Volume 40 part 3 (1995)


General Issues
Continents and Countries

Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.

General Issues


The Barbarism of Reason: Max Weber and the Twilight of Enlightenment. Ed. by Asher Horowitz and Terry Maley. University of Toronto Press, Toronto [etc.] 1994. vii, 312 pp. $60.00; £39.00. (Paper: $24.95; £16.00.)
This collection brings together thirteen essays that aim to trace the contemporary significance of Max Weber's work for the tradition of Enlightenment political thought and its critiques. The book comprises historical and philosophical reflections on the political implications of Weber's central concepts, examinations of the institutional and historical context of Weber's inquiries into structures of power and his understanding of the nature of the state, and reviews of some later responses to Weber's work.
Kalberg, Stephen. Max Weber's Comparative-Historical Sociology. Polity Press, Oxford 1994. xi, 221 pp. £12.95.
In this study, Professor Kalberg evaluates the significance of Weber's work for comparative-historical sociology. The prevailing inattention to Weber's contributions by recent comparative-historical sociological writing is (according to the author) unjustified. Systematizing and reconstructing Weber's comparative-historical sociology, Kalberg aims to reveal the analytical and empirical power of Weber's substantive writings and to clarify its present-day utility to comparative-historical sociologists.

Marx, Karl. Selected Writings. Ed., with Introd., by Lawrence H. Simon. Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., Indianapolis [etc.] 1994. xxxviii, 338 pp. $32.95. (Paper: $8.95.)
This textbook introduces the core of Marx's ideas by offering a selection of his most important writings, organized by topic in four sections: philosophy, theory of history and social change, economics, and political theory. In his introduction, which gives a brief overview of Marx's life, work, and significance, the editor submits that liberation is the central theme in all of Marx's work.

Vint, John. Capital and Wages. A Lakatosian History of the Wages Fund Doctrine. Edward Elgar, Aldershot [etc.] 1994. x, 278 pp. £45.00.
The wage fund doctrine was an important element of the English classical political economy from 1820 until 1870, when it was repudiated by John Stuart Mill, formerly one of the leading advocates. According to this doctrine, a predetermined stock of wage goods in an economy is available at any point in time for paying workers, thereby imposing a ceiling on the wages bill in terms of real wages. In this study, Dr Vint applies Lakatos's philosophy of science to examine the reasons for the extended success of this doctrine, despite its apparent absurdity afterwards. He argues that the support for this doctrine among classical economists was rational, as it provided a growing source of explanation as time passed.

Wright, Erik Olin. Interrogating Inequality. Essays on Class Analysis, Socialism and Marxism. Verso, London [etc.] 1994. xiii, 271 pp. £39.95. (Paper: £13.95.)
In this volume, the well-known American sociologist and radical theorist Professor Wright has collected twelve previously published essays (written between 1979 and 1993) on the theme of inequality. Subdivided into three sections, the essays are "about class analysis as a way of asking questions about inequality, about socialism as a way of challenging inequality, and about Marxism as a broad framework for linking the moral concerns with inequality to the theoretical task of explanation and the political tasks of transformation". The book opens with a autobiographical essay exploring the challenges and rewards of Marxist scholarship in the present era.


Alltagskultur, Subjektivität und Geschichte. Zur Theorie und Praxis von Alltagsgeschichte. Hrsg.: Berliner Geschichtswerkstatt. Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster 1994. 355 pp. Ill. DM 48.00.
This collection presents the state of the art of German Alltagsgeschichte in twenty essays edited by the Berlin History Workshop. Principles and trends in the trade, sources and their cultivation, examples of investigative practice, and recent developments within the German History Workshops are covered. Contributors include well-known "Alltags"-historians, such as Anna Davin, Geoff Eley, Hans Medick, Karin Hartewig, and Alf Lüdtke, whose recent study Eigen-Sinn. Fabrikalltag, Arbeitererfahrungen und Politik vom Kaiserreich bis in den Faschismus (1993) is reviewed by Marcel van der Linden in IRSH, this volume, pp. 285ff.

Histoire du syndicalisme dans le monde. Des origines à nos jours. Sous la dir. de Jean Sagnes. Éditions Privat, Toulouse 1994. 575 pp. F.fr. 248.00.
This volume offers an historical overview of modern trade union movements all over the world, from their origins in the nineteenth century to the present day. The contributors are Catherine Collomp (North America), Bartolomé Bennassar (Latin America), Marc Ferro (Russia and the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe), Daniel Hémery (China, Japan, and Southeast Asia), Jacques Leclerc (Southeast Asia), Gérard Heuzé (the Indian subcontinent), René Gallisot (North Africa), Jacques Couland (the Middle East), Martine Le Friant (post-war Germany and Central Europe), Stuart Macintyre (Oceania), and Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch (Africa). The editor has contributed the sections on European trade unions. A bibliography divided by region is appended.

Der Kampf um das tägliche Brot. Nahrungsmangel, Versorgungspolitik und Protest 1770-1990. Hrsg. von Manfred Gailus [und] Heinrich Volkmann. [Schriften des Zentralinstituts für sozialwissenschaftliche Forschung der Freien Universität Berlin, Band 74.] Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen 1994. 477 pp. DM 68.00; S.fr. 69.80; S 531.00.
Studies on food riots have multiplied in the past decade. This volume contains twenty-one contributions on food riots and methods for research on social protest in Germany in the period 1770-1990. The sections include the state of research, formulation of questions, and West-European comparisons; government food policy in the eighteenth century; the classical period of food riots in Germany (1790-1850); the presumed end of the traditional food riot; struggles for survival in the period 1914-1950; and hunger and food riots in the Third World.

Mason, Tim. Nazism, Fascism and the Working Class. Ed. by Jane Caplan. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. x, 361 pp. £37.50; $59.95. (Paper: £13.95; $18.95.)
This volume is a collection of ten previously published major articles, of which four appear here in English for the first time. They span the scholarly career of Tim Mason, the well-known specialist on the social and labour history of National Socialism and fascism (see also IRSH, 39 (1994), p. 503f.), who died in 1990. This selection by his literary executors includes samples of his work on the character of working-class resistance, on women under National Socialism, and on the similarities and differences between fascism and Nazism. The introduction gives an overview of the development and reception of Mason's scholarly work. The editor's assertion that the appended bibliography of Mason's publications is complete should, however, be taken with caution. At any rate, Mason's review of Reinhard Mann's Protest und Kontrolle im Dritten Reich in IRSH, XXXIV (1989), pp. 346-348, is not included.

Prolétaires de tous les pays, unissez-vous? Les difficiles chemins de l'internationalisme (1848-1956). Sous la dir. de Serge Wolikow et Michel Cordillot. [Publications de l'Université de Bourgogne, LXXV.] EUD, n.p. 1993. 253 pp. F.fr. 120.00.
The twenty contributions in this volume, which originated from a colloquium held in Dijon in 1992, critically assess working-class internationalism in the period 1848-1956. The colloquium followed up on the 1985 conference at the International Institute of Social History (IISH) "Internationalism in the labour movement before 1940". This publication deals with international solidarity and national attachments in the labour movement (Michel Cordillot, Pierre-Jacques Derainne, Antonio Bechelloni, Jean-Louis Robert, and Maurice Moissonnier); aspects of internationalism in working-class and socialist organizations before 1914 (Maurice Carrez, Claudie Weill, and Maurice Goldring); international communism and the national question (Serge Wolikow, Jean Charles, Alain Roux, and Ricardo Antunes); working-class internationalism facing fascism (Bruno Groppo, Gilles Vergnon, and Michel Dreyfus); and internationalism and stalinism (Pierre Broué, Antonio Elorza, Stéphane Courtois, Aldo Agosti, and Roger Martelli).

Sternhell, Zeev, with Mario Sznajder and Maia Asheri. The Birth of Fascist Ideology. From Cultural Rebellion to Political Revolution. Transl. by David Maisel. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1994. x, 338 pp. $29.95.
This is the expanded English translation of Naissance de l'ideologie fasciste (1989), in which Professor Sternhell offers a controversial interpretation of the origins of fascist ideology. He views fascism as much more than a political movement and considers it a major European cultural phenomenon. The trend was (according to the authors) grounded in a revolt against the Enlightenment and the ideals of the French Revolution, provided an ideological alternative to Marxism and liberalism, and was successful by positing against modernity. In this study, Professor Sternhell focuses on Sorel's anti-materialist revision of Marxism and revolutionary revisionism in France, Mario Sznajder describes the fascist roots in Italian revolutionary syndicalism, and Sternhell and Maria Asheri deal with the rise of Mussolini's fascism.


Berrol, Selma. East Side/East End. Eastern European Jews in London and New York, 1870-1920. Praeger, Westport [etc.] 1994. xiv, 159 pp. Ill. $47.95; £43.95.
Between 1870 and 1914, over two million Jews left Russia and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Nearly half a million moved to New York, and over a hundred thousand settled in London. This study compares opportunities for upward social and economic mobility for Jews in both cities. Traditionally, historians have stressed the role of education in creating change for upward mobility. Dr Berrol qualifies this emphasis by arguing that schooling became an effective path toward upward mobility only from the third and following generations. She concludes that Russian and Polish Jews who came to New York achieved middle-class status more quickly than their counterparts in London.

Jacoby, Robin Miller. The British and American Women's Trade Union Leagues, 1890-1925. A Case Study of Feminism and Class. [Scholarship in Women's History: Rediscovered and New, 7.] Carlson Publishing Inc., Brooklyn 1994. xxv, 238 pp. $55.00.
From the end of the nineteenth century in Britain and the United States, Women's Trade Union Leagues existed as autonomous, but nevertheless related reform organizations, composed of both upper-class and working-class women concerned with the problems of women in the industrial labour force. This study compares the Leagues in both countries between 1890 and 1925 by focusing on the relationship between the intrinsic issues of feminism and class within these organizations. In the concluding chapter, Dr Jacoby examines The International Federation of Working Women (1919-1925). The author submits that the fate of this international organization was a conclusive indication of the successes and failures of the British and American Leagues.

Kitschelt, Herbert. The Transformation of European Social Democracy. [Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1994. xvii, 345 pp. £40.00; $54.95. (Paper: £13.95; $16.95.)
This book explains the contrasting strategies and differing electoral fortunes of social democratic parties in twelve major European democracies in the 1970s and 1980s. Professor Kitschelt analyses competition between the parties in the electoral arena, the constraints and opportunities of party organization, and the role of ideological legacies in explaining the strategic choices social democratic parties have made and the electoral results they have achieved. According to the author, social democracy's success depends on its ability to transform its political message and to construct new electoral coalitions.

Widerstände gegen Revolutionen 1789-1989. Hrsg. von Matthias Middell in Zusammenarb. mit Roger Dupuy und Thomas Höpel. [Beiträge zur Universalgeschichte und vergleichenden Gesellschaftsforschung, 12.] Leipziger Universitätsverlag, Leipzig 1994. 293 pp. DM 58.00.
The sixteen contributions in this collection, which result from a collaborative project between the University of Leipzig and the University of Rennes III, offer a comparative overview of resistance to revolutions from the French Revolution onward, in France and elsewhere, through political and ideological means. The editor aims to present the status of counter-revolution research, which has experienced a revival since the bicentennial of the French Revolution in 1989. Apart from contributions on resistance to the French revolutions, the essays also cover fields such as Belgian counter-revolutionism at the end of the eighteenth century (Serge Deruette), counter-revolution in Spain, 1793-1839 (Jean-René Aymes), and revolution and counter-revolution in the German revolution of 1918/1919 and of 1989 (Werner Bramke). CONTINENTS AND COUNTRIES



Kimambo, I.N. Three Decades of Production of Historical Knowledge at Dar es Salaam. Dar es Salaam University Press, Dar es Salaam 1993. vii, 23 pp.
In this "exit lecture", Professor Kimambo assesses the balance of the evolution of historiography at the University of Dar es Salaam from his entrance into the History Department in 1965 until his retirement in 1993. The author sketches the impact of the Arusha Declaration of 1967 (which initiated Tanzania's policy of self-reliance socialism) on the History Department, the domination of Frank's Dependency theory until the mid-1970s, and the evolution towards a "materialist" historiography.

Summers, Carol. From Civilization to Segregation. Social Ideals and Social Control in Southern Rhodesia, 1890-1934. Ohio University Press, Athens 1994. xv, 311 pp. $45.00.
This study examines the social changes that took place in Southern Rhodesia from the arrival of the British South Africa Company in the 1890s until 1934. Professor Summers focuses on the interactions between settlers, the officials of the British South Africa Company and the administration, missionaries, humanitarian groups in Britain, and the most noticeable groups of Africans in the struggle over issues such as Native Policy, Native Education, Native Development, and segregation. She argues that the construction of Southern Rhodesia as a settler colony was not merely an economic or political process, but that it also involved construction, management, and deployment of new systems of understanding and knowledge.


Way, Peter. Common Labour. Workers and the Digging of North American Canals 1780-1860. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1993. xvii, 304 pp. £40.00; $54.95.
In this study of canal construction workers, which compares the Northwest with the South of the United States and with Canada, Dr Way explores the development of the canal construction industry from a world of small projects with little government involvement in the 1780s to a competitive, market-driven sector dominated by large business organizations in the 1850s. The author aims to identify the differences in the nature of the work and the resulting working conditions, as well as in the labour relations and working-class culture of these unskilled labourers with respect to the traditional perception of a working class based on the experiences of skilled labour.

Where Cultures Meet. Frontiers in Latin American History. Ed. by David J. Weber and Jane M. Rausch. [Jaguar Books on Latin America, Nr 6.] Scholarly Resources Inc., Wilmington 1994. xli, 235 pp. $40.00. (Paper: $14.95.)
The twenty essays in this collection explore the role of the frontier experience in creating Latin American national identities and institutions. The editors regard frontiers as geographic zones of interaction between two or more distinct cultures. Main themes in this work include "The Significance of the Frontier", "Latin America as a Frontier of Europe", "Frontier Peoples and Institutions", "Frontier Peoples and National Identity", and "Contemporary Frontiers".


Sugiman, Pamela. Labour's Dilemma: The Gender Politics of Auto Workers in Canada, 1937-1979. University of Toronto Press, Toronto [etc.] 1994. xi, 293 pp. Ill. $50.00; £32.50. (Paper: $19.95; £13.00.)
In the period 1937-1979, the United Auto Workers (UAW) in Canada was very successful in improving working conditions in the industry and was regarded as one of the most democratic and socially progressive of the major industrial unions in North America. According to this study, however, UAW leaders did little if anything to challenge the blatant gender inequalities in the automotive sector. Employing the concept of "gendered strategy", Professor Sugiman explores the tactics used by women in Southern Ontario auto plants in their struggle for equality and respect.


Hünefeldt, Christine. Paying the Price of Freedom. Family and Labor among Lima's Slaves 1800-1854. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1994. xi, 269 pp. $42.00. (Paper: $16.00.)
This study analyses the extent, economic significance, and social and cultural implications of urban slavery and the course of its abolition in the first half of the nineteenth century in Lima, the Peruvian capital. From a family perspective, the author describes the efforts of the slaves toward emancipation in the decades that preceded the official abolition of slavery in 1854. As slaves had become increasingly able to buy freedom for themselves and their families, and as the economic justification for slavery rapidly diminished, the eventual abolition was, according to Dr Hünefeldt, merely a formality.

United States of America

African Americans and Non-Agricultural Labor in the South, 1865-1900. Ed. with an introd. by Donald G. Nieman. [African American Life in the Post-Emancipation South, Vol. 4.] Garland Publishing, Inc., New York [etc.] 1994. xii, 388 pp. Ill. $64.00.
This collection is an anthology of fourteen photomechanically reproduced articles on non-agricultural aspects of African-American economic and labour life in the decades following the abolition of slavery. Focusing on the experiences of working-class blacks, most of these essays (which were published between 1969 and 1989) deal with militancy and union-organizing among black workers, and the relationship between black and white workers. Some articles explore the world of the black entrepreneurs. See also the volume annotated below on agricultural labour by African Americans in this period.

Allen, Theodore W. The Invention of the White Race. Vol. One: Racial Oppression and Social Control. [The Haymarket Series.] Verso, London [etc.] 1994. ix, 310 pp. £39.95. (Paper: £14.95.)
This is the first volume of a two-volume study of the origins of racial slavery and oppression and racism in the South of the United States. In his highly original interpretation, Mr Allen begins by focusing on the history of the Anglo-Irish and British oppression of Irish Catholics to mirror the history of American slavery and goes on to argue that racial slavery is not a phylogenic but a sociogenic phenomenon, and that racial oppression was introduced as a deliberate ruling-class policy.

Avrich, Paul. Anarchist Voices. An Oral History of Anarchism in America. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1995. xiii, 574 pp. $75.00.
This book contains 180 interviews with American anarchists and their relatives. The study was conducted by Professor Avrich, a well-known specialist on anarchism (see IRSH, XXXIV (1989), p. 137 and XXXVII (1992), p. 131) over a thirty-year period. Most of the interviewees were active during the heyday of the anarchist movement in the United States, which lasted from the 1880s until the 1930s. They represent all schools of anarchism, and include famous individuals, relatives of Kropotkin, Tucker, and Rocker, and figures of minor importance. Through these interviews, Professor Avrich hopes to convey the human qualities of the movement.

Baxter, Vern K. Labor and Politics in the U.S. Postal Service. [Plenum Studies in Work and Industry.] Plenum Press, New York [etc.] 1994. xi, 275 pp. $39.50.
This study is a history of the 1970 reorganization of the U.S. Postal Service as well as an analysis of the technological and organizational developments and evolution of the labour-management relations of this biggest employer of civilians in the United States. The author focuses on the reasons and consequences of the 1970 reorganization, examines the reactions of workers to new technology and changes in work organization, and analyses the political and economic background of modifications in the organizational structure. He concludes that the Taylorist theoretical basis for the 1970 reorganization was not the most effective strategy for a public organization such as the Postal Service.

Boris, Eileen. Home to work. Motherhood and the politics of industrial homework in the United States. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1994. xviii, 383 pp. Ill. £12.95; $17.95.
See Paul Ortiz's review in this volume, pp. 462-465.

Brundage, David. The Making of Western Labor Radicalism: Denver's Organized Workers, 1878-1905. [The Working Class in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1994. xii, 207 pp. $26.95.
Focusing on the development of the organized labour movement in the 1870s in Denver, Colorado, Dr Brundage aims to show the continuity between late nineteenth-century craft unionism and the labour radicalism of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW). Relating ideological change to the social history of Denver's working people, the author argues that all key features of the IWW - its syndicalism, its internationalism and racial egalitarianism, its commitment to organizing unskilled workers, and its efforts to construct a movement culture - were deeply rooted in Denver's city craft union and labour reform movements of this period.

Chappell, David L. Inside Agitators. White Southerners in the Civil Rights Movement. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 1994. xxvii, 303 pp. $42.00.
Contrary to widespread belief, white southerners sympathetic to the cause of the civil rights movement were crucial (according to the author of this study) in the struggle for desegregation in the South of the United States in the 1950s and 1960s. Dr Chappell aims to show that black southerners understood white southerners better than segregationists did and were thus able to enlist the help of white liberals and moderates in manipulating hard-line segregationists into acts of political self-destruction. He further argues that white southerners became the chief instruments of federal intervention for civil rights.

Fones-Wolf, Elizabeth A. Selling Free Enterprise. The Business Assault on Labor and Liberalism, 1945-60. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1994. xii, 307 pp. Ill. $49.95. (Paper: $16.95.)
In this study, Dr Fones-Wolf describes the effort by the business community in the United States to discredit New Deal Liberalism and to undermine the power and legitimacy of organized labour in the period 1945-1960. According to the author, prominent businessmen strove to compromise loyalties among workers to organized labour and government, actually halting production and pulling workers off the shop floor and out of offices to teach them the ideology of free enterprise in large, company-sponsored education programmes. This campaign permeated every aspect of American life, including factories, schools, churches, and community institutions.

Friday, Chris. Organizing Asian American Labor. The Pacific Coast Canned-Salmon Industry, 1870-1942. [Asian American History and Culture.] Temple University Press, Philadelphia 1994. viii, 276 pp. Ill. Maps. $34.95.
Successive generations of Asian immigrants and Asian Americans constituted the majority of workers in the canned-salmon industry along the Pacific Coast of the United States in the period 1870-1942. This study traces the shift in the ethnic and gender composition of the cannery labour market in this period, which covers both its emergence and its decline. Professor Friday focuses on the creation of individual work cultures by workers, labour unions, and social communities, which were, according to the author, constant attempts to achieve self-determination, despite the enduring and oppressive restrictions in this industry.

From Slavery to Sharecropping. White Land and Black Labor in the Rural South, 1865-1900. Ed. with an introd. by Donald G. Nieman. [African American Life in the Post-Emancipation South, Vol. 3.] Garland Publishing, Inc., New York [etc.] 1994. xii, 415 pp. Ill. $69.00.
This collection is an anthology of twenty photomechanically reproduced articles on the post-Civil War conflict between African Americans and whites over land and labour in the Old South in the period 1865-1900. The articles were published between 1939 and 1990. Issues covered include the importance of land to the freedmen, the success of blacks in acquiring land, federal policy with respect to black landownership, the evolution of sharecropping, and the impact of labour arrangements on black life. See also the volume annotated above on non-agricultural labour by African Americans in this period.

Gordon, Colin. New deals. Business, labor, and politics in America, 1920-1935. Cambridge University Press, Cambrigde [etc.] 1994. xii, 329 pp. £40.00; $59.95. (Paper: £15.95; $17.95.)
See David Montgomery's review in this volume, pp. 467-469.

Hing, Bill Ong. Making and Remaking Asian America Through Immigration Policy 1850-1990. Stanford University Press, Stanford 1993. xiv, 340 pp. $47.50. (Paper: $16.95.)
From 1882 onward, the United States Congress enacted a series of immigration laws that restricted the entry of Asian groups. During the decades in the first half of the twentieth century, however, the gradual repeal of these laws gave rise to the immigration act of 1965, which unintentionally generated an enormous increase in the Asian immigrant population. This is a comprehensive study of the demographic, economic, and social impact of the United States immigration policies on the six largest Asian American communities. The author is a well-known expert on immigration law and was a political advisor to the Carter administration in this field.

Horne, Gerald. Black Liberation/Red Scare. Ben Davis and the Communist Party. University of Delaware Press, Newark (NJ) 1994. 455 pp. £42.50.
See Malcolm Sylvers' review in this volume, pp. 469-473.

Johanningsmeier, Edward P. Forging American Communism. The Life of William Z. Foster. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1994. xiv, 433 pp. Ill. $29.95; £25.00.
See Malcolm Sylvers' review in this volume, pp. 469-473.

Levy, Peter B. The New Left and Labor in the 1960s. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1994. xvii, 291 pp. Ill. $49.95. (Paper: $16.95.)
Relations between organized labour in the United States and the New Left in the 1960s have characteristically been perceived in terms of opposition and confrontation, based on the opposing views of the two groups on the Vietnam War. Dr Levy argues in this study that this relationship was far more complex, and that the New Left and labour actually cooperated in the fight for civil rights and against poverty in the first half of the 1960s. According to the author, the escalation of the American involvement in the Vietnam War drove a wedge between the two interest groups.

Lipsitz, George. Rainbow at Midnight. Labor and Culture in the 1940s. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1994. vii, 359 pp. $49.95. (Paper: $15.95.)
This is a substantially revised and expanded version of Class and Culture in Cold War America. "A Rainbow at Midnight" (1981), which was noticed in IRSH, XXVIII (1983), p. 152, and which contained Professor Lipsitz's description of the American working-class struggle for independence in the aftermath of World War II, the anti-labour legislation enacted in response to this struggle in the second half of the 1940s, and the wave of anti-Communism during the McCarthy era, combining popular culture, politics, and economics. In this new edition, he focuses on the formative role of this labour struggle on labour issues in the 1980s and on its part in making race and gender important issues in American political culture.

Murray, Paul T. The Civil Rights Movement. References and Resources. [Reference Publications on American Social Movements.] G.K. Hall & Co., New York; Maxwell Macmillan Canada, Toronto; Maxwell Macmillan International, New York [etc.] 1993. xi, 265 pp. $40.00
In this bibliographical guide of the Civil Rights Era (defined as the years from 1955 to 1968), Professor Murray presents 1,389 annotations of key general and collected works on this period, as well as publications addressing special topics, such as the history of civil rights movements in individual states, civil rights organizations, the federal government, participants in the civil rights movement, and historical phases of the movement. The annotations are cross-referenced, and author and subject indexes have been appended.

Northern Labor and Antislavery. A Documentary History. Ed. by Philip S. Foner and Herbert Shapiro. [Contributions in American History, Nr 157.] Greenwood Press, Westport [etc.] 1994. xxx, 302 pp. $59.95.
This volume presents documents focusing on the relationship between the antebellum white working class and the abolitionist movement. In their summary of the history and historiography of this relationship, the editors conclude that the causes of labour and abolitionism were closely linked. The documents included compare the system of wage labour to chattel slavery; address American wage labourers on their stake in the abolitionist movement; relate agitation for land reform to opposition to slavery; and describe the response by the labour movement to slavery and abolition in the 1830s and 1840s, as well as from the 1850s through the final months of the civil war.

Race and Class in the American South Since 1890. Ed. by Melvyn Stokes and Rick Halpern. Berg, Oxford [etc.] 1994. xvii, 220 pp. £34.95. (Paper: £14.95.)
In a retrospective overview of the twentieth-century in the American South, the nine contributions to this volume address the loss of Southern distinctiveness and the effect of this process on issues involving race and class. The contributions include "Organized Labor, Black Workers, and the Twentieth Century South: The Emerging Revision" (Rick Halpern), "The Disappearance of Sharecropping: A South African Comparison" (William Beinart), "'We were no class at all': Southern Women as Social Reformers" (Valeria Gennaro Lerda), and "The Role of Intellectual History in the Histories of the Civil Rights Movement" (Richard King).

Rose, Nancy E. Put to Work. Relief Programs in the Great Depression. Monthly Review Press, New York 1994. 144 pp. Ill. $22.00. (Paper: $10.00.)
This book offers a history of the massive government-sponsored job-creation programs in the United States during the Great Depression. Professor Rose examines the emergence of the three major work programmes in this period: the Works Progress Administration, the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, and the Civil Works Administration, as well as the political and ideological debates that they aroused. She evaluates the achievements and shortcomings of the programmes and concludes that, despite frequent charges of inefficiency, strong political and economic justification existed for these programmes in the 1930s, and that these arguments are still valid today.

Those of Little Note. Gender, Race, and Class in Historical Archaeology. Ed. by Elizabeth M. Scott. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson [etc.] 1994. xiv, 217 pp. Maps. $45.00.
In this collection, based on papers presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Historical and Underwater Archaeology held in Kingston, Jamaica in 1992, eight case studies review historical and archaeological research on various ethnic, racial, gender, and socioeconomic groups in eighteenth-, nineteenth-, and early twentieth-century North America: Native Americans, African Americans, and marginalized Euro-Americans. These groups have in common their anonymity in historical research until now. As the editor notes in her introductory theoretical contribution, this work is intended to redress this oversight.

Weber, Devra. Dark Sweat, White Gold. California Farm Workers, Cotton, and the New Deal. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1994. xv, 338 pp. Ill. $40.00.
This study traces the development of the cotton industry in California, its work force, and its relations with the state in the period 1919-1939. For most of this period, the work force in this industry consisted largely of Mexican migrants. Professor Weber examines the efforts by these workers to improve their situations as employers tightened their control over the work force. The resulting labour conflicts in the 1930s brought about increasing federal interference. The author submits that this intervention, in combination with the deportation of Mexicans and the influx of Anglo-Americans, eventually weakened the position of the workers and the chances for successful unionization.

Wtulich, Josephine. American Xenophobia and the Slav Immigrant. A Living Legacy of Mind and Spirit. East European Monographs, Boulder 1994; distr. by Columbia University Press, New York. ix, 203 pp. $29.00; £19.00.
This book explores the xenophobic response of the host society to Slav immigrants from Central and Eastern Europe in the United States from the late 1890s through the mid-1960s. The author defines xenophobia as responses "conceived of as hostility, distrust, suspicion, and even aversion". She successively examines the consequences of xenophobic assertions regarding Slav immigrants in the political and educational system and in the workplace (focusing on the cigar-making, meat-packing, and steel industries) and cultural life and the transformation of xenophobic assertions into labels and stereotypes that have endured through the present day.



Apter, David E. [and] Tony Saich. Revolutionary Discourse in Mao's Republic. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (MA) [etc.] 1994. xviii, 403 pp. $59.95; £35.95. (Paper: $28.75; £19.25.)
In this history of the Long March and Yan'an period (1930s and 1940s) of the Chinese Communist Party, the authors focus on the interplay between political discourse and actual experiences and events. Basing their analysis on recently available material on party history, accounts of this period, and interviews with veterans, Professors Apter and Saich use discourse theory to examine how Mao Zedong and the concepts he purported to represent acquired such widespread support. The authors argue that this specific relationship between political discourse and political reality explains the unique character of the Chinese Revolution.

Wou, Odoric Y.K. Mobilizing the Masses. Building Revolution in Henan. Stanford University Press, Stanford 1994. xi, 477 pp. Maps. (Available outside USA from CUP.) £32.50.
This book traces the Chinese Communist Party's efforts to attract mass support in the province of Henan between 1925 and 1949. Focusing on the interaction between the Communist revolutionaries and the various groups that constituted the social base of the revolution (workers, religious sectarians, student intellectuals, the military, and, above all, the peasantry), Professor Wou aims to explain the social and structural forces that facilitated or constrained the Communist movement. He attributes the victory of the Communists to their ability to manoeuvre their way to political power, to their skilful use of nationalist sentiment, and to their community and reform programmes, which ultimately won over the peasant masses.


Padhy, K.S. [and] P.K. Panigrahy. Socialist Movement in India. Kanishka Publishing House, Delhi 1992. xii, 260 pp. Rs. 300.
This study presents a descriptive history of the socialist movement in the East Indian state of Orissa from its origins in 1933 and of the Praja Socialist Party (PSP) in Orissa, which resulted from the combination of the Congress Socialist Party and the Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party in 1952 and dissolved in 1971 to merge with the ruling Congress Party in Orissa. According to the authors, the PSP played an important role in developing one of India's most backward states.

Chandavarkar, Rajnarayan. The Origins of Industrial Capitalism in India. Business strategies and the working classes in Bombay, 1900- 1940. [Cambridge South Asian Studies.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1994. xviii, 468 pp. £40.00; $69.95.
See Vijay Prashad's review in this volume, pp. 465-467.


Allen, Matthew. Undermining the Japanese Miracle. Work and Conflict in a Coalmining Community. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1994. xviii, 290 pp. Ill. £35.00; $49.95.
In this anthropological account of the coalmining community of Chikuho, on Kyushu, Japan's southernmost island, the author reveals the underside of Japan's post-war economic miracle. The Chikuho coalfields were infamous for miserable working conditions and violent repression of labour organizations. At the end of the 1970s, the closing of all the mines left the region poor and isolated, with high rates of unemployment, crime, and welfare dependence. Dr Allen uses Walter Benjamin's concept of the storyteller to focus on the self-images of the people of Chikuho.



Markey, Raymond. In Case of Oppression. The Life and Times of the Labor Council of New South Wales. Pluto Press, Leichhardt, in assoc. with the Lloyd Ross Forum of the Labor Council of New South Wales, Sydney 1994. xvi, 610 pp. Ill. A$39.95.
In this history of the Labor Council of New South Wales, the oldest and most important labour council in Australia, Professor Markey aims to provide an institutional record, a narrative, and an analysis of the Labor Council's role in the trade-union movement and society. The author asserts that major improvements in labour conditions - such as equal pay for women, a shorter working week, and annual leave - were achieved by the Labor Council in New South Wales before anywhere else in Australia. This Labor Council was also important in founding the Australian Labour Party and the Australian Confederation of Trade Unions (ACTU).


Ehmer, Josef. Soziale Traditionen in Zeiten des Wandels. Arbeiter und Handwerker im 19. Jahrhundert. [Studien zur Historischen Sozialwissenschaft, Band 20.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1994. 355 pp. DM 78.00; S.fr. 79.00; S 609.00.
Focusing on Central Europe, this study examines the traces of established social traditions in nineteenth-century family structures, housing arrangements, patterns of migration, and ways of life, as well as in political movements of workers and artisans. According to Professor Ehmer's central argument, these extended traditions have been far more important in shaping and influencing nineteenth-century social life than contemporaries and historians have realized. The author further submits that pre-industrial and pre-modern traditions were not only modified, weakened, and suppressed in the modern nineteenth century, but that they were also used, preserved, and even allowed a belated heyday.

Frauen-Arbeitswelten. Zur historischen Genese gegenwärtiger Probleme. Hrsg. von Birgit Bolognese-Leuchtenmüller [und] Michael Mitterauer. [Beiträge zur historischen Sozialkunde, Beiheft 3.] Verlag für Gesellschaftskritik, Wien 1993. 191 pp. S 50.00; DM 8.00.
The nine contributions to this collection are primarily intended to give an overview of the essential aspects in the development of the daily work routine among women in the context of structural long-term regional, economic, and social conditions. The authors focus on the duality in the experiences of these women, who need to divide their attention between wage labour and housework. The contributions deal with the pre-industrial and industrial period and cover rural and urban experiences. The contributors are Erna Appelt, Birgit Bolognese-Leuchtenmüller, Josef Ehmer, Andrea Komlosy, Bärbel Kuhn, Juliane Mikoletzky, Michael Mitterauer, and Eva Tesar.

Geremek, Bronislaw. Poverty. A History. Transl. by Agnieszka Kolakowska. Blackwell, Oxford [etc.] 1994. xi, 273 pp. £35.00.
This is the English translation of Litosc i Szubienica, written in 1978 by the well-known medievalist and co-founder of Solidarnošc and originally published in Italian, as La pietà e la forca. In this study, Professor Geremek highlights the central the role of poverty in European history from the Middle Ages until the present day. In a broad survey, he sketches the changes in and the development of the attitude of the wealthy and the state and church authorities towards poverty through the ages.

Mark, Rudolf A. Galizien unter österreichischer Herrschaft. Verwaltung - Kirche - Bevölkerung. [Historische und landeskundliche Ostmitteleuropa-Studien, Band 13.] Herder-Institut, Marburg 1994. xii, 128 pp. Maps. DM 39.00.
This study aims to describe demographic trends in Galicia under the Austrian-Habsburg rule (1772-1914) in the context of the administrative and ecclesiastical relationships in this region. While the largest ethnic groups (Poles and Ukrainians) take centre stage, the discussion of inter-ethnic diffusion and acculturation tendencies also covers minority groups, such as Jews, Germans, and Armenians. The actual demographic research concludes with the final census, which was held in 1910.

Orte des Alltags. Miniaturen aus der europäischen Kulturgeschichte. Hrsg. von Heinz-Gerhard Haupt. Verlag C.H. Beck, München 1994. 291 pp. DM 48.00.
The twenty-nine essays in this volume result from a project at the European University Institute in Florence. In each essay, German, Italian, French, or British contributors examine the everyday history of a different site. These places have defined European culture from the Middle Ages until the modern era. The locations selected concern production, trade, government, leisure, education, and consumption. Examples include a field, a windmill, a harbour, army barracks, a theatre, a school, and a cafe. The general question concerns the extent of the common, cross-border contexts that have arisen and their contribution to corresponding practices and patterns of values, culminating in a European culture.


Ardelt, Rudolf G. Vom Kampf um Bürgerrechte zum "Burgfrieden". Studien zur Geschichte der österreichischen Sozialdemokratie 1888-1914. [Studien zur Gesellschafts- und Kulturgeschichte 1.] Verlag für Gesellschaftskritik, Wien 1994. 198 pp. S 228.00; DM 33.00; S.fr. 34.20.
In this book, Professor Ardelt, director of the Ludwig Boltzmann Institut für Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung (Linz, Graz) and author of a biographical study of Friedrich Adler (see IRSH, XXXI (1986), p. 213), has brought together five essays (of which four have been published previously). The essays deal with the development of Austrian social democracy from the Hainfelder Parteitag in 1888/1889, through the crisis under the dictatorship of Count Stürkh during World War I, until the assassination of Stürkh by Friedrich Adler and Adler's subsequent trial.

Von der Utopie zum Terror. Stalinismus-Analysen. Hrsg. von Wolfgang Neugebauer. [Österreichische Texte zur Gesellschaftskritik, Band 59.] Verlag für Gesellschaftskritik, Wien 1994. 184 pp. S 248.00; DM 36.00; S.fr. 37.20.
In 1989, Austria followed the example set by Russia and established a Verein Memorial Österreich, which investigates the fates of Austrian victims of Stalin. The ten contributions in this volume are the result of a symposium on the theory and historical research of Stalinism, organized by this Verein in Vienna in October 1992. The first five essays (by Wolfgang Fritz Haug, Wolfgang Ruge, Rupert Herzog, Georg Scheuer, and Walter Szevera) deal with theoretical interpretations and specific subjects within Stalinism in general, whereas the last five essays (by Peter Pantucek, Josef Ehmer, Reinhard Müller, Hans Schafranek, and Peter Huber) examine the Austrian manifestation of Stalinism.


Van Honacker, Karin. Lokaal verzet en oproer in de 17e en 18e eeuw. Collectieve acties tegen het centraal gezag in Brussel, Antwerpen en Leuven. [Standen en Landen, XCVIII.] UGA, Heule 1994. 653 pp. B.fr. 2200.
This dissertation (Free University Brussels, 1991) examines various forms of collective actions against central authorities in the Belgian cities of Brussels, Antwerp, and Leuven in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Dr Van Honacker uses theories of collective action and revolutionary mechanisms (as developed by Charles Tilly) to explore actions by local government representatives of artisans against forms of locally sanctioned central interference as well as food riots that rallied the resistance of the community as such. Special attention is devoted to the role of women and boys in collective actions and to the bargaining strategies applied by the government and its subjects. English and French summaries have been appended.

Vanthemsche, Guy. De beginjaren van de sociale zekerheid in België 1944-1963. [Balans.] VUBPress, Brussel 1994. 206 pp. B.fr. 395.00; D.fl. 21.90.
This book gives a condensed overview of general trends in social security in Belgium from its origins in 1944 until 1963. According to Dr Vanthemsche, the emergence of the Belgian system of social security in 1944 reflected a compromise between the conflicting interests of employees and employers. This agreement was made possible by the strong post-war economic growth. The end of this economic expansion has restored the old conflicts, which need to be resolved along the same ideological dividing lines as in the first half of the twentieth century.

Werken volgens de regels. Ambachten in Brabant en Vlaanderen 1500-1800. Ed. by Catharina Lis en Hugo Soly. VUB Press, Brussel 1994. 327 pp. Ill. B.fr. 825.00.
This collection about guilds in the County of Flanders and the Duchy of Brabant is based on the resurgence of interest in urban craftsmen and their corporative organizations in the early modern period (1500-1800). The seven contributions focus on the degree of introversion and conservatism that characterized these corporative organizations. The book is intended to present the widest possible array of features of the early modern guilds: socioeconomic relationships, judicial and political environment, and cultural-ideological aspects.

Eire - Ireland

Harris, Ruth-Ann M. The Nearest Place That Wasn't Ireland. Early Nineteenth-Century Irish Labor Migration. Iowa State University Press, Ames 1994. xviii, 281 pp. Maps. $34.95.
Mass emigration from Ireland is generally thought to have begun with the Great Famine of 1846-1849. This study highlights the major wave of emigration in which over half a million Irish left for England between 1815 and the Great Famine. Examining the work environment of these temporary migrants, Dr Harris examines the motives that drove these people to choose temporary employment in England over permanent emigration to America. She concludes that the pattern of migration and the lifestyles of these temporary migrants resembled contemporary trends elsewhere in Europe.

Vaughan, W.E. Landlords and Tenants in Mid-Victorian Ireland. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1994. xxiii, 339 pp. £40.00.
This study focuses on the following aspects of relations between landlords and tenants in mid-nineteenth-century Ireland: evictions, rents, tenant right, estate management, agrarian outrages, and conflicts between landlords and tenants. Questioning traditional assumptions about landlord-tenant relations, Dr Vaughan argues that this relationship was based far more on complex mutual accommodation than on simple exploitation of tenants by landlords.


Andrews, Richard Mowery. Law, magistracy, and crime in Old Regime Paris, 1735-1789. Vol. I. The system of criminal justice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1994. xx, 608 pp. Ill. Maps. £45.00; $64.95.
This is the first volume of a two-volume study of the criminal justice of the Châtelet and Parlement of Paris during the eighteenth century. In volume one, Dr Andrews aims to reconstruct the system of the Old Regime criminal justice, which went largely unchanged from 1670 to 1789. Contrary to the impression generated by mainstream historiography from the eighteenth century to the present of an Old Regime criminal justice that was brutal and arbitrary and that utilized torture and lacked penal codes and rights of the defendant, the author aims to show that the system was essentially rational and governed by moral principles and consisted of strict judicial procedures derived from royal statutes.

Benot, Yves. Massacres coloniaux 1944-1950: la IVe république et la mise au pas des colonies françaises. Préf. de François Maspero. Éditions La Découverte, Paris 1994. xvi, 199 pp. F.fr. 98.00.
The crises of the French Left in the course of the 1980s coincided with a gradual re-evaluation of France's colonial history. According to the author, this revision has obscured the black marks of this past, especially the mass killings committed by the French army in the period of decolonization that followed World War II. In this study, Mr Benot attempts to describe the most important incidents in Algeria (1945), Madagascar (1947), Vietnam (1946), Ivory Coast (1949-1950) and Casablanca (1947), as well as the political reaction in France and the scarce opposition from individual intellectuals (such as Sartre).

Duchen, Claire. Women's Rights and Women's Lives in France 1944-1968. Routledge, London [etc.] 1994. xiii, 253 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £12.99.)
This study follows the debates concerning womanhood, women's rights, and women's lives in France throughout the period 1944-1968. According to the author, the redefined public sphere after the war required more active participation by women in the new democracy and as labour for the reconstruction. Equally important, however, was the belief in the role of women as mothers. Dr Duchen argues that the resulting debates regarding the proper place for women dominated the discourse of womanhood and influenced policy decisions, which both had concrete implications for women's everyday lives.

Jonas, Raymond A. Industry and Politics in Rural France. Peasants of the Isère 1870-1914. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1994. xii, 219 pp. $39.95.
In this case study of the influence of industrialization on French rural society at the end of the nineteenth century, Professor Jonas examines the consequences of the expansion of the silk industry in the southeastern department of Isère in the period 1870-1914 for politics, work, population movement, public opinion, and gender relations. He argues that work in dozens of the new textile mills gave thousands of women a public profile in rural society that a patriarchal peasant society would otherwise not have afforded them. Accordingly, the public sphere became "feminized" by the first decade of the twentieth century.

Kergoat, Jacques. Marceau Pivert, "socialiste de gauche". ["La Part des Hommes.] Les Editions de l'Atelier/Les Editions Ouvrières, Paris 1994. 348 pp. Ill. F.fr. 130.00.
See Hein Wiedijk's in this volume, pp. 473-476.

Montlibert, Christian de. Crise économique et conflits sociaux dans la Lorraine sidérurgique. Éditions L'Harmattan, Paris 1989. 207 pp.
In this analysis of the fierce social conflicts in the Lorraine steel industry between 1979 and 1984, Professor Montlibert examines the relation between economic crisis and the development of violent social protests and conflicts. Focusing on the conditions that foster collective mobilization of social protest and subsequent violent conflicts, he distinguishes three interconnected elements: the dynamics of convictions, underlying adjustments to the social order, and the relationship between the group constituting the "mobilizing apparatus" (the representatives in the conflict) and the individual members of the collective.

Toulotte, Muriel. Étienne Arago 1802-1892. Une vie, un siècle. Préface de Jean Tulard. Suivi de la Biographie de la famille Arago par Lucie Laugier. Les Publications de l'Olivier, Perpignan 1993. 367 pp. Ill. F.fr. 150.00.
This doctoral thesis (Ecole des Chartes, Paris, 1991) is a biography of Étienne Arago (1802-1892), the younger brother of the well-known French astronomer, physicist, and politician François Arago (1786-1853). Unlike François, Étienne has lapsed into historical oblivion. The author considers this fate undeserved, especially given the plethora of different activities in which he participated throughout his long life. A lifelong republican, he joined the republican political struggles in the nineteenth century. As minister of the postal service, he introduced the postage stamp in France. Banned from 1849 to 1859 and mayor of Paris for three months in the autumn of 1870, Étienne spent his final years as the conservator of the Musée du Luxembourg.

Truant, Cynthia Maria. The Rites of Labor. Brotherhoods of Compagnonnage in Old and New Regime France. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1994. xiii, 356 pp. Ill. Maps. $48.35. (Paper: $21.95.)
This is a history of the brotherhoods of compagnonnage, the secret associations of French journeymen. Professor Truant examines the creation and maintenance by compagnons in a wide variety of trades of their brotherhoods in France from their origins in the early seventeenth century through the late nineteenth century. Considering both the experiences of the compagnons and the accounts of outsiders, the author focuses on the ways in which workers defined their social identity as they responded to the political, cultural, and economic changes during the transition to the modern era.

Woloch, Isser. The New Regime. Transformations of the French Civic Order, 1789-1820s. W.W. Norton & Company, New York [etc.] 1994. 536 pp. Maps. £27.50.
In this comprehensive history of the three decades of the French Revolution after 1789, Professor Woloch addresses the central question concerning the change in the French civic order during this period. Focusing on France outside Paris, he examines civic values inspired by the new regime, the policies that were adopted, and the institutions that resulted: public primary schools, experiments in public assistance, new mechanisms in civil justice, the introduction of felony trials, and the imposition of military conscription. The author argues that although the regime did not always create entirely new civic institutions, it repeatedly refashioned all existing establishments.


Adel und Bürgertum in Deutschland 1770-1848. Hrsg. von Elisabeth Fehrenbach unter Mitarb. von Elisabeth Müller-Luckner. [Schriften des Historischen Kollegs, Kolloquien 31.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 1994. xvi, 251 pp. DM 88.00; S.fr. 88.00; S 687.00.
Based on a colloquium held in Munich in July 1992, this volume brings together thirteen contributions on the shifting dividing lines between the nobility and the common people in Germany, mainly between 1770 and the "Adelskrise" in 1848/1849. The contributors focus on the South and the West of Germany, as these regions were better suited for generating a middle class than Prussia and the Habsburg monarchy. Contributions include, among others, "Aufklärung und Adel" (Horst Möller), "Nobilitierte Bankiers in Deutschland 1770-1850" (Hans-Peter Ullmann) and "Adelige und bürgerliche Frauen (1770-1870)" (Sylvia Paletschek). Hartmut Berghoff provides an overview of recent research results on elites in this period.

Das "andere Deutschland" im Widerstand gegen den Nationalsozialismus. Beiträge zur politischen Überwindung der nationalsozialistischen Diktatur im Exil und im Dritten Reich. Hrsg. von Helga Grebing [und] Christl Wickert. [Veröffentlichungen des Instituts zur Erforschung der europäischen Arbeiterbewegung, Schriftenreihe A, Darstellungen, Band 6.] Klartext, Essen 1994. 226 pp. DM 34.00.
The editors regard the eight contributions in this collection as materials for a general history of the labour movement's resistance to fascism in Europe. The authors focus on small German groups and individuals who were active in the resistance against fascism and nazism in the period between the end of the Spanish Civil War and the end of World War II. Contributions included are, inter alia, "Konzentration oder Kartell? Das gescheiterte Projekt der sozialistischen Einigung im Pariser Exil 1938" (Gerhard Paul), "Toni Sender - Aus Amerika ein 'Blick nach Deutschland'" (Anette Hild-Berg), and "Frauen im Hintergrund - das Beispiel von Kommunistinnen und Bibelforscherinnen" (Christl Wickert).

Bönig, Jürgen. Die Einführung von Fließbandarbeit in Deutschland bis 1933. Zur Geschichte einer Sozialinnovation. Teil I. Teil II. [Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte. Band 1.] Lit, Münster [etc.] 1993. 1050 pp. Ill. DM 138.80 (in 2 vols).
This dissertation (Hamburg, 1990) offers a comprehensive history of the introduction of assembly line labour in Germany until 1933. In the early 1920s, Germany was engulfed in a veritable wave of rationalization that gave contemporaries and historians the impression that most of German industry had switched to assembly line production. Examining the major industrial sectors, Dr Bönig aims to reveal the contrary in many branches of industry. He focuses on the qualitative social aspects of the introduction of the assembly line and highlights the everyday experiences of the workers involved.

Burschel, Peter. Söldner im Nordwestdeutschland des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts. Sozialgeschichtliche Studien. [Veröffentlichungen des Max- Planck-Instituts für Geschichte, Band 113.] Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1994. 400 pp. DM 84.00.
This dissertation (Göttingen, 1992) offers a comprehensive social history of mercenaries in Northwest Germany in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The author uses a broad but often fragmentary selection of source material to describe contemporary and historic representation of the social fringe group, social and geographic origins, living conditions during and after military service, and the development of disciplinary procedures. Dr Burschel concludes that the economic, social, and juridical status of mercenaries deteriorated considerably throughout the period under discussion. Underlying factors included the expansion of the armies and the increasing discipline within the military that resulted from the ambition of the warlords to tighten their control over the mercenaries.

Ferenschild, Sabine. "Die Bestimmung des Weibes" und die Standeserziehung der Arbeiterinnen. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte und Soziologie der katholischen Arbeiterinnenorganisationen im Rheinland (1867-1914). [Arbeit und Menschenwürde.] Ketteler-Verlag-GmbH, Bornheim 1994. 352 pp. Ill. DM 36.00.
This dissertation (Paderborn, 1993) deals with the organization among women textile workers in the German Rhineland into Catholic unions of women workers in the period 1867-1914. Dr Ferenschild asserts that another important objective of these organizations involved educating women workers to conform to the bourgeois ideal of womanhood. She argues that this endeavour did not merely entail adaptation to bourgeois life, but that it also had origins in Catholic ethics.

Der "gesäuberte" Antifaschismus. Die SED und die roten Kapos von Buchenwald. Dokumente. Hrsg. von Lutz Niethammer unter Mitarb. von Karin Hartewig, Harry Stein und Leonie Wannemacher. Eingel. von Karin Hartewig und Lutz Niethammer. Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1994. 566 pp. Ill. DM 48.00.
Recently, the German media highlighted the role of the Red Kapos, who supervised communist prisoners in the concentration camp Buchenwald. This new interest resulted from the discovery in the SED central party archives of supposedly sensational secret documents concerning collaboration by the Red Kapos with the SS in Buchenwald. Public pressure has accelerated the release of the relevant documents in this source publication. According to the editor, the content of the documents is not so much a sensational news item as a confirmation of existing impressions of the German communists in Buchenwald. These individuals enjoyed many privileges (often at the expense of the other prisoners). Other items concern an antifascist purge against former camp prisoners (primarily a faction battle within the KPD/SED) and the propagation of an anti-fascist myth by the leading KPD/SED faction. The detailed introduction includes a description of the life of the most important Red Kapos.

Grotum, Thomas. Die Halbstarken. Zur Geschichte einer Jugendkultur der 50er Jahre. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1994. 249 pp. Ill. Maps. DM 48.00; S.fr. 48.00; S 375.00.
Between 1956 and 1958, the major cities in the Federal Republic of Germany were shaken by a series of riots that coincided with the rise of the so-called Halbstarken (half-strong), a youth movement that opposed the established order. In this revision of his masters thesis, Mr Grotum examines the course of the riots (especially in Niedersachsen), the reaction of the public, and the social-cultural background of this counter movement. To this end, he employs a cultural concept formulated by the Birmingham-based Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS), which defines culture as the common lifestyle of a specific group.

Henke, Hans-Gerd. Der "Jude" als Kollektivsymbol in der deutschen Sozialdemokratie 1890-1914. [Decaton Forschung, Band 3.] Decaton Verlag, Mainz 1994. 130 pp. DM 22.00.
In this booklet, Mr Henke examines the negative stereotype of the "Jew" as a collective symbol in the German social-democratic media between 1890 and 1914. In tracing the roots of this collective symbol, the author focuses on the origins of the dominant anti-semitic discourse in the 1850s and performs a Foucaultian analysis on the works of authors such as Woltmann, De Lagarde, Gobineau, Freytag, and Raab. He concludes that the prevailing anti-semitic discourse had a considerable impact on the social-democratic media.

SPD und Gewerkschaften. Band 1: Zur Geschichte eines Bündnisses. Hrsg. von Jochem Langkau, Hans Matthöfer [und] Michael Schneider. Darstellung und Dokumentation von Michael Schneider. [Politik im Taschenbuch, Band 10.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 1994. 155 pp. DM 19.80; S.fr. 20.80; S 155.00.
This collection presents an overview of the relationship between the German trade unions and the SPD. Recently, the need to reinforce the "historic coalition" has been a frequent subject of debate. The editors depict this debate's extended tradition. In addition to a brief retrospective sketch of the "historic coalition", 27 documents convey the development of this relationship. The texts include writings by Ferdinand Lassalle, Karl Marx, Rosa Luxemburg, Karl Kautsky, Kurt Schumacher, Otto Brenner, and Willy Brandt.

Volkov, Shulamit. Die Juden in Deutschland 1780-1918. [Enzyklopädie deutscher Geschichte, Band 16.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 1994. viii, 165 pp. DM 68.00; S.fr. 68.00; S 531.
This encyclopedic textbook is one of three volumes on the history of the German Jewry to appear in the ambitious series Encyclopedia of German History. This series, which covers the period from the Middle Ages until the present day, is designed to elucidate the state of the art in historical research on German history. This volume, which covers the period from the Enlightenment until 1918, describes the main social, economic, political, and cultural themes in the history of German Jewry and of relations between Jews and their non-Jewish surroundings. In addition, Professor Volkov addresses existing historiography of this period.

Wege zur Geschichte des Bürgertums. Vierzehn Beiträge. Hrsg. von Klaus Tenfelde und Hans-Ulrich Wehler. [Bürgertum, Band 8.] Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1994. 353 pp. DM 72.00.
The fourteen contributions in this collection, originating from a conference organized by the University of Bielefeld in June 1993, cover four prominent themes in recent German historical research on the German bourgeoisie (the Bürgertum) in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: the definition of Bürgertum, bourgeois culture and its significance, the role of gender in the emergence of the German Bürgertum, and the development of the Bürgertum in the twentieth century.

Weinhauer, Klaus. Alltag und Arbeitskampf im Hamburger Hafen. Sozialgeschichte der Hamburger Hafenarbeiter 1914-1933. [Sammlung Schöningh zur Geschichte und Gegenwart.] Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn [etc.] 1994. 420 pp. DM 78.00.
Focusing on the years between 1914 and 1933, this dissertation (Hamburg, 1991) examines the daily life of the dock labourers and the labour conflicts in Hamburg, the largest port in Germany. From the perspective of the shop floor, Dr Weinhauer links the history of the daily working life with the history of job centres, of labour organizations and their supporters, and of labour conflicts, as they emerged in this period. He also compares the impact of trade union policies to the corresponding situation in major British and American havens.

Widerstand gegen den Nationalsozialismus. Hrsg. von Peter Steinbach und Johannes Tuchel. Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1994. 672 pp. Ill. DM. 48.00.
This extensive collection of 39 contributions, published on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the revolt by officers against Hitler on July 20, 1944, provides a comprehensive overview of resistance to National Socialism and the Third Reich. Leading experts in the field address the basic conditions for resistance in Germany, resistance from the labour movement, resistance through Christian doctrine, resistance on the basis of political conviction, as well as military insurgence and attempted coup d'états, the coup of July 20, general resistance during the war, and reactions and discussions on resistance in East and West Germany after 1945.

Wildt, Michael. Am Beginn der 'Konsumgesellschaft'. Mangelerfahrung, Lebenshaltung, Wohlstandshoffnung in Westdeutschland in den fünfziger Jahren. [Forum Zeitgeschichte, Band 3.] Ergebnisse Verlag, Hamburg 1994. 396 pp. Ill. DM 48.00.
Examining the development of a consumer culture in postwar Germany, this revised version of Dr Wildt's dissertation (Hamburg, 1991) focuses on daily practices among German working-class consumers in the 1950s. The contents of housekeeping books kept by working-class families for the Federal German Bureau of Statistics provide supporting data. Dr Wildt argues that the impression of universal abundance generated by the German Wirtschaftswunder is clearly in need of qualification. The author subsequently addresses the introduction of modern kitchen appliances and self-service in shops to exemplify the development of welfare-state consumer culture in the early 1960s.

Great Britain

Birchall, Johnston. Co-op: the people's business. Picture research by Bernard Howcroft. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1994; distr. excl. in the USA and Canada by St. Martin's Press, New York. x, 217 pp. Ill. £25.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
This richly illustrated and elegantly designed textbook for the general audience is published on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the Rochdale Pioneers' Society and gives an overview of the origins, development, and significance of the Co-operation Movement in England and internationally. Although there are manifold earlier forms of co-operations, the Rochdale Pioneers' Society may be regarded as the first successful consumer cooperation (according to the author) and therefore as the start of an international co-operation movement comprising approximately seven million members worldwide.

Burton, Antoinette. Burdens of History. British Feminists, Indian Women, and Imperial Culture, 1865-1915. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 1994. xi, 301 pp. $45.00. (Paper $16.95.)
This study explores the relation between British middle-class feminism and British imperialism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The stereotypes of this relationship - Virginia Woolf's attacks on Kipling's imperialism, global sisterhood, and images of lady missionaries and colonial memsahibs - are contradicted by Dr Burton's demonstration of the appropriation by feminists in the United Kingdom of imperial ideology and rhetoric to justify their right to equality. She argues that this unquestioning acceptance of Britain's imperial status and of Anglo-Saxon racial superiority has produced a set of imperial feminist ideologies that merit acknowledgment by contemporary feminists.

Graves, Pamela M. Labour Women. Women in British Working-Class Politics 1918-1939. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1994. xvi, 271 pp. Ill. £35.00; $59.95. (Paper: £12.95; $19.95.)
Although thousands of working-class women joined the Labour Party and Co-operative Movement in the two decades after they achieved women's suffrage in 1918, they failed to win Labour over to a policy of sexual equality and woman-centred social reform. Using oral and questionnaire testimony, this study offers a group portrait of female and male grass-roots activists, contrasting the failure by labour women to win policy-making power in the national organizations with their achievements in community politics, poor law administration, and municipal government. Dr Graves argues that for most labour women, dedication to the class cause far outweighed their desire for power.

The Irish in British Labour History. Ed. by Patrick Buckland & John Belchem. [Conference Proceedings in Irish Studies, No. 1.] Institute of Irish Studies, University of Liverpool, with Society for the Study of Labour History, Liverpool 1992. vi, 114 pp. £10.00.
The eight papers collected in this mimeographed booklet have been presented at the 1992 Spring Conference of the Society for the Study of Labour History, held in Liverpool. The central question involved the place of the Irish in British Labour History. The contributions revolved around three themes: the Irish in the labour market; discrimination and ethnicity; and the Irish in contemporary Britain. The papers reported current progress in research, as well as possibilities for new perspectives and frameworks for studying the Irish in Britain. The contributors are David Fitzpatrick, Roger Swift, John Belchem, Liam Greenslade, Malcolm Chase, Frank Neal, Frank Boyce, and Kenneth Lunn.

Jones, Helen. Health and Society in Twentieth-Century Britain. [Themes in British Social History.] Longman, London [etc.] 1994. x, 204 pp. £9.99.
The subject of this textbook is the effect of social relationships on health in twentieth-century Britain. Instead of focusing on the history of the medical and nursing professions, health policies, diseases, and the development of medical knowledge and its application, Dr Jones is primarily interested in the impact of relationships between different social groups - between men and women, between classes, between ethnic groups, between the medical profession and the rest of the population - on unequal health standards. She argues that both material and cultural influences have influenced the strategies developed by social groups to promote their health and well-being.

Joyce, Patrick. Democratic subjects. The self and the social in nineteenth-century England. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1994. xii, 242 pp. Ill. £30.00; $54.95. (Paper: £11.95; $19.95.)
Using post-modernist theory on social identity, Dr Joyce explores the nature of class identity by examining the formation and influence of two historical figures whom he considers representative of the working class and the middle class in England in the nineteenth century. In a third narrative, he addresses the demo- cratic romances said to have shaped the social and political imagination of the people in Britain in the nineteenth century. The author argues that class seems to have been less significant than "traditional" historiography assumes.

Kelly, John and Edmund Heery. Working for the union. British trade union officers. [Cambridge Studies in Management 22.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1994. xiv, 228 pp. £30.00; $64.95.
Combining data from surveys, interviews, questionnaires, and observations, this book studies the relationship between full-time union officers and shop stewards in the British industry at large in the wake of the recession of the early 1980s, from 1986 to 1991. The authors cast doubt on the recent claim by some that Britain is entering a new phase of industrial relations. Assessing existing theories of union organizations, they conclude that the values of the union officers are crucial for explaining their day-to-day activities, and they suggest the importance of generational change for analysing union dynamics.

Russell, Rex C. Three Lincolnshire Labourers' Movements. Worker's Educational Association, Barton-upon-Humber 1994. 116 pp. Ill. £6.00.
In this mimeographed booklet, based on material used in courses for adult education at the University of Hull, the author has selected a variety of documents (letters, newspaper reports, and judicial records) to sketch the emergence of the movement of agricultural workers in Lincolnshire between the 1830s and the 1890s. Mr Russell distinguishes three successive phases in this development. The first phase, from 1830 until the 1850s, was marked by fierce and violent social conflict, including a wave of incendiarism in the region; the second phase was characterized by the rise of the friendly societies; the third phase (1872-1891) featured the realization of the first trade unions for farm labourers.

Shaw, Eric. The Labour Party Since 1979. Crisis and transformation. Routledge, London [etc.] 1994. xvii, 261 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £13.99.)
This book provides a systematic analysis of the evolution of the Labour Party's policies, power structure, and strategies during the 1980s and up to the present day. According to Dr Shaw, Neil Kinnock radically changed Labour from a divided organization burdened with an array of unpopular left wing policies into a tightly organized party committed to working within the framework of a privately owned market economy. The author argues that the shedding of key social democratic policies has left Labour bereft of any clear purpose or direction, and that the strategy of projecting a moderate and responsible image of the Labour Party is now seriously flawed.

Twentieth-Century Britain: Economic, Social and Cultural Change. Ed. by Paul Johnson. Longman, London [etc.] 1994. xiv, 514 pp. Ill. £17.99.
This richly illustrated textbook aims to provide an accessible and comprehensive overview of the economic, social, and cultural developments in twentieth-century Britain. A team of 23 authors, assembled in association with the Economic History Society, deals with a broad variety of subjects, including: the relative decline of the British economy and the rise of government economic interventions; the development of social policy; the changing status of women; evolving patterns of leisure and consumption; the nature of popular beliefs; and the articulation of popular protest.

Understanding post-war British society. Ed. by James Obelkevich and Peter Catterall. Routledge, London [etc.] 1994. xi, 213 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £12.99.)
This introductory textbook brings together fifteen essays by sociologists and social historians on major developments in post-war British society and covers the following subjects: social history (Edward Royle), demography (Richard M. Smith), political sociology (John Curtice), family (Chris Harris), women (Penny Summerfield), old age and gerontology (Anthea Tinker), employment and industrial structure (Christopher M. Law), non-manual labour (Rosemary Crompton), poverty (Joan C. Brown), education (Robert G. Burgess), consumption (James Obelkevich), food and nutrition (Anne Murcott), religion (Grace Davie), arts, books, media, and entertainment (Arthur Marwick), and gender inequalities in leisure and sports (Celia Brackenridge and Diana Woodward).

Utopias of the British Enlightenment. Ed. by Gregory Claeys. [Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1994. xli, 305 pp. £35.00; $59.95. (Paper: £14.95; $19.95.)
This collection contains seven tracts of eighteenth-century British utopias, including Hume's text "Idea for a Perfect Commonwealth" (1752). Spanning the whole century, these texts show (according to the editor) the use of the image of the ideal society as a form of social criticism and particularly as a means of focusing on ideas of progress and commercial development. The introduction sets the texts in a wider context of similar writings and examines their relationship to contemporary political thought. A chronology of main eighteenth-century utopian and anti-utopian texts is included.

Wood, Marcus. Radical Satire and Print Culture 1790-1822. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1994. xviii, 318 pp. Ill. £35.00.
This richly illustrated study of popular radical propaganda in England in the period 1790-1815 and its emergence in the eighteenth century focuses on the collaborative work by the reformist printer and publisher William Hone (1780-1832) and the caricaturist and satiric printmaker George Cruikshank. Examining the origins of radical satire, Dr Wood determines that it fused the literary and political legacy of seventeenth and eighteenth-century satire with contemporary developments in advertising, popular publishing, and the print trade. He advocates breaking down the distinction between high and low art to understand this kind of radical satire.


Mack Smith, Denis. Mazzini. Yale University Press, New Haven [etc.] 1994. ix, 302 pp. Ill. £19.95.
In this biography of the influential Italian nationalist Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872) - the first biography to appear in English in over ninety years - Professor Mack Smith depicts his subject as a man who was ahead of his times, both with respect to his ideas concerning democracy and nationalism and concerning his views on social policy. Although Mazzini soon gained a reputation as a bourgeois reactionary among Marx and the Marxists and was long repudiated both in Italy and abroad, current opinion acknowledges (according to the author) the lasting impression left by this nationalist on his time.


Gutman, Israel. Resistance. The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Houghton Mifflin Company/Marc Jaffe, Boston [etc.] 1994, in assoc. with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. xx, 277 pp. Ill. Maps. $24.95.
This is a comprehensive history of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of April 1943, in which hundreds of poorly armed Jews, weakened by starvation, fought with courage inspired by desperation against an overwhelming Nazi army that was executing Hitler's order to annihilate the Jewish population of the Polish capital. The author, himself a survivor of the battle, gives a comprehensive account of the preceding events and the course of the revolt. The movement was initiated by an underground resistance group with leaders that included Yitzhak Zuckerman (Antek), whose recently published account of the uprising was noticed in IRSH, 40 (1995), pp. 177f.

Simoncini, Gabriele. The Communist Party of Poland 1918-1929. A Study in Political Ideology. The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston [etc.] 1993. ii, 270 pp. £49.95.
Focusing on the ideology and the history of the Communist Party of Poland in the 1920s, this study is the second part of a project on the Communist Party of Poland from its foundation in 1918 to the end of the factional struggle in 1929. The first part, Revolutionary Organizations and Revolutionaries in Interbellum Poland. A Bibliographical Biographical Study (1992) was annotated in IRSH, 39 (1994), p. 512. Dr Simoncini concludes that "the Communist Party was characterized by fragmented internal politics, an anarchic bent, a lack of theoretical and organizational coordination, and with being non-Leninist in general and anti-Leninist in particular".

Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Adler, Nanci. Victims of Soviet Terror. The Story of the Memorial Movement. Foreword by Jonathan Saunders. Praeger, Westport [etc.] 1993. xviii, 155 pp. Ill. £45.00.
See Ab van Goudoever's review in this volume, pp. 461-462.

Andrle, Vladimir. A Social History of Twentieth-Century Russia. Edward Arnold, London [etc.] 1994. xi, 289 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
This textbook is designed to give students a comprehensive introduction to the various aspects of Russian social history from the last decades of the Tsarist regime to the disintegration of the Soviet system. Main themes dealt with are the relationship between theoretical thought and social ideologies, the relation of the intelligentsia to the less educated classes on the one hand and the political regimes on the other, gender relations, patron-client politics, family life and the demarcations between the public and private spheres, management-worker relations, informal adaptations to bureaucratic controls, and generational differences.

Duda, Gerhard. Jenö Varga und die Geschichte des Instituts für Weltwirtschaft und Weltpolitik in Moskau 1921-1970. Zu den Möglichkeiten und Grenzen wissenschaftlicher Auslandsanalyse in der Sowjetunion. Im Anhang: Jenö Varga - Unveröffentlichtes Manuskript. Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1994. 451 pp. DM 98.00.
The Hungarian political emigrant Jenö Varga (1879-1964) headed the Institute for World Economy and World Politics (the Soviet centre for foreign politics analysis) from 1924 until 1947. This study examines the marxist-leninist analyses of foreign countries conducted by Varga and his institute, their ideological leeway and confines, and their influence on the content-related and institutional development of Soviet analyses of foreign countries and Soviet foreign policy. According to Dr Duda, Varga's influence was considerable. This volume also includes Varga's hitherto unpublished political testament, in which he concedes that the bankruptcy of the ideologically motivated Soviet analyses of foreign countries and capitalism is inevitable.

Filtzer, Donald. Soviet workers and the collapse of perestroika. The Soviet labour process and Gorbachev's reforms, 1985-1991. [Cambridge, Russian, Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies, 93.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1994. xv, 295 pp. £35.00; $54.95.
This book is the third and last volume of Dr Filtzer's history of the Soviet working class and the evolution of the Soviet system of production relations from the 1930s onward (for the first two parts, see IRSH, XXXV (1990), pp. 433-453 and 38 (1993), p. 127). In this publication, the author analyses the role of labour policy in the development and ultimate collapse of Gorbachev's reforms. According to Dr Filtzer, perestroika was initially designed to streamline and modernize the Soviet economy, while keeping the existing political and property relations of Soviet society intact. The labour policy that served this objective failed because the traditional work practices and work relations remained unchanged.

Fitzpatrick, Sheila. Stalin's Peasants. Resistance and Survival in the Russian Village after Collectivization. Oxford University Press, New York [etc.] 1994. xx, 386 pp. £25.00.
This study examines the experiences of the Russian peasants with the collectivization of 1929-1930 and the kolkhoz system until World War II. Using archival sources that were largely closed until recently, Professor Fitzpatrick, a leading expert on Soviet social history, analyses the resistance and survival strategies applied by peasants in this new world of collectivized villages. Distinguishing three categories of peasants (traditionalists, entrepreneurs, and welfare-state kolkhozniks), she concludes that the vast majority of the peasants passively resisted collectivization - which they regarded as a form of second serfdom - by doing as little work as possible on the collective farms.

Gatrell, Peter. Government, industry and rearmament in Russia, 1900-1914. The last argument of tsarism [Cambridge Russian, Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies, 92.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1994. xx, 399 pp. Maps. £55.00; $74.95. (Paper: £19.95; $27.95.)
In this study, Dr Gatrell focuses on the stability of the economic and administrative structures of late-imperial Russia to examine (from the perspective of an economic historian) the country's success in preparing for war in 1914. In spite of domestic challenges to its authority from industrialist and parliamentary critics, the tsarist regime participated in a frantic continental arms race. The author aims to give a comprehensive account of the strategies used by the government and the armament industry in confronting these challenges and in allocating resources, and also deals with the far-reaching consequences of these decisions.

Handelman, Stephen. Comrade Criminal. The Theft of the Second Russian Revolution. Michael Joseph, London 1994. xx, 360 pp. £16.99.
In this book, journalist Stephen Handelman charts the rise of criminal syndicates in post-communist Russia. According to Mr Handelman, who worked as a correspondent for several American and English newspapers, criminal organizations and the still powerful former Soviet establishment have sabotaged the establishment of democratic society. Based on first-hand accounts of policemen, political crusaders, former KGB agents, mobsters, and the nouveau riche, the author analyses the implications of the gangster economy for Russia and for the Western world.

Kirchner, Olaf. Soziale Bewegungen und politische Parteien in der ehemaligen Sowjetunion 1985-1991. Chancen der Demokratie in Eur- asien. Leipziger Universitätsverlag, Leipzig 1993. 410 pp. Maps. DM 58.00.
This study offers an overview of the development of social movements and political parties in the former Soviet Union from the period of perestroika to the foundation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in 1991. The author focuses on politically relevant parties and movements, examines methods for differentiating, expressing, and merging political interests in political programmes and organizational structures, and investigates the role of Russian and international history as examples for individual political legitimization and objectives with respect to general trends and important rifts in the development of political parties.

Making Workers Soviet. Power, Class, and Identity. Ed. by Lewis H. Siegelbaum and Ronald Grigor Suny. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1994. xiii, 399 pp. Ill. $49.95.
This collection of thirteen essays on working-class formation in the final decades of Imperial Russia and in the Soviet Union before World War II originated from a conference at Michigan State University in November 1990. Approaches range from "materialist" to "discursive". The contributions include "On the Eve: Life Histories and Identities of Some Revolutionary Workers, 1870-1905" (Reginald E. Zelnik), "Workers against Foremen in St. Petersburg, 1905-1917" (S. A. Smith), "The Hidden Class: White-Collar Workers in the Soviet 1920s" (Daniel Orlovsky), and "Workers against Bosses: The Impact of the Great Purges on Labor-Management Relations" (Sheila Fitzpatrick). Concluding remarks are by Moshe Lewin, a well-known specialist in the field.

Mandel, David. Rabotyagi. Perestroika and After Viewed from Below. Interviews with Workers in the Former Soviet Union. Monthly Review Press, New York 1994. 286 pp. $30.00. (Paper: $16.00.)
Based on a series of nineteen interviews conducted between 1988 and 1991 with male and female workers, this book aims to give a view from below of daily life inside and outside the factory in the last days of the Soviet Union and the first years of Russia's transition to the market economy. Most of the workers interviewed are union activists, although closely linked to the rank and file. The author provides a brief overview of the developments that affected the workers and of the labour movement during perestroika and its aftermath.

Russia's Great Reforms, 1855-1881. Ed. by Ben Eklof, John Bushnell, and Larissa Zakharova. [Indiana-Michigan Series in Russian and East European Studies.] Indiana University Press, Bloomington [etc.] 1994. xvii, 297 pp. $39.95. (Paper: $17.95.)
The present collection of fifteen essays, based largely on a conference held at the University of Pennsylvania in May 1989, examines the incidents that have become known as the Great Reforms in Russia: the abolition of serfdom in Russia, the many related reforms, and the social and economic environment in which these reforms interacted in the period 1855-1881. Contributions cover subjects including historiography on the Great Reforms since Stalin (Abbott Gleason), the meaning of the Great Reforms in Russian economic history (Peter Gatrell), the zemstvo and local self-government (Fedor A. Petrov), and voluntary association in this period (Adele Lindenmeyr).


Baumeister, Martin. Arme "campesinos". Überleben und Widerstand in der Extremadura 1880 bis 1923. [Schriften zur Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte, Band 44.] Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1994. 328 pp. DM 98.00; S.fr. 98.00; S 765.00.
This revised version of a dissertation (Munich, 1992) examines the situation of the campesinos, the agricultural poor in the Extremadura. This region in the Southwest of Spain was a core area of large landownership in the Restoration period between 1880 and 1923. Dr Baumeister highlights the social dissent between campesinos, large landowners, and the authorities, which found expression in petty crimes, social protest, and labour conflicts.