Volume 42 part 1 (1997)


General Issues
Continents and Countries

Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.

General Issues


Duan, Zhongqiao. Marx's Theory of the Social Formation. Avebury, Aldershot [etc.] 1995. viii, 131 pp. £32.50.
This study investigates the concept of social formation as the core concept in Marx's theory of historical materialism. According to Dr Duan, at the heart of Marx's systematic theory of historical materialism is the theory concerning the structure of society and the stages of social development. He offers an historical analysis and reproduction of the theory of social formation as embodied in the works of Marx. In his conclusion the author applies Marx's theory of social formation to the recent social changes in Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union and China and argues that such trends allow these countries to come closer to the socialism described by Marx instead of distancing them from his ideology.

Fourier, Charles. The Theory of the Four Movements. Ed. by Gareth Stedman Jones and Ian Patterson. [Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1996. xxxii, 328 pp. £14.95; $19.95.
This is the first complete English translation of Charles Fourier's famous early socialist text Théorie des Quatre Mouvements et des Destinées Générales (1808) since 1857. An index has been appended.

Intelmann, Peter. Franz L. Neumann. Chancen und Dilemma des politischen Reformismus. [Nomos Universitätsschriften: Politik, Band 66.] Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden 1996. 325 pp. DM 89.00; S.fr. 81.00; S 650.00.
The legal scholar and political scientist Franz Leopold Neumann (1900-1954) is primarily known for his authorship of Behemoth (1942), a lengthy and path-breaking analysis of the National Socialist dictatorship in Germany. This biographical study (doctoral thesis, Oldenburg, 1984) sketches Neumann's life and reconstructs his theoretical and political development. The author views Neumann's "reformism" as the central concept for understanding the rifts and changes in his biography.

Khan, Nasir. Development of the Concept and Theory of Alienation in Marx's Writings. March 1843 to August 1844. Solum Forlag, Oslo 1995. 294 pp. N.kr. 280.00.
This revised doctoral thesis (Oslo, 1991) aims to reconstruct Marx's theory of alienation in his writings between March 1843 and August 1844. Despite the proven lack of unity the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 (see Jürgen Rojahn's article in IRSH, XXVIII (1983), pp. 2-49), the author bases his argument on a systematic comparison between "the positions which Marx had previously held against the one he espoused in the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts".

Kracauer, Siegfried. The Mass Ornament. Weimar Essays. Transl., Ed., and with an Introd. by Thomas Y. Levin. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1995. xi, 403 pp. Ill. $49.95. (Paper: $24.95.)
Siegfried Kracauer (1889-1966), best known as a pioneering theorist of motion pictures, collected his early writings on modern society during the Weimar Republic (written in the 1920s and early 1930s) in Das Ornament der Masse (1963), of which this is the English translation. In these writings Kracauer takes up some of the main themes of modernity, such as isolation and alienation, mass culture and urban experience and the relation between the group and the individual. In the introduction Professor Levin places Kracauer in his intellectual context, including his relation to the Frankfurt School.

Kritische Philosophie gesellschaftlicher Praxis. Auseinandersetzungen mit der Marxschen Theorie nach dem Zusammenbruch des Realsozialismus. Hrsg. von Heinz Eidam und Wolfdietrich Schmied-Kowarzik. Mit Beiträgen von Martin Blumentritt, Eberhard Braun, Wolfram Burisch [u.a.] Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 1995. 394 pp. DM 68.00; S.fr. 68.00; S 523.00.
This volume comprises 24 contributions based on papers presented at a symposium of marxist critical philosophers bearing the same title and held in Kassel in 1994. The authors attempt to reinterpret the critique of political economy while highlighting the two-sided nature of commodities, commodity fetishism and the labour theory of value. The publication includes a critical review of Marxism-Leninism, the ecological issue and new social movements.

Penser le sujet. Autour d'Alain Touraine. Colloque de Cerisy. Fayard, n.p. [Paris] 1995. 633 pp. F.fr. 220.00.
The French sociologist Alain Touraine has become internationally renowned as the author of many studies about labour relations, social movements and democratization since the 1950s. The present collection "Thinking the subject" contains thirty-six essays by Touraine's friends about changing life cycles (Anne-Marie Guillemard), fatherhood and the women's movement (Christine Castelain-Meunier), quasi-individuals (Farhad Khosrokhavar), the information society (Manuel Castells), individualization (Alberto Melucci), left-wing politics (Michel Rocard) and many other subjects.

Torrance, John. Karl Marx's theory of ideas. [Studies in Marxism and Social Theory.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995; Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, Paris 1995. xxi, 433 pp. £40.00; $59.95.
This study is an attempt to reinterpret Karl Marx's sociology of ideas. The author identifies three levels in the explanatory structure of Marx's theory of ideas, proceeding from social being (with its misleading surface appearances etc.) to social consciousness (encompassing false consciousness), and from social consciousness to theory (including ideology and social science).

Walicki, Andrzej. Marxism and the Leap to the Kingdom of Freedom. The Rise and Fall of the Communist Utopia. Stanford University Press, Stanford 1995. xii, 641 pp. £45.00.
This work reconstructs Marx's and Engels's theory of freedom, highlights its centrality to their vision of the communist society of the future, traces its progression in the history of Marxist thought (including Marxism-Leninism) and rationalizes its transformation at the height of its influence into a legitimation of totalitarian practices. Professor Walicki explains the collapse of communism in the USSR and Eastern Europe partly by stressing the inherently utopian character of the idea of a marketless economy and by interpreting the Soviet Union as a failed attempt to realize this Utopia.


Christensen, Steen. Nye mål i en ny verden. Socialistisk Internationale 1976-1992. Fremad, n.p. [København.] 1992. 320 pp. Maps. D.kr. 148.00.
The present book is a history of the Socialist International (SI) from 1976 until 1992. During these years former German Chancellor Willy Brandt served as the organization's president. Under his guidance the SI addressed the problems of the Third World, sought to close the gap between North and South and pursued disarmament and peace and the observance of human rights and democracy. In addition to the historical survey, which includes a discussion of the concept of nationalism with respect to the Third World, the book contains detailed information about all the social-democratic member parties of the SI. A bibliography is appended.

Favez, Jean-Claude. Les révolutions en France et en Russie. Préface de Bronislaw Baczko. [Collection AXES Savoir, 14.] Bruylant, Bruxelles 1995. vii, 194 pp. B.fr. 420.00; F.fr. 70.00; S.fr. 19.00.
Based on a series of introductory lectures for first-year history students, this booklet contains a comparative essay on the French Revolution and the Russian Revolutions. Professor Favez provides a concise general overview of the similarities and, most of all, the differences between the two major revolutions in modern history from the perspective of the Soviet Union's recent collapse.

Filippo Turati e i corrispondenti stranieri. Lettere 1883-1932. A cura di Daniela Rava. [Società e cultura, 8.] Piero Lacaita editore, Manduria [etc.] 1995. xxi, 507 pp. L. 40.000.
This is the first volume of the publication comprising the correspondence of Filippo Turati, which consists of his and in some cases Anna Kuliscoff's (see IRSH, V (1960), p. 153) letters to and from foreign correspondents in the period 1883-1932. The 394 letters and 20 annexes are published in this volume in their original language. The Russian letters appear alongside Italian translations. This correspondence with the entire leadership of the Second International has been collected in Italian and foreign archives, half of them originating from Turati's archives in the International Institute of Social History (IISH). In the preface the editor retraces aspects such as the vicissitudes of the different parts of Turati's papers.

Flichy, Patrice. Dynamics of Modern Communication. The Shaping and Impact of New Communication Technologies. Transl. by Liz Libbrecht. [The Media, Culture & Society Series.] Sage Publications, London [etc.] 1995. viii, 181 pp. £37.50. (Paper: £12.95.)
Focusing on the relationship between technological and social change, this study - the English translation of Une histoire de la communication moderne: Espace public et vie privée (1991) - offers a comprehensive social history of communication technologies from 1790 to the present. Dr Flichy divides the period under review in three stages: the transformation from state-controlled to market-controlled communication (1790-1870); the period of family communication (1870-1930), comprising the invention of photography, telephones and radio broadcasting; and the era of global communication (1930-1990). He concludes that the original conception of a technology always differs from its application after the interplay of political, economic and consumer forces.

A History of the Family. Vol. I. Distant Worlds, Ancient Worlds. Ed. by André Burguière, Christiane Klapisch-Zuber, Martine Segalen, [and] Françoise Zonabend. Introd. by Claude Lévi-Strauss and Georges Duby. Transl. by Sarah Hanbury Tenison, Rosemary Morris and Andrew Wilson. Vol. II. The Impact of Modernity. Ed. by André Burguière, Christiane Klapisch-Zuber, Martine Segalen, [and] Françoise Zonabend. Introd. by Jack Goody. Transl. by Sarah Hanbury Tenison. Polity Press, Cambridge 1996. x, 713 pp.; vi, 585 pp. Ill. £35.00 per vol. (2 vol. set: £60.00.)
The thirty essays in these two volumes provide a comprehensive survey of the changing forms of kinship and family life. Volume One examines ancient and medieval societies both inside and outside Europe, focusing on the genesis and gradual transformation of the family through history. It analyses the ancient world (Sumer, Egypt, Athens etc.), the Middle Ages and the Far East. Volume Two includes studies on the family in early modern Europe, colonial societies in the Andes and Meso-America, modern China, Japan, India, Africa and Arabia. The volume's final section studies the position of the family in western industrialized societies, from the Industrial Revolution to the present day.

Iron Men, Wooden Women. Gender and Seafaring in the Atlantic World, 1700-1920. Ed. by Margaret S. Creighton and Lisa Norling. [Gender Relations in the American Experience.] The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 1996. xvi, 293 pp. Ill. $54.00. (Paper: $20.50.)
The present collection of ten essays examines the formulation of gender within seafaring communities, among sailors and by authors of sea fiction in the Anglo-American age of sailing and considers how these formulations have influenced or reflected norms created elsewhere. Topics include the careers of some female pirates (Marcus Rediker), "transvestite heroines" who dressed as men to serve on the crews of sailing ships (Dianne Dugaw), the importance of the gender-race relationship for African American seamen (W. Jeffrey Bolster) and British merchant crews (Laura Tabili).

Kiernan, V.G. Imperialism and Its Contradictions. Ed. and Introd. by Harvey J. Kaye. Routledge, New York [etc.] 1995. xii, 218 pp. £11.99.
This volume is the third in a planned five-volume series of the Collected Essays of the marxist historian Professor Kiernan. The first two volumes were noticed in IRSH, XXXIV (1989), p. 139 and XXXV (1990), p. 146. The eight essays in this collection, previously published between 1975 and 1990, deal with modern European expansionism from the origins to the aftermath of Europe's overseas empires, including political-economic, military, social and cultural studies.

Languages and Jargons. Contributions to a Social History of Language. Ed. by Peter Burke and Roy Porter. Polity Press, Cambridge 1995. vii, 216 pp. £39.50; $27.95.
The seven contributions in this collection are concerned with the special semi-private languages, dialects or jargons developed by different social groups: professions (lawyers, doctors, teachers), voluntary associations (Masons), social classes and groups on the margins of society (beggars, Gypsies). In addition to describing these jargons as they were spoken, analysing their functions and accounting for their change over time, the authors study the relations between these forms of speech and their speakers with the outside world. Although the book focuses on different forms of English from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries, contributions also address Caló (Spanish Gypsy jargon) and Urdu.

Vetter, Cesare. Il dispotismo della libertà. Dittatura e rivoluzione dall'Illuminismo al 1848. [Studi e ricerche storiche, 176.] FrancoAngeli, Milano 1993. 272 pp. L. 40.000.
While dictatorship during the Ancien Régime meant the reinstatement of previously existing conditions, according to the author of the present book, this system of rulership came to mean the extraordinary powers necessary to ensure the transition to a new and better world from the French Revolution onward. This volume is the first part of a comprehensive conceptual history of dictatorship in modern times. Dr Vetter traces the development of this phenomenon in the political struggle and theoretical debates in France from the Enlightenment until the bonapartist coup d'état of 1851. The authors he discusses are extensively quoted. In a separate chapter the author focuses on Marat's notion of dictatorship.


La costruzione dello stato in Italia e Germania. [Di] L. Ambrosoli, A. Berselli, H. Boldt [e a.] Introd. di Roberto Chiarini. [Società e cultura, 1.] Piero Lacaita Editore, Manduria [etc.] n.d. [1993.] 238 pp. L. 25.000.
The introduction to this work submits that Western democracy faces a set of problems concerning both the nation state and political parties and ideologies as this century draws to an end. Historians were invited to provide an historical context for studying these problems. In 1991 a mixed German-Italian scholarly gathering was held in Mantova, Italy under the title: "The construction of the unitary state in Italy and Germany between centralism, decentralization and federalism". The meeting resulted in this collection of case studies offering a comparative historical analysis of two different experiences of state formation, one federalist, the other centralist. Articles focus on institutional and political-historical themes.

Labor relations and political change in eastern Europe. A comparative perspective. Ed. by John Thirkell, Richard Scase, and Sarah Vickerstaff. [Cornell International Industrial and Labor Relations Report, Nr 28.] ILR Press, an Imprint of Cornell University Press, Ithaca 1995. viii, 197 pp. £30.50.
The present collection of seven essays revolves around the theme of labour relations as a key constituent element in the current transformation of Eastern European and Russian society. In addition to the introductory and concluding chapters by the editors, case studies are included about the changes in Bulgaria (Krastyu Petkov and Grigor Gradev), the Czech and Slovak republics (Ludovit Cziria), Hungary (Làjos Héthy), Poland (Wieslawa Kozek, Michal Federowicz, Witold Morawski) and Russia (Vladimir Gerchikov).

Labour's Reward. Real wages and economic change in 19th- and 20th-century Europe. Ed. by P. Scholliers and V. Zamagni. Edward Elgar, Aldershot [etc.] 1995. xvii, 300 pp. £55.00.
The ten contributions to this collection reconstruct nominal wages and earnings, cost of living and real wages in European countries and regions from 1780 onward. Analyses and data on Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, the United Kingdom and Yugoslavia are included. The introduction surveys the status of research on real wages and draws several international comparisons. Issues in the papers include the connection between real wages and general economic development, patterns of consumption, regional labour mobility and wage dispersion, as well as methodological questions. Nominal wage series and cost-of-living indices for the eleven countries are appended.

Lebensstandard und Wirtschaftssysteme. Studien im Auftrage des Wissenschaftsfonds der DG BANK. Hrsg. von Wolfram Fischer. [Veröffentlichungen der DG BANK Deutsche Genossenschaftsbank, Band 20.] Fritz Knapp Verlag, Frankfurt/M. 1995. 707 pp. DM 132.00.
The fifteen essays in this collection focus on the causes of the uneven and combined progress in prosperity throughout the world. In addition to general, comparative and methodological considerations about the "standard of living" concept (Peter von der Lippe, Angus Maddison, David S. Landes, Hansjörg Siegenthaler and others), the contributions address recent trends in the Soviet Union/Russia (Stephan Merl), Eastern Europe (Gert Leptin), Latin America (Albert Fishlow), India (Dieter Rothermund), China (Roderich Ptak) and Japan (Erich Pauer).

Mutualités de tous les pays. "Un passé riche d'avenir". Sous la dir. de Michel Dreyfus et Bernard Gibaud. Préface de Philippe Calmette. Mutualité française, Paris 1995. 469 pp. F.fr. 200.00.
This collection contains 32 short essays, of which 29 describe the history of friendly societies in assorted countries, ranging from Argentina (Ronaldo Munck) to Turkey (Mehmet-Sehmus Guzel) and from India (Ranajit Das Gupta) to Finland (Jouko Jaakkola). The remaining three articles are international and comparative studies by Michel Dreyfus, Pierre Guillaume and Marcel van der Linden.

Nation und Emotion. Deutschland und Frankreich im Vergleich. 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. Hrsg. von Etienne François, Hannes Siegrist und Jakob Vogel. [Kritische Studien zur Geschichtswissenschaft, Band 110.] Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1995. 404 pp. DM 68.00.
Nationalism is addressed as a historical issue in this collection of twenty-six essays viewed through the prism of scintillating myths, symbols and rituals. In addition to a few more general considerations, for example by Heinz-Gerhard Haupt, Maurice Agulhon, Otto Dann and Pierre Nora, French and German case studies address subjects including military celebrations (Jakob Vogel), the cult of the dead warriors (Annette Maas), state funerals (Avner Ben-Amos, Volcker Ackermann), sports (Pierre Arnaud and others) and national holidays (Allan Mitchell).

Racism and the Labour Market: Historical Studies. Ed. by Marcel van der Linden and Jan Lucassen, in collab. with Dik van Arkel, Els Deslé, Fred Goedbloed [a.o.] [International and Comparative Social History, Band 1.] Peter Lang, Bern [etc.] 1995. 649 pp. S.fr. 98.00; DM 123.00; S 817.00; $78.95; £49.00; F.fr. 392.00.
The twenty-three contributions in this collection, based on a conference organized by the International Institute of Social History in September 1991, deal with three types of historical situations. The first are former slave economies, which had turned into free labour markets after the abolition of slavery. The second are situations where white settlers subjugated peripheral societies, thereby creating a new labour market. The main issue in these situations is whether and how they brought about racial segmentation. The third are situations where a labour market, segmented by class but not along racial lines, is confronted with immigration. Here, the research focuses on determining the conditions for integrating or segregating immigrants. The contributions address countries on all continents in the period after 1830.

The Waning of the Communist State. Economic Origins of Political Decline in China and Hungary. Ed. by Andrew G. Walder. [Studies on China, 21.] University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1995. xiv, 280 pp. $40.00.
The nine essays in this collection explore recent political and social changes in China and Hungary, the most innovative communist countries in economic respects. The contributors show how in the wake of economic reform departures from the planned economy and concessions to the private sector weakened the party centre's authority over jurisdictions of the party-state; gave rise to new political and economic ties between party-state officials and the private economy; and marked changes in the exercise of political authority in local communities. CONTINENTS AND COUNTRIES


South Africa

Segregation and Apartheid in Twentieth-Century South Africa. Ed. by William Beinart and Saul Dubow. [Rewriting Histories.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1995. xii, 288 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £12.99.)
This textbook volume, one in a new series focusing on historical themes where standard conclusions face a major challenge, comprises eleven articles (including some excerpts), all but one published before, on racial segregation and apartheid in twentieth-century South Africa. The articles were published between 1972 and 1989 and address subjects such as capitalism and cheap labour in South Africa (Harold Wolpe), marxism and feminism in South African Studies (Belinda Bozzoli) and South Africa's rural slums (Colin Murray). In their introduction the editors give an overview of topical historiography, taking into account the 1994 elections and associated changes.


Richards, Audrey I. Land, Labour and Diet in Northern Rhodesia. An Economic Study of the Bemba Tribe. New introd. by Henrietta Moore. [Classics in African Anthropology.] Lit, Münster [etc.] 1995. xx, 425 pp. Ill. Maps. DM 38.80.
Richards's Land, Labour and Diet in Northern Rhodesia is a classic that was first published in 1939. The book describes the living conditions among the Bemba in Northeastern Rhodesia and refers in particular to the effects of migrant labour on the social and economic life of a mainly agricultural society. The work is primarily concerned with food production, distribution and consumption and with conditions of labour and standards of living. It also vividly portrays the social structure of Bemba society. This reprint includes a substantial introduction by Henrietta L. Moore.



Labour and Working-Class History in Atlantic Canada: A Reader. Ed. by David Frank and Gregory S. Kealey. [Social & Economic Papers No. 22.] ISER, St. John's 1995. viii, 444 pp. C$29.95.
This reader brings together seventeen recent contributions, all published between 1980 and 1993, on labour and working-class history in Atlantic Canada from the early nineteenth century onward. Subjects covered here include: the rural labourers, fishing people, artisans and sailors of the early nineteenth century; the experiences of women, children and other workers in the industrial revolution; the labour struggles; the rise of the unions, the welfare state and industrial legality in the twentieth century; and the contemporary issues of public service unionism, the role of women in the fishery and the causes of accidents at work, such as the Westray mine explosion in 1992.

United States of America

Gordon, Fon Louise. Caste & Class. The Black Experience in Arkansas, 1880-1920. The University of Georgia Press, Athens [etc.] 1995. xiv, 185 pp. Ill. $35.00.
In this history of the African-American community in Arkansas from 1890 to 1920 Professor Gordon studies the friction between the black elite and the agricultural and labouring classes over ideological and tactical aspects of their response to the segregation between whites and blacks which coincided with the rise and progression of the "Jim Crow" laws. She concludes that in this period a primarily urban, professional and conservative black elite emerged, which was relatively protected from white oppression and supportive of conciliatory race policies, whereas the overwhelmingly rural black labouring classes were isolated from black middle-class culture and oriented toward agitation and protest.

Gorman, Robert A. Michael Harrington. Speaking American. [American Radicals.] Routledge, New York [etc.] 1995 [recte 1996]. xxiii, 243 pp. £12.99.
This is the first biography of Michael Harrington (1928-1989), one of the most famous American socialists of the twentieth century, founder and chairman of the Democratic Socialists of America and author of the path-breaking and politically influential study on poverty in the contemporary United States, The Other America (1962). In addition to his comprehensive sketch of Gorman's life and career, Professor Gorman places Harrington and his ideas amidst the development of the Old and New Left in the second half of the twentieth century and assesses his contribution to and influence on American politics.

Griffler, Keith P. What Price Alliance? Black Radicals Confront White Labor 1918-1938. [Studies in African American History and Culture.] Garland Publishing, Inc., New York [etc.] 1995. v, 266 pp. $54.00.
This is a study of a group of African-American radical intellectuals and activists who drafted a programme for organizing African-American workers into black trade unions to fight racial oppression of the black working class. These black communists, who were grouped around the African Blood Brotherhood, were out-voted in the 1930s, according to the author, by a younger group of African-American radicals allied to right-wing communism, who viewed class as the only factor in the oppression of black workers and advocated an economic and non-racial approach.

Hays, Samuel P. The Response to Industrialism 1885-1914. Sec. Ed. [The Chicago History of American Civilization.] The University of Chicago Press, Chicago [etc.] 1995. xiii, 266 pp. $13.95.
In this second, substantially revised, edition of a study that originally appeared in 1957 Professor Hays expands the scope of his account of American reactions to industrialism in the period from 1885 to 1914 by including the cultural transformations which took place. New reports on the growth of the cities, the rise of modern values, cultural conflicts with Native Americans and foreign nations and changing roles for women, African Americans, education, religion, medicine, law and leisure now figure in this classical general overview of the period.

Historical Perspectives on the American Economy. Selected Readings. Ed. by Robert Whaples [and] Dianne C. Betts. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xiv, 636 pp. £45.00; $69.95. (Paper: £16.95; $19.95.)
The nineteen essays brought together in this reader offer a comprehensive overview of the main issues in recent American economic history. Organized chronologically and thematically, the texts cover topics such as: the colonial and early national economy; slavery and indentured servitude; the South since the Civil War; the origins of American industrial success; the causes of farm protest in the late nineteenth century; the role of women in the economy; and the Great Depression. The authors include Alfred D. Chandler Jr, Stanley L. Engerman, Robert W. Fogel, Milton Friedman and Donald N. McCloskey.

The Immigrant Left in the United States. Ed. by Paul Buhle and Dan Georgakas. [SUNY Series in American Labor History.] State University of New York Press, Albany 1996. 349 pp. $23.95.
This collection of eleven essays investigates the role immigrant radicals have played in U.S. society from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. Topics covered are Mexican-American, German, Jewish, Polish, Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Italian, Ukrainian, Greek, Arab and Haitian immigrants.

Katz, Michael B. Improving Poor People. The Welfare State, the "Underclass", and Urban Schools as History. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1995. xi, 179 pp. $22.50; £18.95.
Professor Katz, a leading historian of urban schooling, social welfare and poverty in the United States, has brought together in this book four essays (some revisions of previous publications, others original), which reflect the core of his work. Covering various aspects of social policy through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the author, who recently edited The "Underclass" Debate. Views from History (1993) (see IRSH, 40 (1995), p. 327), focuses on social welfare from the nineteenth-century poorhouse era through the New Deal, on ideas about urban poverty from the undeserving poor to the "underclass" and on the emergence of public education through the contemporary radical school reform movement in Chicago.

Klehr, Harvey, John Earl Haynes, and Fridrikh Igorevich Firsov. The Secret World of American Communism. Russian DOCUMENTS Transl. by Timothy D. Sergay. [Annals of Communism.] Yale University Press, New Haven [etc.] 1995. xxxii, 348 pp. Ill. $25.00; £16.95.
This volume contains a selection of documents from the recently opened archives of the former Soviet Union on the relationship between the Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) and the Soviet Union. The documents presented range from letters from Americans wishing to do international covert work for the Soviet Union to top secret memos between the head of the Soviet foreign intelligence, the Comintern and the CPUSA. The authors place the documents in their historical context, explain key figures, organizations and events and argue that the documents included provide definitive proof that the CPUSA engaged in various subversive activities.

Kutulas, Judy. The Long War. The Intellectual People's Front and Anti-Stalinism, 1930-1940. Duke University Press, Durham [etc.] 1995. xiv, 335 pp. $39.95. (Paper: $17.95; £16.95.)
In this social history of American liberal and radical intellectuals in the 1930s Professor Kutulas explores the debates and conflicts between and within the ranks of organizations, such as the League of American Writers, the John Reed Clubs, the Committee of Cultural Freedom - groups loosely organized under the umbrella of the Communist Party of the United States of America. She describes how supporters of the People's Front were discredited by the time of the Nazi-Soviet Pact, and how this situation paved the way for a new generation of leaders known as the New York intellectuals. According to the author, the beginnings of liberal anticommunism after World War II lie in this shift in leadership.

Lichtenstein, Alex. Twice the Work of Free Labor. The Political Economy of Convict Labor in the New South. [The Haymarket Series.] Verso, London [etc.] 1996. xix, 264 pp. Ill. £39.95 (Paper: £13.95.)
See Paul Ortiz's review in this volume, pp. 95-98.



Gilmartin, Christina Kelley. Engendering the Chinese Revolution. Radical Women, Communist Politics, and Mass Movements in the 1920s. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1995. xiii, 303 pp. Ill. Maps. $40.00. (Paper: $15.00.)
This is a study of the role of women activists in the Chinese Communist party during its formative years and the Communist rhetoric and practice with respect to women's issues and women's emancipation. Professor Gilmartin focuses on the making of the Communist party in Shanghai from 1920 to 1925, the massive mobilization of women from 1925 to 1927 in Shanghai, Beijing and the southern provinces and the consequences of the bloody breakdown between the Nationalist and Communist parties in 1927. She concludes that while women's emancipation was a central goal for the communists, the contradictory gender policy that was launched in these formative years became a permanent feature of the Chinese Communist system.

Gregor, A. James. Marxism, China, & Development. Reflections on Theory and Reality. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick [etc.] 1995. $34.95.
Analysing the ideas of Mao Zedong in relation to Marxism and Leninism from a clear anti-Marxist perspective, Professor Gregor drafts a conceptual framework in this essayistic study that reveals the Communist leadership of China's reasons for pursuing economic growth and development through a strategy based on a non-representative, authoritarian political system of non-market prices and autarky. Examining possible alternatives in the twentieth century history of China, the author focuses on the ideas of Sun Yat-sen, which, he submits, provide a democratic and market-oriented alternative to the past and might be an option for the near future.

Langhans, Erika. Die "Krise der Geschichtswissenschaft" in der Volksrepublik China (1986-1989). Universitätsverlag Dr. N. Brockmeyer, Bochum 1995. ix, 286, xxxvi pp. DM 49.80.
After 1986 a crisis arose in historical practice in China following the economic reforms, which increased the Chinese economy's market orientation from 1978 onward and consequently invalidated the old Maoist ideological orientation in historical practice. As of 1986 this crisis deepened and turned into a fundamental reorientation regarding the social role of historical practice, which had traditionally served to legitimize the government in China. This dissertation (Zürich, 1993) explores the crisis on the basis of the debates in historical journals during the short period from 1986 until the end of the democratization movement in June 1989.

RKP(B), Komintern und die national-revolutionäre Bewegung in China. Dokumente. Band 1: 1920-1925. Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn [etc.] 1996. 875 pp. DM 288.00
This source publication about the Communist International and China, 1920-1925, is the first part of what is to become a multi-volume series about the China policy of the Russian Communist Party, the CPSU and the Comintern until the 1940s. The work includes 205 documents, which all appear in a German translation without an accompanying facsimile of the original. An extensive index has been appended.


Komai, Hiroshi. Migrant Workers in Japan. Transl. by Jens Wilkinson. [Japanese Studies.] Kegan Paul International, London [etc.] 1995 [recte 1996]. xviii, 305 pp. Maps. £55.00; $93.50.
This study, the English translation of Gaikokujin r d sha teij e no michi (1993), aims to give a comprehensive overview of migrant labour in modern Japan. The history of foreign workers is very recent, because the phenomenon of foreign labour began its rapid process of materialization only from the late 1970s. The author describes four categories of foreign workers: illegal, overstayers, owners of valid visas performing unauthorized labour and people of Japanese descent with the legal right to work. Considering migrant workers in various sectors, Professor Komai deals with topics including the role of brokers, the labour-exporting countries of Asia and Latin America, the position of resident Koreans and refugees and the human rights situation of migrant workers.


Berend, Ivan T. Central and Eastern Europe, 1944-1993. Detour from the periphery to the periphery. [Cambridge Studies in Modern Economic History, 1.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1996. xviii, 414 pp. £
Among the recently published comparative overviews of the developments in the past few decades in Central and Eastern Europe, this study by Professor Berend is noteworthy because of the author's prominent role in the transformation of Hungary in the period 1988-1992. The book covers the history of Central and Eastern Europe from the birth of state socialism to its collapse and the subsequent trend toward parliamentary market systems. Consistently thematic in his comparative approach, Professor Berend provides an analysis encompassing economic, social, political and cultural issues.

L'emigrazione tra Italia e Germania. [Di] Klaus J. Bade, René Del Fabbro, Martin Forberg [e a.] A cura di Jens Petersen. [Società e cultura, 2.] Piero Lacaita Editore, Manduria [etc.] n.d. [1993.] 232 pp. L. 25.000.
In this century there were three waves of emigration of Italian workers to Germany: before 1914, between 1937 and 1943 and after 1956. The first two consisted mainly of workers from Northern Italy, the last - and largest - one was largely from the South. Only the second wave was organized by the state and included forced labour for the Nazi war effort. These emigration waves were the theme of a scholarly gathering in Würzburg, Germany, held under the auspices of the Friedrich Ebert Stiftung and the Foundation for Historical Studies "F. Turati" in 1992. The contributions deal with the successive episodes, the influence of the Common Market on labour-migration, attempts to unionize the workers, right-wing opposition in Italy to immigration and the effects of migration on mutual perceptions among the local population and the immigrants.

Friedrichs, Christopher R. The Early Modern City 1450-1750. [A History of Urban Society in Europe.] Longman, London [etc.] 1995. x, 381 pp. £14.99.
See Olaf Mörke's review in this volume, pp. 91-92.

Gender and Class in Modern Europe. Ed. by Laura L. Frader and Sonya O. Rose. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1996. ix, 365 pp. Ill. £31.00. (Paper: £13.50.)
This book explores the importance of gender among European working classes during the industrial, social and political transformations from 1800 through the 1930s. While the thirteen essays focus mainly on Britain and France, contributions on Germany, Ireland and the Soviet Union are also present. A broad variety of topics is covered, including the false notion of unitary and harmonious households; the gendered relationship between public and private domains in workers' lives; the gendered nature of state regulation and intervention; and the ways in which working-class claims to citizenship were simultaneously informed by notions of masculinity and femininity as well as by class.

Herzen, Alexander. Letters from France and Italy, 1847-1851. Ed. and Transl. by Judith E. Zimmerman. [Pitt Series in Russian and East European Studies, no. 25.] University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh [etc.] 1995. xxxv, 304 pp. $59.95.
This is the first English translation of the 1858 edition of Alexander Herzen's famous Pis'ma iz Frantsii i Italii. Herzen was a central figure in Russian progressive intellectual life when he left for Italy in 1847, as the editor states in her introduction. These letters, written for publication, are an influential, vivid and literary eyewitness account of some of the revolutionary European upheavals of 1848, as well as an important source on the rise of Russian populism and the contemporary Russian opposition movement.

Hippel, Wolfgang von. Armut, Unterschichten, Randgruppen in der frühen Neuzeit. [Enzyklopädie deutscher Geschichte, Band 34.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 1995. ix, 161 pp. DM 29.80.
This encyclopedic textbook on the history of poverty and the underlying and socially marginal groups in the German-speaking region during the late medieval and early modern period (1300-1800) is Volume 34 in the ambitious series "Encyclopedia of German history". Professor von Hippel gives an overview of the short-term trends of exorbitant prices and famine and of the long-term trends of population growth and food supply before dealing with the rural and urban sub-cultures of the population and the assorted marginal groups including beggars and vagrants, robbers, Jews and Gypsies. Hippel devotes a separate chapter to the development of a policy on poverty in this period. An overview of available sources and secondary literature is appended.


Histoire du mouvement ouvrier chrétien à Charleroi 1886-1990. Sous la dir. d'Edith Pirson. CARHOP-MOC, n.p. n.d. [Bruxelles 1995.] 224 pp. Ill. B.fr. 695.
This is a collectively written history of the Christian labour movement in the Belgian industrial city of Charleroi in the period 1886-1990, published by the Centre for the study of labour and popular history in conjunction with the Christian labour movement. The book describes the emergence of Christian trade unions and mutual benefit societies from a Catholic social movement, as well as the evolution of a true Catholic workers movement comprising a variety of social, cultural and financial organizations. Biographical sketches of the key figures within the Catholic workers' movement figure throughout this richly illustrated work.

Jaumain, Serge. Les petits commerçants belges face à la modernité (1880-1914). [Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres CV, Histoire.] Editions de l'Úniversité de Bruxelles, Bruxelles 1995. 321 pp. B.fr. 1300.00; F.fr. 240.00.
In the period 1880-1914 the owners of small businesses in Belgium, like their counterparts in other West-European countries, experienced sweeping economic and social changes: the establishment of large department stores, branches and co-operative shops. During this same period the political authorities began to address the social problems facing owners of small businesses. This revised doctoral thesis (Free University Brussels, 1992) examines the group's reaction to the trend of modernization, which involved a struggle for legislation to preserve fair competition, the formation of joint organizations to protect group interests and the adaptation of individual companies to accommodate new market demands.

Lis, Catharina and Hugo Soly. Disordered Lives. Eighteenth-Century Families and their Unruly Relatives. Polity Press, Cambridge 1996. x, 230 pp. Ill. £39.50.
See M.P.C. van der Heijden's review in this volume, pp. 92-95.

Vanschoenbeek, Guy. Novecento in Gent. De wortels van de sociaal-democratie in Vlaanderen. Hadewijch, Antwerpen [etc.]; AMSAB, Gent 1995. 271 pp. Ill. B.fr. 990.00.
This revision of a dissertation (Ghent, 1992) covers the origins and development of the social-democratic movement in Ghent from its emergence in the 1870s until World War I. Following a chronological overview, the late Dr Vanschoenbeek focuses on the second part of the social-democratic network of associations in daily practice. Most of this study uses a prosopographic approach to highlight the main actors within the social-democratic movement: the rank-and file, the executives and the leadership, including the famous Edward Anseele.

Czech Republic

Weg von Österreich! Das Weltkriegsexil von Masaryk und Beneš im Spiegel ihrer Briefe und Aufzeichnungen aus den Jahren 1914 bis 1918. Eine Quellensammlung. Ausgewählt, übers. und hrsg. von Frank Hadler. [Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte Osteuropas, Band 34.] Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1995. 579 pp. DM 168.00.
"Austria is the enemy, abandon Austria!" This was the motto of Tomáš G. Masaryk (1850-1937) and Edvard Beneš (1884-1948) in the quest they began in 1914-1915 for maximum autonomy for the Czech nation. This source publication contains two hundred letters and memos about the national issue of Masaryk and Beneš that remained inaccessible to the public from World War I until recently. The Czech texts are published alongside German translations. An extensive index has been appended.


Christensen, Lars K. Smedesvend og friherre. Maskinarbejde og arbejderkultur i København 1889-1914. [Skriftserie 36.] Selskabet til Forskning i Arbejderbevægelsens Historie, København 1995. Ill.
The quarter century covered by this book entailed a major change in the history of Danish labour. Thousands of small farmers, agricultural labourers and artisans became industrial workers. This book reviews the emergence of the modern industrial work culture, focusing on the machine industry in Copenhagen. It is based mainly on the workers' own memories. The smiths and metalworkers were amongst the pioneers of the trade-union movement, and their organization and attitudes have decisively influenced the labour movement and the construction of Danish industrial society. Two appendices present data about the trade unions concerned and about the conservation of life stories in the Arbejderbevægelsens Bibliotek og Arkiv.

Dalgaard, Niels. Ved demokratiets grænse. Demokratisering af arbejdslivet i Danmark 1919-1994. Selskabet til Forskning i Arbejderbevægelsens Historie, n.p. [København] 1995. 287 pp. D.kr.
This book primarily serves as a comprehensive survey and a review of the many attempts to democratize life on the shop floor in Denmark. It describes the three consecutive waves of democratization from 1919 until 1974 involving proposals from social democrats, trade unions and the radical left to install workers' representation in the enterprises. Other issues affecting the debate in later years were: profit-sharing and the right to joint ownership of the enterprise.

Mikkelsen, Flemming. Radikaliseringen af de offentligt ansatte i Danmark. [SFAH skriftserie nr. 31.] Selskabet til Forskning i Arbejderbevægelsens Historie, København 1994. ix, 195 pp. D.kr. 215.00.
This study about the radicalization of Danish civil servants was published by the Danish Society for Labour History Research. It describes how the civil servants organized themselves after World War II and their successful use of strikes to defend and promote their interests in the past twenty years. The book focuses on trade-union developments and labour conflicts in the postal services, the computer industry, primary education and hospitals. The results are related to negotiations on the labour market and to the opportunities available to civil servants for influencing the Danish economic and political system.

Vad, Hans Jørgen. Påskestrejkerne 1985. Ti dage der rystede Schlüter. [SFAH skriftserie nr. 33.] Selskabet til Forskning i Arbejderbevægelsens Historie, København 1995. 199 pp. Ill. D.kr.
The Eastern mass strike in Denmark of 1985 lasted ten days and shook both the Danish government and the foundations of the trade-union movement. In this study the author analyses causes and effects of the nationwide movement, which arose spontaneously and primarily demanded a reduction of the working week to 35 hours. It is lavishly illustrated with photos. The author has appended a table with data on strikes (numbers of strikes, workers involved, duration) in the period 1941-1993.

Eire - Ireland

Mitchell, Arthur. Revolutionary Government in Ireland. Dáil Éireann, 1919-22. Gill and Macmillan, Dublin 1995. xii, 423 pp. £40.00.
See Emmet O Connor's review in this volume, pp. 103-105.


Kujala, Antti. Venäjän hallitus ja Suomen työväenliike 1899-1905. [Historiallisia Tutkimuksia 194.] SHS, Helsinki 1995. 461 pp. Ill.
This study of the relationship between the Finnish workers' movement and the Russian tsarist government in Finland describes the ideological and political evolution of the Finnish labour movement between 1899, when the Russians ended Finland's autonomy by reducing the status of the Diet, and 1905, when the Russians were forced to restore the country's political autonomy, partly as a consequence of the massive strike that the labour movement successfully organized in the spring. The author submits that while socialism was the Finnish labour movement's theoretical ideology, its practical politics were more nationalist.


Charon-Bordas, Jeannine. Ouvriers et paysans au milieu du XIXe siècle. L'enquête sur le travail de 1848. [La France au fil des siècles.] Publisud, Paris 1995. F.fr. 278.00.
In May 1848 the Assemblée Constituante ordered an official inquiry into agricultural and industrial labour. This book presents a selection of the data produced by the inquiry in an effort to show their wealth and diversity, as well as to cover the entire country in equal measure. The survey consisted of 29 questions and concerned topics such as: vocational training, salaries, standard of living, social security, labour contracts and migration. The editor provides a lengthy introduction in which she summarizes the results of the inquiry and includes the complete inventory of the inquiry papers in the Archives Nationales.

La France ouvrière. Histoire de la classe ouvrière et du mouvement ouvrier français. Sous la dir. de Claude Willard. Tome 1. Des origines à 1920. Tome 2. De 1920 à 1968. Tome 3. De 1968 à nos jours. Les Editions de l'Atelier/Les Editions Ouvrières, Paris 1995. 493 pp.; 368 pp.; 267 pp. Maps. F.fr. 180.00; 180.00; 140.00.
This three-volume textbook provides a comprehensive overview of the history of the French working class and wage labour together with their political representations, ideological systems, movements and organizations and representations in art and literature from the origins in the eighteenth century to the present. The first volume deals with the period from the early eighteenth century to 1920. The authors are Maurice Moissonnier (eighteenth-century origins to 1871), Rolande Trempé (1871-1914), Jean-Louis Robert (1914-1920) and Madeleine Rebérioux (the working class in art and literature). Volume two covers the period 1920-1968 and is written by Claude Willard, Jean Charles, Jacques Girault and Jacques Zwirn (1920-1939), Germaine Willard (1939-1944) and Roger Bourderon, Michel Margairaz and Danielle Tartakowsky (1944-1968). In the third volume René Ballet deals with representations of the working class in art and literature, while Jean Magniadas, Roger Martelli, Georges Pruvost, Danielle Tartakowsky and Serge Wolikow cover the years 1968-1993.

Immigration, vie politique et populisme en banlieue parisienne (fin XIXe-XXe siècles). Sous la dir. de Jean-Paul Brunet. Éditions L'Harmattan, Paris 1995. 398 pp. Maps. F.fr. 190.00.
The seventeen contributions to this volume are based on a colloquium held in Paris in October 1994 on the origins and development of the Parisian banlieues from the end of the nineteenth century, as well as immigration, social problems surrounding unemployment, racism and drug abuse, which appear inextricably linked with these suburbs. Historians, sociologists, geographers and political scientists cover issues such as the different forms and stages of immigration in the banlieues, the emergence of the banlieue rouge (the political dominance of the Communist Party in the suburbs) and the rise of populism and right-wing extremism in recent decades.

Lambert, Pierre-Arnaud. La Charbonnerie Française 1821-1823. Du secret en politique. Presses universitaire[s] de Lyon, Lyon 1995. 139 pp. F.fr. 125.00.
Between 1821 and 1823 a secret society called la Charbonnerie subscribing to liberal politics repeatedly initiated military conspiracies against the French monarchy that had been restored in 1815. This revision of a doctoral thesis (Grenoble, 1985) examines the origins and evolution of la Charbonnerie as an underground political organization.

Louis, Marie-Victoire. Le droit de cuissage. France 1860-1930. Les Editions de l'Atelier/Les Editions Ouvrières, Paris 1994. 319 pp. F.fr. 130.00.
This book, written by the president of the Association européenne contre les violences faites aux femmes au travail, deals with sexual harassment of women at the workplace. Several categories of female workers are discussed, from domestics through factory workers. A wide range of issues related to the problem include legal, political, economic and sociological aspects, labour conditions, sexual segregation of labour, relations between employer and employee and between male and female workers, workers' solidarity and resistance by women (especially strikes). Special attention is devoted to the large 1905 strike in the porcelain industry of Limoges, which was instigated by sexual harassment of women at a specific factory.

Ruby, Marcel. Jean Zay. Député à 27 ans. Ministre à 31 ans. Prisonnier politique à 36 ans. Assassiné à 39 ans. Corsaire, Orléans 1994. 415 pp. Ill. F.fr. 150.00.
This is a biography of Jean Zay (1904-1944), based on the author's doctoral thesis published in 1969. Zay is best known as minister of education in the successive cabinets during the Front Populaire (1936-1939), when he initiated fundamental reforms in French primary education. He hoped these reforms would make education more accessible to all classes of the population. After his resigna- tion as a minister to join the French army to participate in the war effort in 1939, he was arrested for dubious reasons and sentenced for desertion in June 1940. In June 1944 he was murdered by members of the resistance under suspicious circumstances, according to the author primarily for racist, anti-Semitic motives.

Les usages politiques des fêtes aux XIXe-XXe siècles. Sous la dir. de Alain Corbin, Noëlle Gérôme [et] Danielle Tartakowsky. [Histoire de la France aux XIXe et XXe siècles, 33.] Publications de la Sorbonne, Paris 1994. 440 pp. F.fr. 150.00.
This collection of thirty communications presented in 1990 at a scholarly meeting in Paris by the most eminent French social historians and dix-neuvièmistes examines the political significance of festivities. Festivities - royal, revolutionary and caesarean, as classified by Alain Corbin in his preface - served to foster legitimacy. The work distinguishes three periods: the festivities of sovereignty in the nineteenth century; the partisan festivities, 1880-1935; and the political festivities, 1936-1981. The contributions deal with national, regional, local, urban and rural festivities, whether organized by the authorities or by the opposition.


Beutin, Wolfgang. Der Demokrat Fritz Reuter. [Mecklenburger Profile, Band 2.] von Bockel Verlag, Hamburg 1995. 145 pp. Ill. DM 39.80.
This is a biography of the German author Fritz Reuter (1810-1874), a leading nineteenth-century literary writer in Low German. While studying, Reuter joined the student movement that espoused a democratic political perspective. In 1833 he was arrested for this membership and imprisoned until 1840. His highly autobiographical work conveys a very contemporary impression of the peasantry and petit bourgeoisie in Mecklenburg in this period. This biography focuses on the democratic political ideas that can be gleaned from his work.

Feste und Feiern. Zum Wandel städtischer Festkultur in Leipzig. Hrsg. von Katrin Keller. Edition Leipzig, Leipzig 1994. Ill. DM 78.00.
The twenty contributions to this collection highlight the progression from the city of Leipzig's tradition of celebrations from the sixteenth century till the Wende of 1989. The topics covered by the contributions address include the anniversaries of the Reformation in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Siegfried Hoyer), the centennials of the invention of the printing press (Hartmut Zwahr), trade union and workers' union festivals in the 1890s (Jutta Seidel), aspects of Jewish festivities between 1925 and 1932 (Solvejg Höppner), national-socialist occasions (Andreas Dornheim) and the celebrations of the establishment of the German Democratic Republic (Monika Gibas and Rainer Gries).

Giesler, Horst. "Arbeitersportler schlagt Hitler!". Das Ende der Arbeitersportbewegung im Volksstaat Hessen. [Arbeiterkultur und Arbeiterbewegung, Band 31.] Lit, Münster [etc.] 1995. 270 pp. Ill. DM 58.80.
After Hitler's seizure of power German sports were rapidly absorbed in the national-socialist regime's political ideology. The German workers sports movement became one of the first victims of the Nazi sports policy. This dissertation (Gießen, 1994) examines the final phase of workers sports organizations in the region of Hessen for a selection of sports associations to reveal the consequences of the national-socialist sports policy at the grassroots level.

Hübner, Peter. Konsens, Konflikt und Kompromiß. Soziale Arbeiterinteressen und Sozialpolitik in der SBZ/DDR 1945-1970. [Zeithistorische Studien, Band 3.] Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1995. 247 pp. DM 68.00.
Despite the importance of industrial workers in East-German society, historical research has devoted little attention to political and social conditions and the conduct of industrial workers. This study aims to compensate for the shortcoming by considering the everyday political and social experience and the interests of industrial workers in state-owned enterprises in East Germany in the period after 1945. Focusing primarily on the material conditions and protection of interests among industrial workers, Dr Hübner deals with issues like rates of pay, working hours, consumption and housing, labour disputes and the daily organization of work in Produktionsbrigaden.

Jacobeit, Sigrid und Wolfgang Jacobeit. Illustrierte Alltags- und Sozialgeschichte Deutschlands 1900-1945. Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster 1995. 423 pp. DM 98.00.
This large and richly illustrated textbook can be considered the concluding sequel in the series Illustrierte Alltagsgeschichte des deutschen Volkes, of which the first two volumes (1550-1810 and 1810-1900) appeared in 1986 (see IRSH, XXXII (1987), p. 99) and 1987. As in the other volumes, a general overview of the main political, social and economic trends precedes the description of the changes in German everyday life. Completion of this textbook series based on Jürgen Kuczynski's series Geschichte des Alltags des deutschen Volkes was delayed by circumstances including the practical problems surrounding die Wende. The authors comment on the recent developments in Germany in an epilogue.

Kösters, Christoph. Katholische Verbände und moderne Gesellschaft. Organisationsgeschichte und Vereinskultur im Bistum Münster 1918 bis 1945. [Veröffentlichungen der Kommission für Zeitgeschichte, Reihe B: Forschungen, Band 68.] Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn [etc.] 1995. 684 pp. DM 98.00.
The extensive network of Catholic associations and leagues that largely permeated daily life within this denomination was an important institution in Germany's Catholic culture between 1850 and 1950. Focusing on the diocese of Münster, this dissertation (Munich, 1995) examines Catholic associations from 1918 to 1945, including the Catholic youth and workers associations. Dr Kösters describes their origins and evolution, their daily business and the changes in structure and outlook that took place during the Weimar and Nazi eras. According to the author, the comparative examination of Catholic associations in urban and rural regions sheds new light on the possibilities and restrictions of oppositional behaviour in the Third Reich.

Krausnick, Michail. Wo sind sie hingekommen? Der unterschlagene Völkermord an den Sinti und Roma. Bleicher Verlag, Gerlingen 1995. 251 pp. Ill. DM 34.00; S.fr. 33.00; S 252.00.
This book reviews recent historical research (especially German studies) about the persecution of the Sinti and Roma in Nazi Germany, preceded by five case studies of Sinti and Roma victims of Nazi terror. Dr Krausnick uses Nazi source material and interviews with survivors to reconstruct, among others, the fates of German boxing champion Johann Trollmann, who was stripped of his title after 1933 and murdered in Auschwitz because of his gypsy heritage and the story of 39 Sinti children who were transported directly from a Catholic children's home to Auschwitz with collaboration from the Catholic Church.

Kultur und Krieg: Die Rolle der Intellektuellen, Künstler und Schriftsteller im Ersten Weltkrieg. Hrsg. von Wolfgang J. Mommsen unter Mitarb. von Elisabeth Müller-Luckner. [Schriften des Historischen Kollegs: Kolloquien, Band 34.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 1996. ix, 282 pp. Ill. DM 98.00.
The eighteen essays in this collection focus on the attitudes of cultural elites during World War I. The work explores four disciplines: the social sciences, historiography, visual art and literature. It includes essays about Georg Simmel (Patrick Watier), Werner Sombart (Friedrich Lenger), Friedrich Meinecke (Stefan Meineke), Otto Dix (Dietrich Schubert) and Eugen Diederichs (Gangolf Hübinger), as well more general analyses by authors including Hans Joas, Peter Paret, Jürgen von Ungern-Sternberg and Thomas Anz.

Requate, Jörg. Journalismus als Beruf. Entstehung und Entwicklung des Journalistenberufs im 19. Jahrhundert. Deutschland im internationalen Vergleich. [Kritische Studien zur Geschichtswissenschaft, Band 109.] Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1995. 500 pp. DM 78.00.
This dissertation (FU Berlin, 1994) highlights the emancipation of journalism from politics and the concurrent professionalization of journalists as an occupational group. The author provides an extensive reconstruction of the changes in Germany from the late eighteenth century until World War I and compares them with the course of events in the United States, Britain and France.

Ritter, Gerhard A. Arbeiter, Arbeiterbewegung und soziale Ideen in Deutschland. Beiträge zur Geschichte des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts. Verlag C.H. Beck, München 1996. 400 pp. Maps. DM 98.00; S.fr. 92.00; S 725.00.
Professor Gerhard A. Ritter is one of the most prominent German labour historians. This collection comprises ten of his essays from the period 1976-1994. The texts focus on the history of the German social democratic labour movement from the revolution of 1848-1849 until the Third Reich.

Schmädeke, Jürgen. Wählerbewegung im Wilhelminischen Deutschland. Erster Band. Die Reichstagswahlen von 1890 bis 1912: Eine historisch-statistische Untersuchung. Mit einem Vorwort von Peter Steinbach. Zweiter Band. Die Reichstagswahlen von 1890 bis 1912: Wahlergebnisse und Strukturen im Kartenbild. Digitale Kartographie: Brigitte Fust und Dirk Leggen. Fachliche Beratung: Hartmut Asche und Marina Rösler. [Publikationen der Historischen Kommission zu Berlin.] Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1995. xxxvi, 1000 pp.; 20 pp., 32 loose-leaf maps. DM 475.00 per 2 vols.
This impressive study of historical statistics deals with electoral changes in Germany, 1890-1912. The first volume reconstructs the changing support base of the assorted political parties (social and regional backgrounds, etc.), while the second volume features 32 maps in colour that substantiate the argument.

Schröder, Wilhelm Heinz. Sozialdemokratische Parlamentarier in den deutschen Reichs- und Landtagen 1867-1933. Biographien, Chronik, Wahldokumentation. Ein Handbuch. [Handbücher zur Geschichte des Parlamentarismus und der politischen Parteien, Band 7.] Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 1995. 1097 pp. Ill. DM 248.00.
Dr Schröder, whose previous publications include a biographical-statistical guide to German social-democratic candidates and delegates to the Reichstag, 1898-1918 (see IRSH, XXXII (1987), p. 295), continues his research in this monumental biographical guide to German social-democratic members of parliament in the Reichstag and the Landtage, 1867-1903. In addition to some seven hundred biographical sketches, the present publication includes prosopographic studies (resulting in the description of "typical" biographies), extensive electoral data and twelve indexes.

Schwartz, Michael. Sozialistische Eugenik. Eugenische Sozialtechnologien in Debatten und Politik der deutschen Sozialdemokratie 1890-1933. [Reihe Politik- und Gesellschaftsgeschichte, Band 42.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 1995. 367 pp. DM 58.00; S.fr. 58.00; S 453.00.
This study explores the attitude of German social democracy toward eugenics in the period 1890-1933. The author focuses first on the issue of principal compati- bility between socialism and eugenics, searches for the representatives of eugenic ideology within German social-democracy in this period and seeks to establish the influence of these ideas on the health and healthcare policy, demographic policy and reforms in criminal justice pursued by the social-democratic members of parliament.

Stato e società durante il Terzo Reich. Il contributo di ricerca di Martin Broszat e dell'Institut für Zeitgeschichte. A cura di Claudio Natoli. [Studi e ricerche storiche, 180.] FrancoAngeli, Milano 1993. 250 pp. L 38.000.
This volume is a collection of the papers presented at a scholarly meeting on "German society during the Third Reich. The contribution of research by Martin Broszat and the Institut für Zeitgeschichte" held in Rome in 1990. The contributing historians were German, British, Italian, Polish and Israeli. The seven essays in the first part deal with the results of the most recent historiography on the Nazi era. The four essays in the second part focus on the work of Martin Broszat and the Institut für Zeitgeschichte in Munich. This Italian translation of the German edition is supplemented by an introductory essay by Timothy W. Mason on the interpretations of national socialism and a paper by Enzo Collotti on Von Hassel's diaries.

Stöver, Bernd. Berichte über die Lage in Deutschland. Die Lagemeldungen der Gruppe Neu Beginnen aus dem Dritten Reich 1933-1936. [Archiv für Sozialgeschichte, Beiheft 17.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 1996. lxvi, 756 pp. DM 120.00.
From December 1933 until September 1936 the illegal leftist socialist group Neu Beginnen (led initially by Walter Loewenheim/Lowe and subsequently by Richard Löwenthal) published "Updates on the situation in Germany". These eighteen lengthy documents conveying a unique impression of the social situation in the early Third Reich have been gathered in the present source publication by Dr Bernd Stöver, who has already proven his expertise in this area (see IRSH, 39 (1994), pp. 312f.). Indexes of names, places and companies have been appended.

Wehler, Hans-Ulrich. Die Gegenwart als Geschichte. Essays. Verlag C.H. Beck, München 1995. 304 pp. DM 48.00.
This volume contains twenty recent essays by the German social historian Hans-Ulrich Wehler. They address three complexes: "Modernization Theory and Societal History", "German Nationalism" and "Present-Day Controversies".

Great Britain

Barrow, Logie [and] Ian Bullock. Democratic ideas and the British Labour movement, 1880-1914. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1996. ix, 326 pp. £40.00; $69.95.
See Mark Bevir's review in this volume, pp. 108-110.

Ethnic Labour and British Imperial Trade: A History of Ethnic Seafarers in the UK. Ed. by Diane Frost. Frank Cass, London 1995. v, 146 pp. £19.50.
This collection of seven essays examines the role of ethnic labour drawn from Britain's colonies in West Africa, the Middle East and Asia in British maritime history. Themes addressed include race and ethnicity, colonialism and migration, social class and the complex nature of racial hostility meted out by organized white labour. Contributors include Norma Myers, Dick Lawless, Neil Evans, David Byrne, Tony Lane and Marika Sherwood.

Green, David R. From Artisans to Paupers: Economic Change and Poverty in London, 1790-1870. Scolar Press, Aldershot [etc.] 1995. xvii, 298 pp. Ill. Maps. £45.00.
In the first half of the nineteenth century profound changes in the manufacturing and service sectors in London caused impoverishment among large sections of the workforce, coupled with significant movement of population within the city. As a result the capacity of the city's welfare to provide relief was seriously undermined. Aiming to link the everyday activities of London's working class with the long-term processes that shaped the city's social, economic and administrative structures, this study examines the impact of the economic change on social polarization, provision of welfare and the city's social geography.

Holton, Sandra Stanley. Suffrage Days. Stories from the women's suffrage movement. Routledge, London [etc.] 1996. Ill. £50.00. (Paper: £16.99.)
Suffrage Days is an account of the British suffrage movement from its inception until its victory in 1918. It is based on the activities of seven individuals who participated in the British suffrage movement: Elizabeth Wolstenholme Elmy, Jessie Craigen, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Hannah Mitchell, Mary Gawthorpe, Laurence Housman and Alice Clark. Through their perspectives Dr Holton reveals a Radical-Liberal current in the nineteenth-century suffrage movement.

Humphreys, Robert. Sin, Organized Charity and the Poor Law in Victorian England. Macmillan, Basingstoke; St. Martin's Press, New York 1995. xii, 226 pp. £45.00.
In the second half of the Victorian era (1870-1890) a new form of charity organization arose in England, commonly known as the Charity Organisation Societies (COS). They started in London and subsequently extended to the provinces. The societies originated from the crusade against outdoor relief. This study's argues mainly that - contrary to their self-created image - the provincial COS were inefficient and anachronistic in coordinating poor relief, had persistent problems with funding and in recruiting helpers and were generally rebuffed by persons already active in charity work, such as Poor Law guardians, charitable bodies, clergy and even the poor themselves.

Hunt, Karen. Equivocal feminists. The Social Democratic Federation and the woman question 1884-1911. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1996. xiii, 296 pp. £35.00; $54.95.
A detailed examination of the relationship between socialism and feminism within the Social Democratic Federation, Britain's first Marxist party, is contained in the present revised doctoral thesis (Manchester, 1988). Dr Hunt reassesses the history of the SDF by exploring SDF ideas and practice on issues such as marriage and "free love", women and work and suffrage. She also considers the party's attitudes toward women as potential socialists, its understanding of women's politicization and the role women assumed within the party.

Inglis, Fred. Raymond Williams. Routledge, London [etc.] 1995. xx, 333 pp. £19.99.
This is the first major biography of Raymond Williams (1921-1988), one of the important twentieth-century intellectuals of the British Left and the author of classics such as Culture and Society (1958) and The Long Revolution (1961). Professor Inglis has largely based himself on interviews with people who knew Williams at the various stages in his professional and personal life and relates the story of his life as the story of the British intellectual Left during the epoch of world wars, cold war and afterwards.

Kershen, Anne J. Uniting the Tailors. Trade Unionism amongst the Tailoring Workers of London and Leeds, 1870-1939. Frank Cass, Ilford 1995. xxi, 226 pp. Ill. £32.50. (Paper: £16.00.)
This book compares and contrasts the growth of the tailoring industry in London and Leeds in the period 1870-1939 and evaluates the contribution of Jewish immigrants to the trade and to the labour movement within the trade. Dr Kershen concludes that English and Jewish activists in Leeds overcame anti-alienism and anti-Semitism early on, but that in London the small-scale industrial structure, the composition of the workforce and the relationships between and within different ethnic groups and skills, as well as the weak leadership within the various unions, precluded an early amalgamation.

McSheffrey, Shannon. Gender and Heresy. Women and Men in Lollard Communities, 1420-1530. [Middle Ages Series.] University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 1995 [recte 1996.] xiii, 253 pp. $38.95. (Paper: $18.95.)
Although much recent scholarship has contended that heresies offered medieval women opportunities for religious and social expression that they could not find in orthodoxy, Professor McSheffrey argues in this study of the late medieval English heretics (the Lollards) that this movement provided no such outlet. Analysing the activities, relationships and beliefs of the individuals who made up the Lollard movement, she emphasizes how complex interactions between socio- economic status, gender identities and religious culture shaped participation in religious movements.

Tilly, Charles. Popular Contention in Great Britain 1758-1834. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1995. xvii, 476pp. Ill. $49.95; £31.50.
See John Belchem's review in this volume, pp. 105-108.

Woodward, Donald. Men at Work. Labourers and building craftsmen in the towns of northern England, 1450-1750. [Cambridge Studies in Population, Economy and Society in Past Time 26.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xv, 315 pp. £35.00; $59.95.
Focusing on the building trade in northern England in the period 1450-1750, this study considers the variations in wages and living standards allied to studies of individual towns. Professor Woodward addresses conditions in the building trades, levels of remuneration, characteristics of the life-cycles of male and female workers, gender differences in work and relationships with employers.


Lampland, Martha. The Object of Labor. Commodification in Socialist Hungary. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago [etc.] 1995. xv, 394 pp. Ill. $39.95; £31.95. (Paper: $17.95; £14.25.)
In this historical ethnographic study of the collectivization of agriculture in a Hungarian rural community, Professor Lampland explores the effects of socialist policies forcefully imposed on communities. She argues that this process of collectivization transformed labour practices and altered the conceptions of time, money and morality in the Hungarian countryside, thereby commodifying labour and fostering commodity fetishism. The author argues that although the transition to capitalism in Hungary was well under way by the 1930s, the policies of the socialist state significantly furthered the process.


Berti, Giampietro. Francesco Saverio Merlino. Dall'anarchismo socialista al socialismo liberale (1856-1930). [Collana di Fondazione di studi storici Filippo Turati, 10.] FrancoAngeli, Milano 1993. 428 pp. L. 55.000.
This biography is dedicated to the political, cultural and intellectual life of Francesco Saverio Merlino (1856-1930), who was among the leading actors of Italian socialism. The author reconstructs the complex transition from revolutionary anarchism to a liberal form of socialism that Merlino accomplished in the course of his life. He also assesses the historical and ideological significance of his deeds and thoughts, placing them in their political, social and cultural contexts.

Bonomi, Ivanoe. Le vie nuove del socialismo. A cura di Roberto Chiarini. [Biblioteca di storia contemporanea, Testi e Documenti, 4.] Piero Lacaita Editore, Manduria [etc.] 1992. 282 pp. L. 30.000.
The first edition of "New roads of socialism" was published in 1907. Bonomi (1873-1951) was initially an orthodox marxist but eventually became a liberal democrat after passing through a revisionist phase. In this book he launched a theoretical and programmatic manifesto of reformist socialism that aimed to discard the old ideological apparatus and adapt socialism to the modern world, especially to parliamentary democracy. In the preface to the second edition (1944), included here, he states that this book may help the young, postwar generations choose reformist rather than revolutionary socialism. The publication begins with an extensive introduction by Professor Chiarini. A short biographical sketch and a bibliographical note are appended.

Costanza, Salvatore. Dai Fasci Siciliani al socialismo rurale. Ricerche e documenti. [Letture di storia, 2.] Istituto per la Storia del Risorgimento Italiano, n.p. [Trapani] 1996. 166 pp. Ill. L.
The three essays assembled in this volume, all previously published, are intended to enlighten the reader about and to provide a selective historical revision of the past of the Fasci dei lavoratori (1893), which has been subject to ideological and doctrinary interpretations for half a century. The themes treated are: "Workers' solidarity in the Sicily of the Fasci"; "After the Fasci: towards reformism"; and "The peasants' strike of 1901". An appendix regarding the last subject contains a selection of the correspondence of Nunzio Nasi (a contemporary specialist on the Sicilian agrarian issue) and notes and reports by the Sicilian police. Each essay features particularly elaborate notes.

Franceschi, Franco. Oltre il "Tumulto". I lavoratori fiorentini dell'Arte della Lana fra Tre e Quattrocento. [Studi e documenti, 38.] Leo S. Olschki Editore, Firenze 1993. xi, 375 pp. L. 47.000.
The present study is an economic and social history of the wool industry and its workers in Florence during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The workers in this industry fascinate most historians because of their prominence in the social strife leading to the revolt ("Tumulto") of the ciompi (guildless workers) in 1378. This study is a more in-depth exploration of the subject. The themes addressed include changes in trade and industry, production organization, the labour force, salaries of artisans and workers in the workshops, labour conditions in the workshops, standards of living and sociability.

Matteotti, Giacomo. Sul riformismo. A cura di Stefano Caretti. Nistri-Lischi, Pisa 1992. 397 pp. L. 35.000.
In this collection Professor Caretti, the editor of Giacomo Matteotti's works [see IRSH, XXIX (1984), pp. 293-4 and XXXI (1986), p. 360], presents a chronological arrangement of the speeches delivered by Matteotti in Parliament, the Provincial Council of Rovigo and two municipal Councils, as well as at socialist congresses from 1901 until 1924, together with his articles in journals, periodicals and publications of the Socialist Party covering reformism. Matteotti, who qualified himself as "reformist because revolutionary", sought to educate the masses, organize cooperatives, and thus reinforce popular socialist awareness. The editor has provided an extensive introduction and an index of names.

Matteotti. Il mito. A cura di Stefano Caretti. Nistri-Lischi, Pisa 1994. 412 pp. L. 35.000.
"I have your husband's photograph in my bedroom; I keep a candle burning, and I always pray for him [...]". This message and many similar ones were sent to Giacomo Matteotti's widow, his mother and the Italian Socialist Party after his assassination by fascists in 1924. Professor Caretti has compiled these mostly unpublished documents and has arranged them by sender (e.g. political parties, trade unions, friends, victims of fascism) and by terms reflecting the mythical figure that Matteotti had become (e.g. Christ, apostle, hero). The last part deals with fascist reactions to this cult. The editor has provided an introduction and an index of names.

Merli, Stefano. I socialisti, la guerra, la nuova Europa. Dalla Spagna alla Resistenza 1936/1942. [Biblioteca Socialista, 1.] Fondazione Anna Kuliscioff, Milano 1993. 347 pp. L. 50.000.
The Spanish Civil War and World War II forced the Italian socialists to abandon pacifism, define a strategy for the Resistance and prepare for the postwar period. Professor Merli discusses the history of the debate within the exiled leadership of the Partito socialista italiano (Psi) in the first part of this book. The next part contains the papers known as the "Theses of Toulouse" (1941-1942), in which Nenni, Saragat, Silone and others expounded their points of view. This part is followed by the ensuing discussion papers. The publication concludes with the five issues of the illegal journal Il Nuevo Avanti published by Nenni.

Neri Serneri, Simone. Classe, partito, nazione. Alle origini della democrazia italiana 1919-1948. [Società e cultura, 6.] Piero Lacaita Editore, Manduria [etc.] 1995. 298 pp. L. 25.000.
This study reinterprets the history of democracy in Italy in the light of the primary forms of political identification of class, party and nation. From the end of World War I until fascism and from the Resistance until the birth of the First Republic, the existence of mass parties and the antithesis between class solidarity and the primacy of the state have instigated the bitter conflicts that have characterized Italian history. The author deals with the following themes: "Party government' and the origins of fascism"; "Liberalism and mass society. The political thought of Carlo Rosselli"; "Tradition and opposition: the first May under fascism"; and "From fascism to the republic: national identity and mass parties".

Pertini, Sandro. Scritti e discorsi di Sandro Pertini. A cura di Simone Neri Serneri, Antonio Casali, Giovanni Errera. Direzione scientifica: Fondazione di Studi Storici "Filippo Turati". Vol. I. 1926-1978. Vol. II. 1964-1985. Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri, n.p. n.d. xxxii, 656 pp.; xvi, 393 pp.
This two-volume collection of the writings and speeches by the Italian socialist Sandro Pertini was published under the scholarly supervision of the Fondazione di studi storici "Filippo Turati", an organization of which Pertini was the first president. Selected - partly unpublished - letters have been included, dating from his years of imprisonment and exile. The first volume, which covers the years from 1926 to 1978, presents the writings and speeches by Pertini the politician and socialist. The second (1964-1985) contains only the speeches he delivered as vice president and president of the Camera dei Deputati and as president of the Republic. The introduction by Giuliano Vassalli places the texts in their historical context.

Pischel, Giuliano. Antologia della Critica Sociale 1891-1926. A cura di Gaetano Arfè. [Biblioteca di storia contemporanea, Testi e Documenti, 3.] Piero Lacaita editore, Manduria [etc.] 1992. xxxiv, 629 pp. L. 40.000.
Critica Sociale, a bi-weekly that appeared from 1891 till 1926, was published by Filippo Turati and Anna Kuliscioff. It was the authoritative voice of the reformist current in the Partito socialista italiano (PSI). This edition of the anthology, which was first published in 1945, marks the centennial of the PSI. Collaboration between representative figures from contemporary socialism and Italian culture has resulted in this overview of political and social life in Italy during those years. The book presents the articles in chronological order. In addition to a chronological index, a subject index and an author index are appended.

Rapone, Leonardo. Da Turati a Nenni. Il socialismo italiano negli anni del fascismo. FrancoAngeli, Milano 1992. 345 pp. L. 42.000.
The years under fascism were a formative period for the future postwar leadership of the Partito socialista italiano (PSI). The experiences in struggle and exile greatly influenced the personality and behaviour of these individuals. The present study reconstructs the principal aspects of the activities in exile of Pietro Nenni, portrayed in this work as the most representative socialist leader of the period. The author also traces the development of his political ideology through the debates in the international socialist movement, the Italian anti-fascist emigration and the ordeal of the events leading up to World War II (e.g. the Spanish Civil War). In his introduction Professor Rapone discusses issues concerning interpretation and method of the Italian socialist and anti-fascist experience.

Rosselli, Carlo. Scritti politici e autobiografici. Con pref. di Gaetano Salvemini. A cura di Zeffiro Ciuffoletti e Vincenzo Caciulli. [Biblioteca di storia contemporanea, Testi e Documenti, 5.] Piero Lacaita Editore, Manduria [etc.] 1992. 190 pp. L. 15.000.
This is a reprint of a collection of political and autobiographical writings by Carlo Rosselli, published by Gaetano Salvemini in Naples shortly after the city was liberated in 1944. This book explicitly aimed to enlighten the younger generations of Southern Italy about this courageous, anti-fascist leader, who was murdered during his exile in France by a gang of French fascists in 1937. An introductory, bibliographical essay traces the role of Rosselli and his writings in Italian historical and political literature over the past fifty years. Two short notes at the end of the book provide a biographical and bibliographical sketch of Rosselli.

Turati, Filippo. Le vie maestre del socialismo. A cura di Rodolfo Mondolfo e Gaetano Arfè. [Biblioteca di storia contemporanea, Testi e Documenti, 2.] Piero Lacaita editore, Manduria [etc.] 1992. 493 pp. L. 35.000.
"Main roads of socialism" by R. Mondolfo was first published in 1921. It contained speeches delivered at party congresses since 1902 by Turati (1857-1932), who was a skilled platform speaker. The second edition, prepared by Professor Arfè in 1966 (see IRSH, XI (1966), p. 505), included speeches and other documents from later years. The selection demonstrated Turati's relation to the party and the changes in his political ideology. The introduction by R. Mondolfo discusses Turati's role during the first decade of the party's existence (1892-1902). Explanatory notes from the editors and articles by Turati in Critica Sociale intersperse the texts. This third edition was published in the centennial year of the party's foundation and contains a short bibliographical reference on Turati.

Verso l'Italia dei partiti. Gli anni della formazione del Psi. A cura di Maurizio Degl'Innocenti. Scritti di: P. Audenino, P.L. Ballini, M. Barni [e a.] FrancoAngeli, Milano 1993. vii, 345 pp. L. 45.000.
The contributions to this book were discussed at a scholarly gathering in Siena organized by the Foundation for Historical Studies "F. Turati" in 1992 as part of a more comprehensive initiative on the theme "Society and politics in Italy in the era of the formation of the Italian Socialist Party". One of the objectives was to advance the work of a new generation of historians of socialism without party links and greater concern for European cultural developments. After initially dealing with European and Italian party formation, most contributions address the Partito socialista italiano (PSI) and its ideology in relation to various social, economic and cultural developments around the turn of the century.

The Netherlands

Verrips, Ger. Dwars, duivels en dromend. De geschiedenis van de CPN 1938-1991. Uitgeverij Balans, Amsterdam 1995. xi, 580 pp. Ill. D.fl. 69.50.
Based on hitherto closed archives of the Party in Amsterdam, the CPSU in Moscow and the Dutch secret services and on interviews with various former members of the party leadership, this study offers a history of the Dutch Communist Party, the Communistische Partij van Nederland (CPN) from 1938, when its long-time leader Paul de Groot assumed control, to its dissolution in 1991. Mr Verrips, who joined the party from 1953 to 1973, emphasizes the party's centralist organizational structure and the imminent authoritarian leadership in explaining the political and social isolation that the party never truly overcame.

Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Haberer, Erich. Jews and revolution in nineteenth-century Russia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xv, 346 pp. £40.00; $59.95.
See Daniel Gutwein's review in this volume, pp. 98-100.

Heller, Leonid [et] Michel Niqueux. Histoire de l'utopie en Russie. [Écriture.] Presses Universitaires de France, Paris 1995. 296 pp. F.fr. 198.00.
From the Middle Ages until the collapse of communism, utopianism has been an influential constant in Russian history and crucial for understanding the subject, according to the authors of this study. They provide a comprehensive overview of ten centuries of Russian utopianism and its impact in religious, political, social and ideological respects. Heller and Niqueux cover Utopianism from both its scientific and its popular and literary origins, as well its theoretical and practical perspectives.

Kotkin, Stephen. Magnetic Mountain. Stalinism as a Civilization. University of California, Berkeley [etc.] 1995. xxv, 639 pp. Ill. Maps. $55.00.
In 1929 a new industrial town on the southern Ural steppes, called Magnitogorsk, or Magnetic Mountain City, was launched by Stalin as the showcase of capitalism's transcendence by socialism. In this study Professor Kotkin renders a detailed account of the efforts to build this model community from the ground up, focusing on the relationship between the ambitions of the state and the aspirations and daily experience of the ordinary individuals, who created and lived what they imagined to be a new civilization. The author argues that the people of Magnitogorsk considered Stalinism the culmination of collective efforts to outshine the French Revolution and realize a Utopia while overcoming the class divisions wrought by nineteenth-century industrialization.

Labour Relations in Transition. Wages, Employment and Industrial Conflict in Russia. Ed. by Simon Clarke. [Management and Industry in Russia Series.] Edward Elgar, Cheltenham [etc.] 1996. x, 282 pp. £49.95.
The present collection of eleven essays on changing labour relations in contemporary Russia results in part from a larger project on transitions within Russian enterprises (see also IRSH, 40 (1995), p. 180). The papers reflect three main themes: the struggle for control within the enterprise; the restructuring of employment and formation of a labour market; and strikes. Contributions include "Foremen: An Ethnographic Investigation" (Marina Ilyina), "How to Survive on a Russian's Wage" (Sergei Alasheev and Marina Kiblitskaya), the labour market in the mining town of Anzhero-Sudzhensk (Inna Donova), and "Underground Miners' Strikes" (Petr Bizyukov).

Minczeles, Henri. Histoire générale du Bund. Un mouvement révolutionnaire juif. austral, Paris 1995. 526 pp. Ill. F.fr. 190.00.
See Nathan Weinstock's review in this volume, pp. 100-102.

Read, Christopher. From Tsar to Soviets. The Russian people and their revolution, 1917-21. UCL Press, London 1996. vi, 330 pp. £12.95.
In keeping with the revisionist scholarship of the past twenty years this interpretation of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and its aftermath no longer focuses on the struggle between the Bolsheviks and the counterrevolutionary right but stresses the activity of ordinary people as rational participants in the revolution in their own right. The revolution from below coincided with the Bolshevik aim of setting up a soviet-based government in October. Thereafter the Bolshevik leadership diverged from the masses. Although this leadership certainly incorporated an important part of the popular revolution, it turned a blind eye to other aspects and violently repressed aspects that it neither liked nor understood.

Rees, E.A. Stalinism and Soviet Rail Transport, 1928-41. [Studies in Soviet History & Society.] Macmillan, Basingstoke; St. Martin's Press, New York 1996. xiv, 307 pp. £47.50.
The present monograph focuses on the Role of the People's Commissariat of Ways of Communications (Narkomput) in shaping Soviet rail transport policy in the 1930s. The book draws on primary and secondary sources and analyses the role of institutional lobbies in shaping policy. It examines the fluctuating fortunes of the railways during the First, Second and Third Five-Year Plans, discusses the impact of the Stakhanovite movement and explores the background to the Great Purges on the railways.

Reform in modern Russian history. Progress or cycle? Ed. and transl. by Theodore Taranovski with the assistance of Peggy McInerny. [Woodrow Wilson Center Series.] Woodrow Wilson Center Press, Washington; Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xiii, 436 pp. £40.00; $59.95.
This collection of 24 essays provides cross-chronological comparisons of reform in modern Russian history. Drawn from contributions to a conference sponsored by the Kennan Institute for Advanced Russian Studies in 1990, the book raises methodological and historiographic questions regarding the content, scope and significance of various reform efforts, ranging from the Great Reforms of Tsar Alexander II to attempts to salvage the Soviet system undertaken by Khrushchev and Gorbachev. Most authors interpret the subsequent reforms as a long-term progressive trend.

Weber, Max. The Russian Revolutions. Transl. and Ed. by Gordon C. Wells and Peter Baehr. Polity Press, Cambridge 1995. viii, 287 pp. £39.50.
This English translations contains four essays by Max Weber about the Russian revolutions of 1905-1906 and 1917: "Bourgeois Democracy in Russia" (1906; shortened), "Russia's Transition to Pseudo-constitutionalism" (1906), "Russia's Transition to Pseudo-democracy" (1917) and "The Russian Revolution and the Peace" (1917). The editors have provided a substantial introduction.


Castillo, Santiago y Luis Enrique Alonso. Proletarios de cuello blanco. La Federación Española de Trabajadores del Crédito y las Finanzas (1930-1936). UGT, Centro de Estudios Historicos, n.p. [Madrid] 1994. viii, 324 pp. Ptas.
This is the history of the socialist trade-union of bank employees in Spain before the Civil War. In the first part the authors trace the rise of the union, using a wide array of printed sources: the integration of the Catalan union into the national one, the extension of its membership from private banks to the whole financial sector and the transformation of the union's official ideology from professionalism to class syndicalism. They subsequently study the union's ideological discourse and conclude with the collective agreements in the banking sector. These agreements and the union's statutes are published in an appendix.

Gómez Alén, José [e] Víctor Manuel Santidrián Arias. Historia de comisións obreiras de Galicia nos seus documentos. Edicios do Castro, Sada 1996. 415 pp. Ill.
In this bilingual (Castilian and Galician) edition of original documents the editors review Galician Comisiones Obreras (workers' commissions) from their foundation in the early 1960s until 1978. The documents selected consist of handbills, bulletins, internal reports and articles from the illegal press. Some are facsimile reproductions. Besides the programmatic and theoretical documents - most issued by the National Assemblies of the Galician Comisiones Obreras - there are items concerning actual labour conflicts. Other texts are from related organizations that affected the Commissions, such as the Partido Comunista Español. The editors precede each chapter with an introduction and each document with a few prefatory lines.

Sindicalismo y Movimientos Sociales (Siglos XIX-XX). Coord.: Manuel Redero. UGT, Centro de Estudios Historicos, n.p. [Madrid] 1994. vii, 237 pp.
The present book contains a collection of 14 articles, most of which are the text from lectures delivered during a course organized by the University of Salamanca and the socialist Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT). Some texts had been published before. The course was intended as a platform for specialists to expound the general characteristics of syndicalism and social movements in Spain in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and to present recent research findings. Most articles focus on socialist trade-unionism. Other subjects dealt with include the First of May, Catholic syndicalism, the general strike of 1917, the collectivizations during the Civil War and socialist feminism.