Volume 39 part 3 (1994)


General Issues
Continents and Countries

Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.

General Issues


Halbwachs, Maurice. On Collective Memory. Ed., Transl., and with an Introd. by Lewis A. Coser. [The Heritage of Sociology.] The University of Chicago Press, Chicago [etc.] 1992. ix, 244 pp. $15.00.
This is the first English translation of the writings on collective memory by the French sociologist Maurice Halbwachs (1877-1945), one of the most important advocates of the Durkheimian tradition in the Interbellum. Halbwachs's thesis is that human memory can only function within a collective context, which can be evoked by, e.g., war memorials and socially significant anniversaries, but also by family reminiscences: thus various groups of people have different collective memories. In his biographical introduction the editor sketches the important influence of Henri Bergson's philosophy on Halbwachs's work.

Lloyd, Christopher. The Structures of History. [Studies in Social Discontinuity.] Blackwell, Oxford [etc.] 1993. xvi, 271 pp. £14.99.
In this study Dr Lloyd, who previously published a book on explanation in social history (see IRSH, XXXII (1987), pp. 88f.), addresses the fundamental problem of the feasibility of knowing and explaining the history of human social structures. After examining the general nature of historical structures as well as the research approach of historians and scholars in related fields, the author concludes that an objective understanding of the past is possible and provides an analysis of the requirements for achieving this objective. His arguments negotiate the complex socio-historical realism of scholars like Clifford Geertz and Ernest Gellner, and reject the relativism of writers like Michel Foucault and Jacques Derrida.

La solidarité: un sentiment républicain? [Par] Jacques Chevallier, Dominique Cochart, Claudine Haroche [e.a.] Presses universitaires de France, Paris 1992. 202 pp. F.fr. 80.00.
The fourteen articles in this collection, resulting from a colloquium with the same title, held in Amiens, 1991, deal with the historical origins of solidarity as a social and political phenomenon. Contributions deal with, inter alia, the origins of the modern concept of solidarity in the eighteenth-century sentiment of compassion (Claudine Haroche), the organic conception of the idea with Auguste Comte (Patrick Cingolani), socialist criticism of the lack of solidarity in liberal capitalism (Pierre Ansart), the modern resurrection of the theme of solidarity (the editor), the concept of solidarity within the Islam (Abderrahim Lamchichi) and solidarity and Judaism (Joëlle Allouche-Benayoun).

Stark, Oded. The Migration of Labor. Basil Blackwell, Oxford 1991. x, 406 pp. £42.50.
This is a theoretical study of the process of labour migration, starting from three premises: (1) migration by one person can be undertaken in pursuit of rational optimizing behaviour by a group of persons such as the family, (2) labour migration is not simply caused by wage differentials, (3) a great many migratory phenomena would not have occurred if the set of markets and financial institutions were perfect and complete. On the basis of these premises and their interaction Professor Stark aims to give new explanations of the contemporary migratory process.

Transition to Modernity. Essays on power, wealth and belief. Ed. by John A. Hall and I.C. Jarvie. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1992. xiii, 383 pp. £30.00; $54,95.
In this collection of essays in honour of the philosopher Ernest Gellner sixteen distinguished contributors deal with the explanation of large-scale social change in a dialogue with Gellner's views on our social condition. Taking modernity as a central concept the contributions are divided in three parts: the pre-modern world, transitions to the modern world and modernity and its discontents. Contributions included are, inter alia, "Why poverty was inevitable in traditional societies" (E.A. Wrigley), "The emergence of modern European nationalism" (Michael Mann), "Science, politics, enchantment" (Perry Anderson) and "Property, justice and common goods after socialism" (John Dunn).


Bibliographie internationale de la démographie historique / International BIBLIOGRAPHY of Historical Demography 1991. La Société de Démographie Historique, Paris n.d. 167 pp.
This annually published bibliography, compiled by the International Commission on Historical Demography of the International Committee of Historical Sciences, the Société de Démographie Historique and the Committee on Historical Demography of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, contains 900 items and thus beats all previous records, despite pessimistic expectations.

Geschlecht - Klasse - Ethnizität. 28. Internationale Tagung der Historikerinnen und Historiker der Arbeiterinnen- und Arbeiterbewegung. Hrsg. von Gabriella Hauch. [ITH-Tagungsbericht, Band 29.] Europaverlag, Wien [etc.] 1993. 257 pp. S 248.00.
This volume is a selection from papers presented at the 28th International Conference of Labour Historians, held at Linz (Austria) in 1992. The annual Conference's theme for that year was gender in relation to class and ethnicity. In her preface, the editor notes that this conference signified an historic departure from male domination for the ITH. All but two of the twenty-one contributions are by women and deal with, inter alia, gender and family (Dorothy Thompson, Tamara K. Hareven), the use of oral history in women's history (Shena Berger Gluck, Regina Becker-Schmidt, Irene Bandhauer-Schöffmann), and women and the GULAG (Irina Sherbakova, Meinhard Stark).

La jeunesse et ses mouvements. Influence sur l'évolution des Sociétés aux XIXe et XXe siècles. Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris 1992. xvii, 417 pp. F.fr. 290.00.
This collection is the ninth publication of investigations undertaken under the direction of the International Commission of the History of Social Movements and Structures, and contains twenty-six contributions on the history of youth movements in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Covering thirty countries, belonging to five continents, and several international youth organizations, forty-five authors examine the influence of youth movements on nineteenth- and twentieth-century society. General conclusions from these case studies are, among other things, that movements for the defence of good causes have always been supported and sometimes founded by young people, and that international contacts between youth movements stimulate peace between the nations.

Romero, Federico. The United States and the European Trade Union Movement 1944-1951. Transl. by Harvey Fergusson II. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 1993. xvi, 292 pp. $39.95.
In this translation of Stati Uniti e il sindacalismo europeo, 1944-1951 (1989), the postwar policy of the United States towards the reconstruction of European trade unions is examined, using Italy as a case study. The author concludes that the American strategy to reshape European trade unions after the example of those in the United States failed, because the American model was based on exceptionally favourable economic conditions in this period, conditions that did not exist in Europe at that time.

Rowbotham, Sheila. Women in Movement. Feminism and Social Action. [Revolutionary Thought/Radical Movements.] Routledge,New York [etc.] 1992. xx, 370 pp. £9.99.
This textbook aims to give a historical introduction to a range of women's movements from the late eighteenth century to the present, tracing the origins of feminism in relation to political thought and activities, and describing other economic, social and political movements in which women participated in Europe, North America and the Third World. Themes dealt with include equality, women's differences from men, personal and political individualism, collectivity, the scope of rights and the definition of needs.

Time, Family and Community. Perspectives on Family and Community History. Ed. by Michael Drake. The Open University, in assoc. with Blackwell, Oxford [etc.] 1994. ix, 302 pp. Ill. Maps. £13.99.
This is an introductory collection of essays on family and community history, encompassing a variety of issues within nineteenth- and twentieth-century urban and rural experience, such as immigration and migration, including applications of qualitative and quantitative research techniques, case studies and up-to-date reviews of research. The thirteen contributions included are, inter alia, "Recent Research on the History of the Family" (Tamara K. Hareven), "Theories of Family Development and the Experience of Being Brought Up" (Lynn Jamieson), "Historians and Immigration" (Colin Holmes) and "Community and Nation in the Past: perception and reality" (Dennis Mills).

Watlin, Alexander. Die Komintern 1919-1929. Historische Studien. Mit einem Vorwort von Friedrich I. Firsow. [Studien zur Geschichte der Komintern, Band 1.] Decaton Verlag, Mainz 1993. 192 pp. DM 34.00.
The ten essays in this book - of which seven have been published previously - review selected highlights of the history of the Comintern. The author, a former member of the Institute for Marxism-Leninism in Moscow, discusses topics that include Lenin's hope of world revolution between March 1917 and March 1919, the genesis of popular front tactics between December 1921 and May 1922, Trotsky and the Comintern (1923-1927), Bukharin's policy inside the Comintern, and the stalinization of the Comintern in the fall of 1928.


Armanski, Gerhard. Maschinen des Terrors. Das Lager (KZ und GULAG) in der Moderne. Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster 1993. 206 pp. DM 44.00.
This study offers an historical-sociological comparison of the Nazi concentration-camp system and the Soviet GULAG system. Making use of a large amount of scholarly literature and of testimonies of survivors, Professor Armanski analyses the conditions under which the systems could emerge, describing them in their relations to twentieth-century modernity and progress. He concludes that, although both systems of terror originated from a deep social crisis, an important difference lies in their ultimate purpose: for the Nazis this was the destruction of people, while forced labour was only a side product; for de Soviets it was the other way round.

Crouch, Colin. Industrial Relations and European State Traditions. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1993. xx, 407 pp. £40.00.
Dealing with the development of industrial relations in fifteen European countries (Austria, Belgium, the Scandinavian countries, France, Germany, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland) from the 1870s to the present day, Dr Crouch examines in this study the differences in the various roles of trade unions, employers' organizations and the state, and in the responsibility for maintaining order and efficiency in the labour market. On the basis of a combination of rational choice theory and historical analysis, he concludes that these differences can only be elucidated by using long-term historical explanations of contemporary institutions.

"... nur für die Sicherheit da ...? Zur Geschichte der Polizei im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. Hrsg. von Herbert Reinke. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1993. 244 pp. DM 48.00.
The twelve contributions in this collection, based on a colloquium, held in Düsseldorf in 1990, deal with the history of the police in relation to the problem of security and public order in Germany and cities in France, Britain and the United States in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Contributions included deal, inter alia, with the everyday practice of the Prussian police before 1848 (Alf Lüdtke), the Gestapo (Robert Gellately), the French vice squads before 1914 (Jean-Marc Berlière, who recently published a monograph on this subject, see IRSH, this volume), police and urban development in Victorian Manchester (Barbara Weinberger) and the history of the American city and the development of public-order problems (Eric H. Monkkonen).

Plantation Workers. Resistance and Accommodation. Ed. by Brij V. Lal, Doug Munro, and Edward D. Beechert. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1993. viii, 343 pp. $38.00.
The ten essays in this collection study the living and working conditions of plantation workers on the Pacific Islands in the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth, compared to the conditions of those in Latin America and Australia. All authors examine plantation workers' conditions in the context of resistance and accommodation. Contributions included deal with Hawaii (the third editor), Queensland, Australia (Clive Moore), Samoa (the first editor and Stewart Firth), Solomon Islands (Judith A. Bennett), Fiji Islands (the first editor), Guatemala (David McCreery), Mexico (Allen Wells and Gilbert M. Joseph) and Peru (Michael J. Gonzales). CONTINENTS AND COUNTRIES



Marshall, Judith. Literacy, Power, and Democracy in Mozambique. The Governance of Learning from Colonization to the Present. [Conflict and Social Change Series.] Westview Press, Boulder [etc.] 1993. xix, 313 pp. Ill. £25.00.
This study explores the relations between literacy and popular power in the context of Mozambique's socialist reconstruction project in the 1980s. Ms Marshall, who was active in literacy education in Mozambique during this period, analyses the significance and practices of literacy for women and men at a factory of the Matola Industrial Company. Literacy is perceived as both a set of language skills and an interplay of language meanings and practices, based as much on class, race and gender as on grammar and syntax. Literacy is also considered an integral aspect of state formation.


Lovejoy, Paul E. [and] Jan S. Hogendorn. Slow Death for Slavery. The course of abolition in Northern Nigeria, 1897-1936. [African Studies Series, 76.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1993. xvii, 391 pp. £45.00. (Paper: £16.95.)
This book examines the gradual decline of slavery in Northern Nigeria - one of the largest slave societies in modern history - during the first forty years of British colonial rule (1897-1936). To avoid great social unrest, the colonial government instituted policies to abolish the legal status of this practice instead of emancipating the slaves. The authors aim to show that these policies placed heavy financial burdens on the impoverished slave population, thereby perpetuating slavery until 1936 for men and far longer for women.

South Africa

Atkins, Keletso E. The Moon is Dead! Give Us Our Money! The Cultural Origins of an African Work Ethic, Natal, South Africa, 1843-1900. [Social History of Africa.] Heinemann, Portsmouth (NH); James Currey, London 1993. xvi, 190 pp. £35.00. (Paper: £12.95.)
This study deals with the formation of the black working class in Natal, South Africa, between 1843 and 1900, emphasizing African cultural practices and African resistance as a shaping force. On the basis of a wide variety of sources, Professor Atkins tells the history of black workers from their perspective, concluding that, contrary to what white colonists believed, in labour relations black workers reacted from a set of patterned responses, derived from a distinct African work ethic, which was shaped by corporate values and structural practices.

James, Wilmot G. Our Precious Metal. African Labour in South Africa's Gold Industry, 1970-1990. David Philip, Cape Town; James Currey, London; Indiana University Press, Bloomington [etc.] 1992. ix, 188 pp. R 44.95.
This is a sociological history of the effects of the changing socio-political conditions in southern Africa on African mine labour in South Africa in the 1970s and 1980s. Professor James examines the changing labour-recruiting strategies developed by the mine employers as well as the process of acquiring power by the African workers. He concludes that, although the African workers were successful in the development of the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) and were able to improve their working and living conditions, they expected too much from a growing state control over the mining industry.


Nelson, Jack E. Christian Missionizing and Social Transformation. A History of Conflict and Change in Eastern Zaire. Praeger, New York [etc.] 1992. xiv, 209 pp. £38.95.
The aim of this study is to analyse the dialectic relation between Western missionizing and the Africans and their churches, thus offering an insight into the impact of missionizing and the African responses, on the basis of an examination of the conflicts that arose in eastern Zaire between some missions and the Africans in the beginning of the 1960s, just after Zaire had become independent. The author concludes that the missions' policy of encouraging the independence of the African churches caused severe strife within these churches and thus ironically brought about these conflicts.


Becker, Marc. Mariátegui and Latin American Marxist Theory. [Monographs in International Studies, Latin American Series, Nr 20.] Ohio University Press, Athens 1993. xxv, 214 pp. $18.00.
This study examines the influence of the Peruvian political theorist José Carlos Mariátegui (1894-1930) on the development of an indigenous Latin-American revolutionary theory. The author reviews the essential elements of Mariátegui's thought and examines important influences on his intellectual development, e.g., his contact with Antonio Gramsci. According to Mr Becker, Mariátegui played an important part in defining a Latin-American identity and, through Julio Antonio Mella and Augusto César Sandino, he had a profound influence on the successful revolutionary movements in Cuba and Nicaragua.

Mitchell, B.R. International Historical Statistics. The Americas 1750-1988. Second Ed. Macmillan Press, Basingstoke; Stockton Press, New York 1993. xx, 817 pp. £135.00.
This is the second edition of this major compilation, aiming to provide economists and historians with a wide range of statistical data on North and Latin America. Unlike the first edition, this one has omitted Australasia, although the forthcoming edition on Africa and Asia will cover this region. This edition also differs from its predecessor in the current excision of the section on climate, the addition of a table of estimates of annual population growth and another providing money supply data for the past four decades, and the greater detail in the balance of payment table.


Rock, David. Authoritarian Argentina. The Nationalist Movement, Its History and Its Impact. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1993. xxiii, 320 pp. $35.00.
This is a comprehensive study of the radical right-wing Nationalist movement in Argentina, which constituted the ideological background of the military leaders responsible for the dirty war in Argentina between 1976 and 1983. Professor Rock examines the origins of the movement, arguing that its roots lie not so much in fascism as in the Catholic counterrevolution that emerged in Europe in the early nineteenth century, and he emphasizes the diffusion of the movement's ideology in society at large, which left its mark on almost every aspect of Argentine life until the present day.


Anderson, Kay J. Vancouver's Chinatown. Racial Discourse in Canada, 1875-1980. [McGill-Queen's Studies in Ethnic History, 10.] MacGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal [etc.] 1991. x, 323 pp. Maps. £29.95.
Contradicting the popular wisdom that the Chinese quarters of Canadian, American and Australian cities are products of immigration and the Chinese immigrants themselves, Dr Anderson here argues of Vancouver's Chinatown between 1875 and 1980, that "Chinatown" is a Western construction, a result of the cultural domination of European settlers. In a critical discourse analysis of the concept of "race", she tries to show that not only in everyday practice, but also in most of the social sciences dealing with racial relations and immigration, race is seen as a given entity, rather than as a conceptual and linguistic construct, used to sustain the hegemony of one group over another.

Naylor, James. The New Democracy. Challenging the Social Order in Industrial Ontario, 1914-1925. University of Toronto Press, Toronto [etc.] 1991. x, 336 pp. $55.00; £38.00. (Paper: $18.95; £13.00.)
Focusing on southern Ontario, Dr Naylor here examines how in the period of great labour unrest between 1914 and 1925 the labour movement developed an increasingly articulate working-class view of political and economic democracy. According to the author, the working class was able to gain considerable political influence through the Independent Labor Party, by using unprecedented forms of collective action. After 1924 however, this Party rapidly declined and did not bring about the measure of economic democracy it had hoped for.

Stanley, George F.G. The Birth of Western Canada: A History of the Riel Rebellions. New introd. by Thomas Flanagan. Maps by C.C.J. Bond. [Reprints in Canadian History.] University of Toronto Press, Toronto [etc.] 1992. xxviii, 475 pp. $24.95.
This is a new reprint of the classical study, originally published as a doctoral thesis (Oxford, 1936) on the rebellions that marked the birth of modern Canada: the Riel Rebellions of 1869-1870 and 1885, named after Louis Riel, leader of the Métis people, Indians and halfbreeds in the settlements in the Red River regions of Northwest Canada. According to Professor Stanley, the rebellions marked the triumph of the white Anglo-Saxon culture as the dominant culture in Canada. The introduction by Thomas Flanagan sets Professor Stanley's work in its historical and historiographical context.


Holt, Thomas C. The Problem of Freedom. Race, Labor, and Politics in Jamaica and Britain, 1832-1938. [Johns Hopkins Studies in Atlantic History and Culture.] The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 1992. xxx, 517 pp. Ill. Maps. $65.00. (Paper: $19.95.)
This is a study of the emancipation and of the postemancipation society of Jamaica, between the slave revolt of 1831-1832 and the subsequent abolition of slavery and the labour rebellion of 1938 and its immediate aftermath, which led to the end of British rule in Jamaica. The changes in British ideology and economic and social policy are examined, as well as the effects of the emancipation for the Jamaican people. According to Professor Holt, the emancipation from slavery brought about new forms of economic coercion for the Afro-Jamaicans, just as the end of colonialism was followed by new forms of coercion for Jamaica.


Markiewicz, Dana. The Mexican Revolution and the Limits of Agrarian Reform, 1915-1946. Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder [etc.] 1993. viii, 215 pp. $37.50.
This study attempts to show that Mexican agrarian reform after 1915, portrayed by orthodox historiography as successful and extremely popular among the poor peasantry, was in fact initiated to suppress revolution by landless peasants and sought only to delay or prevent land distribution. The author concludes that, even under Lázaro Cárdenas during the relatively auspicious decade of the 1930s, peasant gains from this reform were largely reversible and illusory. Markiewicz disputes the common notion that the ejido peasantry, which was created under the reform, possessed a unique potential to catalyse positive social change.

United States of America

Abbott, Philip. Leftward Ho! V.F. Calverton and American Radicalism. [Contributions in Political Science, No. 315.] Greenwood Press, Westport [etc.] 1993. x, 231 pp. £49.50.
This book deals with the relation between V.F. Calverton (1900-1940) and the American radical left. According to the author, Calverton, founder-publisher of the Modern Quarterly (1923-1940), is one of the most underestimated American radicals of the twentieth century. Professor Abbott characterizes Calverton as the "Lenin-Pericles-Casanova" of two projects: the invention of an American bohemia and of an American socialism. He describes his contacts, alliances and conflicts with almost every radical of his period and concludes that Calverton, after having been at the centre of American radicalism in the 1920s and early 1930s, later became more and more marginalized by his consistent heterodoxy and rejection of both stalinism and trotskyism.

Bellows, Barbara L. Benevolence Among Slaveholders. Assisting the Poor in Charleston 1670-1860. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge [etc.] 1993. xvii, 217 pp. Ill. $29.95.
This is a study of public assistance programmes for the poor in cities in the Old South in the period 1670-1860. Focusing on the city of Charleston, South Carolina, the author aims to provide insight into the lives of the white lower classes, as well as into the attitudes of the urban elite distributing the public assistance. Professor Bellows concludes that although the form of poor relief in the South closely resembled that in the North, the motivation differed greatly. For the Southern elites, poor relief was a means to bind the interests of lower-class whites to wealthy whites, rather than to the free blacks who shared their poverty.

Black Communities and Urban Development in America 1720-1990. A Ten-Volume Collection of Articles Surveying the Social, Political, Economic, and Cultural Development of Black Urban Communities. Ed. by Kenneth L. Kusmer. Vol. 6. Depression, War, and the New Migration, 1930-1960. Ed. with an Introd. by Kenneth L. Kusmer. Garland Publishing, Inc., New York [etc.] 1991. xii, 343 pp. Ill. Maps. $80.00.
This is volume six of a ten-volume collection of articles - reproduced in facsimile - surveying the social, political, economic and cultural development of black urban communities in the United States between 1720 and 1990. This volume covers the period 1930-1960, the years of the Depression, the Second World War and the New Migration. It contains twenty articles, contemporary as well as historic. In his concise introduction the editor summarizes the main developments of the period.

Black Exodus. The Great Migration from the American South. Ed. by Alferdteen Harrison. University Press of Mississippi, Jackson [etc.] 1991. xviii, 107 pp. $25.00. (Paper: $14.95.)
This collection contains seven original articles on the causes of the mass migration of African Americans from the South of the United States in the first half of the twentieth century and its impact on the South as well as on the Northern communities where migrants landed. Contributors are Blyden Jackson, Dernoral Davis, Stewart E. Tolnay and E.M. Beck, Carole Marks, James R. Grossman, William Cohen, and Neil R. McMillen.

Bolton, Charles C. Poor Whites of the Antebellum South. Tenants and Laborers in Central North Carolina and Northeast Mississoppi. Duke University Press, Durham [etc.] 1994. x, 258 pp. $39.95. (Paper: $16.95.)
The poor whites are, according to the author of this study, the historically most obscure group in the American South in the decades preceding the Civil War. Professor Bolton examines the lives of the landless white tenants and labourers and their relationship to yeoman farmers, black slaves, free blacks and the white elite. Focusing on two regions (central North Carolina and northeast Mississippi) he analyses the important role the poor whites played in the local economy, and discusses analyses why they did not make a political alliance with enslaved or free blacks, and, to a large extent, rejected the secession.

Capeci, Dominic J., Jr. and Martha Wilkerson. Layered Violence. The Detroit Rioters of 1943. University Press of Mississippi, Jackson [etc.] 1991. xvii, 329 pp. $32.50.
This study of the racial riots in Detroit in 1943, the largest and most violent racial upheaval in the United States up to that date, focuses on the identity and motives of individuals who rioted. The authors conclude that the blacks and whites participating in the uproar have much in common with rioters from earlier and later riots, thus setting the upheaval of 1943 in the national context of collective violence.

Chinoy, Ely. Automobile Workers and the American Dream. 2nd ed. Introd. by Ruth Milkman. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1992. xxx, 157 pp. $12.95.
This is the second edition of a standard work of American industrial sociology, originally published in 1955. Professor Chinoy (1921-1975), former editor of the American Sociological Review, in this study described the world of the automobile workers of a General Motors factory in Lansing, Michigan, a world of alienated labour, and frustrated hopes. With this documentation, based on extensive fieldwork, he pointed at the enormous gap between the ideal of the American dream of upward social mobility and the gloomy reality for the large majority of the blue collar workers. In her introduction Professor Milkman sets Chinoy's study in its historical context and compares his findings to the present-day situation of automobile workers.

Craig, Robert H. Religion and Radical Politics. An Alternative Christian Tradition in the United States. Temple University Press, Philadelphia 1992. vii, 307 pp. Ill. $34.95.
This book examines the history of American Christians in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries who discovered a convergence between radical politics and their Christian beliefs, and the consequences of this convergence for movements of social change. Focusing on, among other things, nineteenth-century labour movements like the Christian Labor Union and the Knights of Labor, and several individuals, Professor Craig tries to show that Christians and Christian organisations played a far larger part in social movements than is commonly acknowledged by historians.

Diner, Hasia R. A Time for Gathering. The Second Migration 1820-1880. [The Jewish People in America, Vol. II.] The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 1992. xvii, 313 pp. Ill. $29.95.
This is the second volume of a five-volume series (see the notice of Eli Faber, A Time for Planting. The First Migration 1654-1820 in this volume). It deals with the period between 1820 and 1880, traditionally labelled as the German era. The author of this volume aims to challenge this label, focusing on the majority of common Jewish people, pedlars and petty merchants, originating from central and eastern Europe, of whom only a part came from a really German background. It was in this period that most of the American Jewish institutions that still exist were founded.

Faber, Eli. A Time for Planting. The First Migration 1654-1820. [The Jewish People in America, Vol. I.] The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 1992. xvi, 188 pp. Ill. $29.95.
This is the first volume of a five-volume series, published on the occasion of the centennial of the American Jewish Historical Society, dealing with the history of the Jewish people in the United States from the first Jewish settlement at Manhattan in 1654 to the present day. In his foreword to this series Henry L. Feingold, the series editor, points at an universal theme running through Jewish-American history: the persistent tension between assimilation and group survival, between American citizenship and Judaism. This first volume covers the period of the first migration to colonial North America until 1820, commonly coined as the Sephardic era: a period which, according to the author, marks the beginning of citizenship for Jews in the modern world.

Feingold, Henry L. A Time for Searching. Entering the Mainstream 1920-1945. [The Jewish People in America, Vol. IV.] The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 1992. xvii, 338 pp. Ill. $29.95.
This is the fourth volume of a five-volume series (see the notice of Eli Faber, A Time for Planting. The First Migration 1654-1820 in this volume). It covers the period 1920-1945. This period is characterized by the author as that of the "second generation" (of eastern European immigrants) entering the mainstream of American society, and as a phase in which the duality between America and Judaism became particularly clear, as American Jewry learned that it was no longer as cohesive a community as it had imagined itself to be. This became painfully clear, according to Dr Feingold, when American Jewry proved helpless in witnessing the destruction of its parent community in Europe in the Holocaust.

Green, Archie. Wobblies, Pile Butts, and Other Heroes. Laborlore Explorations. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1993. xii, 523 pp. Ill. $39.95.
In this study on American working-class culture, Professor Green elaborates his concept of "laborlore", a term for job tradition and folklore that refers to "expressivity by workers themselves and their allies: utterance, representation, symbol, code, artifact, belief, ritual". After examining how occupational folklife is reflected in music, film and art, he presents ten case studies of job tradition and folklore, including pictorial representations of the American folk hero John Henry, the origins and history of the use of the word "Wobbly", job anecdotes of cuckoldry and sexual impotence, and a study of various work rituals.

Griffiths, David B. Populism in the Western United States 1890-1900. Vol. I, II. The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston [etc.] 1992. xi, 783 pp. $49.95; 39.95.
This two-volume study is a detailed history of Populism as a political, social and ideological movement in the western United States between 1890 and 1900. On the basis of a variety of Populist sources the author deals with the origins of Populism in the anti-monopoly movement, the differences in Populism in the various western states, the relation with the working class and the labour movement, and some of the important Populist leaders and their ideas. He pays special attention to the issues of anti-Semitism ("anti-Jewish expression") and of women in western-American Populism. In his conclusion the author shows his aversion to summary definitions, such as Populists and Populism.

History of Women in the United States. Historical Articles on Women's Lives and Activities. Ed. with an Introd. by Nancy F. Cott. Vol. 1, 1/2. Theory and Method in Women's History. Vol. 2. Household Constitution and Family Relationships. Vol. 3. Domestic Relations and Law. Vol. 4, 1/2. Domestic Ideology and Domestic Work. Vol. 5, 1/2. The Intersection of Work and Family Life. Vol. 6. Working on the Land. Vol. 7, 1/2. Industrial Wage Work. Vol. 8, 1/2. Professional and White-Collar Employments. K.G. Saur, Munich [etc.] 1992. xii, 526 pp.; xi, 430 pp.; xi, 449 pp.; xiii, 591 pp.; xiii, 704 pp.; xiii, 484 pp.; xiii, 656 pp.; xiii, 668 pp. Ill. DM 178.00 per vol./part.
These are the first eight volumes of a planned twenty-volume series of reprints from articles on the history of women, women's lives and their activities in the United States, reproduced in facsimile. According to the editor of the series, these volumes reflect the current success of this field of scholarship, which is growing at a rate unequalled in American history. The volumes are organized by subject and present twenty topics selected to afford views of women's work, family lives, and public activities, which transcended races and regions. Only articles that originally appeared in journals have been reprinted, not including review articles.
The articles are selected on the basis of one or more criteria, which include being the authoritative source on a subject, representing an important statement on a topic by a scholar of authority, presaging an important book, providing a preliminary glimpse of new evidence or new methods and introducing a terra incognita or a new controversy. Virtually all articles date from the past two decades, with over half from the 1980s. Older articles have been reprinted if their date or interpretation has not rendered them obsolete, or if they marked an important stage in historiography, even if since superseded.
The period addressed by the series covers the Revolutionary Era to the 1960s. Each volume presents the articles chronologically with respect to the subject matter, except for Volume 1 (on Theory and Method), in which the contents appear in order of publication. The series editor offers a concise, two and a half page introduction to every volume, in which she reviews the developments within each topic, places them in the broader context of the rise of women's history in the United States and connects them to events in related fields. Bibliographical information on the articles and an extensive index have been appended to each volume.

Honey, Michael K. Southern Labor and Black Civil Rights. Organizing Memphis Workers. [The Working Class in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1993. xiii, 364 pp. Ill. $49.95. (Paper: $17.95.)
See Douglas Flamming's review in this volume, pp. 469-472.

Immigrant Voices. New Lives in America, 1773-1986. Ed. by Thomas Dublin. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1993. xiii, 319 pp. Ill. $49.95. (Paper: $15.95.)
This collection contains ten personal testimonies of immigrant experiences of men and women from European, Latin American and Asian backgrounds, who came to the United States in the period between 1773 and 1986. All the diaries, letters, reminiscences and interviews selected were published before, while for the annotations in this selection the editor also drew on the work of earlier editions. In the introduction the editor sets the documents in a broader interpretative framework, with the aim of offering a survey of the place of immigration in the national American development.

Johnson, Whittington B. The Promising Years, 1750-1830. The Emergence of Black Labor and Business. Garland Publishing, Inc., New York [etc.] 1993. x, 272 pp. $63.00.
This study sketches the economic experiences and opportunities among free and enslaved African Americans working in non-agricultural jobs in the period 1750-1830. According to Dr Jones, this group fared rather favourably during this period compared to subsequent ones. During these years, manumissions increased, and the expanding American economy created a growing demand for skilled and unskilled labour and improved opportunities for establishing businesses.

Jones, Margaret C. Heretics & Hellraisers. Women Contributors to The Masses, 1911-1917. [American Studies Series.] University of Texas Press, Austin 1993. xi, 227 pp. Ill. $27.50. (Paper: $12.95.)
The Masses was an influential left-wing magazine in the United States in the early twentieth century. This study examines the significant contributions from women editors, fiction writers, poets, artists and activists to this magazine, which supported feminist issues, and thus, according to the author, shaped public discourse about women's concerns. Dr Jones sketches the careers of prominent women contributors, such as Mary Heaton Vorse, Dorothy Day, Louise Bryant and Helen R. Hull, and explores their perspectives on crucial issues that include patriarchy, birth control, the labour movement, women's suffrage, pacifism, and ethnicity.

Lebergott, Stanley. Pursuing Happiness. American Consumers in the Twentieth Century. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1993. xiii, 188 pp. $24.95.
In this study of American consumer behaviour in the twentieth century, Professor Lebergott maintains that the average consumer has acted more reasonably than many critics of "materialism" have suggested. The first part of the book addresses several themes related to consumption and well-being, such as criticism of "consumerism", the relation between happiness and economic welfare, consumption inequality versus income inequality, and the effectiveness of advertising. In the second part, the author analyses consumption trends in food, tobacco and alcohol, clothing, housing, fuel, domestic service and housework, health, transportation, recreation, welfare and religion.

Leeder, Elaine. The Gentle General. Rose Pesotta. Anarchist and Labor Organizer. [SUNY Series in American Labor History.] State University of New York Press, Albany 1993. xviii, 212 pp. Ill. $16.95.
This revised doctoral thesis (Cornell, 1985) is a biography of Rose Pesotta (1896-1965), organizer and vice president of the International Ladies Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU) from 1933 to 1944. After moving to the United States from the Ukraine in 1913, Pesotta became involved in the resurgence of the garment workers' industry, women's labour colleges, labour activism and the anarchist movement, confronting serious opposition as a woman and an anarchist in the all-male union hierarchy and bureaucracy. Dr Leeder pays special attention to Pesotta's relationships with Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti and with Emma Goldman.

Ross, William G. A Muted Fury. Populists, Progressives, and Labor Unions Confront the Courts, 1890-1937. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1994. ix, 339 pp. $39.50.
In the period 1890-1937, populists, progressives and labour leaders in the United States complained that the judiciary impeded social and economic reform by imposing crippling restraints on trade unions and nullifying legislation that regulated business corporations. This study examines the origins of this critique and the measures that were proposed to curtail judicial power. It also evaluates the successes and failures of the anti-court movements. Professor Ross argues that the anti-court fury was muted by several factors, among them the judicary's willingness to mitigate its hostility towards progressive legislation and labour.

Shapiro, Edward S. A Time for Healing. American Jewry Since World War II. [The Jewish People in America, Vol. V.] The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 1992. xvii, 313 pp. Ill. $29.95.
This fifth volume of a five-volume series (see the notice of Eli Faber, A Time for Planting. The First Migration 1654-1820 in this volume) deals with two major themes: the embourgeoisement of American Jewry and the adaption of the Jews to unprecedented conditions of affluence and freedom. According to the author this adaption resulted to a large extent in a progressive decline of a distinct Jewish identity.

Slaves No More. Three Essays on Emancipation and the Civil War. [By] Ira Berlin, Barbara J. Fields, Steven F. Miller [a.o.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1992. xx, 243 pp. Ill. £30.00; $44.95. (Paper: £9.95; $12.95.)
This book contains the three introductory essays from the first three published volumes of the series Freedom: a documentary history of emancipation, 1861-1867, a publication of the Freedmen and Southern Society Project of the University of Maryland. The essays address such central questions as: how did slaves gain freedom, what did freedom mean and how did wartime military service reshape the lives of black Americans? The authors emphasize the active role of slaves and former slaves in their emancipation.

Sorin, Gerald. A Time for Building. The Third Migration 1880-1920. [The Jewish People in America, Vol. III.] The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 1992. xvii, 306 pp. Ill. $29.95.
This is the third volume of a five-volume series (see the notice of Eli Faber, A Time for Planting. The First Migration 1654-1820 in this volume). It covers the period of the great migration, 1880-1929, during which over two million Jews from eastern Europe came to the United States. According to the author, this massive immigration had a profound impact on American Jewish culture and traditions, causing disunity, fragmentation and a significant reshaping of tradition, although an essential element of the civil religion of American Jewry persisted: the social responsibility for Jews inside and outside the United States.

Voss, Kim. The Making of American Exceptionalism. The Knights of Labor and Class Formation in the Nineteenth Century. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1993. xv, 290 pp. $43.95. (Paper: $18.65.)
Rejecting traditional interpretations of the weakness and political conservatism of the labour movement in the United States, based on theories of "American exceptionalism", Professor Voss argues in this study that the American labour movement had much in common with its British and French counterparts for most of the nineteenth century. Focusing on the largest American labour organization in the nineteenth century, the Knights of Labor, the author tries to show that this organization succeeded in broadening the social base and political horizon of the labour movement, until it was defeated by employers' associations, which were more powerful than their European counterparts.



Lin, Nan. The Struggle for Tiananmen. Anatomy of the 1989 Mass Movement. Praeger, Westport [etc.] 1992. ix, 199 pp. Ill. £40.50.
This analysis of the events at the Tiananmen Square in China in the Spring of 1989 uses the resource mobilization approach as analytical framework for interpretation. The author describes the Tiananmen movement as a mass movement, its form, goals and actions being shaped in a dynamic interaction with the authorities and the larger environment and situation, in which the events took place. Professor Lin concludes that the rational-choice or economic-utility perspective, which is used in many studies of mass movements, is too narrow, as the process itself assumes its own structure and momentum, contributing to the eventual outcome.


Majumdar, Asok. Peasant Protest in Indian Politics. Tebhaga Movement in Bengal. NIB Publishers, New Delhi 1993. xv, 296 pp. Rs. 220; $12.00.
This doctoral thesis (Delhi, 1993) describes the history of the Tebhaga movement, a protest operation in the period 1946-1950 in which tenant sharecroppers in Bengal, India demanded that their share of the produce be increased from half to two-thirds (the meaning of the term Tebhaga). Although this movement failed to achieve its ultimate objective, Dr Majumdar claims it marked a turning point in the history of agrarian movements in India by apprising the major political parties in Bengal, and especially the Communist Party, of the importance of the peasantry.

Rural India. Land, Power and Society under British Rule. Ed. by Peter Robb. [SOAS Studies on South Asia.] Oxford University Press, Delhi [etc.] 1992. viii, 313 pp. Rs 185; £7.95.
This is the second edition of a collection, originally published in 1983, which was based on a conference, held in December 1980 in London, on the external dimension, i.e. the linkeages between localities and the wider world in rural South Asia. The ten contributions all focus on India under British colonial rule and deal with, inter alia, the British "transformation" in India (the editor), the term "land control" (Dharma Kumar), the development of local institutions for control in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries (Anand A. Yang), the plague and the Indian village between 1896 and 1914 (I.J. Catanach) and Muslim political mobilization in rural Punjab between 1937 and 1946 (Ian Talbot).

Stern, Robert W. Changing India. Bourgeois revolution on the subcontinent. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1993. xv, 251 pp. £30.00. (Paper: £9.95.)
This is a comprehensive introduction to contemporary India's modern history and social institutions, aimed at a general readership. The author describes and analyses India's modern agriculture and industrial economies, its evolving system of classes, its functioning of the democratic federal union, its electoral politics and parliamentary democracy, all in the historical context of family households, India's caste system, venerable faiths and ethnic diversity. Dr Stern's central argument is that the rapid and profound changes taking place in India are adaptive to its underlying social system because these changes involve simultaneous development of capitalism and parliamentary democracy.


Osugi, Sakae. The Autobiography of Osugi Sakae. Transl. with annotations by Byron K. Marshall. [Voices from Asia, 6.] University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1992. xx, 167 pp. $30.00. (Paper: $11.00.)
This is the translated autobiography of a central figure in the early-twentieth-century Japanese labour movement and radical left, Osugi Sakae (1885-1923) (see IRSH, XXVIII (1983), p. 355, on Thomas A. Stanley's biography of Osugi). Osugi was, among other things, the main Japanese representative at the conference of Far Eastern Socialists in Shanghai, 1920. After his violent death at the hands of the military police, he left an impressive amount of writings, which, according to the editor, earned him a secure place in both the socialist canon and the history of "proletarian literature" in Japan.


Chutima, Gawin. The Rise and the Fall of the Communist Party of Thailand (1973-1987). [Occasional Paper No. 12.] Centre of South-East Asian Studies, The University of Kent at Canterbury, Kent 1990. xii, 96 pp. £3.00.
While the Communist Party of Thailand is currently a negligible political force in the military government, it led an insurgence in the 1960s and 1970s. This uprising appeared to take power successfully for some time, until it was put down in the early 1980s. This mimeographed booklet is a history of the Communist Party in this period and was written by Mr Chutima, a former member. Apart from the role of a new political and military counter-insurgence strategy adopted by the military government in defeating the communist insurgence, the author stresses the importance of external factors, such as the changing leadership in China, and internal strains and conflicts within the party.



Frances, Raelene. The Politics of Work. Gender and Labour in Victoria 1880-1939. [Studies in Australian History.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1993. xii, 267 pp. Ill. £37.50; $59.95.
Focusing on the clothing, bootmaking and printing industries in the Australian state of Victoria, Dr Frances, who recently also published a textbook on working women in Australia in the same period (see IRSH, 39 (1994)), here examines the changes in the nature of work from the 1880s to 1939. She traces the relationship between economic and technological change, the nature of the sexual division in the workforce, and the role of union, employer and state activists, as well as the impact of these factors on the wage levels of men and women.

The Maritime Strike: A Centennial Retrospective. Essays in Honour of E.C. Fry. Ed. by Jim Hagan and Andrew Wells. Five Islands Press Associates, in ass. with the University of Wollongong Labour History Resea[r]ch Group and the Australian Society for the Study of Labour History, Wollongong 1992. xi, 129 pp.
The ten essays in this volume were all but three written for a conference, held in Wollongong in 1990, commemorating the centennial of the Maritime Strike in August 1890, one of the largest industrial conflicts in Australia. The contributions, published in honour of Eric Fry, founder of the Australian Society for the Study of Labour History, deal with several aspects of this strike and Australian labour history at the turn of the century.

Mathews, Race. Australia's First Fabians. Middle-class Radicals, Labour Activists and the Early Labour Movement. Foreword by Gough Whitlam. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1993. xii, 284 pp. Ill. £35.00; $59.95.
This history of the Fabian Societies that were set up in Australia at the turn of the century sketches their political ideas and strategies, explaining the similarities between the British and Australian Fabians and appraising their long-term influence on intellectual life in Australia. According to the author (himself a prominent Fabian) the Australian Fabians, as middle class as their British examples and counterparts, could have had a greater influence on the Australian labour movement, but for the inconsistent policies of one of their leaders, Henry Hyde Champion.


Arbeiterbewegung und Antisemitismus. Entwicklungslinien im 20. Jahrhundert. Hrsg. von Mario Keßler. [Podium Progressiv, 25.] Pahl-Rugenstein-Verlag Nachf., Bonn 1993. 174 pp. DM 19.80.
The thirteen contributions to this collection all originate from a workshop on the labour movement and anti-Semitism, held in Berlin in December 1992. The main focus is on the relation between communism and anti-Semitism. Contributions included deal with, inter alia, the attitude of the SPD towards eastern-European Jews in 1919/1920 (Lothar Elsner), Léon Blum on the Jewish question and anti-Semitism (Johannes Glasneck), the unsolved Jewish question in the Soviet Union (1917-1953) (Mario Keßler), the German Democratic Republic, the Holocaust and anti-Zionism (Angelika Timm) and conflicts within the West-German Left on Israel (Martin W. Kloke).

Arbeiterbewegung und Nationale Frage in den Nachfolgestaaten der Habsburgermonarchie. Hrsg. von Helmut Konrad. [Veröffentlichung des Ludwig Boltzmann Instituts für Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung.] Europaverlag, Wien [etc.] 1993. S 198.00; DM 29.00.
The five original contributions to this collection, resulting from an Austrian research project, deal with the issue of nationalism with respect to the labour movement in the states of the former Habsburg monarchy. The contributors are Helmut Konrad on social-democratic and communist initiatives for solving the national question in Eastern and Central Europe, Lenka Bobikova on the labour movement and nationality struggles before 1914, Béla Rasky on the national question and the labour movement in Hungary, Franc Rozman on Etbin Kristan and his ideas on personal autonomy, and Cvetka Knapic-Krhen on Karl Renner and the national question in the states of the former Habsburg monarchy.

Gotovitch, José, Pascal Delwit [et] Jean-Michel De Waele. L'Europe des communistes. [Questions au XXe siècle.] Editions Complexe, Bruxelles 1992. 353 pp. B.fr. 425.00.
Starting from the view that communism, together with the other major twentieth-century political currents, has shaped the European political and cultural identity, Dr Gotovitch, a historian of Belgian communism (see IRSH, 38 (1993), p. 425) and Mr Delwit and De Waele, two political scientists, give a general survey of the history of communism and the communist parties in Europe, from the First World War to the collapse of Soviet communism. They conclude that the communist parties were incapable of adapting to the radical changes in modern capitalism because of the dogma of democratic centralism and their strong attachment to the Soviet Union.

Hagelweide, Gert. Literatur zur deutschsprachigen Presse. Eine Bibliographie: Von den Anfängen bis 1970. Band 4: 33165-47705. Wesen und Funktion periodischer Druckpublizistik. Tageszeitung (Presse). Die Zeitschrift. Almanache und Kalender. Die Presse (Tageszeitung) in Geschichte und Gegenwart. [Dortmunder Beiträge zur Zeitungsforschung, Band 35/4.] K.G. Saur, München [etc.] 1993. xxiii, 546 pp. DM 320.00.
This is the fourth volume of a very voluminous bibliography of literature concerning the press and journalism "from the beginnings until 1970" throughout the German cultural area (the three previous volumes were noticed in IRSH, XXXVI (1991), p. 135). This volume includes publications on the existence and operation of periodical publications, on daily newspapers, magazines, almanacs and calenders and the past and present of the daily newspaper press.

Kautsky, Karl und Louise Kautsky. Briefwechsel mit der Tschechoslowakei 1879-1939. Hrsg. von Zdenek Šolle unter Mitw. von Jan Gielkens. [Quellen und Studien zur Sozialgeschichte, Band 11.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1993. 551 pp. DM 198.00; S 1545.00; S.fr. 198.00.
This source publication consists of nearly 400 documents from the International Institute for Social History and from German and Czech archives containing correspondence from the period 1879-1939 from Karl Kautsky (1854-1938), who was born in Prague, and his wife and associate Luise with German, Czech and Slovak-speaking social democrats from the complex group of states and nationalities that became the Republic of Czechoslovakia in 1918. In his introduction, Dr Šolle discusses Kautsky's relationship with the Czechoslovak social democrats, especially Tomáš Masaryk, the founder of the Republic of Czechoslovakia.

Kolb, Eberhard. Umbrüche deutscher Geschichte 1866/71 - 1918/19 - 1929/33. Ausgew. Aufsätze. Hrsg. von Dieter Langewiesche und Klaus Schönhoven. R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 1993. 374 pp. DM 128.00.
This is a selection of articles, all published before, by Professor Eberhard Kolb, author of the standard work Die Weimarer Republik (1984), compiled on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday. Being one of the leading German political historians of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, his articles, collected here, centre around three main critical events in German history: the beginnings of the German national state (1866-1871) (see also IRSH, XXXIII (1988), p. 232), the revolutionary starting phase of the Weimar republic (1918-1919) and the end of the Weimar Republic (1929-1933).

Mitchell, B.R. International Historical Statistics. Europe 1750-1988. Third Ed. Macmillan Press, Basingstoke; Stockton Press, New York 1992. xv, 942 pp. £125.00.
This is the third edition of this major compilation, of which the first edition was noticed in IRSH, XXI (1976), p. 129. In his introduction, the editor mentions the increase in the collection of historical statistical information in several European countries since the publication of the first edition. This edition differs from its predecessors in that the section on climate has been omitted, the amount of rounding has increased, a new table shows money supply statistics for the past four decades, data on telephone calls appear in a separate table that incudes statistics on the number of instruments in use, and a large quantity of new material for earlier years has been added, mainly thanks to the work on national historical statistics mentioned above.

Moch, Leslie Page. Moving Europeans. Migration in Western Europe since 1650. [Interdisciplinary Studies in History.] Indiana University Press, Bloomington [etc.] 1992. xii, 257 pp. Maps. $35.00.
See Leo Lucassen's review in this volume, pp. 460-463.


Vanthemsche, Guy. Le chômage en Belgique de 1929 à 1940. Son histoire, son actualité. Préface de Mateo Alaluf. [Archives du futur/Histoire.] Labor, Bruxelles 1994. 214 pp. B.fr. 995.00.
This is the French translation of an abridged version of the doctoral thesis De werkloosheid in België 1929-1940 (Berchem, 1989), which was noticed in IRSH, XXXV (1990), p. 163. In his preface to the present edition, Mateo Alaluf, Professor of Labour Sociology at the Free University of Brussels, provides an update on the unemployment issue.

Eire - Ireland

Smyth, Jim. The Men of No Property. Irish Radicals and Popular Politics in the Late Eighteenth Century. Gill and Macmillan, Dublin 1992. xi, 251 pp. £12.99.
See John Belchem's review in this volume, pp. 463-465.


Andreu, Pierre. Révoltes de l'esprit. Les revues des années 30. Préface de Thierry Paquot. Editions Kimé, n.p. [Paris] 1991. 277 pp. F.fr. 140.00.
This posthumously published personal history of the young, non-conformist, often fascist French intellectuals of the 1930s, who gathered around a number of literary and political periodicals, such as Les Feuillets inutiles, L'Assault, Esprit, and La Lutte des jeunes, was written by Pierre Andreu (1909-1987), one of this group's representatives. Andreu, a poet and literary critic, describes the foundation of the different reviews and the people and ideas behind them, portraying individuals such as Robert Aron and Georges Izard. An earlier essay by Andreu on the political ideas of this group has been appended, as well as articles by Raoul Girardet on the heritage of l'Action française, and by Jean Touchard on the renovation of French political thought in the 1930s.

Bergounioux, Alain [et] Gérard Grunberg. Le long remords du pouvoir. Le Parti socialiste français (1905-1992). Fayard, n.p. [Paris] 1992. 554 pp. Maps. F.fr. 180.00.
This history of the French socialist party from 1905 to 1992 focuses on the problematic relationship with political power the French socialists have had over the years. Starting with Jaurès' synthesis between republicanism and internationalist socialism, examining the pursuit and acquisition of political power (1936-1940, 1956 and after 1981), the authors conclude that the French socialists suffer from two major weaknesses: their attempt to be different from republican values and parties, and their negligible influence on the trade-union movement. According to the authors, these weaknesses have once again brought the socialists into a severe identity crisis after the successful period following the reforms of the Congres of Épinay in 1971.

Berlière, Jean-Marc. La police des mœurs sous la IIIe République. Éditions du Seuil, Paris 1992. 270 pp. Ill. F.fr. 125.00.
During the Third Republic, (1872-1914), the morals police and its misconduct in the enforcement and implementation of prostitution laws and regulations became the subject of a fierce public and political debate that resulted in two intense press campaigns to abolish this special police force. This study examines the backgrounds of these debates and describes the scandals caused by the misconduct and arbitrary actions of the morals police, which, in the author's opinion, often violated basic human rights.

Bernard, Jean-Pierre A. Paris Rouge 1944-1964. Les communistes français dans la capitale. Champ Vallon, Seyssel 1991. 267 pp. F.fr. 149.00.
On the basis of a variety of communist periodicals and literary publications Dr Bernard here sketches the topography of communism in Paris, 1944-1964. Focusing on youth, on women and on foreigners within the French communist party, he tries to give an inventory of the representations of communist history, ideals and policies, as they were to be found in the French capital. According to the author, this communist subculture has not survived the renovation of the city and of the welfare society from 1968.

Bokelmann, Elisabeth. Die französische Handwerkerschaft in der Zwischenkriegszeit. Zur Neuformierung eines Standes. [Pariser historische Studien, Band 38.] Bouvier Verlag, Bonn 1993. vii, 296 pp. DM 95.00.
This study describes the development of the French artisanat, the group of independent craftsmen and small entrepreneurs, in the Interbellum, on which subject Steven Zdaty recently published a book (see IRSH, XXXVI (1991), p. 308). After a discussion of the social definition of the artisanat, compared to their German counterparts, and an examination of the political, economic and cultural context in France, the author focuses on the growth of consciousness of the artisanat as a distinct social category, on the subsequent development of its organization and political influence, and on the ideological division between a leftist majority and an anti-democratic, rightist minority.

Bouton, Cynthia A. The Flour War. Gender, Class, and Community in Late Ancien Régime French Society. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park 1993. xxvi, 307 pp. Ill. Maps. $45.00; £37.00. (Paper: $18.95; £15.95.)
A series of food riots in the villages and countryside around Paris in the spring of 1775, known as the "Flour War" is analyzed here in the context of food riots in early modern Europe. Professor Bouton identifies the participants and victims of the riots, classifying them according to class, occupation, gender and location, and examines what she believes to be the central phenomenon of taxation populaire (labelled by E.P. Thompson as the "moral economy of the crowd") - by which the rioting crowds forced merchants to sell at a price they regarded "just" -, in relation to changing concepts of property rights and the national state.

Dictionnaire biographique du Mouvement ouvrier français. Publié sous la direction de Jean Maitron. Tome XXXIX. Quatrième Partie: 1914-1939. De la Première à la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Pioch à Raz. Tome XL. Re à Rouz. Tome XLI. Rova à Szy. Tome XLII. Ta à Vais. Tome XLIII. Val à Zy. [Par] Jean Maitron [et] Claude Pennetier. Les Éditions Ouvrières, Paris 1990; 1991; 1992; 1992; 1993. 430 pp.; 432 pp.; 454 pp.; 396 pp.; 439 pp. F.fr. 270.00; 280.00; 280.00; 280.00; 280.00.
These four volumes are the last of the regular volumes of the very large fourth series of the DBMOF, which covers the French labour movement between the wars (see IRSH, XXIX (1984), p. 109, and 38 (1993), p. 426), running from Pioch to Zy (incl.). A volume 44 with additions and corrections remains to be published and will conclude this impressive series, which was started in 1955 by Jean Maitron, who unfortunately did not live to see the completion of the series. Like the preceding volumes, these last ones offer biographies of a very wide variety of activists, writers, artists and politicians.

The French Worker. Autobiographies from the Early Industrial Era. Ed., Transl., and with an Introd. by Mark Traugott. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1993. xi, 382 pp. Ill. $50.00. (Paper: $16.00.)
This collection offers translated excerpts from nine autobiographies of French workers (two female and seven male), all written between 1821 and 1935 and previously published in French. In his introduction, the editor sketches the social, economic and political context these workers lived in, discusses the methodological problems of using autobiographical materials in historical inquiry, and draws some general conclusions from the autobiographies regarding the changes in work and workers' protest in France during this period.

Gourden, Jean-Michel. Le peuple des ateliers. Les artisans du XIXe siècle. Créaphis, Paris 1992. 168 pp. Ill. F.fr. 190.00.
This richly illustrated textbook on the history of artisans in nineteenth-century France defies the traditional view of the nineteenth century as the age of the development of the large industries and the industrial proletariat. Over half of all workers in France was still employed in a firm with fewer than five employees as late as 1906. According to the author, workers still largely derived their mentality and work ethos from preindustrial times, while artisans formed the political backbone of republicanism in France.

Guerrand, Roger-Henri. Mœurs citadines. Histoire de la culture urbaine XIXe-XXe siècles. Quai Voltaire, Paris 1992. 240 pp. F.fr. 120.00.
This is a collection of sixteen essays, of which all but one were published before, on urban culture and daily life in nineteenth and twentieth-century France and is written by an expert in this field. Themes include urban hygiene, tourism and recreation, transportation, sexual hygiene, and the role of the city in literature.

Luxardo, Hervé. Histoire de la Marseillaise. [Collection Terres de France.] Christian de Bartillat, Éditeur, n.p. [Etrepilly] 1990. 241 pp. Ill. F.fr. 130.00.
This is a popularized history of the French national anthem, La Marseillaise. Describing its origins in the spring of 1792, its dispersion and development into the ultimate revolutionary song and eventually national anthem, the author points at some intriguing paradoxes, inter alia, that the composer, Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, was a royalist.

Madeleine Pelletier. Logique et infortunes d'un combat pour l'égalité. Sous la dir. de Christine Bard. [Par] Jean-Christophe Coffin, Anne Cova, Félicia Gordon [e.a.] [Des femmes dans l'Histoire.] Côté-Femmes, Paris 1992. 214 pp. F.fr.
Madeleine Pelletier (1874-1939) was an autodidact, who later became a brilliant physician and anthropologist, but foremost a feminist, suffragist, leftist militant and a champion of sexual liberation and free abortion. In the same year of the publication of a biography (which was noticed in IRSH, 38 (1993), p. 119) a colloquium was organized by the Centre d'études de documentation et de recherches féministes (CEDREF) in Paris, 1991, on her richly varied life and career. This collection contains the contributions to that colloquium, dealing with, inter alia, her scientific career (Evelyne Peyre), her suffragist activities (Laurence Klejman and Florence Rochefort), her feminism (the editor), her socialism (Charles Sowerwine), her relation with communism (Claude Maignien) and her femininity (Michelle Perrot).

Maricourt, Thierry. Henry Poulaille (1896-1980). Manya, Levallois-Perret 1992. 276 pp. F.fr. 129.00.
Henry Poulaille (1896-1980), novelist, editor of literary anthologies, journalist and literary critic, was the main propagandist of "proletarian literature" in France, a literary movement established by him in the anthology Nouvel âge littéraire (1930). He founded and led the reviews Nouvel Age (1931), Prolétariat (1933-1934), A contre-courant (1935-1936) and Maintenant (1945-1948). With this biography, Maricourt hopes to restore Poulaille to his rightful place in French literary history, which the author believes he lost as a result of a conspiracy of silence between his adversaries with different political persuasions.

Millman, Richard. La question juive entre les deux guerres. Ligues de droite et antisémitisme en France. [L'Ancien et le Nouveau.] Armand Colin, Paris 1992. 338 pp. F.fr. 149.00.
In this study of right-wing and extreme right-wing, nationalist movements and the Jewish question from the Dreyfus affair to the beginning of the Second World War, the author opposes the common view that constant, although not always clearly visible, anti-Semitism prevailed among the right and extreme right throughout this period. After distinguishing the various nationalist rightist groups and movements, Dr Millman concludes that anti-Semitism was not a major factor in Catholic groups, not even after 1933, when it rose substantially among groups of the extreme right, such as l'Action française.

Pérennès, Roger. Déportés et forçats de la Commune. De Belleville à Nouméa. Ouest Editions, Nantes / Université Inter-Ages de Nantes, Nantes 1991. 580 pp. Ill. Maps. F.fr. 220.00.
Following the defeat of the Commune de Paris in 1871, over four thousand men and women were deported to New Caledonia. Apart from the memoirs of the leaders, little is known about the people who were deported, their social background, etc. On the basis of a careful examination of embarcation lists and the files of deportees, the author has reconstructed the biographies of 4.185 Communards, including the 360 who were condemned to forced labour. He also offers a general introduction on the Commune and its direct aftermath, describes the histories of the different convoys, and critically assesses the historiography on the Communards.

Pessin, Alain. Le mythe du peuple et la société française du XIXe siècle. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris 1002. 280 pp. Ill. F.fr. 148.00.
This historical-sociological study traces the origins and the development of the "myth of the people" as an entity in the political and ideological debate in nineteenth-century France. Dr Pessin examines the use of the concept of "the people" as found with a variety of nineteenth-century French populist writers, inter alia Hugo, Michelet, Leroux and Blanqui, with the aim of formulating a general hypothesis on how political myths, such as the "myth of the people" function in modern society.

Pierrard, André [et] Jean-Louis Chappat. La fusillade de Fourmies. Premier Mai 1891. Miroirs, n.p. [Lille] 1991. 351 pp. Ill. Maps. F.fr. 185.00.
On the first of May 1891 a workers' demonstration was shot at by the gendarme and soldiers in the little textile village of Fourmies in Northern France, resulting in nine dead - among them two children - and 35 wounded. The shooting instantly became the object of political propaganda from the left as well as from the right. The authors of this book try to reconstruct the actual events, as well as the run up to and the aftermath of this tragic incident, and to describe the subsequent development of the political myths. Six annexes give the historical background of the village, its industry, the labour movement and the First of May.

Poitrineau, Abel. Ils travaillaient la France. Métiers et mentalités du XVIe au XIXe siècle. Armand Colin, Paris 1992. 279 pp. F.fr. 129.00.
Covering three centuries, from the sixteenth to the nineteenth, this study offers a general sociological treatment of the development of the concept of work and work ethic in France, in relation to the developments in religion and morals. Themes dealt with are, e.g., the developments of guilds and corporations, the relation between man and his tools and machines, technical innovation, urban and rural labour, and labour and slavery in the colonies.

Révolution française et "vandalisme révolutionnaire". Actes du colloque international de Clermont-Ferrand 15-17 décembre 1988. Receuillis et prés. par Simone Bernard-Griffiths, Marie-Claude Chemin et Jean Ehrard. Universitas, Paris 1992. x, 461 pp. Ill. F.fr. 350.00.
This collection contains the proceedings of a colloquium, held in Clermont-Ferrand in December 1988, on revolutionary vandalism and the French Revolution. The themes dealt with are: definitions of vandalism and revolutionary vandalism in the historiography and legends of the French Revolution, the actual cases of vandalism during the Revolution (1789-1799), the origins of revolutionary vandalism as a national heritage, and comparisons with other forms of revolutionary and non-revolutionary vandalism through the ages in- and outside France.

Shapiro, Barry M. Revolutionary Justice in Paris, 1789-1790. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1993. xvii, 302 pp. £40.00; $59.95.
In this book, Professor Shapiro uses an investigation of the judicial affairs attracting the most public attention in Paris to examine how the French revolutionary authorities handled political opposition in the year following the fall of the Bastille. He concludes that political justice was actually remarkably indulgent and forbearing. To explain these policies of mildness and restraint, Professor Shapiro suggests that traditional conceptions about Enlightenment "humanitarianism" should be taken more seriously than is usually done by leading historians of the period, such as François Furet.

Les sociétés politiques. Direction scientifique: Jean Boutier [et] Philippe Boutry. Direction graphique: Serge Bonin. [Atlas de la Révolution française, 6.] Éditions de l'École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris 1992. 132 pp. F.fr. 130.00.
This is volume six of a planned seventeen-volume series of atlases of the French Revolution. This volume addresses the development of political societies in the decade from the Revolution (1789) to Napoleon's military coup d'état (1799). In five years, nearly 6,000 political societies were founded. This new form of social club provided Frenchmen with a political entrance, thereby creating a new historical actor: le citoyen. The atlas provides a comprehensive graphic and cartographic overview of the foundation, networks of admission, activities and interventions, and social backgrounds among members of these societies.

Vardi, Liana. The Land and the Loom. Peasants and Profit in Northern France 1680-1800. Duke University Press, Durham [etc.] 1993. xiv, 297 pp. Maps. £32.95.
On the basis of parish registers, notarial records and judicial archives, this study portrays the peasants' village life and world in northern France in the eighteenth century. Contrary to conventional perceptions of peasant life as resistant to change, Professor Vardi tries to make clear that French peasants showed a remarkable flexibility and a readiness to adapt to changing incentives. She concludes that a broad middle group of peasants became more and more active in linen production and trade, and that the northern-French countryside was becoming a region of capitalist experimentation, a development only cut short by pre-Revolutionary and Revolutionary crises.

Vovelle, Michel. Combats pour la révolution française. [Textes à l'appui.] Éditions La Découverte, Paris; Société des Études robespierristes, Paris 1993. 381 pp. F.fr. 250.00.
This collection contains thirty-three previously published articles and speeches delivered by Professor Vovelle, director of the Institute of the French Revolution (whose latest monograph, La découverte de la politique (Paris, 1993) was noticed in IRSH, this volume) on the history and historiography of the French Revolution, as well as on contemporary controversies surrounding this theme.


Badia, Gilbert. Clara Zetkin, féministe sans frontières. [Collection "La part des hommes".] Les Éditions Ouvrières, Paris 1993. 336 pp. Ill. F.fr. 125.00.
In this popularized biography of Clara Zetkin (née Eisner) (1857-1932) the author depicts the life and career of this socialist and feminist, paying special attention to the internationalism in her socialism, in her feminism and in her personal life - she married the Russian socialist and émigré Ossip Zetkin, and lived in Germany, Russia, Austria, Switzerland and France. The author emphasizes the last ten years of her career. On the basis of new, previously unknown material from archives in the former German Democratic Republic, the author concludes that she became more and more critical of Russian communism under Stalin.

Bergmann, Theodor [und] Wolfgang Haible. Die Geschwister Thalheimer. Skizzen ihrer Leben und Politik. Hrsg.: Kulturverein Obersulm, Freundeskreis der Realschule Obersulm. Decaton Verlag, Mainz 1993. 96 pp. Ill. DM 9.80.
This booklet of biographical sketches of August Thalheimer (1884-1948), the main theorist of the Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (KPD) in the 1920s, and his elder sister Bertha (1883-1959), who played a leading role in the German communist women's movement, originates from the Affaltrach (currently Obersulm) celebration of the hundredth anniversary of August Thalheimer's birth there. A selected bibliography on August and a provisional bibliography on Bertha have been appended.

Dokumente aus geheimen Archiven. Band 5. Die Polizeikonferenzen deutscher Staaten 1851-1866. Präliminardokumente, Protokolle und Anlagen. Eingel. und bearb. von Friedrich Beck und Walter Schmidt. [Veröffentlichungen des Brandenburgischen Landeshauptarchivs Potsdam, Band 27.] Verlag Hermann Böhlaus Nachfolger, Weimar 1993. xxxvi, 773 pp. Ill. DM 88.00.
This source publication is the fifth volume of the series "DOCUMENTS from Secret Archives". Earlier volumes were noticed in IRSH, XXIX (1984), p. 389, XXXII (1987), pp. 288f., and XXXVI (1991), pp. 141f. The present volume contains the protocols and annexes of the twenty conferences held in the period 1851-1866 by the secret police of the large states in the German Confederation (Austria, Prussia, Hannover, Saxony, Bavaria, Württemberg and Baden). The documents reflect the German authorities' unwaning interest in democratic and revolutionary movements and efforts, which included expanding organization among the working class, consumer cooperatives and civil democratic movements.

Dokumente zur Geschichte der kommunistischen Bewegung in Deutschland. Reihe 1945/1946. Band 1. Protokolle des Sekretariats des Zentral- komitees der KPD. Juli 1945 bis April 1946. Bearb. von Günter Benser und Hans-Joachim Krusch unter Mitarb. von Hans Meusel. Band 2. Protokolle der erweiterten Sitzungen des Sekretariats des Zentralkomitees der KPD. Juli 1945 bis Februar 1946. Bearb. von Günter Benser und Hans-Joachim Krusch. K.G. Saur, München [etc.] 1993; 1994. 577 pp.; xii, 708 pp. DM 320.00; 348.00.
These are the first two volumes of a source publication of all remaining protocols of the commanding bodies and the central government of the Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (KPD) in the period 1945-1946, which were reproduced as facsimiles. Volume I of this edition supplements the protocols with annexes containing decisions of the central committee, summons, speeches, articles, reports from regional instructors and contemporary tables of the party's structure and composition. This volume also presents an historical overview of the KPD. The additions to Volume II include previously unpublished notes and a lecture by Wilhelm Pieck. The general introduction reviews the history of the KPD until 1945 and summarizes the party's development and activities in the year following World War II. The annotation contains short biographies of the individuals mentioned in the documents.

Die Gründung der KPD. Protokoll und Materialien des Gründungsparteitages der Kommunistischen Partei Deutschlands 1918/1919. Mit einer Einf. zur angeblichen Erstveröffentlichung durch die SED. Hrsg. und eingel. von Hermann Weber. Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1993. 31*, 356 pp. DM 38.00.
This collection contains a new edition of the stenographic protocol of the founding congress of the Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (KPD), edited by Professor Weber (see IRSH, XVI (1971), p. 105 for the first edition). Apart from the original historical introduction of 1969 on the KPD, this edition also contains a new introduction by Professor Weber, dealing with the history of the 1969 edition and a subsequent - incomplete - edition from 1972 by the East-German Institut für Marxismus und Leninismus (IML), which claimed to be the first edition ever.

Henke-Bockschatz, Gerhard. Glashüttenarbeiter in der Zeit der Frühindustrialisierung. [Veröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission für Niedersachsen und Bremen, XXXIV; Quellen und Untersuchungen zur Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte Niedersachsens in der Neuzeit, Band 16.] Hahnsche Buchhandlung, Hannover 1993. 299 pp. Ill. DM 78.00.
This study investigates the social consequences of the transition from small-scale, family-run companies to large-scale production methods and relationships in German glass manufacturing from 1790 to 1870. Focusing on five glassworks in the mainly agrarian Weserbergland of Westphalia, Henke-Bockschatz examines the socio-economic background, changes in the production process, labour relationships, and labour and living conditions. The author concludes that glasswork changed from a highly skilled trade, organized in a manner that resembled the guild system, to regular wage labour in this early stage of industrialization.

Das HolzArbeiterBuch. Die Geschichte der Holzarbeiter und ihrer Gewerkschaften. Hrsg. von Helga Grebing, Hans-Otto Hemmer [und] Gottfried Christmann. Bund Verlag, Köln 1993. 310 pp. Ill. DM 128.00.
To commemorate the hundredth anniversary of the union for wood and synthetic materials, this richly illustrated, voluminous collection portrays the history of woodworking and the development of its labour movement from 1863 to the present. The thirty-five contributions address the development of the industry, the organizations within the labour movement, and biographies of leading activists and militants, who, according to the authors, were often key actors in the early days of the general German labour movement.

Inventar zu den Nachlässen der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung. Für die zehn westdeutschen Länder und West-Berlin. Im Auftrag des Archivs der sozialen Demokratie der Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. Bearb. von Hans-Holger Paul. K.G. Saur, München [etc.] 1993. x, 996 pp. DM 118.00.
This is a very extensive inventory of the personal archives from the German workers' movement that were available in libraries and archives in the Federal Republic of Germany and West Berlin within the borders that existed until October 3, 1990, (i.e. prior to the German reunification), except for the personal records in the archive for German social democracy at the Friedrich Ebert Foundation, as this source would have doubled the publication's size. The inventory is presented alphabetically; any individual with records in different locations has a separate listing for each one. The publication contains brief biographies on everyone included, as well as a description of the type of material, any other persons involved (correspondents, etc.) and the availability or accessibility of the records. Indexes of people, institutes and periodicals have been appended, along with a listing of all relevant archival institutions and libraries.

Mason, Timothy W. Social Policy in the Third Reich. The Working Class and the 'National Community'. Transl. by John Broadwin. Ed. by Jane Caplan. With a General Introd. by Ursula Vogel. Berg, Providence [etc.] 1993. xxviii, 434 pp. £50.00. (Paper: £16.95.)
This is the English translation of Timothy Mason's classic study Sozialpolitik im Dritten Reich. Arbeiterklasse und Volksgemeinschaft (Opladen, 1977) (noticed in IRSH, XXII (1977), pp. 455f.), which is an expanded version of his introduction to a collection of documentary material on the Nazi regime's policies towards the working class published two years earlier, Arbeiterklasse und Volksgemeinschaft. Dokumente und Materialien zur deutschen Arbeiterpolitik, 1936-39 (Opladen 1975) and noticed in IRSH, XXI (1976), pp. 299f. In addition to its translation of the original German text, this edition offers a general introduction to this classic study by Ursula Vogel, as well as the previously unpublished introduction to the English edition. There is also an epilogue (which Mr Mason intended as a substantial review of related literature that had appeared since the publication of his book in 1977) that remained unfinished when he died in March, 1990.

Peterson, Larry. German Communism, Workers' Protest, and Labor Unions. The Politics of the United Front in Rhineland - Westphalia 1920-1924. [Studies in Social History, Vol. 14.] Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 1993; International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam. 556 pp. D.fl. 385.00; $239.00; £157.50.
See Siegfried Bahne's review in this volume, pp. 465-466.

Reith, Reinhold, Andreas Griessinger [und] Petra Eggers. Streikbewegungen deutscher Handwerksgesellen im 18. Jahrhundert. Materialien zur Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte des städtischen Handwerks 1700-1806. [Göttinger Beiträge zur Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte, Band 17.] Verlag Otto Schwartz & Co., Göttingen 1992. ix, 464 pp. DM 88.00.
This compilation of documents lists 541 work stoppages and strikes of German urban journeymen in the eighteenth century. According to the compilers, it can serve various research purposes: social history of eighteenth-century urban guilds and journeymen; mechanism of social control and the control of conflicts within the guilds; a contribution to the history of strikes and the statistics of labour conflicts; and the question of the continuity between these conflicts and later industrial strikes of the organized labour movement. For each case included the same data are listed: the occupational group, size, measure of solidarity of (local, regional or national) fellow-journeyman, demands, means, results, attitudes of the local, regional or national authorities, causes and development of the conflict, and sources.

La Révolution Conservatrice allemande sous la république de Weimar. [Cover title: La "Révolution Conservatrice" dans l'Allemagne de Weimar.] Sous la dir. de Louis Dupeux. Éditions KIMÉ, Paris 1992. 437 pp. F.fr. 230.00.
This collection presents the results of a research group, founded in 1975 at the University of Strassburg for the study of German "prefascism" in the Weimar Republic, currents of thought commonly labelled as the Konservative Revolution and based on the dominating counterrevolutionary traditions in German thought from the end of the eighteenth century onward, as well as on the integration of elements of modernism. The first part of the collection deals with the development of the new right as the dominant intellectual current in the Weimar era, the second part focuses on the links between the Konservative Revolution and nazism.

Roth, Karl Heinz. Intelligenz und Sozialpolitik im "Dritten Reich". Eine methodisch-historische Studie am Beispiel des Arbeitswissenschaftlichen Instituts der Deutschen Arbeitsfront. K.G. Saur, München [etc.] 1993. 394 pp. DM 128.00.
This doctoral thesis (Bremen, 1992) tries to make a social and historical reconstruction of the relationship between the working class, the intelligentsia, and the political and economic elite in Nazi Germany. On the basis of a critical assessment of the thesis of Nazi Germany as a radical social modernization of German society and of archival sources of the Deutsche Arbeitsfront (DAF), which have only recently been rediscovered (see IRSH, XXXIV (1989), pp. 272ff., and 38 (1993), pp. 163ff.), Dr Roth examines the role and position of the intellectuals in developing a repressive system of stabilization of class relations. He concludes that the modernization thesis, and especially the recent reassessment of the Nazi social and labour policy, obscure the repressive and coercive elements in it.

Rouette, Susanne. Sozialpolitik als Geschlechterpolitik. Die Regulierung der Frauenarbeit nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg. [Reihe Geschichte und Geschlechter, Band 6.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1993. 374 pp. DM 78.00.
In this revised doctoral thesis (Berlin, 1991) Dr Rouette examines to what extent the social and labour-market policies in the Weimar Republic between 1918 and 1923 can be seen as gender policies, directed at restoring the pre-war gender hierarchy and forcing women back into their traditional role as mothers and housewives. She does so on the basis of a regional case study of Greater Berlin. She concludes that after the Weimar Revolution of 1918/1919 the discrimination of women in the labour market was legalized in the newly developed social-security policy and in the labour-market policy.

Die SPD-Fraktion im Deutschen Bundestag. Sitzungsprotokolle 1949-1957. Bearb. von Petra Weber. Erster Halbband 1.-181. Sitzung 1949-1953. Zweiter Halbband 182.-328. Sitzung 1953-1957. [Quellen zur Geschichte des Parlamentarismus und der politischen Parteien; Reihe 4, Deutschland seit 1945, Band 8/I.] Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 1993. clxxvii, 431 pp.; xxi, 472 pp. DM 398.00.
This two-volume source publication contains reports from meetings of the SPD faction of the German Bundestag from the beginning of the Federal Republic in 1949 until the SPD's term as an opposition party ended when it joined the CDU in the Große Koalition in 1957. In the extensive introduction, the editor discusses the political biography of the main actors, provides a social profile of the members of the faction, describes the organization and course of internal affairs and analyses its strategy as an opposition party. Brief biographical annotations describe each faction member, and an annex contains notes from the diary of faction member Erik Nölting.

Wegert, Karl H. German Radicals Confront the Common People. Revolutionary Politics and Popular Politics 1789-1849. [Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für europäische Geschichte Mainz, Abt. Universalgeschichte, Band 135.] Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz 1992. xi, 370 pp. DM 88.00.
This is a study of the German radicals of petty bourgeois origin in the period 1789-1849, their attempts to politicize and mobilize the common people to bring about a liberal-democratic revolt in their states and the popular reaction to these attempts. Linking up with the recent historiography and debates on politicization and the German Sonderweg, the author concludes that the significance of these German radicals has frequently been exaggerated by historians as well as by contemporary authorities and ruling classes.

Great Britain

Banks, Olive. The Politics of British Feminism, 1918-1970. Edward Elgar, Aldershot [etc.] 1993. v, 149 pp. £35.00.
In this study, focusing on the political struggle of autonomous feminist groups, women in the labour movement and female MP's, Professor Banks aims to analyze what happened to the British women's movement between the victory of the suffrage movement after the First World War and the arrival of the modern women's movement in the 1960s. This period is generally seen as one of decline for feminism. Setting the development of the British women's movement in a broader political and economic context, the author concludes that one of the major reasons for the lack of success in these years was an over-optimism on the part of the feminists themselves about their own power and possibilities and an underestimation of the forces working against them.

Chaloner, W.H. Palatinate Studies. Chapters in the Social and Industrial History of Lancashire and Cheshire. Sel. and ed. by W.R. Ward. Publ. for the Chetham Society by Carnegie Publishing Ltd, Preston 1992. x, 198 pp. Ill. £24.95.
This is a collection of articles, all published before, on the social and economic history of Lancashire and Cheshire, home region of the author, Professor W.H. Chaloner (1914-1987), the well-known English historian, author of The social and economic development of Crewe, 1780-1923 (Manchester, 1950), who, inter alia, compiled the BIBLIOGRAPHY of British Economic and Social History (1976 and 1984) (see IRSH, XXIX (1984), p. 121). The selection contains, among other things, an article on the Crewe Congregational Church, 1841-1947, on salt production and trading in Cheshire, 1600-1870, and some portraits of influential regional personalities.

Chun, Lin. The British New Left. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 1993. xviii, 230 pp. £30.00.
In this study, based on a doctoral thesis (Cambridge, 1989), the British New Left is depicted as an intellectual and political current from the 1950s to the 1970s, remarkably distinct from the main international New-Left movement. Combining biographical and manuscript sources with contextual analyses of key texts, Dr Chun examines the work of, e.g., Raymond Williams, E.P. Thompson, Ralph Milliband, Stuart Hall and Perry Anderson. She tries to trace the origins and formation of this movement, to analyse its political and intellectual concerns, and assess its achievements and failures. She concludes that its greatest weakness was its intellectual elitism, which caused its political ineffectiveness.

Davis, Mary. Comrade or Brother? A History of the British Labour Movement 1789-1951. Pluto Press, London [etc.] 1993. x, 226 pp. £30.00. (Paper: £10.00.)
This textbook, intended for the general reader especially within the labour movement, provides a general and critical introduction to the history of the British labour movement between 1789 and 1951. Examining the underlying ideological tension between socialism and labourism, the author concludes that the defensive labourist tradition has prevailed within the British labour movement from the 1850s onward, and has impeded women and blacks from contributing to the movement.

Halbersleben, Karen I. Women's Participation in the British Antislavery Movement 1824-1865. The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston [etc.] 1993. ix, 246 pp. £39.95.
After successfully ending slavery in the British colonies in 1838, British abolitionists shifted their efforts toward abolishing this practice worldwide. According to this study, the World Convention that was organized by the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society in 1840, was not only an important step in the history of abolition, but also in women's participation in the abolition movement and thus in political life. The author concludes that the antislavery crusade in Britain provided an important outlet for the energies and abilities of middle class women, thereby fostering the growth of an independent feminist movement in the 1850s.

McAuley, James W. The Politics of Identity. A loyalist community in Belfast. Avebury, Aldershot [etc.] 1994. ix, 203 pp. £32.50.
This community study deals with the politics, ideology and political consciousness of a section of the contemporary Protestant working class in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Based on empirical data from interviews, a small-scale survey and the Marxist tradition of political theory, the author discusses the validity of the Marxist argument, stemming from the Irish Left, that the loyalist ideology of the Protestant working class is a form of systematized false class consciousness. Using theoretical notions of Gramsci and Althusser, he concludes that the Irish-Left argument simplifies the complex ideological identity of the Protestant working class, in which sectarian consciousness and class awareness are closely linked.

McLeod, Hugh. Religion and Irreligion in Victorian England: How Secular was the Working Class? [Headstart History Papers.] Headstart History, Bangor 1993. v, 60 pp. £4.25.
In this small booklet, intended for students and the general reader, Dr McLeod examines the historiography of the Victorian working class and religion. Based on the existing literature, the author concludes that approximately one third of the working class had a strongly religious ethos, one third an ethos indifferent or hostile to religion, while one third is to be situated between these extremes and can be described as "one hundred per cent Christians, but no church-goers".

Naggar, Betty. Jewish Pedlars and Hawkers, 1740-1940. Porphyrogenitus, Camberley 1992. ii, 159 pp. Ill. £12.95.
This is a descriptive history of Jewish pedlars and hawkers in England, 1740-1940, dealing with the differences between urban and country pedlars, the varied wares they sold, their lifestyles and how they were perceived by non-Jewish people.

Owen, Robert. Selected Works of Robert Owen. Ed. by Gregory Claeys. [Pickering Masters.] Vol. 1. Early Writings. Vol. 2. The Development of Socialism. Vol. 3. The Book of the New Moral World. Vol. 4. The Life of Robert Owen. Index to the Selected Works of Robert Owen. William Pickering, London 1993. lxx, 353 pp.; v, 427 pp.; v, 409 pp.; v, 388 pp. Ill. £265.00.
This four-volume edition of the works of Robert Owen (1771-1858) includes most of his writings, except tracts related to Owen's major theological controversies, many shorter works from the 1830s and 1840s on themes that the editor believes are covered adequately by the reprinted texts, and most of Owen's writings from the 1850s. Dr Claeys, who edited a concise edition, which was published only two years before this one (and which was noticed in IRSH, XXXVI (1991), p. 464), now provides a detailed introduction on Owen's life, the development of his ideas and his influence on contemporaries and on later socialists and social reformers. He disputes the prevailing view that Owen's ideas were fully formed by 1820 and divides the evolution of his thoughts into four main phases: "the emergence of his early ideas on behaviour and personality, up to about 1815; the period of Owen's rejection of the factory system, commercial competition, and all forms of social organisation besides his own communities, approximately from 1816 to 1820; the stage in which his economic ideas were most substantially refined, during the 1820s; and the maturing of his social system, which remained essentially unchanged after 1830".

People and Society in Scotland. III. 1914-1990. Ed. by Tony Dickson and James H. Treble. John Donald Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh 1992; in assoc. with The Economic and Social History Society of Scotland. xi, 287 pp. Ill. £15.00.
This collection of nine essays is the last of a three-volume general history of Scottish social change and development from the eighteenth century to the present day (IRSH, XXXIV (1989), p. 174), and covers the period 1914-1990. The contributions deal with population and family life (M. Anderson); religion and secularisation (C.G. Brown); schooling (A. McPherson); class, work and trade unionism (W. Knox); women and work (A.J. McIvor), elites (D. McCrone), occupation and class (J. Foster), politics (C. Harvie) and culture (T.C. Smout).

Porter, Valerie. English Villagers. Life in the Countryside 1850-1939. George Philip, London 1992. 160 pp. Ill. £14.99.
This is a popularized history of daily life in the villages in the English countryside during the Victorian, Edwardian and inter-war years, partly based on oral history. The book is richly illustrated with contemporary photographs.

Rethinking social history. English society 1570-1920 and its interpretation. Ed. by Adrian Wilson. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1993; distr. excl. in the USA and Canada by St. Martin's Press, New York. ix, 342 pp. £40.00.
Covering a wide variety of themes and combining historiographical assessment and case studies, the nine articles in this collection evaluate the expansion of English social history over the past three decades. The contributions discuss the historiography of modern English social history (Keith Wrightson), family history (Linda A. Pollock), historical demography (John Landers), the social history of plausibility (Simon Schaffer), post-Marxist social history (Patrick Curry), crime (Joanna Innes and John Styles) and prostitution (Philippa Levine). The editor has provided an introductory essay on modern English social history, and a concluding evaluation that delineates the structure of integrative social history.

Roberts, Stephen. Radical Politicians and Poets in Early Victorian Britain. The Voices of Six Chartist Leaders. [Studies in British History, Vol. 27.] The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston [etc.] 1993. ix, 149 pp. £29.95.
This book examines in detail the careers of six Chartist leaders. In spite of being among the poorly documented figures within the Chartist movement, the author believes these individuals played an essential role. George White, George Binns, Robert Peddie, Charles Clarke, Thomas Clark and Samuel Kydd were active in the Chartist movement in various regions in Britain between 1833 and 1855. The author adopts Gareth Stedman Jones' view that research should concentrate on actual pronouncements by the Chartists and focuses on these Chartists' speeches, letters, poems and songs (see also the annotation on Hugues Journès, IRSH, XXXVII (1992), p. 299 and on Ulrike Schwab's The Poetry of the Chartist Movement. A Literary and Historical Study, IRSH, this volume).

Routledge, Paul. Scargill. The Unauthorized Biography. HarperCollins Publishers, London 1993. xv, 296 pp. Ill. £16.99.
This biography of Arthur Scargill (1938), lifelong president of the National Union of Mineworkers, was written by a journalist of the Observer, who has specialized in covering the mining industry and the labour conflicts within that industry from the 1960s onward. Although he is a personal acquaintance of Arthur Scargill and claims to have been able to get closer to him than any other journalist, this is an unauthorized biography, and rather critical of Scargill's character, career and his dominating role in the yearlong mineworkers's strike in 1984-1985.

Schwab, Ulrike. The Poetry of the Chartist Movement. A Literary and Historical Study. [Studies in Social History, Vol. 13.] Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht [etc.] and International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam 1993. ix, 247 pp. D.fl. 210.00; $130.00; £86.00.
This book, the English translation of a German dissertation (Kassel, 1987), is the second major monograph on Chartist poetry to appear within short time (see the annotation on Hugues Journès, IRSH, XXXVII (1992), p. 299). Aiming to show how much this poetry can enrich our understanding of the Chartist movement, Dr Schwab treats the poems as literary pieces and as historical sources, thus documenting the Chartists as poet-politicians. She concludes that, as a mass phenomenon, these poems and songs served to transmit Chartism and to reveal the emotions and values that brought about mass consensus.

Taylor, Robert. The Trade Union Question in British Politics. Government and Unions since 1945. [Making Contemporary Britain Series.] Blackwell, Oxford [etc.] 1993. x, 406 pp. £37.50. (Paper: £13.99.)
This is a comprehensive history and analysis of the relationship between Britain's governments and trade unions from 1945. Mr Taylor, labour correspondent of the Financial Times, gives a chronological account and assesses the role of the trade unions as scapegoats of Britain's postwar industrial decline. According to the author, the unions were unable to fill the part of a cooperative social partner in an interventionist economic policy of the state because of their voluntarist tradition. Appendices with, among other things, a chronology of key events and key labour market indicators 1945-1992, are appended.

Thompson, Dorothy. Outsiders. Class, Gender and Nation. Verso, London [etc.] 1993. vi, 186 pp. £34.95. (Paper: £11.95.)
See Sonya O. Rose's review in this volume, pp. 457-460.


Willson, Perry R. The Clockwork Factory. Women and Work in Fascist Italy. Clarendon, Oxford 1993. viii, 291 pp. £35.00.
Focusing on the Magneti Marelli company, a light engineering firm near Milan during the Fascist period, this study addresses gender divisions and the experience of women in the workforce, as well as the introduction of scientific management. Contrary to Fascist ideology, half the workforce was and remained female. The author aims to show the impact of the combination of modern, Taylorist labour management and fascist paternalist ideology on the work experience of women in this fascist model firm.


75 Joër fräi Gewerkschaften. Contributions à l'histoire du mouvement syndical luxembourgeois / Beiträge zur Geschichte der luxemburgischen Gewerkschaftsbewegung. [Par/Von] Marc Lentz, Jacques Maas, Jean-Marie Majerus [e.a./u.a.] OGB.L, Esch-sur-Alzette 1992. 303 pp. Ill.
This collection, published on the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the independent trade-union movement of Luxemburg, contains seven articles, covering the period 1870-1949, dealing with the predecessors and the history of the constituent organizations of the Onofhängege Gewerkschaftsbond Lëtzenbuerg (OGB-L). A chronology of the recent history of the OGB-L, covering the period 1979-1990, has been appended.

The Netherlands

Velden, Henk van der. Financiële toegankelijkheid tot gezondheidszorg in Nederland, 1850-1941. Medische armenzorg, ziekenfondsen en de verenigingen voor ziekenhuisverpleging op nationaal en lokaal niveau (Schiedam, Roordahuizum en Amsterdam). [IISG: Studies + Essays, 19.] Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1993. 285 pp. D.fl. 42.50.
This study, a dissertation (Rotterdam, 1993), sets out to describe and elucidate the origins and development of financial access to curative health care in the Netherlands, which became operational around 1930 and consisted of three types of organizations: medical relief, sickness funds, and associations for hospital care. On the basis of case studies in three municipalities, the author concludes that the sickness funds brought about considerable solidarity when the working class needed easier access to increasingly expensive health care services in the first decades of the twentieth century.


Rosdolsky, Roman. Untertan und Staat in Galizien. Die Reformen unter Maria Theresia und Joseph II. Hrsg. von Ralph Melville. [Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für europäische Geschichte Mainz, Abt. Universalgeschichte, Beiheft 34.] Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz 1992. xxv, 270 pp. DM 52.00.
This is the German translation of a Polish publication Stosunki podda cze w dawnej Galicji, which appeared in 1962, but was originally written between 1937 and 1939. Roman Rosdolsky (1898-1967) is still considered an authority on the history of Galicia and the Habsburg monarchy, of which Galicia became a part in 1772. This study deals with the changes in the relation between the state and its subjects between 1772 and 1790, a period during which two monarchs, Maria Theresia and Joseph II, brought about radical reforms: tax reforms, abolition of serfdom and of corvées, and restrictions of the rights of large landowners. According to the editor, these reforms can be considered as an example of modernization in the spirit of Enlightened Absolutism.

Simoncini, Gabriele. Revolutionary Organizations and Revolutionaries in Interbellum Poland. A Bibliographical Biographical Study. The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston [etc.] 1992. xi, 278 pp. £49.95.
This bibliography of revolutionary organizations and revolutionaries in interbellum Poland covers material from the period 1918-1990 and contains over 3,000 entries, subdivided into thirty categories. A short historical introduction is appended.


Machado, Diamantino P. The Structure of Portuguese Society. The Failure of Fascism. Praeger, New York [etc.] 1991. xxiii, 216 pp. £42.50.
This study examines the development of Portuguese society and the role of the state in the period 1926-1974. Adopting a neo-Marxist approach, seeing the form of the state as conditioned by the mode of production and peculiarities of the country and trade cycles, the author deals with the following themes: the transition from latifundial agriculture to industrial oligopolies; the role of the state in the regime between 1926 and 1974; the African wars; the changing structure of the military officer corps and the revolution of 1974.

Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Braibant, Sylvie. Élisabeth Dmitrieff aristocrate et pétroleuse. Préface de Gilles Perrault. Belfond, Paris 1993. 248 pp. Ill. F.fr. 98.00.
This biography of Élisabeth Dmitrieff (1850-c. 1919) is written as a television documentary. Born into a wealth family of Russian aristocrats, she became involved with the First International and Russian revolutionary socialists and visited Marx in London in 1870. She organized the Union de Femmes pour la défense de Paris et les soins des blessés during the Commune. In 1871 she returned to Russia, where she married a gentleman-bandit, and gradually faded into anonymity. The author, a journalist for a French broadcasting company, includes a report of her search through Russia for traces of Dmitrieff during her final years.

Cook, Linda J. The Soviet Social Contract and Why It Failed. Welfare Policy and Workers' Politics from Brezhnev to Yeltsin. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1993. xiii, 272 pp. $45.00.
The social-contract thesis poses that a tacit agreement existed between the post-Stalin regime and the Soviet working class, by which the state provided economic and social security in return for the workers' political compliance. The present study is an assessment of the likelihood and implications of such a contract. Focusing on job security, retail price stability and subsidies of social services, Professor Cook concludes that the thesis is valid, especially for the Brezhnev period, but that the inheritance of this contract stood in the way of economic reform in the Gorbachev period and still does so nowadays.

Goldman, Wendy Z. Women, the State and Revolution. Soviet Family Policy and Social Life, 1917-1936. [Soviet and East European Studies, 90.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1993. xi, 351 pp. £35.00; $59.95. (Paper: £15.95; $18.95.)
During the years following the October Revolution, conventional family and marriage structures came under a fierce attack aimed at eroding the traditional family and emancipating women socially and economically. Yet by 1936, this social experimentation had made way for increasingly conservative solutions intended to strengthen traditional family ties and women's reproductive role. This book examines this reversal in Bolshevist policies, focusing on the relationship between state, society, and revolutionary ideology. Professor Goldman concludes that this regressive trend under Stalin ruined an important opportunity for socializing household labour and fostering greater equality between women and men.

Hedeler, Wladislaw. Nikolai Bucharin. Bibliographie. Decaton Verlag, Mainz 1993. 198 pp. DM 69.00.
Nearly 25 years after the publication of Sidney Heitman's bibliography on Bukharin (see IRSH, XV (1970), pp. 344f.), this new bibliography has appeared covering the period from 1912 to 1937 and containing 1,715 entries. Bukharin's rehabilitation under Gorbachev and the opening of Soviet archives has enabled the author (who recently published, together with Ruth Stoljarowa, a biography of Bukharin, see IRSH, this volume, p. 322) to include a lot of previously unknown material. For each year, the bibliography provides references to Bukharin's correspondence and to reviews and reprints of relevant editions. An annex lists additional material that became available after the completion of this bibliography.

Jakobson, Michael. Origins of the Gulag. The Soviet Prison Camp System 1917-1934. The University Press of Kentucky, Lexington 1993. xiv, 176 pp. Ill. $28.00.
See Marta Craveri's review in this volume, pp. 466-469.

Knight, Amy. Beria. Stalin's First Lieutenant. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1993. xvii, 312 pp. Ill. $24.95.
In this comprehensive biography of Lavrentii Beria (1899-1953), Stalin's police chief and one of his most trusted lieutenants for fifteen years, Dr Knight aims to modify rather than rehabilitate the standard impression left by historiography. According to the author, the myths about Beria obscure his immense influence over Stalin, which was based on his understanding of Stalin's peculiar psychopathology. She challenges the view that Stalin was all-powerful to the end of his life and claims that Beria was actually the architect of the post-Stalin reforms, normally associated with Khrushchev.

Luckert, Yelena. Soviet Jewish History, 1917-1991. An Annotated BIBLIOGRAPHY. [Garland reference library of social science, Vol. 611.] Garland Publishing, Inc., New York [etc.] 1992. xxiii, 271 pp. $44.00.
In this bibliography of the history of Russian Jewry from the Bolshevik Revolution to the end of soviet communism in 1991 1,446 items, published in ten different countries and in ten different languages, have been collected. The subjects have been arranged partly thematically and partly chronologically. In the introduction the author offers a concise history of the Jews in the Soviet Union.

Social Dimensions of Soviet Industrialization. Ed. by William G. Rosenberg and Lewis H. Siegelbaum. [Indiana-Michigan Series in Russian and Eastern European Studies.] Indiana University Press, Bloomington [etc.] 1993. xix pp. 296 pp. $39.95. (Paper: $14.95.)
The thirteen essays assembled in this collection deal with the social and cultural dimensions of Soviet industrialization during the late 1920s and the 1930s and their impact on the process of Soviet industrial transformation. Among the themes studied are: urbanization, social mobility, questions of social identity and of cultural construction of the industrialization drive, and the social dimensions of work, management relations and the organization of industrial production. Contributors are, inter alia, Sheila Fitzpatrick, Stephan Merl, R.W. Davies, Moshe Lewin and David Shearer. A guide to further reading has been appended.


Bernecker, Walther L. Arbeiterbewegung und Sozialkonflikte im Spanien des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts. Vervuert Verlag, Frankfurt/M. 1993. 208 pp. DM 44.00.
This general historical overview of the Spanish workers' movement from its establishment in the nineteenth century to the present describes the gradual integration of the working class into modernizing capitalism following several stages of struggle that reached their climax during the Civil War of 1936-1939. A chronological overview and a bibliography have been appended.

Köhler, Holm-Detlev. Spaniens Gewerkschaftsbewegung. Demokratischer Übergang - Regionalismus - Ökonomische Modernisierung. Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster 1992. 350 pp. DM 39.80.
This doctoral thesis (Frankfurt/M., 1992) examines the development of the Spanish trade unions from the emergence of the "new labour movement" in the 1960s until the present day, focusing on the role of the labour movement in the Transición, the transition from the Franco regime to democracy. Dealing chiefly with the development of the labour movements in the Basque provinces and Andalusia Dr Köhler makes a critical assessment of general transition, neo-corporatist and regulation theories. According to the author, the labour movement emerged from this transition severely weakened.


Degen, Bernard. Sozialdemokratie: Gegenmacht? Opposition? Bundesratspartei? Die Geschichte der Regierungsbeteiligung der schweizerischen Sozialdemokraten. Orell Füssli, Zürich 1993. 159 pp. S.fr. 39.80; DM 68.00; S 530.
This book depicts the history of the government participation of the Swiss social democratic party in the period 1943-1993. Apart from a six-year period between 1953 and 1959, the social democrats were represented in the Bundesrat, the federal Swiss government. According to Dr Degen, the social democrats have had relatively little direct political influence on the development of the Swiss welfare state despite their longtime participation in the government, as most of the basis for the social-security system had already been laid before 1943.

Schwaar, Karl. Isolation und Integration. Arbeiterkulturbewegung und Arbeiterbewegungskultur in der Schweiz 1920-1960. [Nationales Forschungsprogramm 21, Kulturelle Vielfalt und nationale Identität.] Helbing & Lichtenhahn, Basel [etc.] 1993. ix, 305 pp. DM 68.00.
Paying special attention to the rise and decline of four cultural and educational organizations within the organized Swiss labour movement, this doctoral thesis (Bern, 1990) examines the development and integration into Swiss society of the social-democratic section in the period 1920-1960. According to the author, this integration process has never been as straightforward and unequivocal as has generally been assumed, while real integration was only established in the late 1950s as a result of the combination of unprecedented economic growth and the Cold War.