Volume 41 part 2 (1996)


General Issues
Continents and Countries

Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.

General Issues


About the House. Lévi-Strauss and Beyond. Ed. by Janet Carsten and Stephen Hugh-Jones. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xiv, 300 pp. Ill. £40.00; $64.95. (Paper: £14.95; $18.95.)
Inspired by Lévi-Strauss's most recent writings on the "house society" in various Southeast Asian and South American cultures, the contributors to this collection examine some of the different ways in which houses stand for social groups and represent the surrounding world. In the introduction the editors place Lévi-Strauss's latest theories in a broader anthropological context. The ten other contributions focus on the relationship between buildings, the people who live in them, and the ideas they represent. According to the editors this approach marks an important step in our understanding of the relation between material culture and sociality.

Bublitz, Hannelore. Erkenntnis Sozialstrukturen der Moderne. Theoriebildung als Lernprozeß kollektiver Erfahrungen. [Studien zur Sozialwissenschaft, Band 112.] Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen 1992. 260 pp. DM 42.00.
This revised version of a dissertation (Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen, 1987) is a theoretical study of social consciousness among workers. The author disassociates her approach from the thesis prevalent in sociology concerning the bourgeois transformation of workers and an instrumental workers consciousness. Dr Bublitz argues that workers, irrespective of philosophical ideas and social-scientific theories, are actually "speculating subjects" and theoreticians in their collective practice. Her investigation of the extent to which social structures are reflected in patterns of social knowledge and consciousness challenges the universalist claims of "objective" scholarly knowledge.

Kautsky, John H. Marxism and Leninism, not Marxism-Leninism. An Essay in the Sociology of Knowledge. [Contributions in Political Science, Nr 335.] Greenwood Press, Westport [etc.] 1994. xv, 141 pp. $49.95.
Counterposing the commonly accepted view that Leninism is one of the major forms that Marxism took in the course of its evolution, Professor Kautsky's central argument in this study - which he describes as a brief essay - is that Marxism and Leninism are two quite different ideologies. His argument is based on a concept of ideology as a political point of view shared by people who occupy more or less the same position within a political and social system and share a common attitude toward that position or a common interest its preservation or change.

Merllié, Dominique. Les enquêtes de mobilité sociale. [Le sociologue.] Presses Universitaires de France, Paris 1994. 254 pp. F.fr. 99.00.
This textbook provides an overview of the development of research on social mobility within modern sociology. According to the author, the term "social mobility" was introduced by the Russian sociologist Pitirim Sorokin (1889-1968) in 1927. Dr Merllié deals with the progress in this specialization within sociological research and the research tools used, such as statistics and surveys.

Nation and Migration. The Politics of Space in the South Asian Diaspora. Ed. by Peter van der Veer. [South Asia Seminar Series.] University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 1995. vii, 256 pp. Ill. $32.95; £31.50. (Paper: $15.95; £14.95.)
The nine contributions to this collection explore the relationship between South Asian nationalism, migration, ethnicity, and the construction of religious identity. Examining communities of South Asian immigrants living in various parts of the world - varying from Trinidad and Fiji to Canada, the United States, and Britain - the contributors explore the construction of a politics of space in relation to territorial nationalism by immigrants, the role of religion, ethnicity, and gender have played in the outcome, and the effect of specific histories of migration, racism, and ethnic competition.

Thomas, Paul. Alien politics. Marxist state theory retrieved. Routledge, London [etc.] 1994. xviii, 220 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £13.99.)
In this study Professor Thomas, author of Karl Marx and the Anarchists (1980) (see IRSH XXVI (1981), p. 221), searches Marx's writings for a new, original theory of the state, which, according to the author, remains viable even after the demise of the true socialism in practice. He develops the concept of alien politics to describe the rise of the modern state and civil society and to trace the process by which Marx's theory of the state as the instrument of the ruling class became transformed into the communist dogma under Lenin and other Marxist stalwarts. According to Dr Thomas, Marx's ruling class theory characterizes only a very short period in Marx's own development.

Variations autour de la régulation sociale. Hommage à Jean-Daniel Reynaud. Presses de l'École Normale Supérieure, Paris 1994. 252 pp. F.fr. 150.00.
This collection pays tribute to Jean-Daniel Reynaud, one of the leading French labour sociologists and industrial relations specialists and author of a number of publications on labour relations, trade unions, and labour and social legislation, such as Les Syndicats en France (1963) (see IRSH, X (1965), p. 160) and Sociologie des conflits du travail (1982). The thirty short contributions by a selection of social scientists from France and elsewhere present a wide range of perspectives on Reynaud's influence in France and abroad. The contributors include, among others, Raymond Boudon, Pierre Bourdieu, John T. Dunlop, Guy Groux, Anselm Strauss, and Alain Touraine.

Weber, [Max]. Political Writings. Ed. by Peter Lassman and Ronald Speirs. [Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1994. xxxi, 390 pp. £10.95; $14.95.
This collection brings together the main political texts, written by Max Weber (1864-1920), who was one of the founding fathers of modern sociology. The selection of the texts spans his career and includes his early inaugural lecture "The Nation State and Economic Policy" (1895), "Suffrage and Democracy in Germany" (1917), "Socialism" (1918), "The Profession and Vocation of Politics" (1919), and an excerpt from his essay "On the Situation of Constitutional Democracy in Russia" (1906). The introduction discusses the central themes of Weber's political thought. A chronology and an annotated bibliography are provided.

Wood, Ellen Meiksins. Democracy against Capitalism. Renewing historical materialism. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xii, 300 pp. £35.00; $59.95. (Paper: £14.95; $18.95.)
In this book, largely based on articles already published, Professor Wood redefines the basic concepts of historical materialism and its theory of history as a critical programme and uses these ideas to identify the specificity of capitalism as a system of social relations and political power. She argues that, contrary to the post-modern intellectual fashion, the theoretical project of Marxism and its critique of capitalism is more timely than ever. In the second part of the book she explores the concept of democracy in both the ancient and the modern world, while examining its relation to capitalism and exploring opportunities for democracy to exceed the limits imposed by capitalism.


After Colonialism. Imperial Histories and Postcolonial Displacements. Ed. by Gyan Prakash. [Princeton Studies in Culture/Power/History.] Princeton University Press, Princeton 1995. viii, 352 pp. $16.95.
Spanning a broad disciplinary (from history through anthropology to literary studies) and regional (from India across Palestine to Latin America and Europe) spectrum, the twelve essays in this volume reexamine colonialism and its aftermath. The contributions, four of which were previously published, are divided into three sections ("Colonialism and the Disciplines", "Colonialism and Cultural Difference", and "Colonial Discourse and Its Displacements") and explore and realign disciplinary boundaries within research on colonialism. The contributors include Edward Said, Anthony Pagden, Gauri Viswanathan, Leonard Blussé, Emily Apter, and Homi K. Bhabha.

Arrighi, Giovanni. The Long Twentieth Century. Money, Power, and the Origins of Our Times. Verso, London [etc.] 1994. xiv, 400 pp. £34.95. Paper: £12.95.)
In this study Professor Arrighi traces the shifts in the relationship between capital accumulation and state formation throughout a seven hundred year period. Using Braudel's notion of financial expansions as closing phases of major capitalist developments as a basis, the author identifies different stages of capitalist development, which he labels as systemic cycles of accumulations and names after the leading states of the respective stages: Genoa, Holland, Britain, and the United States. He argues that a specific logic ruled the concentration of power and eventual surrender of control over the strategic sites of commercial, financial, and political power.

Bennett, Tony. The Birth of a Museum. History, theory, politics. [Culture: Policies and Politics.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1995. x, 278 pp. Ill. £40.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
Discussing the historical development of museums in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries alongside the evolution of fairs and international exhibitions, this study examines the cultural function of the museum. Through case studies from Britain, Australia, and North America, Professor Bennett sketches how museums, fairs, and exhibitions have organized their collections and visitors. Using Foucaultian perspectives, the author argues that the public museum should be understood not simply as a place of instruction but also as a reformatory of manners accommodating a wide range of regulated social routines and performances.

An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300-1914. Ed. by Halil Inalcik, with Donald Quataert. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1994. xxxix, 1026 pp. Maps. £75.00; $120.00.
See Erik Jan Zürcher's review in this volume, pp. 233-235.

The National Question. Nationalism, Ethnic Conflict, and Self-Determination in the 20th Century. Ed. by Berch Berberoglu. Temple University Press, Philadelphia 1995. ix, 329 pp. $49.95. (Paper: $22.95.)
This volume examines the volatile nature and complex dynamics of twentieth-century national movements and ethnic conflict around the world. The twelve contributions sort out the class forces that have come to play a central role in directing movements in different social, political, temporal, and geographic settings. The case studies include the political history of nationalist movements in Palestine, Kurdistan, South Africa, Northern Ireland, Puerto Rico, the Basque Country, and Quebec, analyses of the role of the state in ethnic conflicts in India, China, the former Soviet Union, and former Yugoslavia, and an essay on the role of women in Third World national liberation movements.

Schmidt-Soltau, Kai. Eine Welt zu gewinnen! Die antikoloniale Strategie-Debatte in der Kommunistischen Internationale zwischen 1917 und 1929 unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Theorien von Manabendra Nath Roy. [Hochschulschriften 285.] Pahl Rugenstein, Bonn 1994. 164 pp. DM 26.00.
This concise study of the anti-colonial strategic debates within the Comintern between 1917 and 1929 focuses on the role and theories of the Indian communist and theorist Manabendra Nath Roy. Although Roy became the leading theorist on the anti-colonial struggle during the Comintern's early years, he lost his prominent position after 1927 as a result of Stalin's increasing influence on Comintern policies and was eventually excluded from the Comintern in 1929. The author submits that Roy's theories remain as relevant for Third World countries today as they were in the 1920s.


King, Desmond. Actively Seeking Work? The Politics of Unemployment and Welfare Policy in the United States and Great Britain. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago [etc.] 1995. xvi, 331 pp. $50.00. (Paper: $17.95.)
This study attempts to analyse training and work programmes in Britain and the United States in the twentieth century. Combining an examination of the development of such programmes in both countries with an analysis of the sources of their political support, Dr King contends that the liberal political origins of these "work-welfare" programmes account for their ineffectiveness. He argues that in both the United States and Great Britain, policy makers have tried to achieve conflicting goals through these programmes. CONTINENTS AND COUNTRIES



Penvenne, Jeanne Marie. African Workers and Colonial Racism. Mozambican Strategies and Struggles in Lourcenço Marques, 1877-1962. [Social History of Africa.] Heinemann, Portsmouth (NH); Witwatersrand University Press, Johannesburg; James Currey, London 1994. xvii, 229 pp. Ill. £35.00. (Paper: £14.95.)
See Mathias Tullner's review in this volume, pp. 238-240.


Confronting Change, Challenging Tradition. Women in Latin American History. Ed. by Gertrude M. Yeager. [Jaguar Books on Latin America, Nr 7.] Scholarly Resources Inc., Wilmington (Delaware) 1994. xxi, 242 pp.
The twenty essays in this reader, all previously published, examine women's activity in the political, economic, and domestic spheres in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Latin America. Selected materials include articles published in the nineteenth century as well as contemporary essays. The materials in the first part of the textbook depict the culture and status through samples of perceptions among women in Latin America. The editor presents the materials in the second part (which include legislative texts) to reconstruct the evolution of women's roles and obligations during this period.

Rhode, Roman. Mit Feder und Machete. Selbstzeugnisse lateinamerikanischer Guerilleros. [Spektrum, Band 40.] Verlag für Entwicklungspolitik Breitenbach GmbH, Saarbrücken 1994. v, 209 pp. DM 33.00.
This study examines an extensive collection of testimonies from Latin-American guerrillas after the Cuban revolution to explore the phenomenon of the modern Latin-American guerrilla from within on the basis of their self-image (their condición guerrillera). Focusing on the connection between the myths and patterns of thought and conduct among the guerrillas and their combat strategies and corresponding relationship with the general population, the author analyses the social role of guerrillas in modern Latin America.

Small Islands, Large Questions. Society, Culture and Resistance in the Post-Emancipation Caribbean. Ed. by Karen Fog Olwig. [Studies in slave and post-slave societies and cultures.] Frank Cass, London 1995. viii, 200 pp. £30.00. (Paper: £17.50.)
Historical research on the post-emancipation period in the Caribbean is relatively scarce, according to the editor of this collection. In an effort to fill this gap, the ten contributors - historians, geographers, and anthropologists - examine the economic, social, and cultural processes which link the pre-emancipation and the contemporary Caribbean. The studies focus on the English-speaking Leeward Islands. According to the editor, the regional variations between the individual islands make them especially suitable for comparative analysis.


Dias, Maria Odila Silva. Power and Everyday Life. The Lives of Working Women in Nineteenth-Century Brazil. Transl. by Ann Frost. Polity Press, Cambridge 1995. xii, 221 pp. Ill. £45.00. (Paper: £12.95.)
This book, which is the English translation of Quotidiano e poder em São Paulo no seculo XIX - Ana Gertrudes de Jesus (1984), studies the everyday life of working women - black, white, Indian, mulatta, free, freed, and slaves - and their struggle to survive in nineteenth-century São Paulo. Drawing on official statistics and on the accounts of travellers and judicial records, Professor Dias concludes that women were frequently the main providers in families, and that their work was crucial to the operations of several urban industries.


Noel, Jan[et]. Canada Dry. Temperance Crusades before Confederation. University of Toronto Press, Toronto [etc.] 1995. xxiv, 310 pp. Ill. $50.00; £32.50. (Paper: $19.95; £13.00.)
This study offers a general survey of the Canadian temperance movement from the 1820s to the Confederation of Canada (1867) in the regions of British North America where the movement was reasonably successful. Dr Noel aims to convey the movement's source, shape, and strength and to show how the temperance movement crusades reflected varying regional concerns. Started as a purely religious, revivalist movement, it became more moderate and secular toward the mid-century, shifting from the method of voluntary, individual conversion to legislation. According to the author, temperance was a hybrid of idealism and more material, predominantly middle-class concerns.

Strange, Carolyn. Toronto's Girl Problem: The Perils and Pleasures of the City, 1880-1930. [Studies in Gender and History.] University of Toronto Press, Toronto [etc.] 1995. xi, 299 pp. Ill. $50.00; £32.50. (Paper: $22.95; £15.00.)
The increased industrialization and urbanization in Toronto at the turn of the century brought an influx of young, single women in search of work and independence. This study examines the rise of the Toronto "working girl", the nature of the "girl problem" brought about by this development (from the perspective of the moral overseers), the strategies devised to solve this "problem", and the young women's responses to moral regulation. Comparing her findings with research on similar developments in the United States and Britain, Professor Strange argues that Torontonians projected their fears and hopes about urban industrialization onto the figure of the working girl.


Andrien, Kenneth J. The Kingdom of Quito, 1690-1830. The State and Regional Development. [Cambridge Latin American Series, 80.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xi, 255 pp. Maps. £30.00; $59.95.
This study examines the impact of public policy on the long-term socioeconomic development of the Kingdom of Quito (now modern Ecuador) from 1690 to 1830. During the seventeenth century this Andean province gained greater regional autonomy from the Spanish colonial state and began to establish links with an integrated network of secondary regional markets. By the eighteenth century this trend was reversed by a combination of global economic patterns, imperial reform policies, and a series of complex regional and local socioeconomic changes. Professor Andrien's examination focuses on the role of state policy in these profound socioeconomic changes in the kingdom.


Stokes, Susan C. Cultures in Conflict. Social Movements and the State in Peru. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1995. xiv, 183 pp. $45.00. (Paper: $17.00.)
In the last two decades Peru has witnessed the transformation of the previously passive lower classes into active agents of political change. This study examines the causes and background of this transformation and the role of ideology in this process. Reaching back to the 1930s, the author shows how the Peruvian state and dominant social classes successfully created an ethos of deference. According to Professor Stokes, the nationalist military rule in the 1970s eroded the conservative nature of the poor and led to the rise of leftist movements, which provided the electoral base for leftist and populist governments after the return of civilian rule.

United States of America

Camp, Helen C. Iron in her Soul. Elizabeth Gurley Flynn and the American Left. Washington State University Press, Pullman (WA) 1995. xxi, 396 pp. Ill. $40.00. (Paper: $28.00.)
This is the first comprehensive biography of Elizabeth Gurley Flynn (1890-1964), one of the most important radicals in the twentieth-century American labour movement. The only woman leader of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), she co-founded the American Civil Liberties Union and became the first woman to chair the American Communist Party in 1961. Professor Camp has based her book on a wide range of primary and secondary materials, including Flynn's personal papers and writings, memoirs of friends and colleagues, and personal interviews, as well as on Flynn's FBI file and trial transcripts. In the 1950s Flynn served a three-year prison sentence as a result of her Communist affiliation.

Creighton, Margaret S. Rites and Passages. The Experience of American Whaling, 1830-1870. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xiv, 233 pp. Ill. £35.00; $54.95. (Paper: £14.95; $17.95.)
In the middle of the nineteenth century American whaling reached its peak. This study offers a social history of American whaling by examining the beliefs and modes of conduct of men who laboured at sea, looking at the relationship between sailors and society ashore, and studying the social dynamics of the ship's company. Professor Creighton focuses in particular on the ways in which whalemen related to women and how seafaring served as a rite of passage into manhood.

Nielsen, Mike and Gene Mailes. Hollywood's Other Blacklist. Union Struggles in the Studio System. British Film Institute, London 1995. xiii, 178 pp. Ill. £13.99.
This book is an account of the Hollywood studio strikes of 1945-1947 and their antecedents. The work, which is a joint production by Professor Nielsen, a professional historical researcher, and Mr Mailes, an individual who was directly involved, alternates their separate contributions. According to the authors, the labour unions working in the Hollywood studios were controlled by an alliance between studio managers and the gangster circuit. The International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees and Moving Picture Machine Operators of America (IA) Progressives attempted to force through democratic reform in the 1930s and 1940s. The strikes marked the cumulation of that struggle, which ended with the expulsion of the active unionists of the IA Progressives from the union and the industry. Mr Mailes was among them.

Peery, Nelson. Black Fire. The Making of an American Revolutionary. Payback Press, Edinburgh Press 1995. xi, 340 pp. £9.99.
This is the memoir of Nelson Peery (1923), an African American, who recounts his childhood in an intensely racist atmosphere in Minnesota in the 1930s. After fleeing from home and becoming a hobo at an early age, he enlisted in the all-black 93rd Infantry Division in 1942. Sent out to the South Pacific, he got involved in the Philippine rebellion while still in the US Army.

Rosenblum, Jonathan D. Copper Crucible. How the Arizona Miners' Strike of 1983 Recast Labor-Management Relations in America. ILR Press, Ithaca (NY) 1995. xi, 256 pp. $16.95.
In June 1983 the miners of the Phelps Dodge copper mines in Arizona went on strike following the company's refusal to sign the contract to freeze wages and give workers cost-of-living increases, an agreement that was signed by every other major producer in the United States. The company cut wages instead. The strike lasted more than a year and ended in the total defeat of the union locals, leaving some two thousand Arizona copper workers unemployed and replaced by non-union workers. This book is a journalistic account of the strike's background and course, as well as its consequences for labour relations in the United States in the 1980s.

Skocpol, Theda. Social Policy in the United States. Future Possibilities in Historical Perspective. [Princeton Studies in American Politics.] Princeton University Press, Princeton 1994. vii, 328 pp. $29.95; £25.00.
In this collection of twelve essays Professor Skocpol takes a long historical view of social policy making in the United States in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to seek explanations for the successful enactment or expansion of some kinds of policies versus the failure in implementing or sustaining others. She argues that this historical view shows that when universal social programmes jointly benefit the middle class and the poor, Americans, contrary to the myth of their inherent hostility toward governmental social spending, have been willing to pay taxes for them and have happily partaken in this added security since the nineteenth century.

Tolnay, Stewart E. and E.M. Beck. A Festival of Violence. An Analysis of Southern Lynchings, 1882-1930. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1995. xiv, 297 pp. Ill. Maps. $49.95. (Paper: $19.95.)
Using U.S. Census and historical voting data, as well as a newly constructed inventory of southern lynch victims, this study aims to test empirically competing explanations of the causes of lynching in the South in the period 1882-1930. Professors Tolnay and Beck find that lynching incidents responded to fluctuations in the price of cotton, decreasing in frequency when prices rose and increasing when they fell. They conclude that economic conditions and conflict between blacks and whites explain variations in the use of lynching as a form of social control and its ultimate decline.


Hoston, Germaine A. The State, Identity, and the National Question in China and Japan. Princeton University Press, Princeton [etc.] 1994. xii, 628 pp. $85.00; £62.50. (Paper: $24.95; £19.95.)
In this study Professor Hoston examines the adaption of anarchism and Marxism by Chinese and Japanese theorists to the context of East Asia in the first decades of the twentieth century, the period of nation-building, and growing national identity. The author aims to explain the significance acquired by Marxism and the national question therein in a context substantially different from that of their origin. She concludes that the vagueness in concepts relating to nationality, nation, and nation-state in Marxism and the extent of classical Marxism's ignorance of non-European societies allow for ingenious adaption by Chinese and Japanese Marxists.


Palm, Volker. Chinas Neoautoritarismus-Debatte (1986-1989). [Chinathemen: Serie Europäisches Projekt zur Modernisierung in China; Text 11.] Universitätsverlag Dr. N. Brockmeyer, Bochum 1995. vi, 185 pp. DM 39.80.
The concept of neo-authoritarianism dates back to the 1970s as a term for an alternative strategy for political development in some East Asian and Latin American countries that pursued a capitalist, liberal economy under an autocratic system of government. Since 1986, but especially in the beginning of 1989, this concept was much debated among students and intellectuals in the People's Republic of China. This concise study aims to examine the background and development of these debates in China and the role of the concept in the process of political reform, which reached its dramatic conclusion in the repression of the Tiananmin protest movement in June 1989.


Das, Suranjan. Communal Riots in Bengal 1905-1947. [Oxford University South Asian Studies Series.] Oxford University Press, Delhi [etc.] 1993. xvi, 311 pp. Maps. £4.95.
See Sekhar Bandyopadhyay's review in this volume, pp. 244-246.

Das Gupta, Ranajit. Labour and Working Class in Eastern India. Studies in Colonial History. K P Bagchi & Company, Calcutta [etc.] 1994. xxx, 525 pp. Rs. 450.00.
The nine essays in this collection, including four which were published previously, deal with the making of the working class and working-class consciousness in the Indian jute industry, tea plantations, and coal mining industries in the colonial period from the 1850s onward. Themes addressed are the composition of the working class, the migration flows, the process of proletarianization, the variety of workers' responses to their conditions, and the relationship between the workers' anti-capitalist struggle and the anti-colonial national movement.

Haan, Arjan de. Unsettled settlers. Migrant workers and industrial capitalism in Calcutta. [Publications of the Faculty of History and Art Studies, Department of History, XVII.] Verloren, Hilversum 1994. 313 pp. Maps. D.fl. 55.00.
This dissertation (Rotterdam, 1994) portrays industrial migrant workers in the Calcutta jute industry from the beginning of this century to the 1990s. Focusing on the labour market and the job retention strategies among migrant workers, Dr de Haan shows that the workers have remained migrants and have continued to return to their villages. He argues that this pattern is the outcome of social and cultural forces rather than the result of employer strategies, and that the workers themselves are in part responsible for the situation in which they live.

New Farmers' Movements in India. Ed. by Tom Brass. Preface by T.J. Byres. Frank Cass, Ilford [etc.] 1995. vii, 290 pp. £27.50. (Paper: £14.50.)
Providing a context for the new farmers' movements which emerged in India during the 1980s with respect to both national and international economic developments, the nine contributions to this collection are grouped around four themes: the extent to which these movements constitute a global trend; the historical background and future directions; their class composition and regional specificity; and the kind of mobilizing ideology they use and the degree to which this discourse reinforces or negates other political and ideological issues in India (ethnicity, nationalism). Case studies cover farmers' movements in Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and Karnataka.

Singh, Shankar Dayal. Gandhi's First Step: Champaran Movement. B.R. Publishing Corporation, Delhi 1994. xxi, 261 pp. Rs. 300.00.
The Champaran Movement played a major role in the Indian struggle for independence. In April 1917 Gandhi and his adherents visited Champaran (a poor agricultural region in the North of Bihar) to collect statements from about 13,000 tenants who had been badly mistreated by British indigo planters. This volume presents a selection from these statements, as well as the Report of the Champaran Agrarian Enquiry Committee (which was installed as a result of Gandhi's visit and which included Gandhi among its members) and the Champaran Agrarian Bill of 1917 (which served to settle the conflicts between tenants and planters). Biographical notes of the Champaran Movement's leaders are appended.


Ngo Van. Revolutionaries They Could Not Break. The fight for the Fourth International in Indochina 1930-1945. Index Books (Indexreach Ltd.), London 1995. xxi, 234 pp. Ill. Maps. £11.95.
This is an abridged English translation of the study Viêt-nam 1920-1945. Révolution et contre-révolution sous la domination coloniale noticed below, which covers the history of the Trotskyist movement in Vietnam between 1930 and its repression by the Vietnamese Communist Party in 1945. The first part of the French version, which focuses on the personal development of the leading Vietnamese revolutionaries of the Left Opposition has been omitted from this English version. Short biographies of the leading Vietnamese Trotskyists have been appended instead.

Ngo Van. Viêt-Nam 1920-1945. Révolution et contre-révolution sous la domination coloniale. L'insomniatique éditeur, Paris 1995. Ill. F.fr. 60.00.
This is a chronological, descriptive history of the development of the Vietnamese revolutionary movement in the period from 1920 to 1945, written by a contemporary activist on the Trotskyist Left Opposition within Vietnam's Communist movement. Mr. Ngo Van fled Vietnam in 1948, after the repression of the Trotskyist movement by Ho Chi Minh's Soviet-oriented Vietminh and has lived in France ever since. Explicitly designed as a correction of the dominant Communist Vietnamese historiography of this period, this work conveys the personal development of the leading Trotskyists in the Vietnamese revolutionary movement in the 1920s, the increasing struggles between Trotskyists and Stalinists in the 1930s and 1940s, and the eventual defeat of the Trotskyist movement in the autumn of 1945.



Thompson, Elaine. Fair Enough. Egalitarianism in Australia. UNSW Press, Sydney 1994. xii, 283 pp. A$29.95.
Australians view their society as perfectly egalitarian, according to the author of this study. Dr Thompson examines the origins of this political egalitarianism while defining egalitarianism as "sameness". Focusing on the economic, social, and cultural position of women, non-Anglo immigrants, and aboriginals, she argues that this egalitarian concept is paradoxical because of the concurrent thriving racism (toward indigenous people in particular), sexism, and xenophobia in Australia.


Before the Unions. Wage earners and collective action in Europe, 1300-1850. Ed. by Catharina Lis, Jan Lucassen and Hugo Soly. [International Review of Social History, Supplement 2.] Cambridge University Press, n.p. [Cambridge] n.d. [1995]. i, 195 pp. Ill. £12.95.
The six essays in this second Supplement of the IRSH offer a comparative examination of pre-industrial actions by and organizations of wage labourers in Europe between 1300 and 1850, with an emphasis on the United Kingdom, the Low Countries, Germany, and France. The contributors examine journeymen associations (the first and third editors), wage labour organizations in the printing trade (Jan Materné, Christian Simon) and in proto-industrial iron production (Anders Florén), seamen's organizations (Karel Davids) and seasonal labourers, mercenaries, and miners (the second editor). According to the editors, the contributions show that wage labour and effective workers' coalitions existed at least half a millennium prior to the Industrial Revolution in Western Europe.

Colloque sur l'histoire de la sécurité sociale. Actes du 117e congrès national des sociétés savantes, Clermont-Ferrand, 1992. Association pour l'étude de l'histoire de la sécurité sociale, Paris 1994. 334 pp. F.fr. 250.00.
Most of the eighteen articles in this collection were presented at a colloquium on the history of social security in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe, which was held at Clermont-Ferrand in October 1992. The subjects covered by the contributions include the history of the activities concerning social security within the European Community (Michel Bélanger), the first international congress of mutual benefit societies in Paris in 1900 (Bernard Gibaud), the reception of social security legislation in the new Bundesländer after the reunification of Germany in 1989 (Otto Kaufmann), and civil servants pensions in nineteenth-century France (Guy Thuillier).

The Force of Labour. The Western European Labour Movement and the Working Class in the Twentieth Century. Ed. by Stefan Berger and David Broughton. Berg, Oxford [etc.] 1995. xvi, 286 pp. £39.95; $45.95. (Paper: £14.95; $19.95.)
This textbook aims to provide a comprehensive overview and comparative analysis of European labour movements from 1900 to 1990. The authors examine the links between workers and organized labour in seven European countries - Britain (Chris Williams), France (Susan Milner), Germany (Stefan Berger), The Netherlands (Lex Heerma van Voss), Spain (Angel Smith), and Sweden (James Fulcher) - and focus on areas such as the role of the state, labour markets, and occupations and class. In a concluding chapter the first editor sketches the comparative perspective. An appendix with statistical data is included.

Manasse, Peter. Verdwenen archieven en bibliotheken. De verrichtingen van de Einsatzstab Rosenberg gedurende de Tweede Wereldoorlog. NBLC Uitgeverij, Den Haag 1995. 108 pp. Ill. D.fl. 62.50.
This is a concise study of the fate during and immediately after World War II of the library and archival collections confiscated by the Nazis on ideological grounds. Focusing on the Netherlands and the activities of the Einsatzstab Rosenberg, Mr. Manasse examines the ideological reasons for the German confiscations, the responsible German organizations, the fates of various collections - such as those of the Free Masonry, the International Institute of Social History, and the Bibliotheca Rosenthaliana - the situation in other countries under German occupation, and the restitution problems after the end of World War II.

Pfister, Christian. Bevölkerungsgeschichte und historische Demographie 1500-1800. [Enzyklopädie deutscher Geschichte, Band 28.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 1994. viii, 151 pp. DM 68.00; S.fr. 68.00; S 531.00.
This encyclopedic textbook on the population history and historical demography of the German-speaking region in the early modern period (1500-1800) will appear as Volume 28 in the ambitious series Encyclopedia of German History, which covers the period from the Middle Ages until the present day and elucidates the state of the art in historical research on German history. Defining population history as demographic history on a macro-structural level and historical demography as the term for the micro-level demography, the author integrates both approaches in this synthetic overview of the major demographic developments and historical research on the subject. An overview of available sources and secondary literature is appended.

Topalov, Christian. Naissance du chômeur 1880-1910. ["L'Évolution de l'Humanité".] Albin Michel, Paris 1994. 626 pp. F.fr. 160.00.
In this history of modern unemployment in Europe the author, a director of research at the C.N.R.S., traces the origins of the phenomenon of unemployment in the end of the nineteenth century. Dr Topalov aims to show that unemployment was not merely a product of the evolution of the labour market and the fluctuations in modern economy, but just as much the result of a process of classification which led to the "birth of the unemployed". He focuses on the role of scientific and philanthropic societies, universities, and statistical bureaus in developing this new social category.

Women Workers and Technological Change in Europe in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Ed. by Gertjan de Groot and Marlou Schrover. Taylor & Francis, London [etc.] 1995. ix, 206 pp. Ill. £37.00. (Paper: £12.95.)
Drawing on research from a number of European countries in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the nine contributions to this collection explore the origins of segregation between women's work and men's work by focusing on the relationship between technological change and the sexual division of labour. The contributions cover subjects including the Danish and Dutch textile industries (Marianne Rostgård, the first editor), the British civil service preceding World War I (Meta Zimmeck), the British and Swedish pottery industries (Jacqueline Sarsby, Ulla Wikander), and the Dutch food industries (the second editor).

Wood, Ellen Meiksins. The Pristine Culture of Capitalism. A Historical Essay on Old Regimes and Modern States. Verso, London [etc.] 1991. x, 200 pp. £32.95. (Paper: £10.95.)
In this study of the relationship between the development of capitalism and the rise of the modern nation state and bourgeois society Professor Wood compares the economic and political history of Continental Europe, notably France, with that of England from the mid-eighteenth century onward. She argues that the emergence of the modern state and political culture as essential features of bourgeois society actually perpetuated pre-capitalist social property relations. Conversely, the absence of these traits in England attested to a well-developed capitalism.


Crombois, Jean-François. L'Univers de la sociologie en Belgique de 1900 à 1940. Préface de Jean-Jacques Heirwegh. [Histoire, économie, société.] Editions de l'Université de Bruxelles, Bruxelles 1994. xi, 149 pp. Ill. B.fr. 350.00; F.fr. 65.00.
In this study Dr Crombois covers the history of the Belgian Institute of Sociology to depict the early years in the discipline of sociology in Belgium in the period 1900-1940. The Institute of Sociology was founded in 1902 by Ernest Solvay (1838-1922) and expanded under the directorship of Emile Waxweiler (1867-1916) to become the centre of Belgian sociology, becoming renowned for its special library collection. According to the author, the development of Belgian sociology reflected the influences of its German, French, and Anglo-Saxon counterparts and emerged as a distinctive, independent school.

Laboratoires et reseaux de diffusion des idées en Belgique (XIXe-XXe siècles). Ed. par Ginette Kurgan-van Hentenryk. Editions de l'Université de Bruxelles, Bruxelles 1994. 136 pp. B.fr. 650; F.fr. 120.00.
The eight contributions to this collection, based on a workshop organized in November 1992 in preparation for the Belgian report for the International Historical Congress in Montreal in 1995, deal with the laboratories and networks for disseminating ideas on the social question in Belgium in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Looking at groups and organizations of various religious and political backgrounds, the contributors examine areas such as the medical profession (Carl Havelange), feminist schools (Eliane Gubin), the Belgian association for social progress (Guy Vanthemsche), and Belgian scientific societies (Marc Mayné).

Luyten, Dirk. Sociaal-economisch overleg in België sedert 1918. VUB Press, Brussel 1995. 207 pp. D.fl. 21.90.
Since World War II, social-economic bargaining between social partners - the state, employers, and employees - has grown into one of the pillars of Belgian democracy, as well as of other West-European democracies. This small study sketches the origins of this Belgian economy of negotiation, which can be traced back to the period just after World War I through their rise during the 1930s and 1940s (with the main focus on the period 1945-1955 when the bargaining structures took on their final format) and their decline following the recession of the 1970s. The study devotes special attention to the specificity of the Belgian situation in comparison with the Netherlands.

Vanthemsche, Guy. La sécurité sociale. Les origines du système belge. Le présent face à son passé. [POL-HIS, 15.] De Boeck-Université, Bruxelles 1994. Ill. B.fr. 750.00.
This is the French translation of the original Dutch version, which was noticed in IRSH 40 (1995), p. 494.


Dzaja, Srecko M. Bosnien-Herzegowina in der österreichisch-ungarischen Epoche (1878-1918). Die Intelligentsia zwischen Tradition und Ideologie. [Südosteuropäische Arbeiten, Band 93.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 1994. 278 pp. DM 72.00; S 562.00; S.fr. 72.00.
This history of Bosnia-Hercegovina in the period from the Austrian-Hungarian occupation of 1878 until 1918 focuses on the emergence and the development of the social layer of the intelligentsia. Addressing the different social and religious traditions (Islam, Catholicism, and Orthodoxism), Dr Dzaja sketches the development of schools and universities and the social origins of the instructors and the students. In the last part of the study he analyses the role of the intelligentsia in the growth of political identity in Bosnia-Hercegovina.

Eire - Ireland

Luddy, Maria. Women and Philanthropy in Nineteenth-Century Ireland. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xiv, 251 pp. £40.00; $64.95. (Paper: £17.95; $27.95.)
In the course of the nineteenth century middle-class and upper-class Irish women became increasingly involved in philanthropic work. This study examines the role of women in philanthropy in nineteenth-century Ireland, with a special focus on the impact of religion on the women's lives. Dr Luddy argues that the development of convents in the nineteenth century inhibited lay Catholic women from participating in charity work. Examining the links between philanthropy and politics, she states that non-conformist rather than Catholic women formed the vanguard in the reformist organizations that pursued social and political change in Irish society.


Accampo, Elinor A., Rachel G. Fuchs and Mary Lynn Stewart. Gender and the Politics of Social Reform in France, 1870-1914. With contrib. by Linda Clark, Theresa McBride, and Judith F. Stone. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 1995. viii, 241 pp. $58.00. (Paper: $20.50.)
According to the authors of the seven essays in this volume, social reform in France began far earlier than is usually supposed and must be interpreted as a response by republican politicians and social activists to a declining population growth rate in the period 1870-1914. The collection highlights the bourgeois men who formulated republican policy and ideology, studied society, medicine, and hygiene, and engineered social reform as a means of implementing their definition of gender through reforms intended to improve maternal and child health and to increase birth rates.

Fourmies et les Premier mai. Sous la dir. de Madeleine Rebérioux. Ouvrage publ. avec le concours du Central National du Livre. Colloque prép. avec l'aide du Ministère de la Culture et de la Francophonie, du C.N.R.S., de la Région Nord-Pas-de-Calais et du Département du Nord. Les Editions de l'Atelier/Les Editions Ouvrières, Paris 1994. 460 pp. Ill. F.fr. 220.00.
The thirty contributions to this collection were presented at a colloquium held in Fourmies, May 1991, on the occasion of the centennial of the notorious fusillade on the first of May 1891 in this small industrial town in the north of France. The aim of the colloquium was to reconsider the actual events and the myths that subsequently emerged on the subject and to place the Fourmies story in the context of the rise of the labour movement, the history of the early May Day celebrations in France (in comparison with, inter alia Germany, Switzerland, and Italy), and the development of the French Republic. The contributors include Jean-Louis Robert, Jacques Girault, Pierre Birnbaum, Pascal Delwit, and Friedhelm Boll.

The French Revolution and the Creation of Modern Political Culture. Vol 4. The Terror. Ed. by Michael Baker. Pergamon, n.p. 1994. xxviii, 398 pp. £75.00.
The nineteen contributions in this collection are based on the papers presented at an international conference on the Terror in the French Revolution, which was held at Stanford University in December 1992. The volume is a sequel to the three volumes published between 1987 and 1990 under the title "The French Revolution and the Creation of Modern Political Culture". The contributors, including, among others, Mona Ozouf, Lynn Hunt, William H. Sewell Jr., and Isser Wolloch, deal with a variety of aspects of the Terror as a distinct phase of the French Revolution and as a model for future revolutions. In the epilogue Michel Vovelle discusses this function of analogy of the Terror.

Graham, B.D. Choice and Democratic Order. The French Socialist Party, 1937-1950. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1994. xvi, 430 pp. £45.00; $69.95.
This study applies theories of group conflicts within political parties in a discussion of the internal politics of the French Socialist Party (SFIO) from the late 1930s to the 1940s. Professor Graham compares the conflict between the leadership and two dissenting groups - the Gauche Révolutionnaire and the Bataille Socialist - in 1937/1938 to the conflict which occurred in 1946 when Guy Mollet led a successful revolt against the party leaders and became General Secretary. The author emphasizes the continuities between the pre- and post-war periods.

Gutton, Jean-Pierre. Guide du chercheur en histoire de la protection sociale (fin du Moyen Age - 1789). Préface de Jean Imbert. Association pour l'étude de l'histoire de la Sécurité sociale, Paris 1994. 214 pp. Ill. F.fr. 130.00.
This first volume of a research guide on the history of social security in France provides an overview of the available archival sources and published documents and a bibliography of current and historical topical literature for the period between 1500 and 1789. In his extensive introduction Dr Gutton gives a historical survey of the various forms of social assistance and security and their development throughout this period.

Johnson, Christopher H. The Life and Death of Industrial Languedoc, 1700-1920. Oxford University Press, New York [etc.] 1995. xv, 307 pp. Ill. Maps. £45.00.
In this study of the rise and decline of the woollen textile industry in the Lower Languedoc in the period 1700-1920, Professor Johnson examines the manner and causes of the deindustrialization and transformation into an agrarian society from the 1850s onward of a successful and productive industrial region. According to the author - who published, inter alia, on Etienne Cabet (see IRSH, XXI (1976), p. 296) - political factors played a major role as well. A severe conflict between a strong Languedoc labour movement and intransigent employers rocked the region between 1848 and 1851. The upheaval catalyzed disfavour on the part of the French state and consumers alike and resulted in an ineluctable process of decline of the industry.

Kaplan, Robert Elliot. Forgotten Crisis. The Fin-de-Siècle Crisis of Democracy in France. Berg Publishers, Oxford [etc.] 1995. xii, 211 pp. Ill. £34.95.
In this study of the fin-de-siècle crisis of the French Third Republic Mr Kaplan aims to recast the history of this period by arguing that the key event of the 1890s was not the Dreyfus Affair, but rather the political battle over a graduated income tax (the impôt sur le revenu). According to the author, both the Dreyfus Affair and the conflict over the income tax had their origins in France's efforts to lead the arms race taking place throughout the Western world.

Lefebvre, Denis. Le socialisme et les colonies. Le cas des Antilles. [Le Tournant du Siècle.] Bruno Leprince Éditeur, n.p. 1994. 93 pp. F.fr. 49.00.
In this concise study of the relations between the French socialist movement and its counterpart in the French colonies in the period of the Second International, the author, general secretary of the department for university research of the French Socialist Party and author of a biography of Guy Mollet (see IRSH 39 (1994), p. 308), focuses on the French Antilles. He describes the implementation of the movement by its charismatic leaders and addresses the views of the French and international socialists on colonialism and the future of the French colonies.

Pennetier, Claude [et] Nathalie Viet-Depaule. Itinéraires orlysiens: les militants de l'entre-deux-guerres. Préface de Gaston Viens. Les Editions de l'Atelier/Les Editions Ouvrières, Paris 1994. 141 pp. Ill. F.fr. 93.00.
On the occasion of the sixtieth anniversary of the French Popular Front, two of the editors of the Dictionnaire biographique du mouvement ouvrier français have gathered 74 biographical sketches of persons who served as labour representatives on the municipal council and militants in the Paris suburb Orly during the Interbellum. The introduction describes the emergence of the labour tradition in Orly. A list of all elected members of the municipal council and biographies of the town councillors who were not part of the labour movement are appended.

Viet, Vincent. Les voltigeurs de la République. L'inspection du travail en France jusqu'en 1914. Vol. I. Vol. II. CNRS Editions, Paris 1994. 630 pp. F.fr. 330.00 (2 vols.)
This doctoral thesis offers a comprehensive history of the French Labour Inspectorate from its earliest origins in 1827 to 1914. In addition to the emergence of the first forms labour inspection - through legislation regulating child labour in 1841 and 1874 - and the development of the government service and the legal framework, this study deals extensively with the changes in the nature of the work done by the inspectors, employer-employee relationships, the rise of industrial safety and hygiene, and involvement in the struggle for shorter working hours. Dr Viet concludes that the inspectors generally based their opinions concerning working conditions on the views that prevailed in the French Republic.


Bons, Joachim. Nationalsozialismus und Arbeiterfrage. Zu den Motiven, Inhalten und Wirkungsgründen nationalsozialistischer Arbeiterpolitik vor 1933. [Studien und Materialien zum Rechtsextremismus, Band 4.] Centaurus-Verlagsgesellschaft, Pfaffenweiler 1995. xii, 426 pp. DM 58.00.
In the period between 1925 and 1933 Hitler's NSDAP obtained substantial electoral support among the German working class. This dissertation (Göttingen, 1993) examines the motives, goals, and contents of the NSDAP ideology and practical politics concerning the working class and its problems in this period and aims to explain the party's achievements in this area. According to Dr Bons, the positive appeal of the NSDAP to workers can be understood through a critical examination of the actual contents of the Nazi ideology and politics in relation to the situation of the various elements of the working class in the Weimar Republic.

Braunthal, Gerard. The German Social Democrats Since 1969. A Party in Power and Opposition. Second Ed. Westview Press, Boulder [etc.] 1994. xii, 402 pp. £61.50.
This revised edition of The West German Social Democrats, 1969-1982. Profile of a Party in Power (1983) (which was noticed in IRSH, XXIX (1984), p. 113) contrasts the period during which the SPD was in power with the party's place on the opposition since 1982. Professor Braunthal also discusses the short-lived East German SPD, which arose during the crumbling months of the German Democratic Republic and then merged with its West German counterpart shortly before the unification.

Dittmann, Wilhelm. Erinnerungen. Bearb. und eingel. von Jürgen Rojahn. [Quellen und Studien zur Sozialgeschichte, Band 14.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1995. xx, 286*, 1562 pp. (in 3 vols). DM 420.00; S.fr. 420.00; S 3276.00.
See Eberhard Kolb's review in this volume, pp. 240-244.

Gustav Landauer (1870-1919). Eine Bestandsaufnahme zur Rezeption seines Werkes. Hrsg. von Leonhard M. Fiedler, Renate Heuer und Annemarie Taeger-Altenhofer. [Campus Judaica, Band 2.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1995. 264 pp. DM 58.00; S.fr. 58.00; S 453.00.
Twelve of the thirteen contributions to this volume are based on papers presented at a symposium commemorating the historian Norbert Altenhofer, a specialist on the life and works of Gustav Landauer (1870-1919) who died in 1991. An article written by Altenhofer on Landauer's plea for a non-violent revolution opens the collection. The contributions deal with, among others, Altenhofer's work on Landauer (the second editor), Landauer's Jewish identity (Guy Stern), the development of his utopian ideas, and his politization in the period 1888-1893 (Christoph Knüppel).

Hagelweide, Gert. Literatur zur deutschsprachigen Presse. Eine Bibliographie: Von den Anfängen bis 1970. Band 5: 44706-58007. Deutschsprachige Länder. Teil I: Deutschland. Lokale Pressegeschichte, Druck-, Verlags- und Vertriebsorte. Aachen - Eutin. [Dortmunder Beiträge zur Zeitungsforschung, Band 35/5.] K.G. Saur, München [etc.] 1995. xix, 386 pp. DM 320.00.
This is the fifth volume of a very voluminous bibliography of literature concerning the press and journalism throughout the German cultural area from the beginnings until 1970 (the four previous volumes were noticed in IRSH, XXXVI (1991), p. 135, and 39 (1994), p. 492f.). This volume deals with the local history of press, locations of printing houses, and publishing houses in Germany, covering German towns from Aachen to Eutin.

Kühne, Thomas. Handbuch der Wahlen zum preussischen Abgeordnetenhaus 1867-1918. Wahlergebnisse, Wahlbündnisse und Wahlkandidaten. [Handbücher zur Geschichte des Parlamentarismus und der politischen Parteien, Band 6.] Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 1994. 1055 pp. Maps. DM 198.00.
The Prussian three-class suffrage system is generally considered typical of the Prussian reactionary political machine and viewed as the main obstacle to political modernization of the German Empire in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Remarkably little historical research covers the elections actually held; the dearth is in part attributable to the absence thus far of the results from the Prussian Landtag elections, which are dispersed across myriad local sites. This collection brings together these election results from the period 1867-1918. Extensive indexes of the candidates - including their professions, towns of residence, parties, and coalitions - are appended.

Lager, Front oder Heimat. Deutsche Kriegsgefangene in Sowjetrußland 1917 bis 1920. Hrsg. von einem deutsch-russischen Redaktionskollegium unter Leitung von Inge Pardon und Waleri W. Shurawljow. Band 1. Dokumente 1917 bis 1919. Band 2. Dokumente 1920, Anhang. K.G. Saur, München [etc.] 1994. x, 792 pp. (in 2 vols). Ill. DM 480.00.
This collection offers a selection of materials concerning the German prisoners of war in Soviet Russia and focuses on the reception of the Bolshevik Revolution among the prisoners of war and the relation between the revolutionary movement among such prisoners and the Bolshevik party. The majority of the materials come from Bolshevik party archives and Soviet archives and consist of minutes, messages, circulars, educational materials, resolutions, letters, mandates, etc. of the Bolshevik party's German group and German central bureau for agitation and propaganda. The selection highlights the connections between the revolutionary groups in captivity as prisoners of war and leftist-revolutionary factions in the homelands. Indexes of geographical terms and persons have been appended.

Nienhaus, Ursula. Vater Staat und seine Gehilfinnen. Die Politik mit der Frauenarbeit bei der deutschen Post (1864-1945). [Reihe "Geschichte und Geschlechter", Band 11.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1995. 372 pp. DM 78.00; S.fr. 78.00; S 609.00.
In this study of women workers for the German postal services, an abridged edition of this scholar's dissertation (Hannover, 1993), Dr Nienhaus examines employment opportunities for women, as well as the social policy that covered women working for the state from the beginning of the modern postal services in the 1860s until 1945. Comparing the German developments to other European countries and the United States, the author concludes that the German state maintained a gender-specific policy with respect to its employees throughout the period. On the one hand, single women received increasing employment opportunities as cheap labour. On the other hand, the social policy catered to male breadwinners.

Der Parteivorstand der SPD im Exil. Protokolle der Sopade 1933-1940. Hrsg. und bearb. von Marlis Buchholz [und] Bernd Rother. Projektleitung: Herbert Obenaus [und] Hans-Dieter Schmid. [Archiv für Sozialgeschichte, Beiheft 15.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 1995. lxxi, 573 pp. DM 98.00; S.fr. 99.00; S 1165.00.
See Ursula Langkau-Alex's review in this volume, pp. 248-251.

Pierenkemper, Toni. Gewerbe und Industrie im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. [Enzyklopädie deutscher Geschichte, Band 29.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 1994. viii, 151 pp. DM 28.00.
The development of trade and industry in Germany in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is the theme of Volume 29 in the ambitious series Encyclopedia of German History. In his overview of the developments Professor Pierenkemper focuses on the transition from trade-based to industrial structures in the different branches of industry. In his survey of available historiography on this subject, he addresses concepts such as protoindustrialization, the three sectors theory, and regional variations in industrial development. An overview of available sources and secondary literature is appended.

Rudolph, Karsten, Stefan Lennardt [und] Martin Wilke. Linkswende. 25 Jahre linke Jusos. Mit einer Nachbemerkung von Gerhard Schröder. Klartext-Verlag, Essen 1994. 94 pp. Ill. DM 19.80; S.fr. 20.80; S 155.00.
Twenty-five years ago the Young German Socialists underwent a Linkswende. Democratization of all facets of society, anti-capitalist reforms, and renewal of the SPD were among the objectives that emerged from this "push to the left". In this small book three former "Jusos" look back on this episode and express their conviction that a critical understanding is important for the future of the SPD. Gerhard Schröder, the previous union chairman of the Young Socialists and the current prime minister of Niedersachsen, contributes an epilogue.

Rübner, Hartmut. Freiheit und Brot. Die Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands. Eine Studie zur Geschichte des Anarchosyndikalismus. [Archiv für Sozial- und Kulturgeschichte, Band 5.] Libertad Verlag, Berlin [etc.] 1994. 317 pp. Ill. DM 52.00; S.fr. 44.00; S 370.00.
This dissertation (Bremen, 1992) reviews the social, ideological, and organizational history of the German anarcho-syndicalist trade union and cultural movement - united in the Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands (FAUD) - from its origins in the 1880s to its destruction in 1933. Dr Rübner focuses on the role of specific professional groups within the FAUD, as well as on the different social and cultural organizations affiliated with the FAUD. According to the author, many of the objectives in the contemporary new social movements in Germany reflect the ideas and proposals of this anarcho-syndicalism in the Weimar Republic.

Great Britain

Brookshire, Jerry H. Clement Attlee. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1995; distr. excl. in the USA and Canada by St Martin's Press, New York. ix, 257 pp. £45.00.
This is a concise thematic biography of Clement Attlee (1883-1967), who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain in the Labour government from 1945 to 1951. Professor Brookshire's central thesis is that Attlee successfully integrated socialist principles and the British parliamentary political system. Leftist critics have questioned Attlee's credentials as a socialist. According to the author, Attlee's socialism was based more on ethical than on economic grounds. He pursued social justice, social harmony, fairer distribution of national wealth, nationalization of some sectors of the economy, and national economic planning, rather than an egalitarian and classless society.

Chinn, Carl. Poverty amidst prosperity. The urban poor in England, 1834-1914. [New Frontiers in History.] Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1995; distr. excl. in the USA and Canada by St Martin's Press, New York. x, 182 pp. 35.00. Cloth: £35.00. (Paper: £9.99.)
This textbook addresses the causes of the persistent widespread and deep urban poverty in nineteenth-century Britain. Using, inter alia, working-class autobiographies, Dr Chinn aims to demonstrate people's reactions to poverty and their coping strategies. He asserts that the urban poor were not passive victims of their circumstances. Rather, they fought their poverty with dignity and respect for others. As in previous volumes in this series New Frontiers in History (see IRSH, 39 (1995), p. 317), a selection of original documents and a bibliographical essay are appended.

Ferguson, Adam. An Essay on the History of Civil Society. Ed. by Fania Oz-Salzberger. [Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xxxv, 283 pp. £37.50; $54.95. (Paper: £13.95; $18.95.)
Adam Ferguson (1723-1816) was one of the central figures in the Scottish Enlightenment. His Essay on the History of Civil Society, which was first published in 1767, attempts to apply the classical tradition of active citizenship to the modern state. In this work Ferguson offers a complex model of historical progression that challenges both Hume's and Smith's embrace of modernity and Rousseau's primitivism. According to the editor, Ferguson's Essay combines a subtle analysis of the emergence of modern commercial society with a critique of its abandonment of civic and communal virtues.

Gatrell, V.A.C. The Hanging Tree. Execution and the English People 1770-1868. Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 1994. xx, 634 pp. Ill. £20.00.
Between 1770 and 1830, under the Bloody Penal Code, hanging was a common punishment for a range of crimes in England. Some seven thousand men and women were executed through public hangings. This history of execution in England in the period between 1770 and the abolition of public executions in 1868 focuses on the changing attitudes of the different social classes in England concerning the death penalty and its practice. Drawing on a wide range of sources, Professor Gatrell argues that the long retreat from public hanging is attributable less to the rise of human sensibility than to the development of new methods of punishment and law enforcement and the polite classes' fear of the scaffold crowd.

Hopkins, Eric. Working-class self-help in nineteenth-century England. Responses to industrialization. UCL Press, London [etc.] 1995. x, 246 pp. £35.00. (Paper: £11.95.)
This textbook presents a survey of the types and forms of self-help available to the English working class in the nineteenth century. Professor Hopkins examines trade unionism alongside friendly societies and the co-operative movement, showing how each developed in response to industrialization and the demands of urban industrial life and assessing the strengths and limitations of each of these self-help approaches.

Lawless, Richard I. From Ta'izz to Tyneside. An Arab Community in the North-East of England during the Early Twentieth Century. University of Exeter Press, Exeter 1995. x, 292 pp. £30.00. (£14.95.)
During World War I, several thousand Arab seafarers, mostly from Britain's Aden Protectorate, arrived at a number of British ports. They represented the first significant Muslim communities to settle in Britain. This study examines the economic, social, religious, and political life of Arab seamen in South Shields on Tyneside. Drawing, among others, on oral histories and research in Yemen, the author explores relations between the Arab seamen and their host society as well as the internal organization and dynamics of the community and the seamen's links with their country of origin.

Mingay, G.E. Land and Society in England 1750-1980. [Themes in British Social History.] Longman, London [etc.] 1995. vii, 278 pp. £11.99.
In 1750 approximately half the English population lived off the land or drew an income directly or indirectly from it; by 1980 less than two in every hundred individual were employed in agriculture. This textbook charts the transformation and its causes. Themes addressed include the changing relations of the landowner with the village community; the clergyman and the parish; poverty and the Poor Law; farming and farm life; other village trades and services; the decline of agriculture; the impact of war on rural communities; and the changing uses of the land itself.

Morris, William. News from Nowhere, or, An epoch of rest: being some chapters from a Utopian Romance by William Morris. Ed. by Krishan Kumar. [Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xxxii, 229 pp. £12.95; $16.95.
One of the most famous works of William Morris (1834-1896) and a classic of British socialism is his News from Nowhere (1890), a utopian picture of a future communist society. According to the editor of this edition, the work is a response to what Morris saw as soulless and mechanical visions of socialism. Professor Kumar, a specialist on utopianism, argues that "News from Nowhere is unique for a utopia in the extent to which it makes bloody revolution the central cause of change".

Norquay, Glenda. Voices and votes. A literary anthology of the women's suffrage campaign. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1995; distr. excl. in the USA and Canada by St. Martin's Press, New York. xvi, 332 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
This volume offers a selection of literary texts from the early twentieth century in which campaigners for women's suffrage in Britain sought to mobilize political ideas and challenge gender ideologies in literary form. Following an introduction examining the sexual and textual politics of writing, the excerpts are organized around four themes: conversion to the cause; suffrage militancy; the prison experience; and questions of identity. The collection includes writings by both the major figures in the campaign and the rank-and-file who opposed women's suffrage or were merely onlookers. Brief biographies of all the authors are included.

Oldfield, J.R. Popular Politics and British Anti-Slavery. The mobilisation of public opinion against the slave trade 1787-1807. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1995; distr. excl. in the USA and Canada by St. Martin's Press, New York. x, 197 pp. Ill. £35.00.
The history of anti-slavery in Britain is marked by two petition campaigns that took place in 1788 and 1792, when an estimated 400,000 people placed their signatures in support of the abolition of slavery. This study explains the organization and orchestration of this remarkable expression of support for the black people and its contribution to the growth of popular politics in Britain. Focusing on the growing assertiveness among the middle classes in the public sphere and the opinion building activities of the Society for the Abolition of Slave Trade, Dr Oldfield argues that Abolitionists need to be regarded as practical men with a keen understanding of the choices by the market and the consumers.

Palmer, Bryan D. E.P. Thompson. Objections and Oppositions. Verso, London [etc.] 1994. xiii, 201 pp. £34.95. (Paper: £11.95.)
This book is an extension of a lengthy obituary the author wrote for Labour/Le Travail in 1993 upon the death of E.P. Thompson (1924-1993). In reviewing the politics that shaped Thompson's historical work, Dr Palmer assesses the role of Thompson's family background in India, his youth in the Communist Party, his decisive break with Stalinism in 1956, and his subsequent work campaigning for the causes of the New Left and nuclear disarmament. One of Thompson's main characteristics was, according to the author, his constant readiness to object to the power of the state and to oppose a Left that he often thought abandoned the cause of social transformation.

Panayi, Panikos. German Immigrants in Britain during the Nineteenth Century, 1815-1914. Berg, Oxford [etc.] 1995. xx, 301 pp. £44.95.
Throughout most of the nineteenth century, Germans represented the largest continental immigrant population in Britain. This study offers an introductory overview of the history of the German community in Britain as a whole in the period 1815-1914, with a focus on economic newcomers during the period from 1851 onward. In a separate chapter Dr Panayi addresses the British attitudes towards Germany and the German immigrants, concluding that the increasing German economic, diplomatic, and military strength from the 1890s onward caused the rise of serious Germanophobia, manifested, for example, in increasing hostility toward German immigrants.

Panayi, Panikos. Immigration, ethnicity and racism in Britain, 1815-1945. [New Frontiers in History.] Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1994; distr. excl. in the USA and Canada by St. Martin's Press, New York. vi, 170 pp. £29.99. (Paper: £7.99.)
See Kenneth Lunn's review in this volume, pp. 235-237.

Protest and Survival. Essays for E.P. Thompson. Ed. by John Rule and Robert Malcolmson. The New Press, New York 1993; The Merlin Press, London. viii, 423 pp. $30.00.
In this Festschrift for E.P. Thompson (1924-1993) the fourteen scholars who pay tribute to one of England's most important historians were all directly influenced by him at the beginning of their own careers. The contributions include "Edward Thompson as a Teacher: Yorkshire and Warwick" (Peter Searby and the editors), "Trade Unions, the Government and the French Revolution, 1789-1802" (John Rule), "The Fabrication of Deviance: 'Dangerous Classes' and 'Criminal Classes' in Victorian England" (Victor Bailey), "'Our Party is the People': Edward Carpenter and Radicalism in Sheffield" (Sheila Rowbotham), and "Fear and Hope in the Nuclear Age" (Robert Malcolmson). The volume also contains a select bibliography of Thompson by Harvey J. Kaye and Keith McClelland.

Wollstonecraft, Mary. A Vindication of the Rights of Men; with A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, and Hints. Ed. by Sylvana Tomaselli. [Cambridge texts in the history of political thought.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xxxviii, 349 pp. £8.95; $10.95.
This volume brings together two of the most important texts by Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797), A Vindication of the Rights of Men (1790), and A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792). Although Wollstonecraft is best known for the last work, her view of the female sex constituted, according to the editor of this collection, an integral part of a wider moral and political critique of her times, which she first formulated in full in the initial text. Included is also Hints, notes intended for a second, never completed, volume of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.


Szikra, Katalin Falus. The Position and Conditions of Intellectuals in Hungary. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1995. vi, 188 pp. $28.00.
This study addresses the social position and economic circumstances of intellectuals in Hungary in the second half of the twentieth century, with special attention to the Kádár era and the early years of the economic reforms. Based on statistical data and analysis, the author examines changes in the economic conditions of the intelligentsia in the contemporary social and political climate. Professor Szikra concludes that economists and the legal profession have derived particular benefit from the economic and political transformation of the last decade.


Le origini del socialismo nell'Italia centrale. A cura di Gian Biagio Furiozzi. [Politica e Storia - Saggi e Testi, 40.] Centro Editoriale Toscano, Firenze 1993. x, 356 pp. L. 35.000.
The seventeen contributions to this collection are based on a colloquium on the development of socialism in central Italy, which was held in Perugia in October 1991. The first part focuses on the origins and early development, the second part on the political culture and party education, and the last part on the available sources on the subject and the development of the socialist press in this part of Italy.

Society and the professions in Italy, 1860-1914. Ed. by Maria Malatesta. Transl. by Adrian Belton. [Cambridge Studies in Italian History and Culture.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. viii, 340 pp. £35.00; $59.95.
This collection offers a social and cultural study of the principal "free" professions in Italy between unification and the First World War. In the first section four contributions address the emergence of modern Italian engineering, notarial practice, law, and medicine and the close connections of members of these professions with the state and the university system. The last five contributions analyse the interrelation between the professions, the nobility, and the parliament and examine the social status and the self-image of members of the professions. In her introduction the editor sketches an international comparative perspective.

The Netherlands

Organisatie in het ijzeren tijdperk. DE ANMB gegevens van J.G. Sikkema toegelicht en aangevuld. [Door] Luuk Brug, Hans van den Hurk, Dik Nas [en] Bob Reinalda. Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1995. 239 pp. Ill. D.fl. 49.50.
As treasurer of the Algemene Nederlandse Metaalbewerkersbond ANMB in the period 1870-1935, J.G. Sikkema kept a comprehensive record of all the sections of this industrial union, including biographies of the leaders from the early days. The ANMB was one of the largest trade unions in the Netherlands from its origins in 1886 until its merge with the Industriebond NVV in 1971 (later the FNV). The present volume is based on these records, supplemented by additional records for the period after 1935. It offers a unique overview of the internal, organizational developments of one of the major trade unions in the Netherlands in this period, covering, inter alia, the relations between the rank-and-file, the executives, and the leaders.

Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Broekmeyer, Marius. Het verdriet van Rusland. Dagelijks leven op het platteland sinds 1945. Uitgeverij Jan Mets, Amsterdam 1995. 319 pp. D.fl. 59.50.
Drawing upon a wide range of Russian literary and journalistic sources, Dr Broekmeyer vividly depicts daily life in the Russian countryside from 1945 onward. Dividing the book into four chronologically discrete segments (the last stage of the Stalin era and the periods under Khrushchev, under Brezhnev, and under Gorbachev and Yeltsin), the author portrays everyday life among inhabitants of the Russian countryside from their own perspective primarily by relating the writings of Russian literators and journalists on this subject.

Hoffmann, David L. Peasant Metropolis. Social Identities in Moscow, 1929-1941. [Studies of the Harriman Institute.] Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1994. xv, 282 pp. Ill. Maps. $35.75.
See Diane Koenker's review in this volume, pp. 246-248.

Rüss, Hartmut. Herren und Diener. Die soziale und politische Mentalität des russischen Adels. 9.-17. Jahrhundert. Böhlau Verlag, Köln [etc.] 1994. ix, 531 pp. DM 128.00.
The historiography of the Russian nobility has long been dominated by two ideologically adversarial programmes: the pre-revolutionary liberal movement, which emphasized the nobility's weak position vis-à-vis the monarch's absolute power, and the marxist movement, which focused on the Russian nobility's feudal nature. This dissertation (Münster, 1991) aims to give a more balanced comprehensive impression of the social and political mentality of the Russian nobility from the ninth to the seventeenth centuries. Dr Rüss concludes that thanks to the conservative ideology of harmony prevailing throughout this period, the nobility viewed a good relationship with the Czar as a guarantee for the feudal social system's tremendous stability.

Schrader, Fred E. Der Moskauer Prozeß 1936. Zur Sozialgeschichte eines politischen Feindbildes. [Quellen und Studien zur Sozialgeschichte, Band 13.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1995. 552 pp. DM 198.00; S.fr. 198.00; S 1545.00.
The Moscow show trial of 1936 is generally viewed as the start of the Stalinist purge. According to Dr Schrader in the analytical part of the volume, this trial not only repressed the leftist opposition that reverberated from Trotsky, but also placed Trotskyism on the defensive as a movement of social subversion and economic sabotage. In the second part, the source edition - based on the rediscovery in the archives of the International Institute of Social History (IISH) of the correspondence between Trotsky's son Lev L. Sedov and his father - encompasses the correspondence between Trotsky and Sedov from August to December 1936, as well as Norwegian materials concerning Trotsky's internment and deportation to Mexico, and some Soviet materials (circulars and articles from Pravda) on the 1936 Moscow trial.

Stalin's Letters to Molotov 1925-1936. Ed. by Lars T. Lih, Oleg V. Naumov, and Oleg V. Khlevniuk. Russian Consulting Scholars: L. Kosheleva and L. Rogovaia, V. Lelchuk and V. Naumov. Transl. from the Russian by Catherine A. Fitzpatrick. Foreword by Robert C. Tucker. [Annals of Communism.] Yale University Press, New Haven [etc.] 1995. xx, 276 pp. Ill. $25.00; £16.95.
This collection contains over 85 letters from Stalin to his confidant and political colleague Viacheslav Molotov in the period 1925-1936. According to the editors, the letters provide important information about the Soviet Union's party-state leadership, about party politics, and about Stalin himself. At the same time, the editors note Molotov's selectivity in keeping only the letters for the archive that were least harmful to Stalin and himself. The Russian editors annotated the letters, introduced each chronological section and added other relevant archival documents. The American editor, Dr Lih, author of Bread and Authority in Russia, 1914-1921 (1990) (see IRSH, XXXVI (1991), p. 151f.) provides a portrait of Stalin as a leader in his lengthy introduction.


Kontinuität und Krise. Sozialer Wandel als Lernprozess. Beiträge zur Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte der Schweiz. Festschrift für Hansjörg Siegenthaler. Hrsg. von Andreas Ernst, Thomas Gerlach, Patrick Halbeisen [u.a.] Chronos, Zürich 1994. 460 pp. S.fr. 68.00.
The twenty-two contributions in this Festschrift for the Swiss social and economic historian Hansjörg Siegenthaler deal with the social and economic history of Switzerland in the last 150 years as a sequence of alternating periods of stability and crisis. The contributors - historians, economists, and sociologists - use Siegenthaler's theoretical model about the relationship between economic development and social change as point of departure. The first group of contributions addresses the long-term quantitative developments of state finance, migration, wages, and national economy in general; the second group consists of case studies; the third group focuses on the theoretical implications of Siegenthaler's work.

Studer, Brigitte. Un parti sous influence. Le Parti communiste suisse, une section du Komintern 1931 à 1939. L'Age d'Homme, Lausanne 1994. 818 pp. S.fr. 89.00.
This extensive study of the Swiss Communist Party - the Kommunistische Partei der Schweiz (KPS) - between 1931 and 1939 focuses on the relations of the KPS with the Comintern, as well as on the Comintern's influence on the party organization and the internal and international policies of the KPS. Dr Studer details the development of the KPS and the changes in staffing of the leading organs with respect to the evolution of the Comintern organization and policy before and during the 1930s. She concludes that by 1931 Stalin had already succeeded in using the Comintern to shape the KPS entirely according to his own political purposes. Extensive biographical notes of the leading KPS and Comintern officials are appended.