492. The discovery of the Americas by Columbus and the subsequent violent conquest of the new continent and the destruction of the indian culture desecrated the old Occident, according to Mr Reinicke, and marks the birth of modern European culture.

Socialist Parties and the Question of Europe in the 1950's. Ed. by Richard Griffiths. [Contributions to the History of Labour and Society, 4.] E.J. Brill, Leiden [etc.] 1993. 280 pp. D.fl. 132.50.
In the present collection the attitudes and ideas of the European socialist parties and the Socialist International toward European integration in the 1950s are examined. The seventeen contributions deal with the development of the points of view concerning the "Question of Europe" within the Socialist International (the editor), as well as those within the French (Wilfried Loth and Denis Lefebvre), the Dutch (Wendy Asbeek Brusse), the Belgian (Thierry E. Mommsen and Luc Minten), the Austrian (Arno Einwitschläger) and the Spanish Socialist Party (Fernando Guirao Piñeyro), the German Social Democratic Party (Rudolf Hrbek and Jürgen Bellers), the British (Michael Newman) and the Norwegian Labour Party (Helge Pharo), and among the Italian socialists (Ennio di Nolfo), and the Danish and Swedish Social Democrats (Vibeke Sørensen and Ulf Olssen). In addition, three important actors are interviewed: Christian Pineau, Mario Zagari, Marius van der Goes van Naters.

Tallett, Frank. War and Society in Early-Modern Europe, 1495-1715. [War in Context.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1992. xv, 319 pp. Maps. £40.00.
This book aims to provide a comprehensive survey of warfare between 1495 and 1715 in Europe. Focusing on the social and institutional context rather than on the technical military side, Dr Tallett tries to show how warfare had an impact on different social groups and on the economy and patterns of settlement, as well as what the day-to-day experience of the ordinary soldiers must have been like. He also examines the implications of war for the growth of state power, suggesting reasons why some states were more successful in warfare than others.

Treptow, Kurt W. From Zalmoxis to Jan Palach. Studies in East European History. With an Introd. by Dinu C. Giurescu. East European Monographs, Boulder 1992; distr. by Columbia University Press, New York. v, 136 pp. $26.00.
This volume includes six studies by Mr Treptow, author of inter alia Dracula: essays on the life and times of Vlad epe (1991). They cover a wide variety of subjects, and range from antiquity to 1968. The only connection between the various studies collected is that they are all concerned with Eastern Europe. Included are "A study in Geto-Dacian religion: the cult of Zalmoxis", "Albania and the Ottoman invasion of Italy, 1480-1481", "Regional divergences in the crisis of feudalism: Eastern Europe and the Brenner thesis", "Distances and communications in Southeastern Europe, 1539-1612", "The formation of the Albanian national consciousness" and "The winter of despair: Jan Pallach and the collapse of the Prague spring".


Anderson, Harriet. Utopian Feminism. Women's Movements in fin-de-siècle Vienna. Yale University Press, New Haven [etc.] 1992. xiii, 322 pp. Ill. $35.00; £28.00.
In this study of women's movements in Vienna in the period 1890-1914 the author describes the development of women's organizations, their leaders, ideologies, strategies, internal conflicts, successes and setbacks. Dr Anderson argues that to these utopian feminists the issue of women's rights was not an end in itself, but a means to a better society for all.

Grandner, Margarete. Kooperative Gewerkschaftspolitik in der Kriegswirtschaft. Die freien Gewerkschaften Österreichs im ersten Weltkrieg. [Veröffentlichungen der Kommission für neuere Geschichte Österreichs, Band 82.] Böhlau Verlag, Wien [etc.] 1992. 465 pp. S 980.
The present study deals with the role of the Austrian trade-unions in the development of social policy in the Habsburg monarchy during the First World War. The author concludes that under the pressure of the declining economic and social conditions the government was forced to seek cooperation with the, mainly social-democratically orientated trade-unions, which were rapidly growing in strength during the War. This development created the conditions for the transfer of political power to social-democracy in the first Austrian Republic.

Miersch, Klausjürgen. Emil Kaler-Reinthal. Sozialethiker und früher österreichischer Arbeiterführer. [Böhlaus zeitgeschichtliche Bibliothek, Band 18.] Böhlau Verlag, Wien [etc.] 1992. 518 pp. DM 140.00; S 980.
This is a biography of the Austrian leader of the labour movement Emil Kaler-Reinthal (1850-1897). His childhood experiences awakened a social engagement and from 1871 onward Kaler-Reinthal came under the influence of Professor Tauschinski, whose socialist ideas were based on religious and ethical beliefs. Through Taushinski Kaler-Reinthal became involved in the development of the Austrian social democratic party, mainly as a journalist and ideologist. After many years of exile he turned his back on the Austrian social democratic party at the end of his life.

Rásky, Béla. Arbeiterfesttage. Die Fest- und Feiernkultur der sozialdemokratischen Bewegung in der Ersten Republik Österreich 1918-1934. [Materialien zur Arbeiterbewegung, Nr. 59.] Europaverlag, Wien [etc.] 1992. vii, 309 pp. Ill. S 348; DM 49.80.
This study examines the educational and cultural work within Austrian social democracy during the First Austrian Republic, 1918-1934, focusing on its culture of celebrations. According to the author three phases can be distinguished in the development of this culture in the Austrian labour movement: 1) the phase of the edifying celebration culture, in which the edification of the working class was the chief aim; 2) the phase in which the celebration culture mainly served to further the education in the work of the organization; and 3) the period of crisis at the end of the 1920s, when the celebration became an instrument for agitation and propaganda in particular.

Zoitl, Helge. "Student kommt von Studieren!" Zur Geschichte der sozialdemokratischen Studentenbewegung in Wien. [Materialien zur Arbeiterbewegung, Nr. 62.] Europa Verlag, Wien [etc.] 1992. 504 pp. Ill. S 348; DM 49.80.
This study analyses the origins of the Viennese social democratic students' movement, how it developed at the end of the nineteenth century amidst the tension between anti-intellectualism within the Austrian Social Democratic Party on the one hand, and the massive opposition of the German-national student organization on the other. According to Dr Zoitl the history of Austrian anti-Semitism, of the social and economic conflicts in Austria in the 1920s and 1930s, and of the opposition against parliamentary democracy is reflected in the history of the social democratic students' movement.


Gotovitch, José. Du Rouge au Tricolore. Les Communistes belges de 1939 à 1944. Un aspect de l'histoire de la Résistance en Belgique. [Archives du futur/Histoire.] Labor, Bruxelles 1992. 610 pp. Ill. B.fr. 985.00; F.fr. 167.00.
In this doctoral thesis (Brussels, 1992) the history of the resistance by the communist party of Belgium during the Second World War is examined, partly on the basis of extensive interviews with 300 resisters of the time. The author focuses on the day-to-day experiences of the militants. The opening of the Comintern archives made it possible to deal with the international dimension of the subject as well.

Eire - Ireland

Kerrigan, Colm. Father Mathew and the Irish Temperance Movement 1838-1849. Cork University Press, Cork 1992. vi, 249 pp. £25.00.
This book examines the rise and development of Father Mathew's crusade against drink in the context of pre-Famine Ireland, i.e. 1839-1849. Theobald Mathew (1790-1856), a socially concerned priest, joined the Irish temperance movement in 1838 and soon became the movement's leader. In 1839 he started an active and successful campaign against drink throughout Ireland. Mr Kerrigan deals with the influence of the crusade on drink consumption and crime, the influence of superstitious beliefs on it, the relationship with the repeal movement, the attitude of the Catholic clergy and the long term significance of the crusade.


Birnbaum, Pierre. Anti-Semitism in France. A Political History from Léon Blum to the Present. Transl. by Miriam Kochan. [Studies in Social Discontinuity.] Blackwell, Oxford [etc.] 1992. xii, 317 pp. £45.00.
In the present study Professor Birnbaum argues that the history of anti-Semitism in nineteenth- and twentieth-century France is a paradox: on the one hand, as a result of the French Revolution, the French state itself was exceptionally open to Jews; on the other hand, anti-Semitism became a main feature of French politics, despite the fact that there were Jews in the highest ranks of the French civil services and government. Relating this to his famous strong state/weak state distinction, the author concludes that it is the strength of the state that causes political anti-Semitism to appear, because strong states insist on homogeneity, whereas weak states tolerate diversity.

Dictionnaire biographique du mouvement ouvrier français. Publié sous la dir. de Jean Maitron. Tome XXXVIII. Quatrième Partie: 1914-1939. De la Première à la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Pama à Pinz. [Par] Jean Maitron [et] Claude Pennetier. Les Éditions Ouvrières, Paris 1990. 389 pp. Ill. F.fr. 280.00.
This new volume of the biographical dictionary of the French labour movement between the wars (see IRSH, XXIX (1984), p. 109) runs from Charles Pamart to Pinzutti (incl.).

Douglas, Allen. From Fascism to Libertarian Communism. Georges Valois against the Third Republic. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1992. xix, 328 pp. $40.00.
This is the first major biography of Georges Valois (1878-1945, real name Alfred Georges Gressent), whose political career and ideological evolution was, according to the author, one of the most exceptional in the history of the Third Republic France. Valois moved from anarcho-syndicalism in his youth, via the Action française to fascism, when he founded the Faisceau, the first openly fascist movement in the 1920s, to end up as a nonconformist French leftist, who died in Bergen-Belsen, as a resister during the Occupation. Professor Douglas explains Valois's career from his utopian modernism, with an essentially rational and instrumental view of the new society.

Les Espaces révolutionnaires. Actes du 114e Congres National des Sociétés Savantes (Paris, 1989). Section d'Histoire Moderne et Contemporaine. Editions du CTHS, Paris 1990. 478 pp. Ill. Maps. F.fr. 250.00.
The over thirty short contributions to this volume try to provide an insight into the geographical aspects of French protest movements after the sixteenth century. Attention is paid to the contrast town-country, interregional communication, city topography amd processes of geografic diffusion. The essays included deal with many topics, varying from the geography of "troubles" in Lyons (16th-18th centuries), through liberty trees to the local aspects of manifestations in Avignon (1947-1989).

Garnot, Benoît. Le peuple au siècle des Lumières. Échec d'un dressage culturel. Imago, Paris 1990. 244 pp. F.fr. 140.00.
The domination and "drilling" of the common people in eighteenth-century France are the chief issue in this monograph. Professor Garnot describes the daily lives and work of the lower classes, the disdainful perception of these by the elite, the attempts of this elite to make improvements by means of religion, training etc. and the resistance to this educational offensive, which found its expression in popular culture.

Hastings, Michel. Halluin la Rouge 1919-1939. Aspects d'un communisme identitaire. Presses Universitaires de Lille, Villeneuve d'Asq 1991. 438 pp. F.fr. 130.00.
This revision of a doctoral thesis (Lille II, 1988) describes the interwar activities, influence and mentality of communist militants in Halluin, a small town in northern France the economic and social life of which was dominated by linen weaving. In his broadly based study Dr Hastings sketches the "ecology" of the town (industrial relations, demography, origins of the labour movement; the consolidation of the Communist Party in the early 1920s; the culture inside the party, the relations with other political currents; and the influence on the local trade union movement.

Henry, André. Conquérir l'avenir. La F.E.N. de 1974 à 1981. Editions C.I.E.M., Paris 1992. 426 pp. F.fr. 150.00.
Mr André Henry was General Secretary of the Fédération de l'Education Nationale, the French teachers' union, in the years 1974-1981. In this voluminous book he describes this period in detail, paying attention to such diverse aspects as the relations with the socialist and communist parties and the mass media, internal reorganizations, changing opinions about education policy and forms of international solidarity.

Judt, Tony. Past Imperfect. French Intellectuals, 1944-1956. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1992. x, 348 pp. $30.00.
This study, the English translation of Passé imparfait: Les intellectuels en France, 1944-1956 (Paris, 1992), describes and analyses France's postwar intellectual community, focusing on the, according to the author, most important, divisive conflict and moral dilemma of how to respond to postwar communism. Professor Judt not only deals with the well-known existentialists (Sartre, Camus), but also pays attention to the whole spectrum of intellectuals, communist and non-communist. He concludes that the predominant attitude of "moral irresponsibility" continues to be a burdensome heritage for contemporary intellectuals.

La Berge, Ann F. Mission and method. The early nineteenth-century French public health movement. [Cambridge History of Medicine.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1992. xviii, 376 pp. Ill. £45.00; $69.95.
In the present book the author traces the development of the French public-health movement within the sociopolitical context of early nineteenth-century France. Examining the community of hygienists that were gathered on the Paris health council, Professor La Berge aims to show how their competing ideologies - liberalism, conservatism, socialism, statism - gave rise to a movement that inspired and informed similar movements elsewhere, especially in Britain. She argues that the dialectic between liberalism and statism characterized the French public health movement and reflected the tension between liberal and social medicine that permeated nineteenth-century French medical discourse.

Music and the French Revolution. Ed. by Malcolm Boyd. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1992. x, 328 pp. Ill. £40.00; $69.95.
Rouget de Lisle's anthem La marseillaise reflects the confidence and enthusiasm of the early years of the French Revolution. But the effects on music of the Revolution were more far-reaching than that. Hymns, chansons and even articles of the Constitution set to music in the form of vaudevilles all played their part in the dissemination of Revolutionary ideas; music education was reorganized to compensate for the loss of court institutions and the weakened influence of cathedrals and churches. The fifteen essays in this collection deal with all these aspects, highlighting the composers and writers who played a major role in these changes.

La pensée économique pendant la Révolution française. Actes du Colloque International de Vizille (6-8 septembre 1989). Contributions publ. sous la dir. de Gilbert Faccarello et Philippe Steiner. [Économies et Sociétés, Cahiers de l'ISMEA; Série Histoire de la Pensée Économique, P.E., No 13.] Presses Universitaires de Grenoble, Grenoble n.d. 659 pp. F.fr. 350.00.
In these extensive proceedings of an international colloquium at Vizille (September 1989) numerous aspects of economic thought at the time of the revolution of 1789 are dealt with. The over thirty contributions pay attention to, inter alia, the economic theories of Condorcet, Garnier, Roederer, Say, and Turgot; the social doctrines of Babeuf and others; "political arithmetics"; the monetary system, banking, etc.; and influences on thinkers in other countries, like Bentham, Fichte, and others.

Rebel Daughters. Women and the French Revolution. Ed. by Sara E. Melzer [and] Leslie W. Rabine. [University of California Humanities Research Institute Series.] Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 1992. xi, 296 pp. Ill. £27.50.
This is an interdisciplinary collection of fourteen essays, which examine a wide range of aspects of the relation between women and the French Revolution, arranged around four themes: women and the formation of revolutionary ideology; the other revolution: women as actors in the revolutionary period; constructing the new gender system in postrevolutionary culture; and the birth of modern feminism in the Revolution and its aftermath. Contributions included are, inter alia, "Incorruptible milk: breast-feeding and the French Revolution" (Mary L. Jacobus), "'A woman who has only paradoxes to offer': Olympe de Gouges claims rights for women" (Joan Wallach Scott), "Exotic femininity and the rights of man: Paul et Virginie and Atala, or the revolution in stasis" (Marie-Claire Vallois), and "Flora Tristan: rebel daughter of the Revolution" (Dominique Desanti).

Stetter, Wolfgang. Gewerkschaftsapparat und Arbeiterinteressen. Die Politik der C.G.T. im Mai 1968. [Reihe Quellen und Studien zur Sozialgeschichte, Band 10.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1992. 263 pp. DM 88.00.
In this study, based on a doctoral thesis (Münster, 1986), the author focuses on the role of the Confédération Générale du Travail (C.G.T.) in the workers' struggles in May and June 1968 in France, and discusses in how far trade unions, whose ideology are based on marxism-leninism, can develop new strategies and policies to meet the new challenges the trade union has to face in the highly industrialized society of the period. Dr Stetter concludes that the C.G.T. was insufficiently prepared for this as a result of its ideological basis.

Stuart, Robert. Marxism at Work. Ideology, class and French socialism during the Third Republic. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1992. xxi, 513 pp. £55.00; $85.00.
Focusing on the "Guesdists" within the Parti Ouvrier Français from the end of the nineteenth century to the First World War, this study examines Marxist socialism as a mode of understanding and self-understanding. A vulgarized form of Marxism was adopted and transmitted by thousands of militants, who were the backbone of the early French socialist party. Dr Stuart traces the birth of the Guesdist doctrine through conflicts with liberals, proto-fascists and anarchists. The resulting messianic socialism still affects French politics today, according to the author.


Bauern im Widerstand. Agrarrebellionen und Revolutionen in Ländern der Dritten Welt und im vorindustriellen Europa. Hrsg. von Peter Feldbauer [und] Hans-Jürgen Puhle. [Beiträge zur historischen Sozialkunde, Beiheft 1/1992.] Böhlau Verlag, Wien [etc.] 1992. 330 pp. S 380; DM 54.00.
This collection (supplement of Beiträge zur historischen Sozialkunde) offers a comparison between peasant revolts and revolutions in pre-capitalist and early capitalist West and Central Europe, in several Third World countries and in Japan. The editors contribute two theoretical articles, on peasant revolts in the Third World and on the limitations to peasants revolts. Other contributions include peasant revolts in Japan in the nineteenth century (Sepp Linhart), the Naxalites-movement in India (Herwig Palme), early forms of anti-colonial resistance in Africa, and the world economic crisis of the Interbellum and peasant revolts in Third World countries.

Baumann, Ursula. Protestantismus und Frauenemanzipation in Deutschland 1850 bis 1920. ["Geschichte und Geschlechter", Band 2.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1992. 384 pp. DM 68.00.
The reaction of the German protestant churches to the developing women's movement from the mid-nineteenth century to the Weimar Republic is the theme of the present study. From the 1850s onward, on a local level women's liberation activities found links with traditional church activities for women. At the turn of the century this resulted in the formation of national organizations, whose influence steadily increased. As a reaction to this development antifeminist groups were formed by conservative groups within the protestant church community.

Berg, Hubert van den. Erich Mühsam (1878-1934). Bibliographie der Literatur zu seinem Leben und Werk. Alpha, Leiden 1992. 116 pp. D.fl. 28.00.
This is a bibliography of the literature on the life and works of the German anarchist Erich Mühsam (1878-1934), and as such complementary to the Mühsam bibliography, which was noticed in IRSH, XXXVII (1992), p. 141. The present bibliography contains literature from the period 1901-1991 and fits into the increased attention for Mühsam and his writings, revived in the Federal Republic of Germany from the 1970s onward, and leading to the founding of the Erich-Mühsam-Gesellschaft in 1989.

Brunner, Detlev. Quellen zur Gewerkschaftsgeschichte. Bestandsverzeichnisse Ostberliner Archive zur Geschichte der Gewerkschaftsbewegung von den Anfängen bis 1933. [Veröffentlichungen des Instituts zur Erforschung der europäischen Arbeiterbewegung: Schriftenreihe B, Quellen und Dokumente, Band 2.] Klartext, Essen 1992. 316 pp. DM 89.00.
As a result of the turn in East-Germany the labour history archives there have been opened for research. This book contains an inventory of the material concerning labour movements up to 1933 in the Archiv der Gewerkschaftsbewegung and the Zentrale Parteiarchiv, both in Berlin. The major part of the papers described concerns German labour history, but a smaller part also concerns other European countries and the USA. Indexes to persons, places and organizations have been appended.

Doege, Michael. Armut in Preußen und Bayern (1770-1840). [Miscellanea Bavarica Monacensia, Band 157.] UNI-Druck, München 1991. viii, 606 pp. DM 29.80.
This doctoral thesis (Munich, 1991) examines the development of the policies on poverty of the Bavarian and Prussian governments at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century, and the effects of these policies on the everyday lives of the poor people concerned. As common characteristics of the policies on poverty in Bavaria and Prussia the author mentions the conscious negation of the social question as the basic cause of the problem of poverty and the overestimation of the significance of institutional care of the poor. According to the author, these two were important causes of the failure of government measures in the field of poor relief.

Eichler, Joachim. Von Köln nach Mannheim. Die Debatten über Maifeier, Massenstreik und Verhältnis der Freien Gewerkschaften zur deutschen Sozialdemokratie innerhalb der Arbeiterbewegung Deutschlands 1905/06. Zur Entstehung des "Mannheimer Abkommens". [Arbeiterbewegung, Band 26.] Lit, Münster [etc.] 1992. vi, 306 pp. DM 68.80.
As a result of the growing power of the free trade-unions in the German Empire from 1895 onward, the trade-unions' position of subordination in relation to the SPD changed into a more self-conscious and outspokenly independent one in 1905. The resulting debates between the party and the unions, which are described in this doctoral thesis (Münster, 1988), focusing on the questions of mass-strikes and the First-of-May celebrations. They reached a climax at the SPD-Parteitag in 1906, leading to the "Mannheim Agreement", in which the relations were newly defined.

Elections, Mass Politics, and Social Change in Modern Germany. New Perspectives. Ed. by Larry Eugene Jones and James Retallack. [Publications of the German Historical Institute, Washington, D.C.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1992. xiii, 430 pp. £35.00; $54.95.
This collection of sixteen essays investigates political loyalties and their relationship to the historical cleavages of class, gender, language, religion, generation, and locality in Germany from the time of Bismarck to the Nazi era. Topics include the alleged antisocialist consensus among Imperial Germany's elites (the second editor), gender in the age of "mass" politics (Eve Rosenhaft), "emancipation" of women in the Third Reich (Jill Stephenson), the political implications of localist ideas (Celia Applegate) and generational conflicts (the first editor).

Jarren, Volker. Schmuggel und Schmuggelbekämpfung in den preussischen Westprovinzen 1818-1854. [Forschungen zur Regionalgeschichte, Band 4.] Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn 1992. 304 pp. DM 60.00.
This doctoral thesis (Münster, 1990-91) reconstructs the history of smuggling and its suppression in the western part of Prussia from the beginning of the tollage laws in 1818 to the removal of the toll border with Hanover in 1854. After a short sketch of the administrative structure of West-Prussia Dr Jarren deals extensively with the attempts of customs officers, army, police and the justitiary to suppress smuggling and with the economic, fiscal and social dimensions of the illegal trade.

Juden und deutsche Arbeiterbewegung bis 1933. Soziale Utopien und religiös-kulturelle Traditionen. Hrsg. von Ludger Heid und Arnold Paucker.[Schriftenreihe wissenschaftlicher Abhandlungen des Leo-Baeck-Instituts, 49.] J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), Tübingen 1992. ix, 245 pp. DM 108.00.
The sixteen contributions in this collection, all originating from a conference on social utopias and religious-cultural traditions (Mülheim, 1990), deal with the dynamic relationship between Jews, socialism and the German labour movement until 1933. Subjects included are, inter alia: anti-Semitism in the lower levels of society at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century and in the early labour movement (Arno Herzig); social democracy and anti-Semitism at the time of the Dreyfus affair (Kurt Koszyk); Eduard Bernstein's attitude towards the Jewish Question (Robert S. Wistrich); Jewish women in the labour movement (Susanne Miller, Christl Wickert and Klaus-Dieter Vinschen) and the Jewish Question in the formative years of the Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold (Jacob Toury).

Kerchner, Brigitte. Beruf und Geschlecht. Frauenberufsverbände in Deutschland 1848-1908. [Kritische Studien zur Geschichtswissenschaft, Band 97.] Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1992. 368 pp. DM 58.00.
This Ph.D. thesis (Münster, 1990) deals with the goals and strategies of women's organizations in Germany in the period 1848-1908. The author aims to explore with what kind of expectations working women got organized, what means they used to pursue their goals and to what extent they found a typically feminine method. Although the first forms of an emancipated promotion of their own interests are apparent, this certainly cannot be said of every women's organization in the period.

Kirmes - Kneipe - Kino. Arbeiterkultur im Ruhrgebiet zwischen Kommerz und Kontrolle (1850-1914). Hrsg. von Dagmar Kift. [Forschungen zur Regionalgeschichte, Band 6.] Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn 1992. vii, 257 pp. Ill. DM 58.00.
In addition to an extensive introduction by the editor, who has written a monograph on the history of British Music Halls recently (IRSH, this volume, pp. 000-000), this collection contains eight essays about working-class culture in the Ruhr area during the second half of the nineteenth century. Attention is paid to commercial influences (Lynn Abrams), dancing (Elisabeth Kosok), amusement bars (Ulrich Linse), cinema (Jürgen Kinter), the press (Horst Groschopp), organized sociability (Ursula Krey), catholicism (Michael Schäfer) and violent crime (Ralph Jessen).

Rosenbaum, Heidi. Proletarische Familien. Arbeiterfamilien und Arbeiterväter im frühen 20. Jahrhundert zwischen traditioneller, sozialdemokratischer und kleinbürgerlicher Orientierung. [Suhrkamp-Taschenbuch Wissenschaft, 1029.] 406 pp. DM 28.00.
In this book Dr Rosenbaum reconstructs the family lives of labourers in the town of Linden near Hanover around the turn of the century on the basis of extensive interviews. After a detailed sketch of the historical environment (economy, social structure, housing, etc.) she describes, inter alia, reasons for marrying, kinship relations, sources of income, rituals related to eating and sexuality. Special attention is paid to the role of the father.

Schelz-Brandenburg, Till. Eduard Bernstein und Karl Kautsky. Entstehung und Wandlung des sozialdemokratischen Parteimarxismus im Spiegel ihrer Korrespondenz 1879 bis 1932. Böhlau Verlag, Köln [etc.] 1992. vii, 447 pp. Ill. DM 68.00.
Based on an extensive examination of the complete Bernstein-Kautsky correspondence, which covers over fifty years, this Ph.D. thesis (Bremen, 1991) deals with the role of two of the most important intellectuals in the German socialist labour movement, in the area of tension between emancipatory theory and the party discipline of the SPD. The author argues for a re-evaluation of Bernstein's significance as a theorist.

Staatsarchiv Hamburg. Bearb. von Klaus Weinhauer, Hans-Arthur Marsiske und Hannelore Rilke. Unter Mitarb. von Henning Fülle. [Inventar zur Geschichte der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung in den staatlichen Archiven der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Reihe C, Band 2/Teil 1.] Colloquium Verlag, Berlin 1992. xxv, 223 pp. DM 148.00.
This is the first part of a two-volume inventory of archival material on the history of the German labour movement, to be found in the state archives of the city of Hamburg. Not all the existing material is included, because not all the material has been arranged, due to a lack of staff. Contrary to what is said in Walter Momper's announcement of this series in the Internationalen wissenschaftlichen Korrespondenz zur Geschichte der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung (IWK) 16 (1980), p. 192-231, material after 1945 has not been included.

Thelen, Kathleen A. Union of Parts. Labor Politics in Postwar Germany. [Cornell Studies in Political Economy.] Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1991. xii, 262 pp. $32.50.
Using a case study of contemporary Germany's leading union, the IG Metall, this book attempts to show how the system of plant works councils created in the 1950s - in a form the union originally opposed - evolved into an integral part of the IG Metall's structure and strategies. By examining plant bargaining in three industries, adversely affected by economic developments in the 1970s and 1980s - steel, automobiles and consumer electronics - the author demonstrates how codetermination contributed to Germany's overall pattern of negotiated adjustment.

Triebel, Armin. Zwei Klassen und die Vielvalt des Konsums. Haushaltsbudgetierung bei anhängig Erwerbstätigen in Deutschland im ersten Drittel des 20. Jahrhunderts. Band 1. Band 2. [Materialien aus der Bildungsforschung Nr. 41.] Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung, Berlin 1991. xix, 416 pp.; 383 pp. DM 48.00.
The main aim of this Ph.D. thesis (Berlin, 1990) is to establish the influence of social class on consumption within a stable income range. A database on household budgets was developed for this purpose, comprising about 5,000 private household budgets, originating from separately published sources, all of members of the lower and middle classes, who lived in cities and small towns in Germany in the period 1901-1937. The author concludes that, contrary to the widely held assumptions, blue-collar workers had fairly consistent preferences, whereas the white-collar employees and civil servants had a consumption pattern clearly different from the proletarian one, but full of variety and difficult to characterize.

Weitensfelder, Hubert. Interessen und Konflikte in der Frühindustrialisierung. Dornbirn als Beispiel. [Studien zur Historischen Sozialwissenschaft, Band 18.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt 1991. 197 pp. DM 38.00.
Three aspects of the early industrialization until 1848 in Dornbirn (Vorarlberg) are dealt with in this concise study: the division of the Allmende (communal lands); the rise of the textile (proto-)industry and social conflicts created by the corvée and pauperization.

Great Britain

Adams, Jad. Tony Benn. Macmillan, London [etc.] 1992. xv, 536 pp. Ill. £20.00.
In this authorized biography, written with full access to the Benn archives, the author gives a comprehensive sketch of the life and career of Tony Benn (1925- ), one of British Labour's most controversial leading radicals. Mr Adams chronicles, inter alia, Benn's renunciation of the Stansgate peerage, his fight for the Labour Party leadership throughout his career, his failed battles to revive British industry, and Benn's victimization in the alleged dirty-tricks campaign by the British secret service against the Labour Party.

Benn, Caroline. Keir Hardie. Hutchinson, London 1992. xxi, 538 pp. Ill. £25.00.
In this new biography of one of the founding fathers of British socialism and Labour's first MP, the author sets out to portray Hardie as a man, instead of as a socialist saint. She concentrates on Hardie as a democratic and humanitarian socialist and pays special attention to his family and relationships, using family letters, never available before.

Blaazer, David. The Popular Front and the Progressive Tradition. Socialists, Liberals, and the Quest for Unity, 1884-1939. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1992. xv, 247 pp. £30.00.
This study is an exploration of the Popular Front and United Front campaigns in Britain in the late 1930s. The author aims to dispel the myth that these campaigns were a ruse, engineered by the Communists, into which non-Communists were drawn blindly. The author looks for the idea of "progressive unity" in earlier periods (beginnings of the Fabian Society, agitation against the Boer War, the First World War and the Treaty of Versailles) and argues that the Popular Front was neither an aberration nor a "stunt", but a reasoned and culturally familiar response to the political crisis of fascism and appeasement.

Britnell, R.H. The commercialisation of English society 1000-1500. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1993. xiv, 273 pp. £30.00.
This study examines both the institutional and the economic transformation of English society in the period 1000-1500, when livelihoods became more dependent upon money and commercial transactions and urban development became more pronounced. The author pays attention to the social changes that resulted from this transformation and argues that formal trading institutions were of limited importance for the development of local trade.

The Centennial History of the Independent Labour Party. A Collection of Essays ed. by David James, Tony Jowitt and Keith Laybourn. Ryburn Academic Publishing, Halifax 1992. 376 pp. £35.00.
This is a collection of seventeen essays - all but three original - on the history of the British Independent Labour Party (ILP), published to mark the centenary of the foundation of the party in January 1893. Four contributions focus on the regional role of the ILP, four on the history of the ILP in Bradford, while six essays deal with specific issues, such as women and the ILP (June Hannam), religion and the ILP (Leonard Smith) and the ILP and the Second International (Chris Wrigley). The last three contributions of this collection review the recent literature and give an overview of the records on the history of the ILP.

Clark, Alice. Working Life of Women in the Seventeenth Century. New ed. With a new introd. by Amy Louise Erickson. Routledge, London [etc.] 1992. lix, 328 pp. £11.99.
This reprint is the third edition of a study originally published in 1919, being one of the first comprehensive analyses of the daily lives of women from all social and economic groups in early modern England, adressing a broad area of transition, from medieval subsistence economy to the industrial capitalism of the nineteenth and early twentienth centuries. The general conclusion of the study is that capitalist industry seriously eroded women's status. In a new introduction Amy Louise Erickson discusses the historiographical and contemporary importance of Ms Clark's book.

Dintenfass, Michael. The Decline of Industrial Britain 1870-1980. [Historical Connections.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1992. xi, 94 pp. £5.99.
This little book - written primarily for those studying and teaching history - provides an account of Britain's long-term economic performance since 1870. Professor Dintenfass combines a concise survey of recent scholarly work in British economic and business history with an interpretation of his own, stressing the importance of the decisions entrepreneurs and managers have made within the corporate offices and on the shopfloors of British enterprises.

Emery, Norman. The Coalminers of Durham. With a Foreword by David Guy. Alan Sutton, Stroud 1992. vi, 210 pp. Ill. £16.99.
This richly illustrated book describes the development of the mining industry in County Durham, which from the beginning of the Industrial Revolution until well into the twentieth century was one of England's major sources of fuel. Much attention is paid to the role of the Durham Miners' Association and its struggle for improvements in living and working conditions.

Fielding, Steven. Class and ethnicity. Irish Catholics in England, 1880-1939. [Themes in the Twentieth Century.] Open University Press, Buckingham [etc.] 1993. xvi, 180 pp. £14.99.
Focusing on the large and politically active Irish population of Manchester in the period 1880-1939, Dr Fielding here examines how an Irish and catholic identity survived in a long settled community. He challenges the predominant view that class consciousness had largely transcended the remnants of a separate Irish Catholic ethnic identity by 1914.

Griffith, Gareth. Socialism and Superior Brains. The political thought of Bernard Shaw. Routledge, London [etc.] 1993. x, 306 pp. £35.00.
This intellectual biography aims to provide a comprehensive critical account of the political ideas of Bernard Shaw as one of the important intellectuals of British socialism. Dr Griffith examines the methods Shaw employed and the levels of abstraction at which his thought operated. He analyses Shaw's main concerns in relation to his Fabianism, his arguments for equality of income and his ideas on democracy and education, taking into account issues like sexual equality, the Irish question, war, fascism and Sovietism.

Labour Governments and Private Industry. The Experience of 1945-1951. Ed. by H. Mercer, N. Rollings and J.D. Tomlinson. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 1992. vii, 244 pp. £35.00.
This collection of eleven essays examines the complex relationship between the Labour government and the private sector during the years 1945-1951. Six contributions deal with an analysis of the types of policy in operation and their implementation: e.g. productivity policy (Jim Tomlinson), the anti-monopoly policy (Helen Mercer) and the taxation policy (Richard Whiting). In four case studies the practical application of these policies in specific sectors is examined: the cotton industry (Marguerite Dupree), the motor car industry (Nick Tiratsoo), the shipbuilding industry (Lewis Johnman) and the film industry (Nicholas Pronay).

Midgley, Clare. Women Against Slavery. The British Campaigns, 1780-1870. Routledge, London [etc.] 1992. xii, 281 pp. Ill. £37.50.
The present study examines the extent of women's involvement in the British campaign against slavery in the period 1780-1870. The author looks at the type of women who became activists and considers the contribution they made to the organization, activities, policy and ideology of the abolition movement. The close links between British and American women, which, according to Dr Midgley, were essential for the transatlantic abolitionist network, are also explored.

Out of Bounds: Women in Scottish Society 1800-1945. Ed. by Esther Breitenbach and Eleanor Gordon. [Edinburgh Education and Society Series.] Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 1992. viii, 228 pp. £16.95.
The eight essays in this collection examine institutional aspects of women's lives in Scotland from the beginning of the nineteenth century to 1945 (in education, reformatories, prisons and the church) and pay attention to the political influence of women on Scottish society - from the suffrage movement to women MPs, rent strikes and working-class resistance.

Pankhurst, E. Sylvia. A Sylvia Pankhurst Reader. Ed. by Kathryn Dodd. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1993; distr. excl. in the USA and Canada by St. Martin's Press, New York. viii, 248 pp. £35.00. (Paper: £14.95.)
Spanning her life as a suffragette, socialist, communist and anti-fascist, this anthology includes substantial extracts from Sylvia Pankhurst's (1882-1960) journalism and books, as well as previously unpublished papers. The editor introduces this collection with a substantial essay emphasizing Pankhurst's importance as a socialist-feminist author committed to formal experimentation. The material is arranged in five chronological sections, prefaced by explanatory introductions.

People and Power in Scotland. Essays in Honour of T.C. Smout. Ed. by Roger Mason and Norman Macdougall. John Donald Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh 1992. xvi, 239 pp. Ill. Maps. £30.00.
On the occasion of his retirement as Professor of Scottish History at St Andrew's University, Edinburgh, ten essays have been collected in this Festschrift for Professor Smout. Topics range from the fifteenth to the nineteenth centuries and include, inter alia, the national identity in renaissance Scotland (Roger Mason), elite manners and the downfall of Charles I in Scotland (David Stevenson) and the economic and social origins of mid-Victorian political consensus in Scotland (William W. Knox). A list of the publications of professor Smout is included.

Rollison, David. The Local Origins of Modern Society. Gloucestershire 1500-1800. Routledge, London [etc.] 1992. xvi, 319 pp. £40.00.
Through a series of ten local studies of specific aspects, families and individuals, all situated in the region of Gloucestershire, during a period of three centuries (1500-1800), Professor Rollison explores the rise of capitalist manufacturing in the English countryside and the revolution in consciousness that accompanied it. In his case studies he focuses on a great diversity of subjects, such as language, culture, sex and gender, class and social stratification, and community and the individual. He argues that the focus for change of what normally is called the "Industrial Revolution" lies not so much in the urban centres as in the countryside, and that the change was far too gradual to be called a revolution.

Rule, John. Albion's People. English society, 1714-1815. [Social and Economic History of England.] Longman, London [etc.] 1992. xvi, 269 pp. £26.00. (Paper: £10.99.)
This is a comprehensive social history of England in the eighteenth century, which is published simultaneously with a volume on the economic history of eighteenth-century England by the same author (see below). After setting out the demographic and economic contexts, Professor Rule discusses the upper-middle and lower classes in the towns as well as in the countryside, focusing on their living conditions and aspirations. He looks at popular education, religion, culture and standard of living. He also describes patterns of crime and punishment and of social and industrial protest, ending the book with a review of change and continuity in the period dealt with.

Rule, John. The Vital Century. England's Developing Economy, 1714-1815. [Social and Economic History of England.] Longman, London [etc.] 1992. xvii, 334 pp. Maps. £26.00. (Paper: £11.99.)
This book, a companion volume to Professor Rule's Albion's people. English Society 1714-1815 (see above), offers a comprehensive analytical survey of the economic history of England in the eighteenth century. Professor Rule examines population growth and the rates of economic growth and discusses agriculture, rural and urban industries, labour, infrastructure, the role of the towns, finance and the domestic and overseas markets. In a final assessment of the economic progress the author argues that, although the traditional presentations of the Industrial Revolution may tend to exaggerate the transformation of the economy, at the end of the eighteenth century the outlines of the modern economy were clearly visible.

Schwarz, L.D. London in the age of industrialisation. Entrepreneurs, labour force and living conditions, 1700-1850. [Cambridge Studies in Population, Economy and Society in Past Time, 19.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1992. xv, 285 pp. £30.00; $54.95.
In this study Dr Schwarz aims to give a detailed analysis of the changes in the economy and social structure of London during the period 1700-1850, in order to judge the effect of industrialization on the country's largest manufacturing city. Analysing middle-class wealth, the income of the working class, living standards, death rates, the changing nature of the labour force, wages and the economic role of women, Dr Schwarz argues that, contrary to the view that "the industrial revolution was a storm that passed over London and broke elsewhere", the indirect effects of industrialization were felt strongly there.

Shoemaker, Robert B. Prosecution and Punishment. Petty crime and the law in London and rural Middlesex, c. 1660-1725. [Cambridge Studies in Early Modern British History.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1991. xviii, 351 pp. Ill. £40.00; $64.50.
Focusing on prosecutions for misdemeanour rather than on prosecutions of felonies, this book examines the day-to-day operation of the criminal-justice system in Middlesex in the period 1660-1725. Dr Shoemaker makes use of statistical analysis of thousands of recognizances, indictments and house of correction commitments and discusses the formal and informal methods of prosecuting petty crimes, the importance of status, gender and individual justices of the peace in shaping the access to the law, contrasting prosecutorial strategies adopted in rural Middlesex and in different parts of London, in order to make an assessment of the social significance of law in preindustrial England.

Stevenson, John. Popular Disturbances in England, 1700-1832. Second Ed. [Themes in British Social History.] Longman, London [etc.] 1992. xi, 347 pp. £11.99.
This is the second, revised edition of Popular disturbances in Britain 1700-1870 (1979), which was noticed in IRSH, XXV (1980), p. 425. The study now appears in two self-contained volumes, of which the present book is the first, covering the period 1700-1832.

Thompson, Willie. The Good Old Cause. British Communism 1920-1991. Pluto Press, London 1992. viii, 258 pp. £35.00. (Paper: £12.95.)
This is a concise history of the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) from its origins and foundation in 1920 to its transformation into the Democratic Left in 1990, written by a former editor of Marxism Today. The author emphasizes the contradiction between the CPGB's revolutionary objectives and its need to adapt to the generally conservative British political culture. Revealing covert KGB funding, Dr Thompson focuses on the paradox of the CPGB as a part of an international revolutionary network controlled by the Soviet Union on the one hand, and its position as part of the British labour movement on the other.

Tretter, Michael. Die Konservative Partei Englands vor dem Ersten Weltkrieg und ihre Auseinandersetzung mit der politischen und gewerkschaftlichen Arbeiterbewegung. [Arbeitskreis Deutsche England-Forschung, Band 21.] Universitätsverlag Dr. N. Brockmeyer, Bochum 1992. 277 pp. DM 49.80.
This doctoral thesis (Mannheim, 1991) deals with the British Conservative Party's perception of and reaction to the rapidly growing labour movement in the period 1906-1914. The author examines to what extent the growth of the Labour Party in this period was a threat to the political position of the Conservatives, and looks at possible patterns by which the perception of Labour was formed within the Conservative Party. Special attention is paid to the role of the Radical Right.

Warr, John. A Spark in the Ashes. The Pamphlets of John Warr. Ed. with an Introd. by Stephen Sedley and Lawrence Kaplan. Foreword by Christopher Hill. Verso, London [etc.] 1992. xii, 116 pp. £9.95.
In 1648 and 1649, during the climax of the English Revolution, three pamphlets were published, written by John Warr, about whom no further information is known. In these pamphlets the author formulates a theory of what we now call human rights ("people's rights" in Warr's words). In this edition the complete pamphlets are published, with explanatory reader's prefaces to each pamphlet and a general introduction, in which the editors set Warr's ideas in their political, religious and cultural context.

Workers' worlds. Cultures and communities in Manchester and Salford, 1880-1939. Ed. by Andrew Davies [and] Steven Fielding. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1992; distr. excl. in the USA and Canada by St. Martin's Press, New York. ix, 182 pp. £40.00.
The six essays in this collection examine aspects of working-class social life in Manchester and neighbouring Salford between 1880 and 1939, emphasizing the diversity of lifestyles through studies of religion (the second editor), gossip (Melanie Tebbutt), women's lives (Ann Hughes and Karen Hunt), leisure (the first editor, David Fowler) and street betting (Mark Clapson).


Neri Serneri, Simone. Democrazia e stato. L'antifascismo liberaldemocratico e socialista dal 1923 al 1933. Franco Angeli, Milano 1989. 315 pp. L. 35.000.
In this monograph Dr Neri Serneri, who has already edited a publication of sources about the illegal Partito socialista 1943-1945 (IRSH, XXXV (1990), p. 178), reconstructs liberal and socialist anti-fascism in the years 1923-1933, highlighting the activities of, inter alia, Piero Gobetti, Giovanni Amendola, Pietro Nenni en Carlo Rosselli.

Villari, Rosario. The Revolt of Naples. Transl. by James Newell, with the assistance of John A. Marino. Foreword by Peter Burke. Polity Press, Cambridge 1993. xi, 280 pp. £39.50.
This is the English translation of the classic Italian study La rivolta antispagnola a Napoli (1964) on the revolt in 1647-1648 by the people of the Kingdom of Naples against the ruling Spanish monarchy. The author analyses the preconditions of the revolt. Going back to the late sixteenth century, he retraces the course of the events, which led to the revolt and discusses the repercussions of the revolt outside Naples.

The Netherlands

Biografisch woordenboek van het socialisme en de arbeidersbeweging in Nederland. Onder red. van P.J. Meertens (†), Mies Campfens, Ger Harmsen, Jannes Houkes, Albert F. Mellink (†), Bob Reinalda en Johanna M. Welcker. Deel 5. Stichting tot beheer van materialen op het gebied van de sociale geschiedenis, IISG, Amsterdam 1992. xxii, 341 pp. Ill. D.fl. 44.00.
This is the fifth volume of the planned six-volume biographical dictionary of the Dutch socialist and labour movements, 1848-1940 (see IRSH, XXXII (1987), p. 300, XXXIII (1988), p. 242 and XXXVI (1991), p. 148).

Kuipers, Hans Jan. De Wereld als Werkplaats. Over de vorming van Kees Boeke en Beatrice Cadbury. With a summary in English. [IISG: Studies + Essays, 17.] Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1992. 232 pp. Ill. D.fl. 38.50.
This Ph.D thesis (Amsterdam, 1992) deals with the origins of the Werkplaats, a unique Dutch school and type of school, related to the ideas of Maria Montessori and the Dalton system. The school was developed from 1925 onward by two religious pacifists, Kees Boeke and his English wife Betty Cadbury, descendant of a well known family of Quaker chocolate manufacturers. The author examines the personal backgrounds of the couple to see how these influenced the development of the school and the educational ideas behind it, and argues that it was not educational motives in the first place, but rather basic political considerations, that gave rise to the establishment of the new school.


Goodwyn, Lawrence. Breaking the Barrier. The Rise of Solidarity in Poland. Oxford University Press, New York [etc.] 1991. xxx, 466 pp. $27.95.
In his extensive study of the history of Solidarnošc, based on interviews and historical research, professor Goodwyn starts at the early roots of the movement for independent trade-unions, which go back to 1945/46. He describes the strikewaves of 1956, 1970 and 1976, which provided the workers with the knowledge necessary to create Solidarnošc, and the difficult emergence of an alliance between workers and intellectuals of the "democratic opposition", and gives a detailed account of the events in Gdansk in 1980. In his epilogue, the author criticizes present-day Polish politics, which, in his opinion, still has to travel a great distance to fulfill the democratic legacy of the early years of Solidarnošc.

Women in Polish Society. Ed. by Rudolf Jaworski and Bianka Pietrow-Ennker. East European Monographs, Boulder; distr. by Columbia University Press, New York 1992. x, 219 pp. $32.50.
The nine contributions in this collection focus on the situation and self-perception of Polish women in the nineteenth century. Contributions included are, inter alia, "Konspiracja: probing the topography of women's underground activities. The Kingdom of Poland in the second half of the nineteenth century" (Bogna Lorence-Kot), "Girls' education in the Kingdom of Poland (1815-1915)" (Adam Winiarz), and "Women in working class families in the Congress Kingdom (the Russian zone of Poland) at the turn of the nineteenth century" (Anna arnowska). The collection is concluded by a bibliographical essay (by Adam Winiarz).

Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Elwood, R. C. Inessa Armand. Revolutionary and feminist. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1992. xi, 304 pp. Ill. £29.95; $49.95.
Inessa Armand (1874-1920) was the first Director of the Women's Section of the Russian Communist Party (the Zhenotdel), and is mostly known solely as Lenin's protégée and alleged mistress. In this political biography, Professor Elwood seeks to correct this picture by portraying her as an accomplished revolutionary propagandist and Bolshevik organizer in her own right, and as a feminist for all of her life, defending women's interests in the home, in the workplace and in society. The author concludes that earlier evidence that Armand had an extended love affair with Lenin is doubtful.

Fitzpatrick, Sheila. The Cultural Front. Power and Culture in Revolutionary Russia. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1992. xx, 264 pp. $15.35.
In this volume ten essays - two of which original - have been collected on the relationship between culture and politics in revolutionary Russia from the October Revolution through the Stalinist 1930s, written by the well-known historian of the Soviet Union Professor Fitzpatrick. The author deals with issues like the Cultural Revolution, the formation of the new Stalinist elite, socialist realism, arguments about sexual mores and new consumerism in the 1930s. According to Professor Fitzpatrick, the final outcome of the battle on "the cultural front" was that the intelligentsia eventually emerged as partial victor.

Siegelbaum, Lewis H. Soviet state and society between revolutions, 1918-1929. [Cambridge Soviet Paperbacks, 8.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1992. xiii, 284 pp. £40.00 (Paper: £13.95); $16.95.
This study analyses the relationship between the Soviet state and society from the October Revolution of 1917 to the revolution under Stalin in the late 1920s and early 1930s. By tracing the evolution of the Communist Party and the New Economic Policy, the changing fortunes of industrial workers and peasants, and the role of the scientific and cultural intelligentsia, Professor Siegelbaum examines the ways in which the promise of a new society by the 1917 Revolution informed the thinking of party leaders, worker activists, artists and scientists.


Althammer, Beate. Die Textilarbeiterinnen von Barcelona: Arbeitsbedingungen, Alltag und soziale Konflikte 1900-1914. [Forschungen zu Spanien, Band 10.] Verlag Breitenbach Publishers, Saarbrücken [etc.] 1992. iv, 454 pp. DM 58.00.
In the summer of 1913 a strike, which became one of the most massive ones in Spain in the early twentieth century, brought to a standstill the textile industries in Catalonia. Remarkably, this strike was supported mainly by women. In this study the causes of the strike and the role of the women are examined. It focuses especially on working and living conditions, the existing labour organizations and the forms of collective action in the rapidly growing city of Barcelona.

Peirats, José. Anarchists in the Spanish Revolution. Freedom Press, London 1990. 388 pp. Ill. £6.00.
This is a second American edition of Los anarquistas en la crisis politica española (1964), with a preface dated 1974. Mr Peirats (1908-1989), historiographer of the CNT and author of the three volume La CNT en la revolucion española (1951-1953), presents a survey of the working-class movement in Spain from the founding of the First International in 1869 to the political struggles that led to the outbreak of the Civil War. He continues by an extensive description of the fortunes of the anarchists in this period.