Volume 39 part 1 (1994)
Continents and Countries
Cameroon | Egypt | Ethiopia | Kenya | South Africa
Brazil | Canada | Mexico | United States of America
China | Iran | Vietnam
- Australia and Oceania
Australia | New Zealand
Eire - Ireland | France | Germany | Great Britain | Italy | The Netherlands | Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics | Spain | Sweden
Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.
SOCIAL THEORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE
Bellamy, Richard and Darrow Schecter. Gramsci and the Italian State. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1993; distr. excl. in the USA and Canada by St. Martin's Press, New York. xvi, 203 pp. £35.00.
Examining Gramsci's political writings from a historical viewpoint, the authors of this book aim to show how Gramsci's adaption of Marxism and his analysis of the problems of industrial democracies of Western Europe were shaped by the peculiarities of Italian politics and society in Gramsci's days, especially by the Italian preoccupation with the creation of a unified state. Although, according to the authors, Gramsci's writings are dated as a result and often have been misused by the Italian communists to legitimize their often changing course, his work remains important enough to be studied seriously, because it links theory and practice.
Crompton, Rosemary. Class and Stratification. An Introduction to Current Debates. Polity Press, Oxford 1993. xi, 231 pp. £11.95.
This textbook offers a comprehensive review of the different theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of social class and stratification, developed after 1945, including quantitative approaches (Goldthorpe, Wright), as well as the investigation of class processes in history, politics and sociology. Issues dealt with in this volume are consumption, the growth of the middle classes, gender, citizenship and the "underclass". Dr Crompton argues that the examination of structural social inequality - for example class - remains a key topic in sociology, notwithstanding the modern trend to consider these categories as no longer relevant.
Davies, Wayne K.D. and David T. Herbert. Communities within Cities. An Urban Social Geography. Belhaven Press, London 1993; Co-publ. by Halsted Press, New York. ix, 196 pp. Maps. £37.50.
This book is a comprehensive study of the social geography of communities within cities. As such it concentrates on the relevance of place to the broader ideas that have come to be known as the "community question". The text deals with issues like societal fragmentation, classification, social networks, the social construction of communities, community development, provision of services and physical design.
Donald, Moira. Marxism and Revolution. Karl Kautsky and the Russian Marxists 1900-1924. Yale University Press, New Haven [etc.] 1993. xii, 324 pp. £30.00; $45.00.
In this study of Kautsky's influence on Russian Marxists, Dr Donald argues that Lenin's thought and therefore the Bolsheviks' ideology relied more heavily on Kautsky's thinking than the Bolsheviks wanted to admit later, after their parting of the way with Kautsky. By setting Lenin's writings in their historical context, she tries to show that even in those areas of thought that are known as typically Leninist - the party, the role of the intelligentsia, and imperialism - Lenin borrowed much from Kautsky. Even Trotsky's theory of permanent revolution was influenced by Kautsky's thought, according to the author.
Draper, Hal. Socialism from Below. Essays Selected, Ed., and with an Introd. by E. Haberkern. [Revolutionary Studies.] Humanities Press, Atlantic Highlands [etc.] 1992. xviii, 282 pp. £35.95.
This is a selection of fifteen essays by Hal Draper (1914-1990), all but one of which were published before. Hal Draper was one of the leading radical twentieth-century thinkers of the United States, who saw the key to the reform of existing society in the struggle for self-emancipation from below. Included are, besides Draper's influential essay "The two souls of socialism" (1966), several historical studies, articles on the New Left in the 1960s, polemical articles defending the Marxist approach, and a description of Marx' and Engels' evolution into advocates of socialism from below.
Finding the Household. Conceptual and Methodological Issues. Ed. by K. Saradamoni. [Women and the Household in Asia, Vol. 5.] Sage Publications, New Delhi [etc.] 1992. 251 pp. £27.50.
The purpose of the eleven articles in this collection is to explore conceptual and methodological issues relating to the household as a unit of data collection for socio-economic and other research. Attention is paid to, inter alia, the formation and the inner dynamics of households, the links between individual households and the wider processes and structures of society, and differing and changing notions of family and kinship. The essays are based on sources of data and field dates from India, the Philippines, Korea and Vietnam.
Geschlechterverhältnisse im historischen Wandel. Hrsg. von Hanna Schissler. ["Geschichte und Geschlechter", Band 3.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1993. 206 pp. DM 48.00.
The eight essays in this collection present a survey of the discussions both in the United States and in Germany on the role of gender in history and discuss how the study of gender history can change existing historical knowledge. Some of the contributions focus on the methodological problems of women's and gender history as such (the editor, Joan W. Scott), whereas others connect these problems with actual historical examples (Gerda Lerner, Dagmar Herzog, Kathleen Canning, Catharina Stodolsky, Frances Gouda) or make a historiographical comparison between the United States and Germany (Karin Offen).
Gottlieb, Roger S. Marxism 1844-1990. Origins, betrayal, rebirth. [Revolutionary Thought/Radical Movements.] Routledge, New York [etc.] 1992. xvii, 248 pp. £10.99.
In this book Professor Gottlieb presents a survey of Marx's original theory and its strengths and weaknesses, and continues by demonstrating how, in his opinion, the social-democratic and the communist movements between 1880 and 1935 betrayed the original vision of Marxism. He argues that Marxist theory was "reborn" in Western Marxism and socialist-feminism, offering an account of their theories. The concluding chapters focus on the relation between Marxism and several contemporary concerns, such as, inter alia, postmodernism and socially engaged spirituality.
Greenfeld, Liah. Nationalism. Five Roads to Modernity. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (MA) [etc.] 1992. xii, 581 pp. £39.95.
This is an innovative comparative historical and sociological study of the origins and development of nationalism in England, France, Russia, Germany and the United States. Professor Greenfeld examines why and how nationalism emerged, and was transformed in the process of being transferred from one society to another, and why and how different forms of national identity and consciousness were translated into nations. Among other aspects, she focuses on the semantic change in the meaning of the word "nation" in the different societies.
Jentsch, Harald. Die politische Theorie August Thalheimers 1919-1923. Mit einem Vorwort von Theodor Bergmann. [Decaton Forschung, Band 1.] Decaton Verlag, Mainz 1993. 120 pp. DM 22.00.
This revision of a master's thesis (Leipzig, 1990) presents the history of an important part of the political theory of August Thalheimer (1884-1948). It deals with three main themes in Thalheimer's political ideas in the period 1919-1923. First, Thalheimer's view on Marxist theory and the principles and methods of applying Marxist theory; second, Thalheimer's interpretation of imperialism and the political crisis of capitalism, based on Rosa Luxemburg's theory of accumulation; and third, Thalheimer's theoretical and tactical ideas on the development of the proletariat from object to subject of the revolution. See also the annotation on Thalmeimer's Programmatische Fragen (this volume).
Moore, Stanley. Marx Versus Markets. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park 1993. x, 126 pp. $22.50.
Thirteen years after Marx on the Choice between Socialism and Communism (1980), Professor Moore reformulates his theses that, first, Marx's major arguments for abolishing commodity exchange rely on moral and philosophical premises, derived from Feuerbach and Hegel, and, second, that Marx's ideal of a communist economy is incompatible with his materialist approach to history. In the present study he also makes the link between ending capitalist exploitation and ending commodity exchange and he argues that, contrary to what Lenin said and Professor Moore took over in his 1980 book, in Marx's writings no mention is made of a transitional classless economy with commodity exchange.
Moscovici, Serge. The Invention of Society. Psychological Explanations for Social Phenomena. Transl. by W.D. Halls. Polity Press, Cambridge 1993. vii, 403 pp. £45.00.
In this book, the English translation of La Machine à faire des dieux (1988), the author opposes the idea that social movements, crises and other phenomena must be explained exclusively by social causes, without recourse to psychological explanation. Focusing on three types of social phenomena - religion, innovation and money - the author tries to show how they provide individuals with the possibility of living and thinking as a collectivity. Discussing the work of Durkheim, Mauss, Weber and Simmel, Dr Moscovici argues that only a productive interplay between psychology and sociology will do justice to the interdisciplinary character of their thought.
Rethinking Labor History. Essays on Discourse and Class Analysis. Ed. by Lenard R. Berlanstein. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1993. viii, 235 pp. $39.95. (Paper: $12.95.)
Focusing on French labour history, this collection of nine essays discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the renovation of labour history from the 1980s onward by the rise of discourse analysis, which opposed revisionist Marxist class analysis. Advocates of both currents are represented. Contributors are: Ronald Aminzade, Leora Auslander, Lenard R. Berlanstein, Laura Lee Downs, Gay L. Gullickson, Michael Hanagan, Christopher H. Johnson, Donald Reid, and William H. Sewell, Jr.
Adick, Christel. Die Universalisierung der modernen Schule. Eine theoretische Problemskizze zur Erklärung der weltweiten Verbreitung der modernen Schule in den letzten 200 Jahren mit Fallstudien aus Westafrika. [Internationale Gegenwart, Band 9.] Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn [etc.] 1992. 312 pp. DM 68.00.
In this doctoral thesis (Siegen, 1992) the author presents an interpretation of the worldwide development of the modern national schoolsystem in the last two hundred years, which differs from the current explanations. Focusing on three case-studies in West-Africa, Dr Adick tries to show that the development of the modern schoolsystem is not a phenomenon dominated by Europeans, inherited from colonialism and hampering economic growth, but a "transnational" and "transhistorical" development.
Berkowitz, Michael. Zionist Culture and West European Jewry Before the First World War. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1993. xviii, 255 pp. Ill. £29.95.
This study investigates Zionism's reception by bourgeois West European Jews from 1897 to 1914. Professor Berkowitz pays special attention to the question of how the Zionist movement attracted the relatively wealthy, who were not seen as the potential immigrants to Palestine. According to the author, the Zionists were able to "nationalize" part of Western Jewry because they drew on the liberal view of nationalism, which had spawned Jewish emancipation, combined with vague and unobjectionable elements of Jewish culture that did not always imply a deep commitment. Professor Berkowitz contends that a shared ideal of culture helps to explain the attraction of Zionism to middle-class, assimilated Jewry.
Hirson, Baruch and Lorraine Vivian. Strike Across the Empire. The Seamen's Strike of 1925: in Britain, South Africa and Australasia. Clio Publications, London 1992. vi, 117 pp. £5.50.
This is an account of one of the few genuinely international strikes: that of seamen in Britain, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa from August to November 1925. British seamen went on strike in the beginning of August 1925, after their union leader J. Havelock Wilson had consented to a 10 percent decrease in wages on his own account. The strike became internationalized, when after three weeks, seamen in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa joined the strike. According to the authors, a historical account was lacking so far, because every major actor (the TUC, the National Union of Seamen and Firemen) had something to hide.
The Impact of Western Nationalisms. Ed. by Jehuda Reinharz and George L. Mosse. Essays dedicated to Walter Z. Laqueur on the occasion of his 70th birthday. Sage Publications, London [etc.] 1992. viii, 336 pp. £30.00.
This collection, consisting of seventeen contributions, most of which were published before in the Journal of Contemporary History, and dedicated to Walter Laqueur, includes contributions on the changing definitions of nationalism from the nineteenth to the twentieth century, the relation of nationalism to development and modernity, the tension between nationalism and social ideologies transcending national boundaries (such as Marxism) and the issue of the "Jewish Nation". Contributors include Irving Louis Horowitz, Martin van Creveld, Richard Breitman, Bernard Lewis, Yaacov Shavit, and Shlomo Avineri.
Kan, Alexander. Nikolai Bucharin und die skandinavische Arbeiterbewegung. Aus dem Schwedischen von Theodor Bergmann. Decaton Verlag, Mainz 1993. 220 pp. DM 29.80.
This study - a translation of Nikolaj Bucharin och den skandinaviska arbetarrörelsen (Uppsala, 1991) - deals with the relation between the important Bolshevik theorist Nikolai Bukharin (1888-1938) and the labour movement of Sweden, Norway and Denmark. Bukharin stayed in all three countries in 1915/1916, during his exile, and continued to have an important influence on the left wing of the labour movement and later the communist parties in these countries. The main emphasis in this study is on Bukharin's role in the shaping of the Zimmerwald left in Sweden and Norway and on the role his Scandinavian exile played in his own political development. An English summary has been appended.
Kessler, Mario. Antisemitismus, Zionismus und Sozialismus. Arbeiterbewegung und jüdische Frage im 20. Jahrhundert. Decaton Verlag, Mainz 1993. 156 pp. DM 24.00.
This is a collection of twelve essays, articles and speeches - most of which were published before - on the relationship between socialism (and the labour movement in general) and the Jewish question in the twentieth century, written by Dr Keßler, a specialist on the history of the Komintern (see IRSH 38, p. 402). The author focuses, inter alia, on the problem of the relation between Zionism and socialism, on the Komintern and the Jewish Question, on Stalinist terror against Jewish communists in 1937/1938 and on Trotsky's attitude towards Zionism and the problem of Palestine. A selected bibliography on the subject is included.
Kutos, Paul. Russische Revolutionäre in Wien 1900-1917. Eine Fallstudie zur Geschichte der politischen Emigration. Passagen Verlag, Wien 1993. 144 pp. S 210; DM 29.80.
This doctoral thesis (Vienna, 1992) gives a general survey of the Russian socialist emigration in Vienna between 1900 and 1917. Although there were famous Bolsheviks like Bukharin and - only for a month - Stalin among them, the author focuses especially on Leo Trotsky, who lived in Vienna from 1907 until 1914 and was the leading member of the group around the Pravda newspaper, published in Vienna from 1909-1912. Unlike Bukharin and other Bolsheviks, according to the author, Trotsky was at the centre of the intellectual, cultural and political life of Vienna in this period. Dr Kutos concludes that this Russian emigration contributes to the image of the city as a "railway station of history".
Pike, David Wingeate. In the Service of Stalin. The Spanish Communists in Exile, 1939-1945. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1993. xxi, 453 pp. £45.00.
This book tells the story of the tens of thousands of communist exiles, who fled from Spain to France in the beginning of 1939. Professor Pike examines the contribution of these Spanish exiles to the resistance in France, recounts the sufferings in the concentration camp Mauthausen of those who were captured and traces the experiences of those who were admitted to the Soviet Union, where they fought in the Red Army or perished in the Gulag camps.
Sozialismus und Kommunismus im Wandel. Hermann Weber zum 65. Geburtstag. Hrsg. von Klaus Schönhoven [und] Dietrich Staritz. Bund-Verlag, Köln 1993. 672 pp. DM 178.00.
This is a Festschrift for Hermann Weber (1928), German specialist on theoretical problems of socialism and communism, the policy of the German and international labour movements from the nineteenth century, the history of the GDR and the development of the communist state and social systems in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. The contributions, by Weber's colleagues, friends and students, concentrate on these four fields of interest. Contributors included are, inter alia, Helmut Fleischer, Helga Grebing, Hans Mommsen, Wolfgang Schroeder, Wilfried Loth and Feliks Tych. A selected bibliography of Weber's is included.
Thalheimer, August. Programmatische Fragen. Kritik des Programmentwurfs der Kommunistischen Internationale (VI. Weltkongreß). Mit einem Vorwort von Theodor Bergmann und einer Einl. von Jens Becker. Decaton Verlag, Mainz 1993. 112 pp. DM 18.80.
This is the first publication of the critique that August Thalheimer (1884-1948), chief theorist of the Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (KPD), wrote on the draft programme of the Comintern for the sixth world congress. After a conflict with the KPD, Thalheimer went to Moscow in 1924, where he became a prominent member of the Programme committee of the Comintern. In his critique Thalheimer turned against the rigidly orthodox Marxist course, which Stalin advocated. See also the annotation of Harald Jentsch, Die politische Theorie August Thalheimers, 1919-1923 (this volume).
Wehler, Hans-Ulrich. Bibliographie zur neueren deutschen Sozialgeschichte. [C.H. Beck-Studium.] Verlag C.H. Beck, München 1993. 439 pp. DM 38.00.
This bibliography of publications on modern German social history, both in German and in other languages, is a sequel to Bibliographie zur modernen deutschen Sozialgeschichte (1976) by the same author (see IRSH XXII, p. 459). While the edition of 1976 contained ca. 3 000 titles in all, spread out over 50 fields of interest, this bibliography contains nearly 10 000 titles, spread out over 73 fields of interest, ranging from general introductions into social history to urban history, demography and the history of specific eras and phenomena (for instance: social history of German states and regions before 1871).
Boll, Friedhelm. Arbeitskämpfe und Gewerkschaften in Deutschland, England und Frankreich. Ihre Entwicklung vom 19. zum 20. Jahrhundert. [Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Sozialgeschichte Braunschweig, Bonn.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachf., Bonn 1992. 685 pp. Ill. DM 198.00
See Richard Tilly's review in this volume, pp. 111-113.
Capitalism in Crisis. International Responses to the Great Depression. Ed. by W.R. Garside. Pinter Publishers, London 1993; St. Martin's Press, New York. xi, 200 pp. £35.00.
This collection of eight essays compares and contrasts the economic policies of different countries during the depression and the recovery of the 1930s, focusing on the question to what extent the governments of the respective countries retained an orthodox economic policy. Examined are Great-Britain (Alan Booth), Sweden (B. Gustafsson), Germany (Harold James), France (L.D. Schwarz), the United States (P. Fearon), Australasia (A.M. Endres and K.E. Jackson) and Eastern Europe (Derek H. Aldcroft).
Cross, Gary. Time and Money. The Making of Consumer Culture. Routledge, London [etc.] 1993. x, 294 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £13.99.)
Focusing on the United Sates, Great Britain and France in the 1920s and 1930s Professor Cross analyses why the development of mass production in the beginning of the 1920s led to an enormous increase in consumption instead of an increase in leisure. Charting the intellectual and political debate about the right to and meaning of free time, and analysing the changing attitudes of working-class families towards leisure and goods, the author tries to explain how popular consumerism prevailed over alternative uses of economic growth.
Mayne, Alan. The Imagined Slum. Newspaper representation in three cities, 1870-1914. Leicester University Press, Leicester [etc.] 1993; distr. excl. in the USA and Canada by St. Martin's Press, New York. x, 228 pp. Ill. Maps. £37.50.
This book analyses the sensational depiction of slums in the yellow press of Britain, the United States and Australia between 1870 and 1914, and examines the rise of urban-renewal programmes during this period. Dr Mayne argues that these slumland representations in the English-speaking press form a distinct genre, meant to construct and reinforce "common sense" views of the slums. These representations therefore can and have been misinterpretated by historians.
Organized Labor in the Asia-Pacific Region. A Comparative Study of
Trade Unionism in Nine Countries. Ed. by Stephen Frenkel. [Cornell International Industrial and Labor Relations Report, Nr 24.] ILR Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1993. xv, 413 pp. $56.00. (Paper: $24.95.)
The development of trade unionism in the Asia-Pacific region in the last two decades is the subject of this collection of eleven essays. Included are case studies of China (Malcolm Warner), Thailand (Andrew Brown and Stephen Frenkel), Malaysia (Ponniah Arudsothy and Craig R. Littler), Korea (Hwang-Joe Kim), Taiwan (Stephen Frenkel, Jon-Chao Hong, and Bih-Ling Lee), Hong Kong (David A. Levin and Stephen Chiu), Singapore (Chris Leggett), Australia (Stephen Frenkel) and New Zealand (Nigel Haworth). Besides, in two substantial essays the editor defines the general problem and makes a start at a comprehensive analysis.
Arbeiterbewegung in einer veränderten Welt. 27. Internationale Tagung der Historikerinnen und Historiker der Arbeiterbewegung. Hrsg. von Helmut Konrad. [ITH-Tagungsbericht, Band 28.] Europaverlag, Wien [etc.] 1992. 207 pp. S 248; DM 35.00.
This volume contains a selection of the papers presented at the 27th International Conference of Labour Historians, held at Linz, September 1991. In that year the annual Conference had as themes: the consequences of the political and social revolutions in Eastern Europe for labour history and the blanc spots in labour history. Contributors included are, inter alia, Helmut Konrad (on labour history in times of political revolution), Günter Benser (about dealing with history in the process of German unification), Royden Harrison ("Some notes on the historical outcome of Karl Marx"), Zdenek olle (on the Czech labour movement in a changing world), Hermann Weber (on blanc spots and falsifications of history in the historiography of communist historians) and David Howell (on taboos and non-approved themes in labour history).
Konings, Piet. Labour Resistance in Cameroon. Managerial Strategies & Labour Resistance in the Agro-Industrial Plantations of the Cameroon Development Corporation. African Studies Centre, Leiden in assoc. with James Currey, London; Editions CLE, Yaounde; Heinemann, Portsmouth (N.H.) 1993. xii, 203 pp. Maps. £35.00. (Paper: £11.95.)
This book is a study of labour control and labour resistance within the largest agro-industrial enterprise in Cameroon, the Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC), over a period of forty years (1947-1987). The author examines the various forms of labour resistance to the constantly renewed efforts of state and management to gain control over the labour process, to raise labour productivity and to maximize capital accumulation.
Cole, Juan R.I. Colonialism and Revolution in the Middle East. Social and Cultural Origins of Egypt's Urabi Movement. [Princeton Studies on the Near East.] Princeton University Press, Princeton [etc.] 1992. xiii, 341 pp. $49.50; £33.00.
Exploring the social, political, economic and cultural roots of the Egyptian nationalist Urabi movement in the late 1870s, the author argues that, contrary to the common Western conception of this movement as a revolt of junior officers with only limited support among the Egyptian people, it was a broadly based social revolution, which was cut off by the British occupation of Egypt in 1882. On the basis of the Egyptian case Professor Cole proposes a theory of revolutions against informal or neo-colonial empires, drawing parallels between Egypt in 1882, the Boxer Rebellion in China and the Islamic Revolution in modern Iran.
Tiruneh, Andargachew. The Ethiopian Revolution 1974-1987. A transformation from an aristocratic to a totalitarian autocracy. [LSE Monographs in International Studies.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1993. xv, 435 pp. £45.00.
This study is a comprehensive history of the Ethiopian revolution and of the revolutionary government in the period 1974-1987. The author traces the revolution's roots in the weaknesses of the autocratic regime of Haile Selassie, examines the formative years of the revolution in the mid-seventies, when the ideology of scientific socialism was adopted by the ruling military council, and charts the consolidation of Mengistu's power from 1977 to the adoption of a new constitution in 1987. According to the author, the revolution replaced a medieval feudal autocracy by a twentieth-century totalitarian dictatorship.
Maloba, Wunyabari O. Mau Mau and Kenya. An Analysis of a Peasant Revolt. [Blacks in the Diaspora.] Indiana University Press, Bloomington [etc.] 1993. x, 228 pp. $35.00.
In this study of the Mau Mau revolt against British colonialism in Kenya in 1952 Professor Maloba concentrates on three issues: the participants and their differing ideologies; relationships between the revolt and conventional party politics of the Kenya African Union; and the impact of Mau Mau on decolonialization in Kenya. The author sets the Mau Mau within the framework of theories about peasant revolts and he argues that the lack of ideological cohesion influenced the shape and destiny of the revolt.
Krikler, Jeremy. Revolution from Above, Rebellion from Below. The Agrarian Transvaal at the Turn of the Century. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1993. xvii, 261 pp. £35.00.
This study - a revised doctoral thesis (Oxford, 1989) - examines the impact of the South African War - the Boer War - and the "Reconstruction" period (1899-1910) on the rural society in Transvaal. "Revolution from above" is used by the author to summarize the efforts of the British to further a capitalist agriculture on a large scale at the expense of the Boers, whereas "rebellion from below" indicates a battery of class combats unleashed by the Transvaal peasantry in the years after 1899, as a reaction to the British imperialistic revolution from above.
Liquor and Labor in Southern Africa. Ed. by Jonathan Crush and Charles Ambler. Ohio University Press, Athens; University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg 1992. xvi, 432 pp. Maps. $39.95.
See Michael O. West's review in this volume, pp. 108-111.
Cultivation and Culture. Labor and the Shaping of Slave Life in the Americas. Ed. by Ira Berlin and Philip D. Morgan. [Carter G. Woodson Institute Series in Black Studies.] University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville [etc.] 1993. viii, 388 pp. $49.50. (Paper: $17.95.)
The eleven contributions in this volume - based on a conference held in 1989 - aim to explore how the work on the plantations in the Americas shaped the institution of slavery and the lives of African-American slaves. Covering the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the authors focus, inter alia, on the independent economic activities of the slaves, and how these endeavours offered a foundation for their domestic and community lives, determining the social structure of slave society and providing a material basis for their distinctive culture. Some of the contributions were previously published in the journal Slavery and Abolition.
Mullin, Michael. Africa in America. Slave Acculturation and Resistance in the American South and the British Caribbean, 1736-1831. [Blacks in the New World.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1992. xiii, 412 pp. Ill. Maps. $37.50.
In this study professor Mullin presents three case studies of slave resistance and religion in two major plantation regions, the Caribbean and the American South, in the period between 1736 and 1831. He distinguishes three stages of resistance and acculturation: "Maroons and incoming Africans, who were not a part of the plantation settings that everywhere stifled rebellion, represent an initial stage of acculturation and resistance. The second stage may be described by the more seasoned of Creole plantation slaves, who typically kept their anger and frustration under wraps; and the third stage by assimilated artisans who, developing their skills both on and off the plantation, led the large pre-emancipation rebellions."
Western Hemisphere Immigration and United States Foreign Policy. Ed. by Christopher Mitchell. Contributors: Jorge I. Domínguez, Christopher Mitchell, Carlos Rico [a.o.] The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park 1992. xii, 314 pp. Ill. $45.00. (Paper: $14.95.)
The aim of the seven contributions in this collection is to examine the role United States foreign policy has played in shaping U.S. immigration policy toward Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Mexico, El Salvador and Nicaragua from 1960. Although formally a matter of domestic policy, in the past three decades immigration has increasingly been determined by foreign political deliberations, while at the same time, it has determined U.S. foreign policy towards the above mentioned countries.
Women & Change in the Caribbean. A Pan-Caribbean Perspective. Ed. by Janet Momsen. Ian Randle, Kingston; Indiana University Press, Bloomington [etc.]; James Currey, London 1993. x, 308 pp. £35.00. (Paper: £12.95.)
Bringing together twenty-one contributors from the disciplines of agriculture, anthropology, economics, geography, history, sociology and women's studies, this collection of two contributions on general issues and seventeen case studies of fourteen territories deals with the private and public spheres of women's lives and women's economic roles in the Caribbean. Contributions included are on, inter alia, marriage and concubinage on Curaçao (Eva Abraham-Van der Mark), the development and role of women's political organisations in Guyana (Linda Peake), women in agriculture in Trinidad (Indra S. Harry) and women's contribution to Jamaican tourism (Lesley McKay).
Holloway, Thomas H. Policing Rio de Janeiro. Repression and Resistance in a 19th-Century City. Stanford University Press, Stanford 1993. xix, 369 pp. $45.00.
In this study the historical development of the police of Rio de Janeiro in the nineteenth century is seen as a part of a more general transition from the traditional application of control through private hierarchies to the modern exercise of power through public institutions, defined by Foucault as the development of a disciplined society. Besides the institutional development of the police, Professor Holloway also investigates the different forms of resistance by various social groups to the new forms of repression.
Reis, João José. Slave Rebellion in Brazil. The Muslim Uprising of 1835 in Bahia. Transl. by Arthur Brakel. [Johns Hopkins Studies in Atlantic History and Culture.] The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 1993. xv, 281 pp. Ill. Maps. $54.00.
This book is the English translation of Rebelião escrave no Brasil: A história do levante dos malês, 1835 (São Paulo, 1986). It portrays the conditions of urban slavery in the city of Salvador, Bahia, and gives a detailed account of the conspiracy, uprising, repression and punishment of the Malês, the muslim African slaves, who started a rebellion in Salvador on the night of 24 January 1835. The rebellion was nipped in the bud, but, according to Professor Reis, it had nationwide repercussions, as it was the most important urban slave rebellion in the Americas and the only one in which Islam played a major role.
Wolfe, Joel. Working Women, Working Men. São Paulo and the Rise of Brazil's Industrial Working Class, 1900-1955. Duke University Press, Durham [etc.] 1993. xiv, 312 pp. Ill. £16.95.
This study of the historical development of the working class in Latin America's largest industrial centre, São Paulo, Brazil in the period 1900-1955 focuses on the role of gender in the relation between leading groups and the rank-and-file within the São Paulo working class. The author aims to show how various class and gender ideologies influenced the development of unions, industrialists' strategies and rank-and-file organizing and protest activities, and how the São Paulo workers maintained a local grassroots social movement that, by the mid-1950s, succeeded in seizing control of Brazil's state-controlled official unions.
Dechêne, Louise. Habitants and Merchants in Seventeenth-Century Montreal. Transl. by Liana Vardi. [Studies on the History of Quebec/Études d'histoire du Quebec.] McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal [etc.] 1992. xx, 428 pp. £52.25. (Paper: £21.00.)
This is the English translation of a twenty year old study Habitants et Marchands de Montréal au xviie siècle (Paris, 1974). Professor Dechêne examines the character of the immigration and the socioeconomic foundations of the urban and rural settlements - trade, agriculture, social hierarchy, religion and family life - on the island of Montreal in the seventeenth century, thus presenting an analysis of the establishment of a colonial society.
Brown, Jonathan C. Oil and Revolution in Mexico. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1993. xiii, 453 pp. Ill. Maps. $40.00.
In this study of the foreign development of the oil industry in Mexico from the turn of the century through the Mexican Revolution into the 1920s Professor Brown emphasizes the ambivalence of the Mexicans towards the modernization, which was the consequence of the foreign development of the oil industry. Oil companies brought capital, technology and jobs to Mexico, but they also threatened its deeply rooted social and political heritage. The author concludes that Mexicans of all classes were remarkably successful in preventing modern capitalism from destroying the existing political and social structures.
Hirabayashi, Lane Ryo. Cultural Capital. Mountain Zapotec Migrant Associations in Mexico City. [PROFMEX Series.] The University of Arizona Press, Tucson [etc.] 1993. xiv, 157 pp. $35.00.
Focusing on three communities of Mountain Zapotec migrants in present-day Mexico City, this study "describes the role of paisanazgo (a norm emphasizing solidarity between persons from the same locality) among Zapotec urban migrants, especially in regard to mutual aid and the formation of migrant associations". The author describes paisanazgo as not just a matter of "traditional" patterns of mutual aid, but as a special kind of cultural capital, reflecting broad value orientations, as well as a continuing response to the course of national development.
United States of America
Bender, Thomas. Intellect and Public Life. Essays on the Social History of Academic Intellectuals in the United States. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 1993. xix, 179 pp. $31.95.
In the eight original essays in this book Professor Bender explores both the nineteenth-century origins and the twentieth-century configurations of the academic intellectuals in the United States and its relation to public life, paying special attention to the changing relationship of academic to urban culture. The author concludes that there is a tendency towards academic withdrawal from the public discussion of general concerns, but that the emergence of a more pluralistic notion of the intellectuals can change this trend.
Brundage, W. Fitzhugh. Lynching in the New South. Georgia and Virginia, 1880-1930. [Blacks in the New World.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1993. xii, 375 pp. $39.95. (Paper: $14.95.)
At the beginning of this century the American South was notorious for its many lynchings. However, lynching did not occur with equal frequency everywhere. Based on an analysis of nearly six hundred lynchings in Georgia and Virginia during the period 1880-1930, this study aims to explain the variation in lynching over space and time. Professor Brundage explores to what extent lynching was a social ritual, which affirmed traditional values, and examines the causes of the decline in lynching.
Craver, Charles B. Can Unions Survive? The Rejuvenation of the American Labor Movement. New York University Press, New York [etc.] 1993. ix, 213 pp. £35.95.
This book is both an analysis of the current state of the American labour movement and a manifesto showing how labour unions can be revitalised. Professor Craver analyses the roots of the decline, examining the beginnings and development of labour unions in the nineteenth century through their heyday in the 1950s, and defines the causes of their current dismal condition. Among his suggestions for improvement is changing the National Labor Relations Act. He concludes that the present weak condition of the labour unions is temporary, because "despite the disadvantageous industrial and global trends, there continues to be a need for worker representation".
Flamming, Douglas. Creating the Modern South. Millhands and Managers in Dalton, Georgia, 1884-1984. [The Fred W. Morrison Series in Southern Studies.] The University of North Carolina Press, Chapell Hill [etc.] 1992. xxxi, 433 pp. Ill. $42.50.
In this study Professor Flamming examines the history of daily life in the Crown Cotton Mill in Dalton, Georgia, in the period 1884-1984, as an example of social and economic transformation in the southern United States. The author pays special attention to the relationship between workers and management, in order to show that both groups contributed to the emerging industrial order. Issues dealt with include: the origins of small-town industry, worker migration from farm to factory, the rise of an industrial elite, the adaption of rural customs to an industrial environment, the development of working-class culture and the decline of the cotton industry in the American South.
Fogel, Robert William. Without Consent or Contract. The Rise and Fall of American Slavery. W.W. Norton & Company, New York [etc.] 1989 [recte 1991]. 539 pp. Maps. $16.95; £9.95.
This study, the primary volume of Without Consent or Contract, is the nontechnical summary and interpretation of findings by the director of a research project by the Center for Population Economics at the University of Chicago. Professor Fogel, one of the godfathers of cliometrics, aims to give a synthesis of slavery research in the past quarter-century. It combines analytical and narrative history and pays attention to the wide variety in the points of view of various students of American slavery. In the first part the author focuses on the economic and social system of slavery, whereas in the second part he tells the story of the ideological and political struggle to abolish the slave system. In his Afterword Professor Fogel summarizes his personal point of view on the historical evaluation of the American slave system and its abolition.
Hattam, Victoria C. Labor Visions and State Power. The Origins of Business Unionism in the United States. [Princeton Studies in American Politics: Historical, International, and Comparative Perspectives.] Princeton University Press, Princeton 1993. xii, 266 pp. $35.00; £27.50.
In this study Professor Hattam defends the claim that strong judicial regulation of industrial conflict created a politically weak labour movement in the United States, and that the strategy of the American Federation of Labor of business unionism was the product of the distinctive institutional structure of the American state. Examining the development of the state-labour relation throughout the nineteenth century and across organizations in the United States, and comparing the development of the labour movement's counterparts at the other side of the Atlantic, the author argues that "workers' relation to the state was mediated by different ideologies and acts of interpretation".
Hay, Fred J. African-American Community Studies from North America. A Classified, Annotated BIBLIOGRAPHY. [Garland Reference library of social science, Vol. 420; Applied social science bibliographies, Vol. 5.] Garland Publishing, Inc., New York [etc.] 1991. xxii, 234 pp. $34.00.
This is an annotated bibliography of monographic African-American community studies, the criterion of selection being based on the requirements of the Community Study Method, as defined by Arensberg and Kimball, Culture and Community (1965). Robert and Helen Lynd's ethnography of "Middletown" is considered the archetype of this kind of study. A concise introduction to the community-study tradition and the African-America component in North American culture precedes the bibliography.
Industrial democracy in America. The ambiguous promise. Ed. by Nelson Lichtenstein and Howell John Harris. [Woodrow Wilson Center Series.] Woodrow Wilson Center Press/Cambridge University Press [etc.] 1993. ix, 293 pp. £30.00; $44.95.
The nine essays in this collection examine the ways in which workers, capitalists, unionists and managers have come to understand and transform the meaning of democracy and consent in the American workplaces from the Progressive Era until the present day. Contributors on industrial democracy in the Progressive Era are David Montgomery, Howell Harris and Joseph McCartin. Ronald Schatz, Nelson Lichtenstein, James Atleson and David Brody look at the period 1935-1970, while Sanford Jacoby and Mike Parker assess current problems of industrial democracy.
Jablonsky, Thomas J. Pride in the Jungle. Community and Everyday Life in Back of the Yards Chicago. [Creating the North American Landscape.] The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 1993. xviii, 190 pp. Ill. $46.00.
The Back of the Yards neigbourhood in Chicago, made famous by Upton Sinclair's classic study The Jungle (1905), is the topic of this study of the spatial and social development of a community in the interwar years. From the end of World War I, with the rise of the second generation of Americanized children of the original migrants from Poland, Slovakia and Lithuania began the emergence of a sense of community and a conscious pursuit of the creation of a "pride in the jungle". Professor Jablonsky describes, inter alia, the grass-roots formation of the widely acclaimed Neighborhood Council as the culmination of "socio-spatial processes".
Jewish-American History and Culture: An Encyclopedia. Ed. by Jack Fischel and Sanford Pinsker. Garland Publishing, Inc., New York [etc.] 1992. xxvi, 710 pp. $95.00.
This is a one-volume reference work that seeks to survey the Jewish experience in the United States. The editors have aimed at a panoramic view, supplementing rather than replacing more specialized encyclopedias. At the heart of the work is a series of essays on crucial topics, e.g., "Academe", "Communal Organizations", "Dance", "Hebrew in America", "Immigration", "The Left", "Music", "Poetry" and "Zionism". In addition portraits have been included of a considerable number of persons, among them Albert Einstein, the Marx Brothers, Paul Samuelson and Barbara W. Tuchman.
Labor History Archives in the United States. A Guide for Researching and Teaching. Ed. by Daniel J. Leab and Philip P. Mason. Wayne State University Press, Detroit 1992. 286 pp. $34.95. (Paper: $15.95.)
This book surveys in some detail the holdings of forty libraries, archives and historical societies, containing resources for those interested in writing and researching the history of the American working class. The closing date was 31 October, 1991. A sizeable index has been appended.
Labor Market Institutions and the Future Role of Unions. Ed. by Mario F. Bognanno and Morris M. Kleiner. Blackwell, Oxford [etc.] 1992. vii, 228 pp. £15.95.
The eleven essays in this collection discuss the weakening of unions in the United States in the past four decades. The first part of the book deals with the institutional state of unions, explaining why union representation is in decline and why the role of human resource management is expanding. The second part shifts attention to the role of government in the labour market, looking specifically at the employment effects of public policies regarding plant closing prenotification, pension-programme design and comparable value. Contributors include John T. Dunlop, Richard B. Freeman and Sanford M. Jacoby.
Levine, Bruce. Half Slave and Half Free. The Roots of Civil War. Consulting Ed.; Eric Foner. [The American Century Series.] Hill and Wang, New York 1992. xi, 292 pp. $30.00. (Paper: $11.95.)
—, —. The Spirit of 1848. German Immigrants, Labor Conflict, and the Coming of the the Civil War. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1992. xiv, 378 pp. $34.95.
See Earl F. Mulderink, III's review in this volume, pp. 103-108.
Licht, Walter. Getting Work. Philadelphia, 1840-1950. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1992. xiii, 317 pp. £31.95.
This study looks at the different experiences with transactions in the labour market among all sorts and groups of people in Philadelphia during the period 1840-1950. Professor Licht aims to assess the importance of the various factors that were important in getting work: institutional ones (such as schooling, private and public employment bureaus, help-wanted advertising), personal ones (family, ethnic background, gender) and structural ones (structure of economic activity, the economic situation). He concludes that the last weighs more heavily than the first two factors.
Manning, William. The Key of Liberty. The Life and Democratic Writings of William Manning, "A Laborer," 1747-1814. Ed. and with an Introd. by Michael Merrill and Sean Wilentz. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1993. xvi, 240 pp. Ill. $44.95; £29.95. (Paper: $17.95; £11.95.)
This book contains a biographical introduction to and a modernized edition of the writings of William Manning (1747-1814), an American farmer and soldier in the Battle of Concord against the British (1776), who, in 1799, completed The Key of Liberty, in which he delivered a strong critique of the policies of the young Federation and commented on the social origins of American politics. Neither this essay, nor any of his other political writings, were published during his lifetime. They were only rediscovered some hundred years later. According to the editors Manning's work gives expression to the aspirations of the popular, egalitarian currents of the American Revolution and its aftermath.
Matthews, Glenna. The Rise of Public Woman. Woman's Power and Woman's Place in the United States, 1630-1970. Oxford University Press, New York [etc.] 1992. xi, 297 pp. Ill. £19.50.
Ranging in time from the seventeenth century to the present this study deals with the changing public role of women in the United States. Through the histories of a number of important champions of equal rights for women, the author describes the development from the time when women's outspokenness equalled a threat to the social order and sexual impropriety to the 1970s, when the presence of women in American politics was growing.
Skocpol, Theda. Protecting Soldiers and Mothers. The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1992. xxi, 714 pp. Ill. $41.95.
In this broadly planned study on the history and development of social policy in the United States during the late nineteenth century and the first two decades of the twentieth Professor Skocpol dates the beginning of social policy at the introduction of benefits for Civil War veterans in the late nineteenth century. According to the author, this paternalist welfare policy faded away in the Progressive Era to be replaced by a unique maternalist welfare system, as the federal government and most of the states created a variety of social welfare programmes to assist American mothers and children.
Tygiel, Jules. Workingmen in San Francisco, 1880-1901. [Modern American History.] Garland Publishing, Inc., New York [etc.] 1992. xxviii, 444 pp. $98.00.
This is a mimeographed edition of a doctoral thesis, which was originally written in 1973 and which is now provided with a new introduction by the author, presenting an historiographical survey of the social history of San Francisco up to the turn of the century. After sketching the industrial development and the subsequent evolution of the labour movement in the period 1880-1900, as well as the structure and the housing of the working-class family, the author concentrates on the San Francisco Waterfront strike in 1901 and its aftermath.
Levine, Marilyn A. The Found Generation. Chinese Communists in Europe during the Twenties. [Jackson School Publications in International Studies.] University of Washington Press, Seattle [etc.] 1993. ix, 287 pp. Ill. $35.00.
This book examines a group of Chinese students in Europe at the end of World War I, who became politically radicalized through their study and work experiences and formed the European Branches of the Chinese Communist Organizations (ECCO). Professor Levine explores the development and significance of the ECCO and its impact on the Chinese Communist Party. Many of these young activists - among them Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping - acquired positions of power on their return to China. According to the author, the European background of some of the leaders explains the Chinese communists' adherence to the Leninist concept of Party discipline and the leadership's hold over central governmental power.
Moaddel, Mansoor. Class, Politics, and Ideology in the Iranian Revolution. Columbia University Press, New York 1992. x, 346 pp. $37.50.
In this book the author examines the causes of the revolutionary crisis in Iran in the late 1970s. Though Dr Moaddel does make use of the Marxist conceptions of class and class conflict, he argues that neither economic difficulties nor social discontents explain the revolutionary crisis, but that this crisis occurred when the Shi'i revolutionary discourse became the dominant ideology and shaped the actions of the discontented groups. He examines the development of this discourse in the postcoup (1953) period, and contrasts Iran with Egypt and Syria to highlight the suggested causal mechanism.
Macdonald, Peter. Giap. The Victor in Vietnam. Fourth Estate, London 1993. 368 pp. Ill. £17.99.
This is a popularized biography of general Vo Nguyen Giap (1911) and at the same time a concise history of the Vietnam War. The author - a former British army specialist in bomb disposal - based his book largely on interviews with Giap, as well as with Giap's most important opponents, the French general Bigeard, who was a combatant near Dien Bien Phu, and general Westmoreland, the American commander in Vietnam from 1964 to 1968.
AUSTRALIA AND OCEANIA
All Our Labours. Oral Histories of Working Life in Twentieth Century Sydney. Ed. by John Shields. New South Wales University Press, Kensington 1992. xi, 252 pp. Ill. A$29.95.
This is a collection of nine studies of working life in Sydney between World War I and the 1980s, based on interviews with working people from a variety of occupations and workplaces. Themes included are, inter alia, working life on Sydney trams and buses (Richard Raxworthy), workers' reading habits (Lucy Taksa), the meaning of apprenticeship (the editor), nursing training (Dorothy Raxworthy), the working life of women sex workers (Roberta Perkins) and political policing (Andrew Moore).
Graves, Adrian. Cane and Labour. The Political Economy of the Queensland Sugar Industry, 1862-1906. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 1993. xxi, 282 pp. Maps. £35.00.
This book is an analysis (based on the methods of historical materialism and the analytical approach of political economy) of the economic and social history of indentured Pacific island labour migrants in the Queensland sugar industry in the period 1862-1906, and of the rise and fall of the extensive system of plantations with which the labour trade was associated. Dr Graves sets the historical experience of Pacific Islanders in Queensland in an international context, contesting orthodox assumptions about the "primitive or static" nature of plantation production and the portrayal of indentured labour as "new slavery".
Johnson, Lesley. The modern girl. Girlhood and growing up. Open University Press, Buckingham 1993. viii, 184 pp. Ill. £35.00. (Paper: £11.99.)
In this book Professor Johnson starts from the question, raised by Betty Friedan in the early 1960s, of how the experience of growing up and adult womanhood should be defined and looks at the 1950s and early 1960s in Australia as a period in which girlhood and growing up as young women was being transformed in major ways. Investigating and analyzing a number of prototypes - the modern schoolgirl, the juvenile delinquent and the teenage girl - of this era, she argues that there are dangers in the way contemporary feminism looks for satisfactory definitions of adult womanhood.
Culture and the Labour Movement. Essays in New Zealand Labour History. Ed. by John E. Martin and Kerry Taylor. The Dunmore Press, Palmerston North 1991. 316 pp. Ill.
The nineteen papers collected in this volume were first presented at a conference in Wellington in 1990. The main theme is the many ways in which the labour movement reproduced and communicated its ideas, values and experiences over time, including visual and printed materials, festivals and demonstrations, as well as the experience of work and its socio-cultural forms. Included are essays about, among other subjects, nicknames on the waterfront, 1915-1951 (Anna Green), labour banners (Bob James) and Labour Day in New Zealand (Bert Roth).
Challenges of Labour. Central and Western Europe 1917-1920. Ed. by Chris Wrigley. Routledge, London [etc.] 1993. xi, 300 pp. £40.00.
This book contains a collection of fifteen essays that examine aspects of the impact of the First World War and the Russian revolutions of 1917 on central and western Europe. The first part of the essays focuses on the principal cities that experienced revolution or major social unrest in these years: Berlin (Dick Geary), Munich (Martin H. Geyer), Budapest (Zsuzsa Nagy), Vienna (Hans Hautmann), Turin (Giuseppe Berta), Paris (Roger Magraw) and Glasgow (John Foster), whereas the second part deals with the resurgence of the old order and the undermining of revolutionary forces in Germany (Wolfram Wette), Hungary (Ignác Romsics), Austria (Elisabeth Dietrich), Italy (Piero Melograni), France (John Horne) and Britain (the editor).
Economic Policy in Europe Since the Late Middle Ages. The Visible Hand and the Fortune of Cities. Ed. by Herman Diederiks, Paul Hohenberg and Michael Wagenaar. Leicester University Press, Leicester [etc.] 1992; distr. excl. in the USA and Canada by St. Martin's Press, New York. vii, 229 pp. Maps. £37.50.
This volume is a selection from the papers presented at a conference organized by the Dutch branch of the International Urban History Group in Leyden in 1988. Central questions in the fourteen contributions are: which actors at the city level (individuals and groups) sought to influence urban economic activity, which methods did they use and how did they influence each other? The first two editors present a historiographic introduction, the other contributions range from the late Middle Ages to the beginning of the twentieth century and include studies on Dutch, German, French, Italian and British cities and towns.
European Urban History. Prospect and Retrospect. Ed. by Richard Rodger. Leicester University Press, Leicester [etc.] 1993; distr. excl. in the United States and Canada by St. Martin's Press, New York. xii, 198 pp. Maps. £35.00.
In this volume ten contributing urban historians analyse the historical development of towns and cities in twelve European countries: Spain (José-Luis Oyon), Portugal (Manuel Texeira), Italy (Carla Giovannini), France (Bernard Lepetit and Jean-Luc Pinol), Belgium (Raymond van Uytven), the Netherlands (Pim Kooij), Germany (Clemens Wischermann) and the Nordic countries of Denmark, Norway, Iceland, Finland and Sweden (Jan Eivind Myhre). The contributors summarize debates, point out new trends and interpretations in the urban history of their respective countries, review the contributions to urban history from different disciplines and provide an extensive bibliography.
Forbidden History. The State, Society, and the Regulation of Sexuality in Modern Europe. Essays from the Journal of the History of Sexuality. Ed. by John C. Fout. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago [etc.] 1992. vii, 401 pp. Ill. $17.95.
The fifteen essays in this volume, all published before in the Journal of the History of Sexuality between 1990 and 1992, span the history of the regulation of sexuality in Europe from the fifteenth century to the present. Contributions included are, inter alia: "Early modern syphilis" (Bruce Thomas Boehrer), "Colonizing the breast: sexuality and maternity in eighteenth-century England" (Ruth Perry), "Homosexual behavior in the nineteenth-century Dutch army" (Gert Hekma), "The voluntary sterilization campaign in Britain, 1918-39" (John Macnicol) and "Discourses on and of AIDS in West Germany, 1986-90" (James W. Jones).
Howell, Chris. Regulating Labor. The State and Industrial Relations Reform in Postwar France. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1992. xiii, 287 pp. $39.50; £30.00.
This revised doctoral thesis (Yale, 1992) examines the reform projects of successive French governments toward trade unions and industrial relations during the postwar era. Focusing on the efforts of the post-1968 conservative and socialist governments, the author tries to establish the causes of the weakening of the French unions after 1968. Dr Howell uses "Regulation Theory", linking economic, political and institutional analysis, to develop a comparative framework for understanding the challenges facing the labour movements throughout advanced capitalist countries in the postwar era.
Liang, Hsi-huey. The rise of modern police and the European state system from Metternich to the Second World War. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1992. xiii, 345 pp. £30.00; $49.95.
In this study Professor Liang examines the history of the modern police in the Austrian Empire, Switzerland, France, Prussia and tsarist Russia, related to the dynamic development of the European state system from the early nineteenth century to World War II. The author traces the origins of the modern liberal police system to the response of the police forces to revolutionary activities in the nineteenth century, and further tries to show that the growing interdependency of these states is related to the growing police problems in the 1930s.
The National Question in Europe in Historical Context. Ed. by Mikulá Teich and Roy Porter. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1993. xx, 343 pp. Maps. £40.00; $69.95. (Paper: £13.95; $17.95.)
This collection contains thirteen historical studies of European national movements: viz. on the British Isles (Victor Kiernan), in Italy (Adrian Lyttelton), Spain (Simon Barton), Belgium (Louis Vos), Germany (Walter Schmidt and Heinrich August Winkler), Austria (Ernst Bruckmüller), Czechia (Arnot Klíma), Hungary (Emil Niederhauser), Croatia (Mirjana Gross), Poland (Jerzy Tomaszewski) and Finland (Matti Klinge).
Rethinking Social Democracy in Western Europe. Ed. by Richard Gillespie and William E. Paterson. Frank Cass, London 1993. v, 184 pp. £30.00. (Paper: £15.00.)
In this collection of eleven studies, which were published as a special issue of Western European Politics 16 (1993) as well, the origins, development and contents of the programmatic renewal in the 1980s of the social democratic parties in Germany, Sweden, Great Britain, Spain, Norway and the Netherlands are examined and compared. In this comparison the development of the internal party democracies is also examined. In the concluding contribution the first editor evaluates the results of this programmatic renewal in West European social democracy in terms of new ideas and electoral success.
Tilly, Charles. European Revolutions, 1492-1992. [The Making of Europe.] Blackwell, Oxford [etc.] 1993. xvii, 262 pp. £19.99.
This book aims to present a systematic and historically grounded analysis of revolutionary processes in Europe during the period 1492 to 1992 in relation to changes in the character of the states and in the relations between states. Professor Tilly discusses the nature of revolution and sketches political and social change in Europe between 1492 and 1992. Subsequently, he investigates the causes and outcomes of revolutionary situations in the Low Countries, Iberia and the Balkans, in the British Isles in the seventeenth century, in France from 1750 and in twentieth century Russia. In his conclusion the author discusses the prospects for revolutionary nationalism, in the light of the recent national revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe.
Western European Communists and the Collapse of Communism. Ed. by David S. Bell. Berg, Oxford [etc.] 1993. xi, 202 pp. £30.00.
The nine articles in this collection examine how the major western European communist parties have coped both ideologically and materially with the changes in Soviet and world communism since 1989. Contributors deal with the communist parties in Italy (Stephen Gundle), Finland and Scandinavia (David Arter), France (the editor), Portugal (Maria Teresa Patricio and Alan Stoleroff), Greece (Ole L. Smith), Spain (José Amodia), Great Britain (John Callaghan), West- and East-Germany (Heinrich Bortfeldt and Wayne C. Thompson) and the Netherlands (Gerrit Voerman). In his concluding essay the editor deals with the perspectives for communism. An appendix with statistical information on the parties is included.
Zeidler, Manfred. Reichswehr und Rote Armee 1920-1933. Wege und Stationen einer ungewöhnlichen Zusammenarbeit. [Beiträge zur Militärgeschichte, Band 36.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 1993. 375 pp. Ill. DM 78.00.
This doctoral thesis (Frankfurt/M., 1990) is a comprehensive history of the secret cooperation between the Soviet Red Army and the German Reichswehr in the period 1920-1933. The opening of the Soviet archives in the past few years enabled the author to base his study on extensive source material, as he sets this secret cooperation in the context of the foreign, defense and arms policies of the two countries. According to the author, the extensive testing possibilities for the German army on Russian territory before 1933 enabled Hitler to equip his armoured divisions and airforce with the most modern armaments in the middle 'thirties.
Eire - Ireland
Bourke, Austin. 'The visitation of God'? The potato and the great Irish famine. Ed. for Irish Historical Studies by Jacqueline Hill and Cormac Ó Gráda. The Lilliput Press, Dublin 1993. x, 230 pp. Maps. £20.00.
This volume contains a selection of published and unpublished writings of Dr Austin Bourke, as agricultural meteorologist and plant pathologist one of the major experts on the history of the great Irish famine in 1845. The collection includes, inter alia, an autobiographical essay, an account of the growing dependence of the poor on the potato in the decades before the famine, a discussion of the reliability of contemporary agricultural statistics, a reassessment of some popular myths about the famine, a bibliography of Bourke's publications on the famine and related topics, and a general bibliography.
Farge, Arlette. Fragile Lives. Violence, Power and Solidarity in Eighteenth-Century Paris. Transl. by Carol Shelton. Polity Press, Oxford 1993. v, 314 pp. £13.95.
In this study - first published in French as La vie fragile (1986) - Dr Farge sketches a history of everyday living and popular practices of urban life in eighteenth century Paris, based on a variety of judicial and police records. Concentrating on three fields in which daily life moves - the emotions, work and the crowds - the author aims "to uncover [...] those particular spaces where it becomes possible to understand in detail the relationships between men and women face to face with each other, with others and with the political life in which they are the principal participants".
The French Home Front 1914-1918. Ed. by Patrick Fridenson. [The Legacy of the Great War.] Berg, Oxford [etc.] 1992. vi, 326 pp. £35.00. (Paper: £11.95.)
The aim of this collection is to show that, contrary to current opinion, there is a great continuity in economic and social developments in France during World War I. In the ten contributions four themes are dealt with: the existence of a second front, the home front, where the battles between employers and workers were fought; the dynamics of the war economy, showing that the War was not only negative for the economy, especially in the long run; the growing role of the state; and the social transformation of France.
Kuisel, Richard F. Seducing the French. The Dilemma of Americanization. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1993. xiii, 296 pp. Ill. $30.00.
Professor Kuisel, who formerly devoted a study to Capitalism and the state in modern France (IRSH, 37 (1982), p. 252), explores France's response to American influence after World War II in his new book. To this purpose some "intensive encounters" have been selected and analysed: the Marshall Plan, economic missions, foreign investment and American consumer products. The author reaches the conclusion that the process of Americanization was not akin to colonization, but was "more a change brought about by selection and adaptation".
Bauer, Sonja-Maria. Die Verfassunggebende Versammlung in der Badischen Revolution von 1849. Darstellung und Dokumentation. [Beiträge zur Geschichte des Parlamentarismus und der politischen Parteien, Band 94.] Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 1991. 377 pp. Ill. DM 78.00.
During the revolution of 1848-49 Baden was the only Land in Germany where the revolutionaries succeeded in taking over the entire government machinery and forming a parliament by public election, an experiment which was suppressed shortly afterwards by Prussian troops. The present doctoral thesis (Stuttgart, 1987) gives a detailed history of this parliament (the Verfassunggebende Versammlung) and contains the annotated protocols of and other documents pertaining to the fourteen public sessions of this body of representatives in June, 10-30, 1849. Short biographies have been included in the appendix.
Hartewig, Karin. Das unberechenbare Jahrzehnt. Bergarbeiter und ihre Familien im Ruhrgebiet 1914-1924. [Bergbau und Bergarbeit.] Verlag C.H. Beck, München 1993. 485 pp. Ill. DM 46.00.
This abridged doctoral thesis (Munich, 1988) focuses on the fortunes of miners' families in the Ruhr area from the beginning of World War I to the end of the inflation period. Starting from the attempt to relate the experiences of women with those of men Dr Hartewig describes different aspects of the existence of labourers like the labour market, labour processes, living conditions, availability of consumer goods, household work and forms of protest (hunger marches, riots, strikes, etc.).
Heimann, Siegfried [und] Franz Walter. Religiöse Sozialisten und Freidenker in der Weimarer Republik. (Solidargemeinschaft und Milieu: Sozialistische Kultur- und Freizeitorganisationen in der Weimarer Republik, Band 4.) [Politik- und Gesellschaftsgeschichte, Band 31.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachf., Bonn 1993. 388 pp. DM 98.00.
This book (the fourth volume of the series Solidargemeinschaft und Milieu: Sozialistische Kultur- und Freizeitorganisationen in der Weimarer Republik - see IRSH XXXVII (1992), pp. 141f. and 435) deals with two organisations. The Bund der religiösen Sozialisten Deutschlands (described by Siegfried Heimann) was the umbrella organisation of greater and smaller religious socialist groups and regional organizations, mostly of Protestant origins, from 1926. The Bund der freien Schulgesellschaften (described by Franz Walter) was one of the many organizations of freethinkers in the Weimar Republik.
Stayer, James M. The German Peasants' War and Anabaptist Community of Goods. [McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal [etc.] 1991. xxiv, 227 pp. Ill. £26.95.
See Marion Kobelt-Groch's review in this volume, pp. 101-103.
Baylies, Carolyn. The History of the Yorkshire Miners 1881-1918. Routledge, London [etc.] 1993. xiv, 521 pp. £45.00.
This history of the Yorkshire miners focuses on the period 1881-1918, in which their union was consolidated, playing a leading role in the building of a national miners' federation and an international miners' organization, while the eight-hour day and the issue of the minimum wage were fought out, and the affiliation with the Labour Party was established. The history of the miners' union at the local and district level is set against the broader background of the miners' communities.
Callaghan, John. Rajani Palme Dutt. A Study in British Stalinism. Lawrence and Wishart, London 1993. 304 pp. £19.99.
This is a political biography of Rajani Palme Dutt (1896-1974), one of the leading figures in the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) from the 1920s to the 1960s and one of the stricktest stalinists in the CPGB. According to Professor Callaghan Palme Dutt was responsible for the "Bolshevizing" of the CPGB in the 1920s, and became the most authoritative and orthodox ideologist from the 1930s onward. Through his strong links with the Comintern he had a great international influence, especially on the Communist Party of India.
Driver, Felix. Power and Pauperism. The workhouse system, 1834-1884. [Cambridge Studies in Historical Geography, 19.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1993. xiii, 207 pp. Ill. Maps. £30.00; $49.95.
This is a study of the workhouse system, which resulted from the new Poor Law of 1834, and of the discourses and practices that helped to create its negative image both with social scientists and the public. Combining a national perspective with the examination of regional variations in policy and practice and underlining the value of a geographical perspective in the study of social policy, Dr Driver argues that the system was not as monolithic as it appeared. He interprets the history of the Poor Law essentially as a history of power relations.
Finn, Margot C. After Chartism. Class and nation in English radical politics, 1848-1874. [Past and Present Publications.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1993. xii, 361 pp. Ill. £37.50; $59.95.
This book charts the course of working- and middle-class radical politics in England from the continental revolutions of 1848 to the fall of Gladstone's Liberal government in 1874. According to Professor Finn the radical tradition, which was shared by middle- and working-class radicals, was problematized in the nineteenth century by middle-class radicals' acceptance of classical liberal economics. She traces this divide by contrasting the middle- and working-class responses to the continental revolutions in 1848-1849, Polish and Italian nationalism in the 1860s and the Paris Commune in 1871, arguing that these events led to a diminution of middle-class radicals' commitment to liberal economics and helped in shaping the "new liberalism" of the 1880s.
Friedman, Jerome. Miracles and the Pulp Press during the English Revolution. The Battle of the Frogs and Fairford's Flies. UCL Press, London 1993. xv, 304 pp. Ill. £13.95.
In this book professor Friedman examines newsbooks and pulp publications produced in England from 1640 to 1660, to see how ordinary people perceived the violent political and social events of the English Revolution. The author concludes that the public at large was only incidentally concerned with the political, economic and religious questions that scholars today see as the most important topics of the period, but were more concerned with subjects related to superstition and fortune-telling and judged the Revolution chiefly by the Puritan "battle for morality".
Harris, Jose. Private Lives, Public Spirit. A Social History of Britain 1870-1914. Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 1993. xi, 283 pp. £17.95.
In this concise social history of Britain in the period 1870-1914 Dr Harris covers a wide range of themes: demography and disease, work and religion, social reform and social theory, feminism and family life. Characteristic for this period, according to the author, was the existence of great contradictions, doubts and ambivalences. The author concludes that the modern stereotypes of the "Victorian" and "Edwardian" to a large extent do not conform with what people were really like, while many of the "Victorian values" prove to originate from "progressive" reformist movements, rather than from traditional ideas and structures.
The Industrial Revolution and British society. Ed. by Patrick K. O'Brien and Roland Quinault. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1993. xii, 295 pp. £27.95. (Paper: £9.95.)
This is a concise textbook, surveying the latest research on a wide range of economic and social aspects of the Industrial Revolution in Britain in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The eleven contributions included treat topics like modern conceptions of the Industrial Revolution (Patrick O'Brien), women (Duncan Bythell), religion (Alan D. Gilbert), sex and desire (Thomas Laqueur) and social (John Stevenson) and technological aspects (G.N. von Tunzelmann).
Jefferys, Kevin. The Labour Party since 1945. [British History in Perspective.] Macmillan, Basingstoke 1993. vii, 161 pp. £27.50.
Spanning the period from the election victory in 1945 to the defeat in 1992, in this book Mr Jefferys aims to assess the varying causes for the electorial decline, which have been suggested by historians, social scientists and political commentators. The author concludes that "Labour's overriding failure [...] has been its inflexibility - from the leadership downwards - in coping with 'changed realities'."
Morgan, Kevin. Harry Pollitt. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1993; distr. excl. in the USA and Canada by St. Martin's Press, New York. ix, 210 pp. £40.00.
This is a political biography of Harry Pollitt (1890-1960), leader of the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) from 1929 until his resignation in 1956. The author stresses the two sides of Pollitt: on the one hand that of the harsh stalinist, which always dominated the image presented by his opponents, but on the other hand that of somebody who by his background of the working-class environment from before the rise of the British Communist Party, had a strong identification with that working class, which frequently conflicted with the Comintern line.
Morrill, John. The Nature of the English Revolution. Essays. Longman, London [etc.] 1993. x, 466 pp. £32.00.
This book contains some twenty essays written by Professor Morrill, a well known specialist in the field of the English Revolution. Fourteen of these were published before. The main themes treated are: the tension between national and provincial politics in this period; the idea that the English Revolution should be seen as "the last of the European wars of religion"; the political sociology of the English Revolution; and the British, in opposition to the English dimension of this historical subject.
Neeson, J.M. Commoners: common right, enclosure and social change in England, 1700-1820. [Past and Present Publications.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1993. xiv, 382 pp. £35.00.
This study examines why and where common right and shared land-use survived in eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century English villages until parliamentary enclosure. Professor Neeson looks at the economic and social relations of common-field villages, reviews the contemporary debate on the social implications of common right and describes the opposition to enclosure and the subsequent decline of small landholders, when common lands were enclosed.
Newman, Michael. Harold Laski. A Political Biography. Macmillan, Basingstoke [etc.] 1993. xvi, 438 pp. £45.00.
In this political biography of Harold Laski (1893-1950), a prominent member of the Labour Party, writer, teacher and one of the best known socialist intellectuals of his time, Professor Newman seeks to re-establish the position Laski deserves as a thinker and as a historical actor. As Laski's political views radicalized in the direction of orthodox Marxism towards the end of his life, his reputation was severely damaged shortly after his death by what the author describes as a Cold War campaign, including several attempts at character assassination.
Tiratsoo, Nick and Jim Tomlinson. Industrial efficiency and state intervention: Labour 1939-51. LSE/Routledge, London [etc.] 1993. x, 213 pp. £37.50.
This study is an assessment of the Labour Party's policy for improving industrial efficiency in Great Britain between 1939 and 1951. The authors concentrate on the debates and initiatives of the wartime period and on the subsequent implementation of policies aimed at raising productivity under the Attlee government. On the basis of this investigation the authors conclude that the accepted idea that this Labour government was only occupied with the construction of the Welfare State needs rectification and that more exhaustive theories about Britain's economic decline are impossible without consideration of the political parties and the context within which they operated.
The Victorian City. A Reader in British Urban History 1820-1914. Ed. by R.J. Morris and Richard Rodger. [Readers in Urban History.] Longman, London [etc.] 1993. viii, 382 pp. Maps. £11.99.
This reader is a collection of thirteen articles (twelve of which were published before) on the history of British towns and cities between 1820 and 1914, a period of unprecedented and intense urbanization of the British economy and society. How this came about and what opportunities and problems it created is discussed in a variety of case studies of specific localities and wider discussions of general issues. Contributors are: both editors, David Cannadine, F.M.L. Thompson, J.R. Kellett, Anne Hardy, D.S. Gadian, Hamish Fraser, Robert D. Storch, Catherine Hall, J.H.S. Kent and Sally Alexander. A select bibliography is included.
Bull, Anna Cento and Paul Corner. From Peasant to Entrepreneur. The Survival of the Family Economy in Italy. Berg, Oxford [etc.] 1993. ix, 174 pp. £30.00.
Linking the development of a highly dynamic sector of small, rurally based manufacturing businesses to the processes of transformation of certain parts of the Italian countryside over the last one hundred years, the authors of this book argue that the involvement of peasant families with both agricultural and industrial employment - a constant factor in the situation before the First World War - produced an entrepreneurial spirit that explains the success of the development of rural industries in Italy, and especially in Northern Italy.
Gerwen, Jacques van. De Centrale Centraal. Geschiedenis van de Centrale Arbeiders- Verzekerings- en Depositobank opgericht in 1904 tot aan de fusie in de Reaal Groep in 1990. Stichting beheer IISG/NEHA, Amsterdam 1993. 449 pp. Ill. D.fl. 69.90.
This doctoral dissertation (Free University Amsterdam, 1993) examines the history of the trade-union related Dutch insurance company De Centrale Arbeiders-Verzekerings- en Depositobank from its foundation in 1904 to its merge into "De Reaal-Groep" in 1990. According to the author, this insurance company can be seen as a twentieth-century continuation of the nineteenth-century mutual benefit societies. The central question in this study is to what extent De Centrale succeeded in reconciling commercial goals - working as a commercial company, maximizing profit - and idealistic goals - supporting activities of the labour movement through subsidies from the profits.
Zanden, J.L. van. The rise and decline of Holland's economy. Merchant capitalism and the labour market. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1993; distr. excl. in the USA and Canada by St. Martin's Press, New York. xiv, 186 pp. £35.00.
This study investigates the rise and decline of merchant capitalism in Holland from the fifteenth to the nineteenth century from the perspective of the position of labour and the development of the labour market. According to Professor van Zanden, the key problem in the rise of capitalism was the supply of labour. Examining the development of the Dutch labour market, he focuses on various forms of labour supply, and he applies the theory of proto-industry to argue that in merchant capitalism most forms of labour supply were no longer self-reproducing, thus giving a new explanation for Holland's economic stagnation after 1670.
Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Dune, Eduard M. Notes of a Red Guard. Transl. and ed. by Diane P. Koenker and S.A. Smith. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1993. xxxvi, 285 pp. Ill. Maps. $37.50. (Paper: $15.95.)
Eduard Dune (1899-1953) was an educated, skilled worker, who joined the Bolshevik party and fought with the Moscow Red Guard during the October revolution. This book is his account of his development into a Bolshevik, his role in the October revolution and his career in the Red Army throughout 1921, when he became involved in the suppression of a revolt in Dagestan. Preceding the memoirs the editors present an introduction with a sketch of Dune's life, who as a member of the Workers' Opposition spent twenty years in and out of labour camps after 1921.
Hamburg, G.M. Boris Chicherin & Early Russian Liberalism 1828-1866. Stanford University Press, Stanford 1992. xi, 443 pp. $47.50.
This is the first volume of a two-volume intellectual and political biography of Boris Chicherin (1828-1904), one of the major liberal thinkers in nineteenth-century Russia. Dealing with the period 1828-1866, the author analyses Chicherin's gradual emergence as a reformist during the reign of Nicholas I, his activities as a prominent spokesman for liberal reform and his defense of conservative liberalism before his disillusionment in the mid-1860s with both the Russian government and society. Professor Hamburg sets Chicherin in the broader cultural context in which he and other early Russian liberals operated.
Leo Trotzki - Kritiker und Verteidiger der Sowjetgesellschaft. Beiträge zum internationalen Trotzki-Symposium, Wuppertal 26.-29. März 1990. Hrsg. von Theodor Bergmann [und] Gert Schäfer. Decaton Verlag, Mainz 1993. 356 pp. DM 39.80.
The twenty-eight essays in this collection were formerly presented at a Trotsky-symposium in Wuppertal 1990, in which not only Russian and Chinese but also Western historians took part. Different aspects of Trotsky's life and work are discussed, sometimes very critically. Among the contributors are Michael Cox, Monty Johnstone, Baruch Knei-Paz, Vladimir A. Kozlov, Mark Selden, Judith C. Shapiro, Leonid M. Spirin, Enzo Traverso and Yin Xuyi.
Neuberger, Joan. Hooliganism. Crime, Culture, and Power in St. Petersburg, 1900-1914. [Studies on the History of Society and Culture, 19.] University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1993. xiv, 324 pp. Ill. $42.00.
This is a study of the phenomenon of hooliganism in St. Petersburg in the period 1900-1914. From 1900 this term, which very soon became an accepted loan-word in Russian, came to cover a wide variety of forms of misconduct and crimes, which under the existing social and cultural circumstances of that moment in Rusland quite suddenly caused a moral panic. Dr Neuberger concludes that hooliganism is a crucial category for understanding the development of social identities and cultural values in Russia.
Rjasanow, David. David Rjasanow - Marx-Engels-Forscher - Humanist - Dissident. Hrsg. und mit einem biographischen Essay versehen von Volker Külow und André Jaroslawski. Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1993. 260 pp. DM 39.80.
This book contains a critical edition of a selection of documents - articles, letters, speeches - by and on David Ryazanov, one of the most important Marxologists of this century. Ryazanov, a Bolshevik of the first hour, founder of the Marx-Engels-Institute in Moscow and the first and sole editor of the Marx-Engels Gesamtausgabe (MEGA), fell victim to Stalin's purges and was shot in 1938. This collection contains, inter alia, the editor's preface to the first MEGA-edition (1927), letters to Karl and Luise Kautsky, articles by Trotsky on Ryazanov and a short biographical introduction by the editors.
Semyonova Tian-Shanskaia, Olga. Village Life in Late Tsarist Russia. Ed. by David L. Ransel with Michael Levine. [Indiana-Michigan Series in Russian and East European Studies.] Indiana University Press, Bloomington [etc.] 1993. xxx, 175 pp. Ill. $29.95. (Paper: $10.95.)
This is the English translation and revision of an ethnographic study of the actual living conditions, attitudes and aspirations of the Russian peasantry in the late 1890s. It was carried out and written down as a collection of loose notes by the Russian ethnographer Olga Semyonova Tian-Shanskaia (1863-1906). A Russian edition of the work was published in 1914, but remained almost unnoticed. The study describes a variety of aspects of daily peasant life in one central Russian village (Muraevnia), including courting rituals, childbirth, the lives of women, food and drink, working habits and the household economy, thus presenting a picture of the harsh living conditions.
Stalinist Terror. New Perspectives. Ed. by J. Arch Getty and Roberta T. Manning. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1993. viii, 294 pp. £35.00; $59.95. (Paper: £13.95; $17.95.)
This collection of fourteen essays (four of which were published before) explores the background of the Stalinist terror and the patterns of persecution in the 1930s. Based on source material that was neglected so far, but already available in the West, as well as on material from newly opened Soviet archives, the essays emphasize that other leaders, besides Stalin himself, as well as institutions and social groups played important roles in the development of the terror. Two of the contributions provide new estimates of the number of Stalin's victims. Contributors include, inter alia, J. Arch Getty, Boris A. Starkov, Robert Thurston, Roberta T. Manning, Alec Nove and Stephen G. Wheatcroft.
Von Geldern, James. Bolshevik Festivals, 1917-1920. [Studies on the History of Society and Culture, 15.] University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1993. xiv, 316 pp. Ill. $40.00.
This book describes the mass festivals and spectacles celebrated by revolutionary Russia in the years 1917-1920 and their impact on the memory and experience of the revolution. Professor Von Geldern argues that the festivals - which involved enormous cost and efforts - were of vital importance to the Bolsheviks, because they had a mythologizing effect on the revolution and were a very efficient way to legitimise the Bolsheviks' claim to power towards the population.
The Spanish Civil War. A Cultural and Historical Reader. Ed. by Alun Kenwood. [Berg European Studies Series.] Berg, Providence [etc.] 1993. xiv, 306 pp. £32.00.
This reader contains a selection of historical and literary documents concerning the Spanish Civil War. In the introduction three authors set the war in its historical context and examine the international intellectual responses to the conflict and the way in which Hispanic literature responded to the war. The documents selected include translations of historical Spanish documents (inter alia the guidelines of the Falange and the Manifesto of the Bloque Nacional) and literary responses to the War from Spain, Great-Britain, France, Germany and the United States. A chronological table of events, a glossary of leading figures and political parties and a bibliography are included.
Creating Social Democracy. A Century of the Social Democratic Labor Party in Sweden. Ed. by Klaus Misgeld, Karl Molin, and Klas Åmark. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park 1992. xxx, 500 pp. Ill. $ 65.00. (Paper: $16.95.)
This volume, which is the English translation of Socialdemokratins samhälle: SAP och Sverige under 100 år (1988), is a collection of thirteen essays on the history of the Swedish Social Democratic Labor Party in the last hundred years. Subjects dealt with are, inter alia: economic policy (implemented policies, relation with the trade union movement), social and welfare policy (family policy, housing policy) and party structure and activities. A universalist welfare policy has always been at the core of the Social Democratic politics in Sweden, according to the editors, so this is a main field of interest in this collection. Every essay summarizes and discusses previous research in its respective area and adds results of new research.