Volume 41 part 3 (1996)


General Issues
Continents and Countries

Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.

General Issues


Articulating Hidden Histories. Exploring the Influence of Eric R. Wolf. Ed. by Jane Schneider [and] Rayna Rapp. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1995. ix, 400 pp. $45.00. (Paper: $18.00.)
The twenty-one contributions in this collection are based on three sessions at the American Anthropological Association Meeting of 1991, which addressed the influence of Eric R. Wolf's scholarship on the field of anthropology and related disciplines. Apart from two general introductory articles on Wolf's analytic strategies (the first editor) and his anthropology (Ashraf Ghani), the papers are subdivided into sections on concepts and histories of peasants and peasant societies, on the anthropology of the modern capitalist society, on national integration and disintegration and on political economy and cultural identity. A bibliography of the works of Professor Wolf is appended.

Culture/Power/History. A Reader in Contemporary Social Theory. Ed. by Nicholas B. Dirks, Geoff Eley, and Sherry B. Ortner. [Princeton Studies in Culture/Power/History.] Princeton University Press, Princeton 1994. xiv, 621 pp. Ill. $49.50. (Paper: $19.95.)
This anthology, originally conceived to announce and introduce a current book series, brings together twenty contributions - all previously published between 1972 and 1992 - by leading historians and anthropologists within the field of cultural studies, as generally outlined in the Program for the Comparative Study of Social Transformations at the University of Michigan. The contributors include (apart from the editors) Linda Alcoff, Sally Alexander, Tony Bennett, Pierre Bourdieu, Michel Foucault, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Stephen Greenblatt, Ranajit Guha, Stuart Hall, Donna Haraway, Susan Harding, Dick Hebdige, Susan McClary, Marshall Sahlins, Elizabeth G. Traube, Raymond Williams and Judith Williamson.

Hannah Arendt and Leo Strauss. German Émigrés and American Political Thought After World War II. Ed. by Peter Graf Kielmansegg, Horst Mewes [and] Elisabeth Glaser-Schmidt. [German Historical Institute, Washington, D.C.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. ix, 208 pp. £35.00; $49.95.
This collection presents eight essays by German and American political scientists, originally read at a conference at the University of Colorado, Boulder in September 1991, on Hannah Arendt's and Leo Strauss's emigre experience and their philosophical work in the United States. The authors discuss Arendt's and Strauss's intellectual contributions to American political science as well as the evolution of their respective oeuvres that grew out of the emigre experience. The editors conclude that both emigres had a fundamental impact on post-war German as well as on American political science.

Majumdar, Margaret A. Althusser and the End of Leninism? Pluto Press, London [etc.] 1995. xii, 244 pp. £45.00. (Paper: £14.95.)
In this study of the development of the work of Louis Althusser (1918-1990) Dr Majumdar focuses on his relationship with Lenin's work. She analyses key themes in Althusser's changing perspective on Leninism, such as the role of theory, the relationship between science and philosophy, the question of materialism and class partisanship, the theory of knowledge and the theory of ideology, the relation of theory and practice, the role of the intellectuals and the question of dialectics. Dr Majumdar concludes that Althusser, in his attempt to rehabilitate Lenin as a respectable philosopher, largely created his own Lenin, thereby neglecting Lenin's contribution to political theory.


The Duty of Discontent. Essays for Dorothy Thompson. Ed. by Owen Ashton, Robert Fyson and Stephen Roberts. Mansell, London 1995. xii, 276 pp. £50.00; $90.00. (In the USA from Cassell, Herndon, VA 22070.)
This volume in honour of Dorothy Thompson comprises twelve essays by social historians, all former students of hers or influenced by her work and advice. The topics of the contributions, which revolve around the main themes in Dorothy Thompson's work, include: Chartism, rural resistance, the treatment of lunatics, Irish and women's history, immigration and immigrant communities. The contributors are, apart from the editors: Neville Kirk, James Epstein, Kate Tiller, Clive Behagg, L.D. Smith, Angela V. John, Glen Matthews, John Belchem and Carl Chinn.

Ereño Altuna, Jose Antonio. Lucien Febvre. Combates por el socialismo. Universidad de Deusto, Bilbao 1994. 290 pp.
Lucien Febvre (1878-1956), co-founder of the Annales, expounded his socialist convictions in a series of articles in the French regional socialist newspaper Le Socialiste Comtois that he published between March 1907 and May 1909. These 33 unsigned articles, of which his authorship has been established beyond doubt in 32 cases, are published by Mr. Ereño Altuna in his own translation and extensively annotated in the second part of this book. In the first part he analyses the development of Febvre's vision of socialism in the context of the French social, economic and political history between 1895 and 1914.

Guthrie, Shirley. Arab Social Life in the Middle Ages. An Illustrated Study. Saqi Books, London 1995. 229 pp. Ill. £45.00.
This revised dissertation (Edinburgh, 1991) describes everyday life in the medieval Arab world, based upon thirteenth-century miniatures, which accompany the well-known text Maq m t by al-ar r . Dr Guthrie uses the illustrations, which are included, some in full colour, as sources complementing the literary and historical accounts of medieval Arab life to depict various aspects of the medieval Arab society: religious life, power and authority, trade, urban versus rural life, the position of women and hospitality.

Mandel, Ernest. Trotsky as Alternative. Transl. by Gus Fagan. Verso, London [etc.] 1995. vi, 186 pp. £39.95. (Paper: £13.95.)
This is the English translation of Trotski als Alternative (1992), a concise portrait of Leon Trotsky and a review of his work and impact, written by Professor Ernest Mandel (1923-1996), one of the foremost leaders and theoreticians of the Fourth International and an influential Marxist economist. Covering Trotsky's struggle against Stalin's bureaucracy, his formulation of an alternative economic strategy, his theories relating to the Third World, fascism, the national question and the Jewish question and his extensive literary criticism, Professor Mandel concludes that many of Trotsky's theoretical and strategic insights remain relevant for analysing the late capitalism of the 1990s.

Mill, John Stuart [and] Auguste Comte. The Correspondence of John Stuart Mill and Auguste Comte. Transl. from the French and ed. by Oscar A. Haac. With a foreword by Oscar A. Haac and an introd. by Angèle Kremer-Marietti. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick [etc.] 1995. 403 pp. $39.95.
This volume represents the first translation published in English of eighty-nine letters exchanged between John Stuart Mill and August Comte between 1841 and 1847. The correspondence begins with a letter from Mill, who considers himself a positivist at the time and addresses Comte as an elder colleague. During the close friendship that evolved, they discussed many important issues in mid-nineteenth century philosophy, science, economics and politics. Their mutual understanding extended to personal experiences. The correspondence eventually ceased when they encountered an issue on which they could not reach an understanding: the equality of women.

Présence de Babeuf. Lumières, révolution, communisme. Sous la dir. de Alain Maillard, Claude Mazauric [et] Eric Walter. Préf. de Michel Vovelle. Actes du colloque international Babeuf. Amiens, les 7, 8 et 9 décembre 1989. [Histoire moderne, 28.] Publications de la Sorbonne, Paris 1994. 334 pp. F.fr. 140.00.
This volume contains the proceedings of the international colloquium on Babeuf, held in Amiens in December 1989. Divided into four themes: "Babeuf et les lumières", "Babeuf et la Picardie", "Babeuf dans la Révolution", and "Babeuf après Babeuf", the contributions evaluate the recent historiography and note research in progress. The last part addresses Babeuf's impact on Proudhon (Pierre Ansart), Jaurès (Valérie Lecoulant), and Lenin and Trotsky (Jean-Marc Schiappa).

Rigueur et passion. Mélanges offerts en hommage à Annie Kriegel. Ouvrage publié sous la dir. de Stéphane Courtois, Marc Lazar et Shmuel Trigano. L'Age d'Homme/Cerf, Paris 1994. 465 pp. Maps. F.fr. 240.00.
This Festschrift for Professor Annie Kriegel, a well-known French historian of communism, presented on her sixtieth birthday, brings together 26 contributions by friends and colleagues on the main themes in her work: international communism, the history of communism in France, the history of the Jews and the history of culture and religion. The contributors include François Furet, Tony Judt, Georges Tan Eng Bok, Marc Lazar, José Gotovitch, Olivier Zunz and Jean-Louis Tiar. A bibliography of Professor Kriegel's historical work is appended.

"We Specialize in the Wholly Impossible". A Reader in Black Women's History. Ed. by Darlene Clark Hine, Wilma King, Linda Reed. Carlson Publishing, Inc., Brooklyn 1995. xiv, 618 pp. Ill. $24.95.
This anthology brings together 32 recently published articles on black women's experiences in modern history. Divided into six sections - theory, Africa, the Caribbean and Canada and eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth-century United States - the essays cover a wide range of topics. The contributions address, among others, working-class consciousness among African-American women, slavery, sharecropping, sexual inequality, women's welfare activism and property-owning free African-American women in the nineteenth-century South.


Aux sources du chômage 1880-1914. Une comparaison interdisciplinaire entre la France et la Grande-Bretagne. Sous la dir. de Malcolm Mansfield, Robert Salais [et] Noel Whiteside. [Histoire et Société.] Belin, Paris 1994. 479 pp. Maps. F.fr.
The twelve contributions in this volume compare the origins and development of modern unemployment in France and England between 1880 and 1914. Divided into three themes - expectations, significance and policy - the articles cover issues including vagrancy and the new Poor Law at the end of the nineteenth century (Rachel Vorspan), a critical analysis of Taylor's ideas on industrial organization (Edward Cadbury), Marshall's economic concepts at the turn of the century (Haïm Barkaï), the appearance of the category "unemployed" in French official statistics (Bénédicte Reynaud) and the emergence of an institutional definition of unemployment in Great Britain between 1870 and 1914 (the first editor).

Gouda, Frances. Poverty and Political Culture. The Rhetoric of Social Welfare in the Netherlands and France, 1815-1854. Foreword by Arjo Klamer. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., Lanham 1995. xx, 275 pp. $22.95.
"This study compares the ways in which political and cultural elites in the Netherlands and France during the first half of the nineteenth century talked and wrote about poverty, poor relief, and the Social Question." Dr Gouda explores the interaction between definitions of the actual problem of poverty and the social policies both countries implemented to alleviate the plight of the poor and examines the rhetorical strategies pursued by policymakers and intellectuals to advocate a particular resolution to questions of social inequality in the two different societies of this period.

Industrialization & Labor Relations. Contemporary Research in Seven Countries. Ed. by Stephen Frenkel and Jeffrey Harrod. [Cornell International Industrial and Labor Relations Report, Nr 27.] ILR Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1995. xii, 322 pp. $24.95; £19.50.
Following a volume of comparative studies on trade unionism in South-East Asia (see IRSH, 39 (1994), p. 122), the ten contributions in this collection address the effects of industrialization on labour relations in Hong Kong, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, South Africa, Taiwan and Thailand. Using qualitative, and often comparative analysis, the contributors deal with issues at the macro level, such as the relationship between industrialization and changes in trade union strategies, as well as with issues on the meso and micro levels. The micro-level perspectives include patterns of workplace industrial relations in the subsidiaries of US and Japanese multinational corporations.

Unfree Labour in the Development of the Atlantic World. Ed. by Paul E. Lovejoy and Nicholas Rogers. [Studies in Slave and Post-Slave Societies and Cultures.] Frank Cass, Ilford 1994. vi, 266 pp. £25.00. (Paper: £15.00.)
The twelve essays in this collection examine the different forms of unfree labour that contributed to the expansion of capitalism in the various parts of the Atlantic economy between 1500 and 1900, as well as the debates and protests that emerged concerning labour servitude and the abolition of slavery in the West. Focusing on particular regions (Africa, Britain, the Caribbean and Amerindia) and on specific types of unfree labour (slavery, pawnship, impressment, tribute, indentured and contract labour), this comparative collection analyses the patterns and intensity of labour servitude in the West and the relationships between core and peripheral areas of the Atlantic capitalist world economy. CONTINENTS AND COUNTRIES


South Africa

Hirson, Baruch [and] Gwyn A. Williams. The Delegate for Africa. David Ivon Jones, 1883-1924. Core Publications, London 1995. x, 272 pp. Ill. £8.50.
This is a biography of David Ivon Jones (1883-1924), a key figure in the formative years of the South African left during the early decades of the twentieth century. Born in North Wales and raised in seminal dissenting tradition, Jones came to South Africa in 1910, joined the South African Labour Party, became its general secretary four years later and left the party because of its support of British involvement in World War I. An admirer of the Bolsheviks, he was one of the founders of the Communist Party in South Africa and a delegate to the Communist International.


Across the Dark Waters. Ethnicity and Indian Identity in the Caribbean. Ed. by David Dabydeen and Brinsley Samaroo. [Warwick University Caribbean Studies.] Macmillan Caribbean, Basingstoke 1996. xi, 222 pp. £13.95.
During the period 1838 to 1917, some 551,000 indentured Indians were brought to islands in the Caribbean and colonies along the northern coasts of South America. The ten essays in this book deal with the process of acculturation of the indentured labourers from the Indian subcontinent in this region. The authors from the Caribbean, North America, and Europe focus on race relations and religious practices. Separate chapters deal with the career of Cheddi Jagan, Guyana's latest president, the interest of the Indian Government in the diaspora and the marked contrast in the number of repatriates between Indians and Africans.


Morgan, R.E. (Lefty). Workers' Control on the Railroad: A Practical Example "Right Under Your Nose". Ed. by G.R. Pool and D.J. Young. Canadian Committee on Labour History, St. John's 1994. 203 pp. $19.95.
R.E. ("Lefty") Morgan (1914-1988?) was a Canadian railway engineer and activist who started studying social sciences in the 1960s. He left an unpublished manuscript entitled "A Practical Example 'Right under Your Nose'" in which he outlined his ideas on workers' self-control based on his experiences in the railway running trades work in the 1960s and early 1970s. The document is published here with an introduction sketching his political and intellectual development and his activities as a labour militant.

Morton, Suzanne. Ideal Surroundings: Domestic Life in a Working-Class Suburb in the 1920s. [Studies in Gender and History.] University of Toronto Press, Toronto [etc.] 1995. xii, 201 pp. $40.00; £26.00. (Paper: $17.95; £11.50.)
Richmond Heights, a working-class suburb of Halifax, Nova Scotia, played a pioneering role in the development of Canadian urban planning and working-class housing in the first decades of the twentieth century. The city's reconstruction after the 1917 explosion in Halifax Harbour, which devastated a large section of the community, generated unique historical records that offer an insight into domestic life among the working class. On the basis of these records, this study examines the relationship between class, age and gender in this Canadian suburb during its early economic reorientation from manufacturing and transportation to service and trade.

R.C.M.P. Security Bulletins. The Depression Years, Part II, 1935. Part III, 1936. Ed. by Gregory S. Kealey and Reg Whitaker. With an Introd. by John Manley. Canadian Committee on Labour History, St. John's 1995; 1996. 728 pp.; viii, 619 pp. $29.95 per vol.
These are the third and fourth volumes in the series of Security Bulletins from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (R.C.M.P) providing detailed information on the Communist Party of Canada (CPC), the Canadian security services, and the relations between the two bodies. In 1935 and 1936, according to Dr Manley in his introduction, the development of the CPC focused mainly on crystallizing the Popular front policy to match the new Comintern guidelines of the Seventh World Congress of July 1935.

R.C.M.P. Security Bulletins. The Early Years, 1919-1929. Ed. by Gregory S. Kealey and Reg Whitaker. Canadian Committee on Labour History, St. John's 1994. 819 pp. C$29.95.
This volume, the first in the series of Security Bulletins from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (R.C.M.P), contains documents from a period from which very few Security Service materials had previously been available. The editors have drawn the present documents from the National Archives of Canada. In their introduction they argue that these documents show that labour and labour activism were the primary focus of the R.C.M.P. Secret Service and its predecessor, the Criminal Investigation Branch of the Royal North-West Mounted Police.


Alonso, Ana María. Thread of Blood. Colonialism, Revolution, and Gender on Mexico's Northern Frontier. [Hegemony and Experience.] The University of Arizona Press, Tucson 1995. xi, 303 pp. $19.95.
This study traces the construction and transformation of peasant military colonies along Mexico's northern frontier from the late eighteenth through the early twentieth century. The author investigates how the state and the elites redefined the militarized serrano peasants (originally intended as protectors of "civilization" against Apache raiding in the region) as obstacles to order and progress from the 1850s onward. In response, the serranos developed an ideology of resistance based on a social memory of the frontier past and on the notions of gender, ethnicity and class. This outlook, according to Professor Alonso, motivated their participation in the 1910 Revolution.

Zorita, Alonso de. Life and Labor in Ancient Mexico. The Brief and Summary Relation of the Lords of New Spain. Transl. and with an Introd. by Benjamin Keen. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman [etc.] 1994. xviii, 328 pp. Ill. £13.50.
This is a new edition of the English translation of the Breve y sumaria relación de los señores de la Nueva España, first published in 1963. The original Spanish text was written by Alonso de Zorita, a Spanish judge with many years of experience in colonial administration. Based on Zorita's stay in Mexico from 1556 to 1566, the book provides a detailed description of Aztec life before and after the Conquest. In his introduction, Mr Keen provides a survey of the rise of Aztec society, an account of conditions under post-Colonial administration and a biographical essay on Zorita's life and the reception of his work. In his new preface the translator reviews recent scholarship in the field.

United States of America

Burke, Martin J. The Conundrum of Class. Public Discourse on the Social Order in America. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago [etc.] 1995. xvii, 303 pp. $47.50; £37.95. (Paper: $16.95; £13.50.)
This history of the conceptions of and contestation over class in American public discourse from the late eighteenth through the late nineteenth century focuses on several representations and interpretations by leading political figures, social reformers and moral philosophers concerning the organization and operation of society. Dr Burke considers the eighteenth-century transition from a "socioconstitutional" language of "orders" to a "socioeconomic" language of "classes" and examines the nineteenth-century models and conceptions of class cooperation and class antagonism. He concludes that no permanent consensus existed about the meaning of class. Rather, a culture of conflicting ideas and opinions on the usage of concepts of class prevailed.

Clark-Lewis, Elizabeth. Living In, Living Out. African American Domestics in Washington, D.C., 1910-1940. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington [etc.] 1994. xiii, 242 pp. Ill. $26.00; £20.25.
This is an oral history of the daily life of African American women who migrated from the rural South to work as domestic servants in Washington D.C. in the early decades of the twentieth century. Based on interviews with eighty-one women who worked for wealthy white families, the author describes the women's roots in the rural South, the way the young women were prepared to survive in the world of their white employers, and their ability to transform the master-servant relationship into one of employer and employee, thereby changing their status from "living in" to "living out".

Dyson, Michael Eric. Making Malcolm. The Myth and Meaning of Malcolm X. Oxford University Press, New York [etc.] 1995. xxviii, 215 pp. £14.95.
Malcolm X is one of the most renowned and controversial leaders of twentieth-century black nationalism in the United States. In this study Professor Dyson explores the myths and meanings of Malcolm X for the present black nationalism and American culture and society as a whole. In the first part of the book the author analyses the major trends in interpreting Malcolm X's legacy since his death and the competing interests and ideologies underlying these trends. In the second part he examines Malcolm's influence on the resurgent black nationalism, black artists and progressive black politics.

Foglesong, David S. America's Secret War Against Bolshevism. U.S. Intervention in the Russian Civil War, 1917-1920. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 1995. Ill. $45.00.
The Wilson presidency has long been regarded as the period when Washington first articulated the principles of a new, open diplomacy. In this study of United States' intervention in the Russian Civil War, 1917-1920, Professor Foglesong demonstrates that the Wilson administration used a variety of covert measures to oppose the Bolshevik regime. Constrained by his espousal of the principle of self-determination, by idealistic public sentiment and by congressional restrictions, Wilson relied, according to the author, on covert methods to affect the course of the Russian Civil War. As a result, this period became a crucial formative stage in the rise of modern American tactics for "secret warfare".

Gross, James A. Broken Promise. The Subversion of U.S. Labor Relations Policy, 1947-1994. [Labor and Social Change.] Temple University Press, Philadelphia 1995. xvi, 404 pp. $49.95.
In this study, Professor Gross aims to explain the failure to fulfil the expectations of the United States labour policy for democratizing industrial relations as embodied in the Wagner Act of 1935 and the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947. He focuses on the National Labor Relations Bureau (NLRB) and on the manner in which labour policy drafted by the NLRB and other institutions has been influenced since 1947 by the president, Congress and the Supreme Court, manipulation of public opinion, resistance by organized employers, political and economic strategies of organized labour and the ideological dispositions of NLRB appointees.

Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo. Africans in Colonial Louisiana. The Development of Afro-Creole Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge [etc.] 1995. xx, 434 pp. Ill. Maps. £15.95.
In this study of the development of the Afro-Creole culture in Louisiana in the eighteenth century Professor Hall describes the role of Africans introduced from the region between Senegal and the Gambia rivers in shaping the culture and society of colonial Louisiana. Embracing a dynamic, developmental approach to cultural formation based on the work of Eric R. Wolf, she concludes that the cultural tradition of colonial Louisiana was largely defined by the well-organized, self-confident and defiant Afro-Creole population.

Hutchinson, Earl Ofari. Blacks and Reds. Race and Class in Conflict 1919-1990. Michigan State University Press, East Lansing 1995. viii, 338 pp. $27.95.
This study examines the complex relationship between African Americans and American Communists in the period 1919-1990. From the beginning of the 1920s onward the American Communist Party tried to gain influence in the different black organizations, with varying effectiveness. Although at times successful in alliances with black leaders and their organizations, the Communist Party did not become a major influence in the black nationalist movement in the long run. Dr Hutchinson primarily attributes the lack of success to the American Communist Party's inconsistent policy towards the black organizations and the issues of racial justice and civil rights.

Johnston, Paul. Success While Others Fail. Social Movement Unionism and the Public Workplace. ILR Press, Ithaca 1994. xvi, 262 pp. Ill. $18.95.
In the 1960s and 1970s, a wave of public workers' movements swept the United States. This study compares and analyses the experiences of several different public and private sector workforces in California that have practised new social movement unionism in the last three decades. The author, a union organizer in the public sector, examines the consequences of employment in political bureaucracy for the demands and resources of public workers' movements.

Liberating Memory. Our Work and Our Working-Class Consciousness. Ed. and with an introd. by Janet Zandy. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick (New Jersey) 1994. xv, 366 pp. Ill. $45.00. (Paper: $16.95.)
Using both personal and collective memory as their basis, the twenty-five contributors to this volume - writers, educators, artists, political activists, musicians, photographers and cultural professionals - relate their own working-class backgrounds and identities in short autobiographical sketches. Their descriptions convey the penetration of their working-class consciousness in their work. Illustrated with family snapshots, they address the relationship between the uncertain economic rhythms of working-class life and the possibility of cultural and political agency.

Life in Early Philadelphia. DOCUMENTS from the Revolutionary and Early National Periods. Ed. by Billy G. Smith. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park 1995. xiii, 318 pp. Ill. $45.00; £40.50. (Paper: $13.95; £12.50.)
This collection brings together a wide variety of documents concerning daily life in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary and early National periods, such as newspaper articles, dockets, diaries, advertisements for runaway slaves and demographic records. The editor, who also published a source edition of the autobiography of an indentured British servant in America (see IRSH, 38 (1993), p. 269), has organized the material in five sections: description of the city; the marginalized Philadelphians; the daily lives of women; marriage, mortality and migration; politics and ideology. Each chapter includes an introduction providing the necessary background and information on the documents presented.

McMurry, Sally. Transforming Rural Life. Dairying Families and Agricultural Change, 1820-1885. [Revisiting Rural America.] The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 1995. xii, 291 pp. Ill. $40.00.
In the course of the nineteenth century the dairy industry in the Northeast of the United States shifted from home to factory butter and cheesemaking. This study examines the underlying causes of this change and its implications for the dairying families. Dr McMurry emphasizes the role of non-economic factors, such as social systems, cultural values, material culture and family dynamics and argues that a key factor was simply the resistance of women to the burden of cheesemaking at home. Once technologically and economically feasible, the shift to factory production quickly helped resolve domestic tensions.

Preston, William, Jr. Aliens and Dissenters. Federal Suppression of Radicals, 1903-1933. Second Ed. Foreword by Paul Buhle. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1994. xi, 370 pp. $15.95.
In 1963, the first edition of this study was published. In this first analysis of United States federal internal security policies, based on previously unexamined records, the author covers topics including the special interest of the U.S. government in the activities of the International Workers of the World (IWW). In his foreword, Mr Buhle, co-editor of the Encyclopedia of the American Left, notes the book's importance for studying the U.S. internal security policies and the civil liberties movement. In the epilogue of this second edition, Professor Preston places the book in its historical perspective and re-evaluates the conclusions of the first edition.

Smith, Susan L. Sick and Tired of Being Sick and Tired. Black Women's Health Activism in America, 1890-1950. [Studies in Health, Illness, and Caregiving.] University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 1995. xi, 247 pp. Ill. $32.95. (Paper: $15.95.)
This study of the public health initiatives by African Americans in the period 1890-1950 contends that health reform was a cornerstone of early black civil rights activity in the United States. Instead of depicting African Americans only as recipients of aid or victims of neglect, the author reveals how black health activists created public health programmes and influenced public policy under the supervision of the National Negro Health Movement. According to Professor Smith, the movement was gendered in that men held most of the formal leadership positions, while women did most of the grassroots organizing and actual caregiving, teaching and advising.

Working People of California. Ed. by Daniel Cornford. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1995. ix, 493 pp. $50.00.
This anthology brings together fifteen contributions (all but one published previously) from between 1981 and 1993 that represent recent historiography on workers in California. All the texts focus on multicultural and gendered aspects of labour history in California from the Spanish settlement to the 1980s. Themes addressed include group identity among workers, strikes and labour politics. In his introduction the editor describes the emergence of the "new social history" in California from its origins in the 1960s onward.

Wright, George C. Racial Violence in Kentucky 1865-1940. Lynchings, Mob Rule, and "Legal Lynchings". Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge [etc.] 1996. xviii, 350 pp. £13.95.
This study of the race relations in the state of Kentucky in the period from the end of the Civil War to 1940 examines the racial oppression and manifold instances of racial violence the black population had to endure. Professor Wright concludes that despite Kentucky's proximity to the North, the racial oppression and violence were as severe and prolonged as that found further south. The legally sanctioned and extralegal violence served, according to the author, to ensure that the black population knew its "place" after the war and the abolition of slavery.



Cabestan, Jean-Pierre. Le système politique de la Chine populaire. [Que sais-je?] Presses Universitaires de France, Paris 1994. 128 pp. F.fr. 40.00.
This booklet, another volume in the vast series Collection Encyclopédique, offers a general overview of the political system of the People's Republic of China from its origins to the present day, covering the formation of the political system, the present political institutions, and the relationship between state and society.

Wakeman, Frederic, Jr. Policing Shanghai 1927-1937. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1995. xvii, 507 pp. Ill. $45.00.
A central feature of the programme of national reconstruction carried out by the Nationalist regime under Chiang Kai-shek in the decade between 1927 and 1937 was the establishment of a special Chinese municipality in Shanghai, which was partly under foreign, colonial rule, to prove to the world that the Chinese deserved to rule their only metropolis and country themselves. This study examines the police force, which was the central agent in the Chinese administration of the city. The history of this police force shows, according to the author, how autocratic government has been the dominant continuous factor in twentieth-century China.

Waldron, Arthur. From war to nationalism. China's turning point, 1924-1925. [Cambridge Studies in Chinese History, Literature, and Institutions.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xix, 366 pp. Ill. Maps. £30.00; $39.95.
The mid 1920s is generally considered a fundamental turning point in Chinese politics, when the radical nationalism of the May Thirtieth Movement took centre stage in politics and the National Revolution began. Focusing on the key year 1924, when a regional dispute about the status of Shanghai escalated into a massive civil war, Professor Waldron demonstrates the connection between the nationalist upsurge and the introduction of modern World War I-style warfare in China.

Wang, Hui. The Gradual Revolution. China's Economic Reform Movement. [Rand Studies.] Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick [etc.] 1994. x, 226 pp. $39.95.
This study examines the institutional changes brought about by China's economic reforms undertaken by the Chinese government from the late 1970s onward. Dr Wang focuses on the selection of innovating economic institutions - which had been absent from the centrally planned economy - and the underlying rationale. His conclusion stresses the importance of the human factor for specific institutional changes.


Menon, Dilip M. Caste, nationalism and communism in south India. Malabar, 1900-1948. [Cambridge South Asian Studies, 55.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc. 1994. xvi, 209 pp. £30.00; $54.95.
See Dick Kooiman's review in this volume, pp. 431-433.

Simeon, Dilip. The Politics of Labour Under Late Colonialism. Workers, Unions and the State in Chota Nagpur 1928-1939. Manohar, New Delhi 1995. xix, 398 pp. Ill. Rs. 450.00.
See Vijay Prashad's review in this volume, pp. 434-435.


Hastings, Sally Ann. Neighborhood and Nation in Tokyo, 1905-1937. [Pitt Series in Policy and Institutional Studies.] University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh [etc.] 1995. x, 274 pp. $59.95.
In this study of the shaping of Japan's modern political community prior to World War II, Professor Hastings argues that the state bureaucracy encouraged a more participatory political and cultural environment than is generally believed. Focusing on a working class area in Tokyo, she demonstrates that, through organizations such as reservist groups, national youth leagues and neighbourhood organizations and with growing workplace participation and expanding suffrage, the Japanese public participated broadly in politics and received a political education in modern state citizenship.

Turner, Christena L. Japanese Workers in Protest. An Ethnography of Consciousness and Experience. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1995. xiii, 268 pp. $
Based on observations by participants in two small factories (Unikon Camera and Universal Shoes) in the early 1980s, Dr Turner explores the daily lives, consciousness and collective action of the Japanese workers engaged in labour disputes over an extended period. After the bankruptcy of these factories, workers struggled to keep them open, managed their own production and eventually succeeded in reopening under union ownership. The author aims to show how contemporary Japanese workers conceptualize their own democratic, industrial society and how they think and feel about inherent acts of acquiescence, accommodation, resistance and protest, thus defying standard Western assumptions about passive and traditional Japanese workers.

White, James W. IKKI. Social Conflict and Political Protest in Early Modern Japan. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1995. xiii, 348 pp. Maps. £31.50.
The early modern period in Japanese history, known as the Tokugawa shogunate, from the 1590s to the Meiji restoration in 1868, was one of state building and economic development, of social change and cultural transformation and of the concurrent popular contention, which came to be known as ikki, meaning "peasant rebellion". Using Charles Tilly's work on popular contention as a basis, this book describes types and repertoires of social conflict and protest during this era. Linking the forms and characteristics of contention to broad economic, social and political currents, Professor White argues that peasants and urban masses rationally weighed their grievances, opportunities and resources before choosing rebellion.


Seiler, Sydney A. Kim Il-sung 1941-1948. The Creation of a Legend, The Building of a Regime. University Press of America, Lanham [etc.] 1994. viii, 210 pp. $39.50.
In the historiography of the life and leadership of Kim Il-sung, the period between 1941, when he fled to the Soviet-Union, and Korea's liberation from the Japanese occupation in August 1945 is a gap. This study focuses on those four years and on the subsequent period preceding the establishment of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in 1948. The author seeks to explain Kim Il-sung's strong position within the Communist party after his return to Korea, his seizure of power and the rise of the unprecedented personality cult around him.



Mendes, Philip. The New Left, the Jews and the Vietnam War 1965-1972. Lazare Press, North Caulfield (Vic.) 1993. 236 pp. Ill. A$20.00.
This study deals with the disproportionate participation by Jewish students in Melbourne's anti-Vietnam War movement in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The author, who has been active in the Melbourne Jewish Left, identifies this trend as a continuation of the traditional Jewish involvement in the political Left. Focusing on the key issues that defined contemporary Jewish political culture - including the Vietnam War, the Israeli/Arab conflict, and the rise of the Australian Nazi Party - Mr Mendes analyses the Jewish community's relationship with the rest of Australian society.


Agriculture in the Middle Ages. Technology, Practice, and Representation. Ed. by Del Sweeney. [Middle Ages Series.] University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia [1996.] xiii, 371 pp. Ill. £46.50. (Paper: £17.95.)
Covering the period from the end of the Roman Empire through the fifteenth century, the fourteen contributions in this collection explore the cultural framework for changes in agricultural technology and economic organization and the influences of modifications in the social fabric on attitudes toward rural work and the peasantry in Western and Central Europe. Applying a variety of methodological approaches, contributors explore the material aspects of peasant life as reconstructed from archaeological, legal and economic, as well as literary and artistic sources.

Bevölkerungsverschiebungen und sozialer Wandel in den baltischen Provinzen Russlands 1850-1914 - Population Shifts and Social Change in Russia's Baltic Provinces 1850-1914. Hrsg. von/Ed. by Gert von Pistohlkors, Andrejs Plakans [und/and] Paul Kaegbein. [Schriften der Baltischen Historischen Kommission, Band 6.] Institut Nordostdeutsches Kulturwerk, Lüneburg 1995. 296 pp. DM 70.00.
The thirteen contributions in this collection, written in German and English, are based on a conference organized by the Johann-Gottfried-Herder-Institut in Marburg in 1985 and offer a broad selection of topics - ranging from the merchant class through artisans and women's education to social work by the churches - within the main theme of population shifts and social change in the Baltic states between 1850 and 1914. This period was marked by intensified vertical and horizontal population shifts and movements, which are analysed on the basis of the wealth of available quantitative source material.

Calic, Marie-Janine. Sozialgeschichte Serbiens 1815-1941. Der aufhaltsame Fortschritt während der Industrialisierung. [Südosteuropäische Arbeiten, Band 92.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 1994. 496 pp. Maps. DM 148.00; S 1155.00; S.fr. 148.00.
See Mira Bogdanovi 's review in this volume, pp. 430-430.

Keller, Katharina. Modell SPD? Italienische Sozialisten und deutsche sozialdemokratie bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg. [Politik- und Gesellschaftsgeschichte, Band 34.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 1994. 259 pp. DM 72.00; S.fr. 73.00; S 562.00.
See Leo van Rossum's review in this volume, pp. 428-429.

Kersbergen, Kees van. Social Capitalism. A study of Christian democracy and the welfare state. Routledge, London [etc.] 1995. xii, 289 pp. £40.00.
The crucial impact of Christian democracy on the rise of the post-war West-European welfare state has hitherto been neglected, according to the author of this study. Drawing upon cross-national indicators of welfare state development, Dr van Kersbergen aims to demonstrate the nature of the links between Christian democracy and the welfare state. He concludes by identifying a distinctly Christian democratic (as opposed to a liberal or a social democratic) welfare state regime, which he labels as social capitalism. Focusing on Germany, Italy and the Netherlands, he reveals how the different social policy performances have been affected as much by the coalitional strategies and political abilities of Christian democratic parties as by prevalent power structures.

Un siglo de catolicismo social en Europa 1891-1991. Obra colectiva, coord. y dir. por Antón M. Pazos. [Colección Historia de la Iglesia, 22.] EUNSA, S.A., Pamplona 1993. x, 268 pp. Ptas 3300.
In 1991 a colloquium on 100 years of social Catholicism in Europe was held in the Spanish town of Pamplona to commemorate the centennial of the papal encyclic Rerum Novarum (1891). The editors of the present work emphasize the movement's European character. The volume comprises five contributions about countries with a strong Catholic presence: Spain, France, Italy, Belgium and Germany. The authors discuss the characteristics of social Catholicism in each country and describe its political and social influence. They also consider recent research on this subject. A critical bibliography accompanies each chapter.


Moulaert, Jan. Rood en zwart. De anarchistische beweging in België 1880-1914. Davidsfonds, Leuven 1995. [Historische reeks / Davidsfonds nr 20.] 462 pp. Ill. B.fr. 1180.00.
This revised edition of a dissertation (Leuven, 1993) relates the history of anarchism and the anarchist movement in Belgium from its origins in the 1870s to the beginning of World War I. Dr Moulaert examines the development of political ideas among the Belgian anarchists, their political and organizational actions in the general political context of the national political establishment, the socio-economic background of anarchist activists, the relationship between the anarchist movement and the Belgian socialist party and tangencies with older federalist and cooperative movements.

Czechoslovakia - The Czech Republic

Schneider, Eleonora. Präger Frühling und samtene Revolution. Soziale Bewegungen in Gesellschaften sowjetischen Typs am Beispiel der Tschechoslowakei. Mit einem Vorwort von Zdenek Strmiska. Internationales Zentrum für vergleichende Sozial-Ökonomische Entwicklungsforschung, Aachen 1994. 236 pp. DM 38.80.

This dissertation (Aachen, 1994) interprets and examines the Prague Spring of 1968 and the Czech Velvet Revolution of 1989/1990 as modern social movements and compares them to post-war social movements in Western Europe. According to Dr Schneider, the Czech social movements primarily differ from their Western counterparts in that they question the entire political social order and pursue change, whereas the Western social movements cover a far more limited scope. The author also compares the two Czech movements individually.

Wlaschek, Rudolf M. Biographia Judaica Bohemiae. [Veröffentlichungen der Forschungsstelle Ostmitteleuropa an der Universität Dortmund, Reihe B-Band 52.] Forschungsstelle Ostmitteleuropa, Dortmund 1995. xii, 249 pp. Ill. DM 45.00.
This is a biographical dictionary of Jews from Bohemia from the last two centuries. The selection includes persons who have been active in the cultural and social life of Bohemia: scientists, artists, writers, journalists, politicians and theologists. A selection of photographs of musicians, actors and others artists, as well as literary authors, journalists and historians is appended.

Eire - Ireland

The Famine Decade. Contemporary Accounts 1841-1851. Ed. by John Killen. The Blackstaff Press, Belfast 1995. xi, 274 pp. Ill. £10.99.
This collection of newspaper reports and editorials, accounts by relief agencies, government reports, parliamentary debates, scientific comment and agricultural advice present the information and commentary that was available to the British and Irish public and to the decision-makers in the decade of the Great Famine, 1841-1851. The sources are chronologically ordered and illustrated by contemporary drawings and cartoons. Mr Killen's introduction provides a brief survey of the Famine.

Hollett, David. Passage to the New World. Packet Ships and Irish Famine Emigrants, 1845-1851. P.M. Heaton Publishing, Abergavenny 1995. 232 pp. Ill. £19.95.
In the decade after the Great Famine of 1846 an estimated one million six hundred thousand Irish people emigrated, mainly across the Atlantic. This study focuses on the maritime aspects of this exodus. Mr Hollett describes the fates of the emigrants in the main port of embarkation, Liverpool, the packet ships used by these emigrants, the commanders and crews of these ships, their owners and builders and conditions for the emigrants on board, as well as the shipwrecks and disasters that occurred during this dramatic exodus.

Morash, Christopher. Writing the Irish Famine. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1995. ix, 213 pp. £27.50.
In this examination of depictions of the Great Irish Famine from the late 1840s in nineteenth-century literature, Dr Morash explores the concept of the Famine as a historical moment that has eluded satisfactory representation, as a moment of absence. Examining literary texts by writers such as William Carleton, Anthony Trollope, James Clarence Mangan, John Mitchel and Samuel Ferguson, the author argues that the event constitutes an unspeakable moment in attempts to write the past.


Gallissot, René, Nadir Boumaza [et] Ghislaine Clément. Ces migrants qui font le proletariat. [Reponses sociologiques.] Meridiens Klincksieck, Paris 1994. iv, 257 pp. F.fr. 130.00.
See Michael Hanagan's review in this volume, pp. 424-426.

Gould, Roger V. Insurgent Identities. Class, Community, and Protest in Paris from 1848 to the Commune. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago [etc.] 1995. viii, 253 pp. Ill. Maps. $40.95; £32.75. (Paper: $15.95; £12.75.)
In this study of insurgency and social protest in Paris in the period between 1830 and the Commune in 1871, Professor Gould focuses on the collective identities that framed conflict during this period to advance the argument against seeing the Commune as a continuation of the class struggles of the 1848 Revolution. While class solidarity played a pivotal role in 1848, neighbourhood solidarity was, according to the author, the decisive organizing force in 1871. He demon- strates that the fundamental rearrangement in the patterns of urban social life, caused by Baron Haussmann's massive urban renovation projects between 1852 and 1868, gave rise to a neighbourhood insurgent movement.

Mailhé, Germaine. Déportations en Nouvelle-Calédonie des Communards et des révoltés de la Grande Kabylie (1872 à 1876). Éditions L'Harmattan, Paris 1994. 423 pp. Ill. F.fr. 220.00.
In 1871 in addition to the Commune de Paris, France experienced an insurrection in Algeria, known as the revolt of La grande Kabylie. After crushing the rebellions, the leaders and many participants in both revolts were sentenced to be deported to New Caledonia. This study describes the destinies of these deportees, the conditions in New Caledonia, the fate of the native inhabitants the Kanakas and the achievement of eventual amnesty for the deportees.

Zielinski, Bernd. Staatskollaboration. Vichy und der Arbeitskräfteeinsatz im Dritten Reich. Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster 1995. 292 pp. DM 72.00.
See Ahlrich Meyer's review in this volume, pp. 426-428.


Boyer, Josef. Unfallversicherung und Unternehmer im Bergbau. Die Knappschafts-Berufsgenossenschaft 1885-1945. [Bergbau und Bergarbeit.] Verlag C.H. Beck, München 1995. 350 pp. DM 78.00.
In 1884 the German Reichstag enacted accident insurance legislation for miners that assigned the responsibility for implementation and funding to the Knappschafts-Berufsgenossenschaft, an industrial organization of mining entrepreneurs. This study reviews the organisation's history from its origins in 1885 until 1945. The author analyses the consequences of this employer-run social insurance system for labour relations, the rise of security procedures in the workplace and medical prevention and the factual results of the insurance in terms of coverage and benefits.

Burghardt, Uwe. Die Mechanisierung des Ruhrbergbaus 1890-1930. [Bergbau und Bergarbeit.] Verlag C.H. Beck, München 1995. 437 pp. Ill. DM 34.00.
This dissertation (Technische Universität Berlin, 1992) examines the technical and economic development of coal mining in the Ruhr region in the period 1890-1930, a time of extensive mechanization and rationalization in coal production. According to Dr Burghardt, the first stage of mechanization began in 1905 and was discontinued by the outbreak of World War I. The rationalization, which followed between 1924 and 1930, laid the basis for production relationships in modern coal mining.

Clasen, Claus-Peter. Textilherstellung in Augsburg in der frühen Neuzeit. Band I: Weberei. Band II: Textilveredelung. Dr. Bernd Wißner, Augsburg 1995. 625 pp.; 605 pp. Ill. DM 79.00 (2 vols).
This study offers a comprehensive history of the development of textile production in the German city of Augsburg between 1650 and 1800 (i.e. on the eve of industrialization). In this period, as in the preceding centuries, textile manufacturing remained the dominant industry in the city, which was among the leading textile centres in early modern Europe. The first volume deals with the production of semifinished products: fustian, linen and wool weaving works. The second volume covers textile processing. Daily labour in the textile industry is the main area of emphasis.

Drechsler, Ingrun. Die Magdeburger Sozialdemokratie vor dem Ersten Weltkrieg. dr. ziethen verlag, Oschersleben 1995. 302 pp. DM 29.80.
This dissertation (Magdeburg, 1992) describes the origins and the rise of social democracy in Magdeburg in the period from 1870 to 1914. In addition to discussing the organizational and political developments, Dr Drechsler covers socio-economic and cultural aspects of the labour movement in Magdeburg.

Generations in Conflict. Youth revolt and generation formation in Germany 1770-1968. Ed. by Mark Roseman. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xiii, 314 pp. £37.50; $59.95.
The fourteen contributions in this collection address, first, the remarkable power and persistence of a German tradition of youthful rebellion extending from the Sturm und Drang in the eighteenth century to the student revolts in 1968 and, second, the impact of the dramatic ruptures and discontinuities in modern German history on the education and interaction of successive generations. The articles included address, inter alia, the "front generation" and the politics of Weimar Germany (Richard Bessel), the role of the Hitler Youth generation in the two post-war German states (Alexander von Plato) and young labour in the Ruhr mining industry, 1945-1957 (Mark Roseman).

Geschichte als Möglichkeit. Über die Chancen von Demokratie. Festschrift für Helga Grebing. Hrsg. von Karsten Rudolph [und] Christl Wickert. Klartext-Verlag, Essen 1995. 516 pp. DM 48.00; S.fr. 48.00; S 375.00.
The thirty contributions in this Festschrift for Professor Helga Grebing on the occasion of her 65th birthday are largely grouped around six main themes in her work: theory of democracy, social history of the labour movement, history of social democracy, post-war German history and the history and theory of democratic socialism. The contributors include Karsten Rudolph, Jürgen Kocka, Gerhard A. Ritter, Hans Mommsen, Susanne Miller, Hans-Jochen Vogel, Hermann Weber and Iring Fetscher. A biographical contribution sketches Grebing's life and career as compared to the lives and careers of three of her contemporaries from East and West Germany.

Historische Rassismusforschung. Ideologen - Täter - Opfer. Hrsg. von Barbara Danckwortt, Thorsten Querg [und] Claudia Schöningh. Mit einer Einl. von Wolfgang Wippermann. [Edition Philosophie und Sozialwissenschaften, Band 30.] Argument, Hamburg [etc.] 1995. 387 pp. DM 38.00.
The fifteen contributions in this collection address current historical research on racism in Germany. From a biographical perspective, these articles focus on the ideologues of racism - among others, Eugen Dühring (Jeanette Jakubowski) - and the agents of racism - including both well-known Nazis, such as Wilhelm Höttl, SS-Führer in the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Thorsten Querg), and the collaborator in the mass murders in Latvia Viktor Arajs (Martin Knop). They also consider the victims of racism, comprising both the targets of anti-Semitism and racism during the nineteenth century and the Weimar Republic and two casualties of the Nazi extermination policy.

Mählert, Ulrich. Die Freie Deutsche Jugend 1945-1949. Von den "Antifaschistischen Jugendausschüssen" zur SED-Massenorganisation: Die Erfassung der Jugend in der Sowjetischen Besatzungszone. [Sammlung Schöningh zur Geschichte und Gegenwart.] Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn 1995. 386 pp. DM 58.00; S.fr. 58.00; S 452.00.
This dissertation (Mannheim, 1994) examines the origins and rise of the Freie Deutsche Jugend (FDJ), the youth group of the Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (KPD) and the Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands in the context of the transformation of the entire political system within the Soviet Occupation during the period 1945-1949. Although established by the KPD, Dr Mählert argues that the FDJ was initially rather multiform in terms of the roots of its members and their political points of view. Over the course of this period, however, the organization was reoriented toward serving the youth policy of the SED and progressively turned into a breeding ground for the party leadership.

Malycha, Andreas. Auf dem Weg zur SED. Die Sozialdemokratie und die Bildung einer Einheitspartei in den Ländern der SBZ. Eine Quellenedition. [Archiv für Sozialgeschichte, Beiheft 16.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 1995. cxxi, 485 pp. DM 120.00; S.fr. 120.00; S 936.00.
This source edition publishes documents concerning the historical course of events surrounding the merge of the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands and the Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands during the Soviet occupation zone of post-war Germany between April 1945 and April 1946. Both the editor's elaborate historical introduction and the selection of the 178 documents (inter alia letters, protocols, announcements and memoranda from concerned individuals) focus on the actions and reactions of the SPD in the various regions inside the Soviet occupation zone.

Miller, Susanne. Sozialdemokratie als Lebenssinn. Aufsätze zur Geschichte und Gegenwart der SPD. Zum 80. Geburtstag hrsg. von Bernd Faulenbach. Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 1995. 384 pp. DM 48.00.
This anthology features nineteen previously published contributions of Susanne Miller, a leading historian of German social democracy, on the occasion of her eightieth birthday. The essays are organized around six main themes in her work: the ideological basis of social democracy; social democracy in the Kaiserreich and during World War I; the Weimar Republic and Austria; socialist resistance to national socialism; the post-war development; and social democracy's relation to other political movements. An autobiographical interview, a tribute from Willy Brandt in honour of her seventieth birthday and a biographical sketch by the editor are included.

"Nach Hitler kommen wir": Dokumente zur Programmatik der Moskauer KPD-Führung 1944/45 für Nachkriegsdeutschland. Hrsg. von Peter Erler, Horst Laude und Manfred Wilke. [Studien des Forschungsverbundes SED-Staat an der Freien Universität Berlin.] Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1994. 426 pp. DM 98.00.
This source publication brings together for the first time the relevant documents from the Moscow leadership of the Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (KPD) concerning the direct preparations for a programme for the political and social order in Germany after the war and the role of the KPD in this process. The editors present these documents to clarify the historical roots and basic orientation of the policy of the KPD in the Soviet Occupation Zone. In their extensive historical introduction the editors sketch the activities of the KPD leadership in Moscow from 1941 and the training of the KPD leadership to be posted in Germany.

Oberlack, Markus. Das Präkoloniale Afrika und die Kontroverse um die "Asiatische Produktionsweise" in der DDR-Historiographie. [Europa-Übersee, Band 2.] Lit, Münster 1994. vii, 67 pp. DM 24.80.
In the early 1970s, a heated debate arose within the marxist-leninist historiography of the German Democratic Republic about the place of pre-colonial African history in the context of historical materialist reflection on the past. The discussions revolved around the extent to which pre-colonial African history was to be seen as a "primal civilization", as an "Asian production method", or as an "early feudal society" and colonialism's role in Africa's subsequent development. This book examines both the content of and the inherent conflicts of GDR historiography emerging from these exchanges.

Siemann, Wolfram. Vom Staatenbund zum Nationalstaat. Deutschland 1806-1871. [Die Neue Deutsche Geschichte, Band 7.] Verlag C.H. Beck, München 1995. 488 pp. DM 48.00; S.fr. 48.00; S 375.00.
This textbook is the seventh volume in the new series on the history of Germany. It covers the period from the end of the old, "first" German Empire in 1806 to the unification of the German states in 1871. The first part of the book deals with the developments in state organization, population, society, economy, culture and environment, whereas the second part focuses on political trends and leading figures.

Steinert, Johannes-Dieter. Migration und Politik. Westdeutschland - Europa - Übersee 1945-1961. Secolo Verlag, Osnabrück 1995. 367 pp. DM 128.00.
The period 1945-1961 marked the largest wave of emigration from West Germany in the country's history, while the influx of immigrant labour, especially from Southern Europe, began in the mid 1950s. This dissertation (Osnabrück, 1994) examines the West-German emigration and immigration policy during this period in the context of the international cooperation that arose directly after World War II in response to the refugee problem. Dr Steinert concludes that the German emigration policy was largely defined by the policies of the host countries, especially the United States, Canada and Australia.

Tatar, Maria. Lustmord. Sexual Murder in Weimar Germany. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1995. xii, 213 pp. Ill. $23.00; £15.95.
In this study of the intersection of art and sexual murder in the sexual politics of Weimar Germany, Professor Tatar first analyses actual cases of sexual murder that aroused general public interest in Germany at the time. She then considers how the representation of murdered women serves as a strategy for managing social and sexual anxieties, focusing on the work of the visual artists Georg Grosz and Otto Dix, on Alfred Döblin's Berlin Alexanderplatz and on Fritz Lang's picture M. According to the author, artistic representations of violence against women reflect the trauma of World War I and urban pathologies.

Terror, Herrschaft und Alltag im Nationalsozialismus. Probleme einer Sozialgeschichte des deutschen Faschismus. Hrsg. von Brigitte Berlekamp [und] Werner Röhr. Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster 1995. 346 pp. DM 68.00.
A sharp controversy has recently arisen in German social history of national-socialism between adherents of a structural social history and proponents of the Alltagsgeschichte. This collection convenes supporters of both directions in thirteen contributions. The topics include the findings of regional research on the social history of national-socialism and the exercise of its power, discussions on the social history of the Gestapo and its social functioning, as well as theoretical articles on the social history of German fascism overall. The contributors are, among others, Gerhard Paul, Wolfgang Jacobeit, Dietrich Eichholtz, Frank Dingel, Michael Schneider, Alf Lüdtke and Karl Heinz Roth.

Was soll aus Deutschland werden? Der Council for a Democratic Germany in New York 1944-1945. Aufsätze und Dokumente. Hrsg. von Ursula Langkau-Alex [und] Thomas M. Ruprecht. [Quellen und Studien zur Sozialgeschichte, Band 15.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1995. 314 pp. DM 88.00.
In May 1944 the Council for a Democratic Germany, comprising German exiles in the United States from various political backgrounds, unveiled detailed plans for a new Germany based on Western ideals of democracy and social justice. The development of the council's programme, as well as its actions and political context are the subject of the eight contributions in this collection. The contributors include, apart from the editors, Claus-Dieter Krohn, Walter F. Peterson, Jan Foitzik, Helmut G. Asper and Wolfgang Benz. A selection of fifteen documents provides a comprehensive overview of the different plans presented by the council.

Great Britain

Crewe, Ivor and Anthony King. SDP. The Birth, Life and Death of the Social Democratic Party. Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 1995. xxiv, 611 pp. Ill. £25.00.
Launched in 1981, the Social-Democratic Party (SDP) promised to break the mould of British politics and the hegemony of two parties. Despite its success in its alliance with the Liberals and in two general elections, the party had disintegrated by the autumn of 1987. Based on the SDP archives, this book relates the rise and fall of the SDP. The authors conclude that the party's failure resulted far more from the institutional and structural obstacles inherent in the British electoral system than from the misguided tactics and actions of its leaders.

Daunton, M.J. Progress and Poverty. An Economic and Social History of Britain 1700-1850. Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 1995. xv, 620 pp. Maps. £45.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
This textbook on the economic and social development of Britain between 1700 and 1850 incorporates recent revisionist work on British economic growth, notably from the institutionalist movement. By stressing the connection between the economy and public policy debates and examining regional variations, with particular attention to the differences between England and Scotland, Professor Daunton shows how the so-called assumed national markets were formed and operated, thus creating a national economy.

Dickinson, H.T. The Politics of the People in Eighteenth-Century Britain. Macmillan, Basingstoke [etc.] 1995; St. Martin's Press, New York. x, 346 pp. £45.00.
This study of selected highlights of popular political culture in eighteenth-century Britain depicts the influence of the various political activities of the middle and lower classes on the decisions of the governing elite. First, Professor Dickinson explores the role of the people in parliamentary elections, in a wide range of pressure groups, in their local urban communities and in popular demonstrations. He goes on to describe how the British people became increasingly politicized during the eighteenth century.

Fielding, Steven, Peter Thompson and Nick Tiratsoo. "England arise!". The Labour Party and popular politics in 1940s Britain. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1995; distr. excl. in the USA and Canada by St. Martin's Press, New York. ix, 244 pp. Ill. £35.00. (Paper: £12.99.)
This book examines the Labour Party's relationship with the British electorate from the late 1930s to the early 1950s. The main objective of the authors is to revise existing accounts and interpretations in contemporary historiography. As the authors focus on an aspect they label as the social history of the period's mass politics, they argue that Labour lacked unquestioning and instinctive support from the working class. While the majority who helped the Labour Party into power in 1945 approved of its proposed practical reforms, it did not share Labour's broader vision of ethical change and socialism.

Fowler, David. The First Teenagers: The Lifestyle of Young Wage-Earners in Interwar Britain. [The Woburn Education Series.] The Woburn Press, London 1995. x, 212 pp. £30.00. (Paper: £15.00.)
The appearance of teenagers, defined as young people eager to spend a significant proportion of their wages on consumer goods and services, is generally dated in Britain in the 1950s and 1960s. In this study of the lifestyle of young wage-earners in the interwar period, Dr Fowler argues that a teenage culture in the modern sense in Britain already existed before World War II. Contrary to commonly held views of the period, the author submits that the interwar years offered many economic opportunities to an increasingly assertive young labour force and a newly affluent teenage group with a culture of its own.

Szreter, Simon. Fertility, class and gender in Britain, 1860-1940. [Cambridge Studies in Population, Economy and Society in Past Time, 27.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1996. xix, 704 pp. £50.00; $74.95.
See Jan Kok's review in this volume, pp. 421-424.

Wahrman, Dror. Imagining the Middle Class. The political representation of class in Britain, c. 1780-1840. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xiv, 428 pp. Ill. £40.00; $69.95. (Paper: £16.95; $22.95.)
This study in the evolution of the representation of the middle class in Britain between 1780 and 1840 advocates regarding the middle class primarily as an artefact of political discourse instead of as a category in social and economic history. Dr Wahrman argues that understanding changes in conceptualizations of society does not concern the underlying transformations of social structures, but rather the changing political configurations. He aims to show how in Britain representations of a society centred around a middle class were infused from the French Revolution onwards with poignant meanings, which then changed radically under different political circumstances.

Women's history: Britain, 1850-1945. An introduction. Ed. by June Purvis. [Women's History.] UCL Press, London 1995. x, 341 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £14.95.)
This textbook consists of twelve contributions introducing the main themes and debates within women's history in Britain of the period 1850-1945 and brings together the findings of recent research in this field. Included are contributions on health (Barbara Harrison), the family (Shani D'Cruze), education (Jane McDermid), sexuality (Sheila Jeffreys), work (Jane Humphries), politics (June Hannam), the suffrage movement (Sandra Stanley Holton), race and empire (Clare Midgley), industrialization (Pat Hudson), the impact of war (Penny Summerfield) and women's literature (Penny Tinkler). Suggestions for further reading are appended to each article.


Cavallo, Sandra. Charity and power in early modern Italy. Benefactors and their motives in Turin, 1541-1789. [Cambridge History of Medicine.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xv, 280 pp. Ill. £45.00; $69.95. (Paper: £17.95; $27.95.)
This study of the daily practice of charity in the Italian city of Turin from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century highlights charitable donors and their motives and changing definitions of poverty. Drawing on archival material, such as wills and testaments, Dr Cavallo analyses the tensions within these individuals' personal and political surroundings in a city marginal to the Italian tradition of communes and city-states. She aims to show that power and gender conflicts within the world of the elites were crucial for encouraging giving and even for shaping perceptions of the deserving poor.

The Netherlands

"Geloof niet wat geschiedschrijvers zeggen...". Honderd jaar Jan Romein, 1893-1993. Bart Hageraats (red.). Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1995. 278 pp. Ill. D.fl. 29.50.
The contributions in this collection were all written to commemorate the hundredth anniversary of the birth of Jan Romein (1893-1962), a well-known Dutch historian best-known for the popular textbooks on Dutch history that he wrote together with his wife, Annie Romein-Verschoor, and for his theoretical work. Apart from some biographical contributions, the collection includes, among others, essays on the extent of marxism in Romein's works (Ger Harmsen), his theory of history (André C. Otto) and his writings on Asiatic history (W.F. Wertheim, Fritjof Tichelman and Theo Stevens. A supplement to an existing bibliography of and on Romein is appended.

Mossink, Marijke. De levenbrengsters. Over vrouwen, vrede, feminisme en politiek in Nederland 1914-1940. Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1995. Ill. D.fl. 34.50.
At the beginning of World War I, two women's peace movement's were founded in the Netherlands: the General Dutch Women's Peace Union and the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. Although their social and political backgrounds differed, both organizations gradually became convinced of the need to merge during the Interbellum. This dissertation (University of Amsterdam, 1995) deals with the merger process, focusing on conceptions of the women's role in politics and society and on the construction of feminist identities in both organizations.

"Waarom schrijf je nooit meer?". Briefwisseling Henriette Roland Holst - Henk Sneevliet. Bezorgd door Nico Markus, met een inleiding van Fritjof Tichelman. Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1995. Ill. D.fl. 75.00.
Henriette Roland Holst (1869-1952), the well-known poet and socialist theoretician, and Henk Sneevliet (1883-1942), a trade-union militant and Comintern agent in China, met in 1903, when they were both members of the Sociaal-Democratische Arbeiders Partij (the Dutch Labour Party) and formed a longstanding friendship. In 1912, when Sneevliet left for the Dutch Indies, they began a correspondence that spanned nearly twenty-five years. This edition contains 342 letters that remain from this faithful exchange. In the historical introduction Dr Tichelman sketches the divergent political paths chosen by the correspondents, which eventually came between their friendship.

Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Clark, Katerina. Petersburg, Crucible of Cultural Revolution. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1995. xii, 377 pp. £25.50.
Focusing on the quest of Petersburg intellectuals to establish a revolutionary culture during the years 1913-1930, Professor Clark offers a new explanation in this study for the transformation of the avant-garde Soviet culture of the 1920s into the Stalinist culture of the 1930s. She explores the complex dynamics of the extraordinary environment of a revolution, the utopian pursuits of both politicians and intellectuals, the local Petersburg culture system and the broader environment of European and American culture to argue that the role of intellectuals in the evolution of Stalinism as a culture was much more complicated and dialectic than often assumed.

Eggeling, Wolfram. Die sowjetische Literaturpolitik zwischen 1953 und 1970. Zwischen Entdogmatisierung und Kontinuität. [Dokumente und Analysen zur russischen und sowjetischen Kultur, Band 3.] Universitätsverlag Dr. N. Brockmeyer, Bochum 1994. 866 pp. DM 94.80.
This volume is the third in a series of five source publications concerning Soviet policy on literature and culture between 1917 and 1991. The source material published in this series relates the political points of view of the authors and the official Soviet writers organization, as well as the efforts of the authors to break away from the political constraints. This volume covers the period between 1950 and 1970, when the paradigm of the literary policy changed and, according to the editor, laid the foundation for the glasnost that began in 1985.

Grenzer, Andreas. Adel und Landbesitz im ausgehenden Zarenreich. Der russische Landadel zwischen Selbstbehauptung und Anpassung nach Aufhebung der Leibeigenschaft. [Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte des östlichen Europa, Band 40.] Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 1995. xii, 255 pp. DM 88.00; S.fr. 88.00; S 687.00.
This dissertation (Göttingen, 1993) examines the quantitative and structural changes in landownership among the Russian nobility between the abolition of serfdom in 1861 and the Russian Revolution. Dr Grenzer aims to evaluate this group's ability to maintain its social position during the social and economic upheaval that characterized this period by exploring the development of landownership, the nobility's traditional basis of power. He concludes that, despite the increase in small landownership at the expense of large landownership and regional variations, the upper class's general economic and social status certainly did not deteriorate.

McCauley, Martin. The Khrushchev Era 1953-1964. [Seminar Studies in History.] Longman, London [etc.] 1995. xv, 141 pp. £5.99.
The textbooks in this series examine themes in British, European and world history in short, succinct volumes. The texts are supplemented by a document section and a selective bibliography. In the present volume Dr McCauley analyses the Soviet Union under Khrushchev and reviews the era's main highlights. He assesses Khrushchev's leadership as bold and daring in his attempts at reforming the Soviet Union without fundamentally changing the system. The complex relationship between the Communist Party and the Soviet Government is explained in an introductory note.

McCauley, Martin. Stalin and Stalinism. [Seminar Studies in History.] Second Ed. Longman, London [etc.] 1995. xiii, 142 pp. £5.99.
This is a substantially revised edition of one of the most successful volumes, which was originally published in the series noticed above in 1983. In this new edition Dr McCauley reexamines Stalinism on the basis of the latest research findings of the newly opened Russian archives and addresses the issues that arisen from the vigorous scholarly debate between the old, totalitarian interpretation of Stalinism and the revision advanced by social historians in the 1980s. The author's assessment of Stalinism stresses the evolution of the phenomenon over the period of Stalin's reign.

Ulrich, Jürg. Leo Trotzki als junger Revolutionär. Decaton Verlag, Mainz 1995. 131 pp. DM 22.80.
This concise textbook, mainly intended for younger readers, sketches Leon Trotksy's youth and background and his early years as a revolutionary in the context of Russian history from the turn of the century until the Revolution of 1917. Professor Ulrich bases his work mainly on Pierre Broué's biography Trotsky (1988).


Arenas Posadas, Carlos. La Sevilla inerme. Un estudio sobre las condiciones de vida de las clases populares sevillanas a comienzos del siglo XX. (1883-1923). Pres. de León Carlos Alvarez Santaló. Editorial Gráficas Sol, n.p. [Ecija (Sevilla)] n.d. [1992]. 175 pp.
At the beginning of this century even the local authorities deemed Seville a most unhealthy city. The author of this study begins by sketching the economic, demographic, political and urban planning conditions in Seville in the first quarter of this century. He then describes the living conditions of the popular classes and relates them to the incidence of social diseases, especially tuberculosis. At the end he deals briefly with the attitude of social actors confronting this situation. The research for this study is largely based on Public Health Records designed to measure the incidence of tuberculosis.

Correa López, Marcos José. La ideología de la C.N.T. a través de sus congresos. Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Cádiz, Cádiz 1993. 236 pp. Ptas 1000.
This study of the theoretical foundations of Spanish anarchism traces the pattern of the major Congresses of the anarcho-syndicalist National Confederation of Labour in 1910, 1911, 1919, 1931 and 1936, as well as the Congress of its Regional branch of Catalonia in 1918. The author focuses on the organization as a whole and overlooks the opinions of constituent individuals or tendencies. The study is based on detailed research of the minutes. He concludes, among other things, that the CNT considered the trade union essential for achieving a social revolution. An appendix contains documents conveying the type of material studied.

La Guerra Civil Española - medio siglo después. Actas del coloquio internacional celebrado en Göttingen del 25 al 28 de junio de 1987. Manfred Engelbert [y] Javier García de María (Eds). [Editionen der Iberoamericana, Reihe III, Monographien und Aufsätze, Band 32.] Vervuert Verlag, Frankfurt/M. 1990. 230 pp. Ill. DM 35.00.
This collection of eleven contributions to an international colloquium in Göttingen clearly emphasizes cultural affairs relating to the Spanish Civil War. The study of the cultural models and images of the enemy on both sides that appeared in poetry, theatre, movies and novels is the dominant theme. Three appendices provide selected examples. The volume concludes with a bibliography of relevant books published in the Federal Republic of Germany from 1977 until 1989. Most participants were Spanish and German and included Walther L. Bernecker, Manuel Tuñón de Lara and Javier García de María, who submitted the introductory essays.

Manuel Tuñón de Lara. El compromiso con la historia. Su vida y su obra. Ed. al cuidado de José Luis de la Granja y Alberto Reig Tapia. Prólogo de Pedro Laín Entralgo. Con la colab. de Francisco Tomás y Valiente, Julio Aróstegui, Manuel Pérez Ledesma [y o.] Universidad del País Vasco, Leioa n.d. [1993.] 533 pp. Ptas 2990.
Manuel Tuñón de Lara (1915) is one of the distinguished Spanish historians who fled Franco's dictatorship. This Liber Amicorum is dedicated to his life and work. Following the extensive biographical introduction by the editors, historiographic essays address major themes in his work and life. The topics covered include the history of the Spanish labour movement, history and power, agrarian reform, the history of the Civil War and Francoism and press history. A selection of recent articles by Tuñón de Lara, which, despite previous publication in most cases, have remained little known, precedes a chronology and bibliography. The book ends with facsimiles of articles published during the Civil War.

Piqueras Arenas, José Antonio. La revolución democrática (1868-1874). Cuestión social, colonialismo y grupos de presión. [Collección Ediciones de la Revista de Trabajo, Núm. 37.] Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social, Madrid 1992. 848 pp. Ptas 4000.
This is the revised edition of the thesis Orígenes sociales de la Restauración (University of Valencia, 1990). The author focuses on the antagonistic social forces at work in the town and countryside of Valencia during the six years of the first Spanish Republic. He starts by analysing the working class movement in Valencia, which was associated with the First International, and goes on to address the colonial issue and especially the local patriciate's reaction to the abolitionists' drive. He concludes by discussing the lobby of landowners whose opposition to the Republic proved decisive in its downfall.

Tezanos, José Félix. Historia ilustrada del socialismo español. Editorial Sistema, Madrid 1993. 288 pp. Ill. Ptas 3800.
This richly illustrated work shares an elementary historical view of the origins and development of the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE). The seven chapters trace the party's main historical phases along the course of Spanish political history. Three annexes conclude the book: a chronology of Spanish socialism; the Congresses of the PSOE (date, place, number of sections represented and delegates and the names of the elected members of the Federal Executive Committee); and a list of governments in which the PSOE took part, including the names of socialist ministers.