Volume 42 part 2 (1997)
Continents and Countries
Canada | Chile | United States of America
China | India | South Korea
- Australia and Oceania
Australia | New Zealand
Austria | Belgium | Czechoslovakia | France | Germany | Great Britain | Italy | Poland | Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics | Spain | Yugoslavia
Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.
SOCIAL THEORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE
Althusser, Louis. Sur la reproduction. Introd. de Jacques Bidet. [Actuel Marx Confrontation.] Presses Universitaires de France, Paris 1995. 316 pp. F.fr. 198.00.
This complete edition of the hitherto unpublished manuscript of Louis Althusser formed the basis for his famous essay "Idéologie et appareils idéologiques d'Etat", published in La Pensée in 1971. In this work the author presents his concept of historic materialism, of the conditions for reproduction of the capitalist society and of the revolutionary struggle to end capitalist society. This edition is based on a second version of the manuscript with several adjustments and additions by Althusser and includes a hitherto unedited appendix and a similarly unpublished postscript entitled "Notes sur le AIE" and dated December 1976.
Boggs, Carl. The Socialist Tradition. From Crisis to Decline. [Revolutionary thought/Radical movements.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1995. xii, 287 pp. £12.99.
Exploring the theoretical origins and historical developments of the socialist tradition from the nineteenth century to the present, Professor Boggs analyzes the causes of the long-term decline of socialism worldwide in the period after World War II. He focuses on the relationship between socialism and democracy (which he labels as difficult) throughout this period and examines radical alternatives to socialism, such as council communism, new social movements and contemporary environmental movements. He attributes the decline largely to the failure of the main currents of socialism to establish a coherent strategy grounded in democratic theory and practice.
Bonner, John. Economic Efficiency and Social Justice. The Development of Utilitarian Ideas in Economics from Bentham to Edgeworth. Edward Elgar, Aldershot [etc.] 1995. vii, 211 pp. £39.95.
This book traces the development of utilitarian economy from the eighteenth to the nineteenth century and examines the links between classical economics and the utilitarians, the influence of utilitarianism on modern welfare economics through a description of the lives and times of the classical utilitarians and their contributions to utilitarianism: Jeremy Bentham, James and John Stuart Mill, William Stanley Jevons, Henry Sidgwick and Francis Ysidro Edgeworth. Dr Bonner has selected seven characteristics (a single overriding objective, consequentialism, welfarism, individualism, equality, aggregation and measurement) and evaluates how close each of the seven utilitarians came to the concept of "classical utilitarianism".
Paladini Musitelli, Marina. Introduzione a Gramsci. Editori Laterza, Bari 1996. v, 210 pp. L. 18.000.
Mrs Paladini Musitelli states that "Socialism and culture", one of the first articles that Gramsci wrote in 1916, provides clues to some of the most original contributions from Gramsci's thought and to the origins of Gramsci's particular interest in the phenomena of the "superstructure", one of his most important contributions to marxian theory. In this introductory essay, the author traces the factors that led Gramsci to question the contemporary concepts of socialism and culture and to propose a completely new relationship between those two realities. She asserts that this association facilitates an understanding of the fundamental problems of Gramscian theory.
The Politics of Social Protest. Comparative Perspectives on States and Social Movements. Ed. by J. Craig Jenkins and Bert Klandermans. [Social Movements, Protest, and Contention.] UCL Press, London 1995. vi, 381 pp. £13.95.
This comparative introduction to social movements aims to develop a critical understanding of the state and to provide a coherent overview of the relationship between protest movements and the formal political system. The twelve contributions analyze the influence of social movements on systems of political representation, primarily in Western democracies, and consider the impact of the structure and development of the state on such protest movements. Several cross-national comparisons are included.
The postmodern turn. New perspectives on social theory. Ed. by Steven Seidman. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. vi, 312 pp. £35.00; $59.95. (Paper: £12.95; $16.95.)
This volume brings together sixteen essays that may easily be included among the most important statements of the postmodern approach to humanities and social sciences. Enclosed are classical essays by authors such as Lyotard, Haraway, Foucault, and Rorty, as well as contributions from well-known theorists in the fields of sociology, anthropology, women's and gay studies, philosophy and history. Among the authors are Judith Butler, Zygmunt Bauman, Nancy Fraser and Linda Nicholson, Joan W. Scott and Lee Edelman.
Rational Choice Marxism. Ed. by Terrell Carver and Paul Thomas. The Pennsylvania University Press, University Park 1995. viii, 338 pp. $45.00. (Paper: $16.95.)
The eleven essays in this collection, three of which are published for the first time, comprise key texts on analytical Marxism, rational choice Marxism and critical responses to these ideologies. Included are, among others, Erik Olin Wright's "What is Analytical Marxism?" (1989), Alan Carling's "Rational Choice Marxism" (1986), with critical responses by Ellen Meiskins Wood and Michael Burawoy, and Adam Przeworski's "Class, Production and Politics" (1989), with critical responses by Desmond King and Mark Wickham-Jones and by Michael Goldfield and Alan Gilbert. Mark E. Warren has contributed an original essay on "Marx and Methodological Individualism".
Stirner, Max. The Ego and Its Own. Ed. by David Leopold. [Cambridge texts in the history of political thought.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xl, 386 pp. £16.95; $22.95.
Max Stirner's famous The Ego and Its Own (first published in 1844), a distinctive polemic against the leftist Hegelianism of individuals such as Ludwig Feuerbach, Bruno Bauer and Moses Hess, contains a nihilistic, anarchistic critique of both liberalism and socialism from an extreme and eccentric individualist perspective. This edition comprises a revised version of Steven Byington's original English translation (which was first published in 1907), together with an introduction and notes on the historical background to Stirner's text.
Verret, Michel. Chevilles ouvrières. Publié avec le concours de Centre National du Livre. Les Éditions de l'Atelier/Les Éditions Ouvrières, Paris 1995. 254 pp. F.fr. 130.00.
The author, a well-known French sociologist of the working class, has assembled 21 previously published and unpublished texts here. He investigates whether the working class still occupies a central place among the general population, the metaphorical meaning of the volume's title being "the central person at home". Professor Verret analyzes the impact on the French working class of three crucial contemporary transformations: globalization, increasing individualism and the new role of leisure.
Ausweisung und Deportation. Formen der Zwangsmigration in der Geschichte. Hrsg. von Andreas Gestrich, Gerhard Hirschfeld [und] Holger Sonnabend. [Stuttgarter Beiträge zur historischen Migrationsforschung, Band 2.] Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 1995. 166 pp. DM 64.00; S.fr. 64.00; S 499.00.
The nine articles in this volume, all originating from two colloquia of the Stuttgarter Arbeitskreis für Historische Migrationforschung (1991 and 1992, respectively), deal with forms of forced migration (i.e. exile and deportation) from the Greek antiquity to the middle of the twentieth century. The topics included are, among others, essays on deportations in antique Greece (Eckart Olshausen), hostages and prisoners of war in the Middle Ages (Martin Kintzinger), deportation of beggars in the early modern period (Robert Jütte), deportation as a theme in nineteenth and twentieth-century German legal theory and politics (Johannes H. Voigt) and a comparison between the deportations of ethnic Germans from Imperial Russia in 1915 with the ones from the Soviet Union in 1941 (Dittmar Dahlmann).
Bauer, Stefan. Ein böhmischer Jude im Exil. Der Schriftsteller Ernst Sommer (1888-1955). [Veröffentlichungen des Collegium Carolinum, Band 79.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 1995. 475 pp. Ill. DM 98.00.
This dissertation (Munich, 1991) is a bibliography in strict chronological sequence of the Jewish Bohemian-German writer and emigre Ernst Sommer (1888-1955) intended to provide a descriptive historical introduction to his life and work. Sommer, author of, among others, the historical novel Revolte der Heilige (Revolt of the Saints) (1944), which describes the fate of the Polish Jews during the Nazi occupation, adhered to a philosophy influenced by the theologist Martin Buber, who believed that religious power derived from the Jewish soul that he secularized into an aesthetic and social-psychological phenomenon which ceased to reflect a concept of divinity and the Jewish faith.
Bolt, Christine. Feminist ferment. "The woman question" in the USA and England, 1870-1940. [Introductions to history.] UCL Press, London 1995. vii, 125 pp. £5.95; $11.95.
This concise textbook offers an introduction to the origins and formative period of the English and American women's movement between 1870 and 1940. Subjects dealt with include the shaping influences of class, race and national identity, the impact of anti-feminist and feminist men, campaigns and ideas, leaders and organizations, allies and enemies, successes and disappointments, and the contrast and similarities between the two women's movements. A bibliography of secondary literature on the subject is appended.
Cunningham, Hugh. Children and Childhood in Western Society since 1500. [Studies in Modern History.] Longman, London [etc.] 1995. vi, 213 pp. £32.00.
In this textbook, Professor Cunningham surveys changing concepts of childhood and the changing experience of being a child in Europe and North America over the last five centuries. He submits that continuity in the actual relations of children and adults is greater than generally allowed in the historiography of childhood and challenges the conventional view that, during the medieval and early modern periods, child mortality was such that parents had little incentive to invest emotionally in their children.
Das Kommunistische Manifest (Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei) von Karl Marx und Friedrich Engels. Von der Erstausgabe zur Leseausgabe. Mit einem Editionsbericht von Thomas Kuczynski. [Schriften aus dem Karl-Marx-Haus, Nr 49.] Karl-Marx-Haus, Trier 1995. ix, 262 pp. DM 38.00.
This book features a new critical edition of the Communist Manifesto, based directly on the first, 23 page edition printed in London in 1848, as well as an extensive editorial commentary by Professor Thomas Kuczynski analysing the origins of the various text variations in the different editions of the Manifesto until 1895. The editorial commentary complements and updates Bert Andreás's Le Manifeste Communiste de Marx et Engels. Histoire et Bibliographie (1963) (see IRSH IX (1964), p. 125f.) and introduces and substantiates his proposal for a new text edition of the Manifesto based on the original first edition instead of on the fourth edition ("Londoner Ausgabe"), previously the most common one.
Revisioning History. Film and the Construction of a New Past. Ed. by Robert A. Rosenstone. [Princeton studies in culture/power/history.] Princeton University Press, Princeton 1995. vii, 255 pp. Ill. $49.50; £40.00. (Paper: $14.95; £12.95.)
In the thirteen contributions to this volume, an international group of historians looks at examples of New History cinema to examine the way historical films recount the past and the rules, codes and strategies used to construct an historical world. The book comprises, among others, essays by Geoff Eley (on Distant Voices, Still Lives), Pierre Sorlin (on Night of the Shooting Stars), Michael S. Roth (on Hiroshima Mon Amour) and Rudy Koshar (on Hitler: A Film from Germany). The introductory framework is provided by Professor Rosenstone, who recently published a collection of his own essays on the historical film entitled Visions of the Past. The Challenge of Film to Our Idea of History (see the annotation below).
Rosenstone, Robert A. Visions of the Past. The Challenge of Film to Our Idea of History. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1995. viii, 271 pp. £21.95. (Paper: £10.50.)
In this collection of ten essays, previously published between 1988 and 1995, Professor Rosenstone investigates possible uses of the visual medium of the history film as a serious vehicle for historical reflection. Exploring the innovative strategies of films made in areas such as Africa, Latin America and Germany, he argues that looking at history films forces us to recast our perception of "history" and deals with issues including the relationship between fact and film and the documentary as a visionary truth.
Rütters, Peter. Der Internationale Bergarbeiterverband 1890 bis 1993. Entwicklung und Politik. Bund-Verlag, Köln 1995. 252 pp. DM 49.90.
The International Miners' Federation (IMF), founded in 1890, is the oldest existing international trade secretariat. This study, published only a year after Karl-Georg Herrmann's Die Geschichte des internationalen Bergarbeiterverbandes 1890-1939 (see IRSH, 40 (1995), p. 330), is an authoritative history of the IMF, covering the entire period from its foundation until 1993. According to Dr Rütters, the central element in the development of the IMF is the national orientation of the affiliated unions. He concludes that although this national orientation limited the operating range available to the IMF, it also provided a power base for the IMF to achieve its goals, especially with respect to improving working conditions.
Sanders, Andrew. A Deed without a Name. The Witch in Society and History. Berg, Oxford [etc.] 1995. xi, 232 pp. £14.95.
This textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to the figure of the witch in a wide range of societies, from classical and medieval Europe to contemporary industrial society. This review of several case studies shows, according to Dr Sanders, that those individuals perceived as threats to the existing power structure are most vulnerable to being labelled as witches. The author argues that this process of "labelling" witches has not changed and remains in use in western societies today for scapegoating minorities and other high-risk groups, such as people with AIDS.
Vis, Sander T.A. Survey of the Archival Sources Concerning Migration and Settlement Held at the IISH. [IISH Research Papers, 16.] IISG, Amsterdam 1995. 148 pp. D.fl. 19.00.
This guide is a sampling of the migration-related materials at the International Institute of Social History (IISH) in Amsterdam. The overview primarily provides information on archival sources on migration at the IISH, although information on emigre press holdings at the IISH is included.
Downs, Laura Lee. Manufacturing Inequality. Gender Division in the French and British Metalworking Industries, 1914-1939. [The Wilder House Series in Politics, History, and Culture.] Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1995. xiv, 329 pp. Ill. $43.95.
This study compares the process whereby employers in French and British metalworking industries introduced women into the hitherto all-male world of metal working from 1914 onward and then reorganized work procedures and managerial structures to accommodate the new workforce. Dr Downs analyzes the transformation of sexual difference from a principle for excluding women into a basis for dividing labour within the newly structured production process, exploring issues such as wage discrimination and occupational segregation, the gendered redefinition of job skills and the implantation of scientific management techniques. She critiques both neoclassical and feminist explanations of gender discrimination in industry.
A miracle mirrored. The Dutch Republic in European Perspective. Ed. by Karel Davids and Jan Lucassen. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xx, 539 pp. Ill. Maps. £
The thirteen essays in this volume explore the issue of the originality of the Dutch Republic from an international comparative perspective. First, they evaluate the differences in the course of the economic, socio-political and cultural developments in the Northern Netherlands from the path taken by other areas in western and central Europe during the late Middle Ages and the early modern period. Second, they examine the inter-relationships of these developments. Contributions deal with, inter alia, the urban impact upon politics (Marjolein ‘t Hart), traditions of urban revolt (Marc Boone and Maarten Prak), labour and the early economic development in the Dutch Republic (the second editor) and economic growth and the standard of living (Leo Noordegraaf and Jan Luiten van Zanden).
People in Transit. German Migrations in Comparative Perspective, 1820-1930. Ed. by Dirk Hoerder and Jörg Nagler. [The German Historical Institute.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xv, 433 pp. Maps. £40.00; $79.95.
Based on a conference on the state of German immigration history, organized in Bremerhaven in August 1991, this collection brings together seventeen empirical studies on German immigration, internal migration and transatlantic migration from the 1820s to the 1930s, presented in a comparative perspective with Polish, Swedish and Irish migration to North America. Special emphasis is placed upon the role of women in the migration process. In his concluding essay, Professor Bade underscores the relevance of migration history for contemporary Germany. A historiographical report by the first editor on the state of German scholarship on migration history is appended.
Martin, Phyllis M. Leisure and society in colonial Brazzaville. [African studies series, 87.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xvi, 278 pp. Ill. Maps. £40.00; $59.95.
This study investigates the leisure activities of urban Africans in colonial Brazzaville from its founding in 1880 to 1960. By examining recreational activities (from football and fashion to music, dance and nightlife), Professor Martin aims to analyze the role of these activities in creating a new order of time and space in the developing colonial society and their contribution to building social networks, humanizing daily lives and forging new identities. She concludes that leisure activities helped remake older traditions and values with new cultural forms.
The Settling of North America. The Atlas of the Great Migrations into North America from the Ice Age to the Present. Ed. by Helen Hornbeck Tanner. Associate Eds: Janice Reiff, John H. Long, Dirk Hoerder, [and] Henry F. Dobyns. Macmillan, New York 1995. 208 pp. Ill. Maps. $39.95; C$55.95.
Featuring more than one hundred full-colour maps this richly illustrated atlas aims to reconstruct the migrations into North-America from the Ice Age (ca. 25,000 BC) to the present (i.e. from the first bands of hunters from Siberia to the great waves of immigrants in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The volume is divided into eight chronologically ordered parts, each beginning with a time line that situates the waves of migration in the context of world history. An international team of eighteen anthropologists and historians, specialized in colonial, social, immigration, Indian and Latin American history, wrote the intermittent texts.
Sangster, Joan. Earning Respect: The Lives of Working Women in Small-Town Ontario, 1920-1960. [Studies in Gender and History.] University of Toronto Press, Toronto [etc.] 1995. xxii, 333 pp. Ill. $45.00; £29.00. (Paper: $19.95; £13.00).
This book studies the lives of white-collar and blue-collar women workers in the small town of Peterborough, Ontario, between 1920 and 1960. In this period women workers experienced dramatic shifts in their employment conditions as a result of both the Depression and the increase in work opportunities during World War II. Focusing on four large workplaces, Professor Sangster examines the gendered division of labour, women’s work culture and the forces that encouraged women’s accomodation and resistance on the job. Her exploration of wage-earning women’s “identities” connects women’s wage work to their social and familial lives and the larger community context.
Oxhorn, Philip. Organizing Civil Society. The Popular Sectors and the Struggle for Democracy in Chile. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park 1995. xviii, 373 pp. $55.00; £49.50. (Paper: $18.95; £16.95.)
Based on field research in Chilean shanty-towns in the 1980s, this study focuses on the emergence of popular organizations among the Chilean urban poor under the Pinochet regime and their place in the larger political system. Starting from a theoretical framework for understanding the emergence of popular organizations and their role in the democratization of civil society, Professor Oxhorn sketches the popular-sector organizational activity in Chile over the past twenty years. He concludes that changes in the political system could have provided the necessary conditions for the emergence of a new social movement representing the urban poor, but that prolonged political repression complicated this development.
United States of America
America's Working Poor. Ed. by Thomas R. Swartz and Kathleen Maas Weigert. University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame [etc.] 1995. x, 198 pp. $29.95.
The seven essays in this book review the current status of and research on the working poor in the contemporary United States and assess the policy options available for addressing the problems of the working poor. Contributors consider factors such as the changing size, composition and geographical distribution of the groups to be included among the working poor over the last decade (John D. Kasarda), the impact of public policy over the past decades (Rebecca M. Blank and Rebecca A. London) and the issue of child care (Sandra L. Hofferth).
Black Resistance Movements in the United States and Africa, 1800-1993. Ed. by Felton O. Best. [African Studies, Vol. 38.] The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston [etc.] 1995. x, 327 pp. $99.95.
The eleven contributions to this volume originate from a series of lectures on oppression and retaliation by African-Americans in the period of slavery and afterwards. The editor organized these lectures, partly in response to John Butler's book A Wash in the Sea of Faith (1991), which revived the long-buried thesis of docility and passiveness among African-American slaves. Contributions deal with, among others, audacity among elderly female slaves (Stacey K. Close), resistance to the European conquest of Africa (Don C. Ohadike), Malcom X and other radical African-Americans in the post-war period (Donald M. Jacobs), and defiance and retaliation as expressed in African-American humour (Joseph Boskin).
Boyle, Kevin. The UAW and the Heyday of American Liberalism 1945-1968. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1995. xiv, 338 pp. Ill. £27.50.
This book examines the national political activism of the United Automobile Workers (UAW) from 1945 to 1968. According to Professor Boyle, the UAW engaged in the pivotal political struggles of this era (for full employment, for civil rights, against communism and against poverty) in an attempt to build a cross-class, multiracial coalition to push the United States toward social democracy. Its failure to achieve its goal is attributable, according to the author, not to the UAW's failure of will, but to the prevalent conservative political structures (particularly those of the Democratic Party) within which the union had to work.
Carson, Clayborne. In Struggle. SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1995. xi, 359 pp. Ill. £9.95.
This is the second edition, with a new introduction and epilogue, of a study of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) that originally appeared in 1981. The SNCC evolved out of lunch counter sit-ins and freedom rides in 1960, becoming one of the driving powers behind the civil rights movement in the 1960s. Professor Carson explores the ideas prevalent within the SNCC, its role in the emerging civil rights movement and the African-American emancipation movement and its relationship with other organizations. The author attributes the success of the SNCC to the committee's model of community mobilization.
Conway, Stephen. The War of American Independence 1775-1783. Edward Arnold, London [etc.] 1995. xvi, 280 pp. Maps. £12.99.
This book is the first of a new series on modern wars. The focus is on war and warfare itself rather than on the history of war as a vehicle for other sorts of history. According to Dr Conway, the American War of Independence is to be seen as the first modern war. He argues that through this agent of revolution, ideals from the Enlightenment together with a radical democratic ideology among the American militia resulted in a savagery and intensity in warfare that anticipated the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. The author places the war in its broadest context, taking into account the Caribbean, European, Indian and even African dimensions.
Dickinson, Torry D. Common Wealth. Self-Sufficiency and Work in American Communities, 1830 to 1993. University Press of America, Inc., Lanham [etc.] 1995. xx, 224 pp. Ill. $46.00.
This is a historical overview of the development and subsequent decline of self-employment, informal work and self-sufficient behaviour at a local community level in the United States from the 1830s to the present. According to the author, a growing number of people, as a result of the contemporary increase in low-paid jobs and unemployment, seeks an alternative to the current employment system. Through an examination of the informal work relations and self-sufficiency and the corresponding social relations that, according to the author, sustained American communities predominantly until the middle of the twentieth century, Dr Dickinson aims to show possible alternatives to the existing economic order.
Lazerow, Jama. Religion and the Working Class in Antebellum America. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington [etc.] [1996.] xxi, 353 pp. £30.80.
This study examines the role of religion - particularly evangelical Protestantism - in working-class formation and labour activism in the pre-Civil War years in the United States. Sketching the social and cultural world of the early industrial workers on national, regional and local levels, Professor Lazerow submits that religion furnished labour activists with crucial tools for resistance (a critique of exploitive and oppressive working conditions, a transcendent vision of an alternative future and a unifying and inspiring call to arms) but also delayed the formation of working-class consciousness through its emphasis on Christian mercy and brotherhood between workers and employers.
Licht, Walter. Industrializing America. The Nineteenth Century. [The American Moment.] The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 1995. xviii, 219 pp. $46.50. (Paper: $16.50.)
In this book, Professor Licht, whose study of the Philadelphia labour market was annotated in IRSH, 39 (1994), p. 131, provides a comprehensive, cross-regional, synthetic overview of industrialization in the United States in the nineteenth century. He analyzes the processes of industrialization and commercialization as the progression from a mercantile to an unregulated and then a corporate and state-administered market society, thus interpreting industrialization first as a product and then as an agent of change: Industrial development was spawned by population expansion and increased market activity. Industrialization, in turn, both spurred more market activity and created social problems demanding increased state control over the market society. A bibliographical essay is appended.
Lichtenstein, Nelson. The Most Dangerous Man in Detroit. Walter Reuther and the Fate of American Labor. BasicBooks, New York 1995. xiii, 575 pp. Ill. $35.00; C$49.00.
This is a comprehensive biography of Walter Reuther (1907-1970), president of the powerful United Automobile Workers Union (UAW) from 1946 and, as an architect of the merger between the AFL and the CIO in 1955, one of the most important post-war American labour leaders. In relating Reuther's life story, Professor Lichtenstein analyzes the rise and subsequent decline of labour liberalism in the mid-twentieth century. He concludes that Reuther, as a result of his dependence on President Johnson and the Democratic Party, failed to challenge the escalation of the Vietnam War. Likewise, he was unable to stop the stagnation of the American labour movement in the 1960s.
Mellinger, Philip J. Race and Labor in Western Copper. The Fight for Equality, 1896-1918. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson [etc.] 1995. xii, 269 pp. Ill. $40.00.
This is a regional history of the immigrant workers and the workers' movement in the copper-mining areas in Arizona, New Mexico, Utah and Texas at the turn of the century. Dr Mellinger describes how these workers, though a heterogeneous group originating from Mexico, Greece, Spain, Italy and the Balkans, largely uneducated, living in a racist society, working under harsh and dangerous conditions and facing unbridled power of the mine owners, pursued cooperative labour action successfully and won the support of the Western Federation of Miners and the Industrial Workers of the World. The author emphasizes the everyday experiences of the workers.
Sangster, Joan. Earning Respect: The Lives of Working Women in Small-Town Ontario, 1920-1960. [Studies in Gender and History.] University of Toronto Press, Toronto [etc.] 1995. xxii, 333 pp. Ill. $45.00; £29.00. (Paper: $19.95; £13.00.)
This book studies the lives of white-collar and blue-collar women workers in the small town of Peterborough, Ontario, between 1920 and 1960. In this period women workers experienced dramatic shifts in their employment conditions as a result of both the Depression and the increase in work opportunities during World War II. Focusing on four large workplaces, Professor Sangster examines the gendered division of labour, women's work culture and the forces that encouraged women's accommodation and resistance on the job. Her exploration of wage-earning women's "identities" connects women's wage work to their social and familial lives and to the larger community context.
Sidel, Ruth. Urban Survival. The World of Working-Class Women. With a new introd. by the author. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln [etc.] 1995. xvii, 180 pp. $9.50.
This book, a reprint of the original 1978 edition, offers the oral histories of eight American working-class women at the end of the 1970s. Professor Sidel has used three standard criteria for defining working class: occupation, education and income. The interviews convey the women's struggle for survival in the American cities, as they worry about obtaining necessary childcare, health care and social services. In the introduction to this new edition, the author reviews the most important changes in the economic and social position of working-class women over the past seventeen years.
Smith, Carl. Urban Disorder and the Shape of Belief. The Great Chicago Fire, the Haymarket Bomb, and the Model Town of Pullman. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago [etc.] 1995. xi, 395 pp. Ill. $40.25; £27.95.
The Great Chicago Fire of 1871, the Haymarket Bombing of 1886 and the making and unmaking of the model town of Pullman from its founding in 1880 to the famous strike of 1894: Professor Smith's study explores the imaginative dimensions of these events. He believes these aspects have consistently defined popular American views of the city. Exploring a range of writings, illustrations, protests, public gatherings, trials, hearings and urban reform and construction efforts, the author argues that these events informed each other, and that their histories were intimately connected in the public consciousness, thus linking city, disorder and social reality.
Their Lives and Numbers. The Condition of Working People in Massachusetts, 1870-1900. Ed. with an Introd. by Henry F. Bedford. [DOCUMENTS in American Social History.] Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1995. xviii, 240 pp. Ill. $37.50; £29.50.
This book samples material from the first thirty annual reports (1870-1900) of the Bureau of Statistics of Labor to the State of Massachusetts' legislature. The emphasis in the selection, as in the Bureau's early research surveys, lies on the composition of the state's diverse working population and their occupations and on the way working people in this period lived: residences, schools, marriages, amenities, etc. The material in this sample (inter alia statistics and testimonies) is arranged by topic, often combining related surveys from several years in one chapter. In his introduction the editor describes the origins and development of the Bureau in the context of the emerging "Labor Question" in the state of Massachusetts.
Vaughan, Alden T. Roots of American Racism. Essays on the Colonial Experience. Oxford University Press, New York [etc.] 1995. xvii, 350 pp. Ill. £37.50.
The ten essays in this volume, which with one exception were all published previously between 1964 and 1992, explore some of the major events and issues of interaction between Europeans, Indians and Africans in English America and the early United States, addressing aspects of race relations and cultural differences. Professor Vaughan examines how the English colonists - who wielded superior military and political power - constructed their attitudes toward the native Americans and the African Americans and shaped their colonial policy in the areas of Anglo-American control.
Wellman, David. The union makes us strong. Radical unionism on the San Francisco waterfront. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xix, 364 pp. Ill. £40.00; $59.95.
Based on field research in the 1980s, Professor Wellman examines in this study a local San Francisco division of the International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union (ILWU), as an example of the kind of militant, democratic unionism that is, according to the author, commonly ignored by American labour historians. According to the author, resistance to the management's authority and struggles for control over the workplace are explicitly acknowledged as good unionism within the ILWU. He argues that the quest for a radical, more democratic form of unionism as an alternative to the predominant business unionism is still very much alive within this union.
Zamir, Shamoon. Dark Voices. W.E.B. Du Bois and American Thought, 1888-1903. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago [etc.] 1995. xiv, 294 pp. $49.95; £39.95. (Paper: $15.95; £12.75.)
This study places W.E.B. Du Bois's most famous book, The Souls of Black Folk (1903) in its intellectual context. Examining Du Bois's thought from his undergraduate days at Harvard in 1880s to the publication of his major work, Dr Zamir challenges existing accounts that characterize Du Bois as a Hegelian idealist and a theorist of an elite African-American leadership. The author portrays him as a man deeply ambivalent about his own commitment to heroic vitalism and to positivism, who dramatized the experiences of doubt and historical and personal disaster within a radical literary structure that combined literature, philosophy, history and the social sciences.
Choi, Hai-Kwang. Die Bedeutung der nichtkommunistischen Arbeiterbewegung in China 1919-1927. Cuvillier Verlag, Göttingen 1995. vii, 231 pp. DM 68.00.
This dissertation (Marburg, 1994) examines the early history of the Chinese labour movement from the 4 May movement of 1919 to the Putsch of Chiang-kai Shek's Kuomintang in April 1927 and to assess the role of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in the labour movement in comparison to other political forces. Contrary to the existing historiography, which states that the labour movement became significant only with the establishment of the CCP, Dr Choi concludes that the role of the Communists has been exaggerated and the role of non-Communist forces, inspired by Sun Yatsen's nationalist ideology, greatly underestimated. He also shows that the number of strikes in this period is almost double the figure previously assumed.
Sun, Yan. The Chinese Reassessment of Socialism, 1976-1992. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1995. xii, 352 pp. $18.95.
The objective of this study is a systematic and comprehensive account of the diversity and complexity of post-Maoist Chinese analyzes of the socialist system and the sources of its problems in China. Identifying the major factions in the debate and revealing the interplay among official and unofficial forces, Professor Sun's analysis emphasizes the interplay between socialism and the Chinese system and between socialism and reform. She rejects the common assumption that Chinese socialist thought has little bearing on politics and policy making and concludes with a comparison of the reforms undertaken by Deng Xiaoping with those of Gorbachev.
Wang, Shaoguang. Failure of Charisma. The Cultural Revolution in Wuhan. Oxford University Press, Hong Kong [etc.] 1995. xi, 345 pp. £32.50.
Using a rational choice approach to explain mass behaviour, this study analyzes the micro-politics in the city of Wuhan in the era of Mao's Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976. Based on, inter alia, his own correspondence from his years as a Red Guard in Wuhan, Professor Wang examines the root of social discord and the incentives for collective behaviour to explain why the fierce struggle between rebel and conservative groups exceeded Beijing's authority. He argues that Mao's charisma failed to maintain control over the Cultural Revolution because his "believers" behaved rationally and pursued their own gains and interests in his name.
Wild Lily, Prairie Fire. China's Road to Democracy, Yan'an to Tian'anmen, 1942-1989. Ed. by Gregor Benton and Alan Hunter. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1995. xv, 361 pp. $19.95.
This source book offers 68 documents of democratic dissent under Chinese Communism, from Wang Shiwei's "Wild Lily" in 1942 to documents from the Tian'anmen movement in 1989, ranging from eyewitness accounts of a massacre to theoretical critiques of Chinese Marxist thought. In their extensive introduction the editors maintain that these documents reveal a tradition of democratic thought and practice that traces its descent to the New Culture Movement of the 1910s and the founding generation of the Chinese Communist Party, thus showing that this tradition of dissent is not a late twentieth-century import from Europe, the United States and Japan.
Yick, Joseph K.S. Making Urban Revolution in China. The CCP-GMD Struggle for Beiping-Tianjin, 1945-1949. [Studies on Contemporary China.] M.E. Sharpe, Armonk (NY) [etc.] 1995. xxv, 233 pp. £47.95. (Paper: £17.95.)
This is a study of the local Communist political struggle in the cities of Beijing and Tianjin within the context of the Chinese Civil War in the period 1945-1949. Dr Yick argues that during the last phase of the Communists' conquest of China, the success of the Chinese Communist Party depended on its ability to win support, especially among students, and to build underground cadres in the Chinese cities. Thus, the author also reevaluates the relative importance of the urban areas in the Chinese Communist movement.
Breman, Jan. Footloose labour. Working in India's informal economy. [Contemporary South Asia, 2.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1997. x, 278 pp. £50.00; $59.95. (Paper: £16.95; $22.95.)
See Vijay Prashad's review in this volume, pp. 297-299.
Mukherjee, Arun. Crime and Public Disorder in Colonial Bengal 1861-1912. K P Bagchi & Co., Calcutta 1995. xiv, 320 pp. Rs. 250.00.
This revised dissertation (Calcutta, 1988) reviews the social history of crime and public disorder in colonial Bengal from the introduction of a professional police force under the Police Act in 1861 until 1912. Dr Mukherjee, who was Director General of Police in West Bengal until his retirement in 1991, aims to establish clear connections between scarcity and crime and public disorder. Basing his conclusions on a wide variety of criminal and demographical statistics, he writes that the emerging industrialization in this period, as well as the anti-partition agitation, brought about important transformations in the patterns of crime and public disorder.
Seth, Sanjay. Marxist Theory and Nationalist Politics. The Case of Colonial India. Sage Publications, New Delhi [etc.] 1995. 256 pp. £30.00.
In this study of Marxism's engagement with Indian nationalism, Dr Seth first traces the ways in which colonial nationalism became a pressing issue for Marxism and Lenin's reformulation of Marxism in this respect. He then examines the work of the Indian Marxist M.N. Roy and his analyzes of Indian nationalism from the 1920s and explores the theory and practice of the first communist organizations in India in this period and their relation with Indian nationalism. An important consequence of the encounter between Marxism and nationalism in India was that Marxism became a left-wing form of nationalism. A separate chapter deals with the intellectual content and historical significance of Nehru's socialism.
Studies of Indian Jewish Identity. Ed. by Nathan Katz. Manohar, New Delhi 1995. v, 203 pp. Ill. Rs. 295.00.
The seven contributions in this volume analyze the historical, social and religious identity in three distinct communities of Indian Jews: the Cochin Jews, the Bene Israel and the "Baghdadi" Jews. The authors address historical development, social interaction with Gentile neighbours, modernization and the influence of Zionism and the role of religion as a system of rituals and norms defining and celebrating the very identities of Indian Jews.
South Korea's Minjung Movement. The Culture and Politics of Dissidence. Ed. by Kenneth M. Wells. [Studies from the Center for Korean Studies.] University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu 1995. viii, 247 pp. $35.00.
The minjung movement is a South-Korean people's movement that came into prominence with the events in Kwangju in May 1980 and has played a major role in the democratization movement of June 1987. The eleven contributions to this volume, written by Korean and Western scholars in the fields of literature, anthropology, sociology and history, explore the nature, impact and implications of the diverse forms of this dissidence movement. Contributors - who include some of the movement's leaders - focus on the movement's identity and its possible future direction.
AUSTRALIA AND OCEANIA
Brown, Nicholas. Governing Prosperity. Social change and social analysis in Australia in the 1950s. [Studies in Australian History.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xi, 299 pp. Ill. £35.00; $59.95.
Offering a critical engagement with the prevalent interpretations of the 1950s in Australia as a decade of conservatism, inertia and ideological stalemate, this study examines how those overseeing society (politicians, academics, advisers, bureaucrats, professionals, public intellectuals and commentators) responded to the great changes that Australia underwent during this period. Economic growth brought affluence and mass consumption, society became increasingly complex, and Australia's role in the world was re-cast. Analysing these changes and the reactions to them, Dr Brown aims to relate the public world of ideological conflict and political reaction to the concerns with personality formation and citizenship.
Richardson, Len. Coal, Class & Community. The United Mineworkers of New Zealand, 1880-1960. Auckland University Press, Auckland 1995. viii, 344 pp. Ill. $39.95.
This is a comprehensive history of New Zealand coal-mining unionism from its origins in the 1880s to its decline together with the mining industry in the 1960s. Dr Richardson traces the attempts by migrant miners to establish a national organization, despite the isolation of the pits and the inherent parochialism. According to the author, coal miners in New Zealand and elsewhere were regarded both by others and by themselves as the vanguard of the working class. Accordingly, they consistently took the lead during New Zealand's greatest industrial upheavals.
Boyer, John W. Culture and Political Crisis in Vienna. Christian Socialism in Power, 1897-1918. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago [etc.] 1995. xvi, 702 pp. $43.25; £29.95.
See Siegfried Mattl's review in this volume, pp. 294-297.
Scholliers, Peter. Wages, Manufacturers and Workers in the Nineteenth-Century Factory. The Voortman Cotton Mill in Ghent. Berg Publishers, Oxford [etc.] 1996. xiv, 256 pp. Ill. Maps. £34.95; $45.95.
See Lex Heerma van Voss's review in this volume, pp. 289-290.
Pauer, Jan. Prag 1968. Der Einmarsch des Warschauer Paktes. Hintergründe - Planung - Durchführung. Edition Temmen, Bremen 1995. 415 pp. Ill. DM 58.00.
Based in part on recently released archival material from the Central Committee Archives of the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, the GDR, Hungary and Poland, Dr Pauer's dissertation (Hamburg, 1993) reconstructs the course of events that culminated in the military invasion by the Warsaw Pact troops on 21 August 1968 (which marked the end of the "Prague Spring"), as well as the first period of the political restoration following the invasion. He concludes that Dubcek's idealism precluded a more cautious approach that would probably have averted an invasion.
Albrecht, Clemens. Zivilisation und Gesellschaft. Bürgerliche Kultur in Frankreich. Wilhelm Fink Verlag, München 1995. 282 pp. DM 58.00.
This dissertation (Tübingen, 1991) examines the emergence of the social concepts of bourgeois culture and society from the environment of the aristocratic salons in France between 1610 and 1789. The author sketches the social and historical development of the French salons and associates this trend with the more general structural characteristics of the rising bourgeois culture: reflective, dynamic and autonomous dispositions. Dr Albrecht subsequently explores - in France and with respect to Germany - the transformation of perceptions of civilisation and société from reflective ideas into key factors in a new interpretation of modernity.
Boime, Albert. Art and the French Commune. Imagining Paris after War and Revolution. [The Princeton Series in Nineteenth-Century Art, Culture and Society.] Princeton University Press, Princeton [etc.] 1995. xv, 234 pp. Ill. Maps. $39.50.
This study explores the political background of the emergence and success of Impressionism in the decades after the Paris Commune. Examining the development of this artistic style in relation to the efforts of the reinstated conservative government to rebuild Paris and restore its Haussmannian appearance, Professor Boime submits that at the heart of Impressionism lies the secret wish of the dominant bourgeois classes in Paris to expunge from historical memory the haunting nightmare of the Commune and erase all traces of the socialist threat. The author regards the choice of subject and the style as an effort to reclaim Paris visually and symbolically for the bourgeoisie.
Corbin, Alain. Time, Desire and Horror. Towards a History of the Senses. Transl. by Jean Birrell. Polity Press, Cambridge 1995. x, 212 pp. £39.50; $44.95.
This is the English translation of Le Temps, le Désir et l'Horreur. Essais sur le dix-neuvième siècle (1991), which was annotated in IRSH, 38 (1993), p. 277.
Les oubliés de l'histoire de la Commune. Pierre Charbonneau 1830-1905. Jules Martelet 1843-1916. [Présentés par René Rousseau.] Editions IGC, Bagneux 1994. ii, 152 pp. Ill.
This is a source edition on the lives of two lesser known communards, Pierre Charbonneau (1830-1905) and Jules Martelet (1843-1916), based on hitherto unpublished documents from the estate of the Martelet family: autobiographical writings by Charbonneau, alias Sauvêtre, member of the French section of the First International, and extensive correspondence of Martelet. The editor uses these materials and related biographical documents (birth certificates, judicial documents), pamphlets and press clippings) to sketch the lives of the two men, their role in the Commune, their fate afterwards and their political ideas. Charbonneau was deported to New Caledonia, and Martelet went into exile in Switzerland. Both returned in 1880.
Robert, André. Le syndicalisme des enseignants des écoles, collèges et lycées. [Systèmes éducatifs.] La Documentation française, Paris; CNDP, Paris 1995. 175 pp. F.fr. 110.00.
This textbook gives a general overview of the history of and developments within the syndicalist movement and organizations of teaching staff in France from its origins in the 1860s to the present. The author deals with the various teachers' organizations at primary and secondary schools, the development of their affiliations with the general trade-union movement in France, the relationship with the government as employer and their relative success in the light of the contemporary crisis of the general syndicalist movement.
Rougerie, Jacques. Paris insurgé. La Commune de 1871. [Histoire.] Découvertes Gallimard, n.p. [Paris] 1995. 160 pp. Ill. F.fr. 82.00.
This richly illustrated introductory textbook covers the history of the Paris Commune. Featuring a broad range of well-known and less well-known photographs, cartoons, paintings and drawings, Dr Rougerie, who edited the special issue of the IRSH, 1871. Jalons pour une histoire de la Commune de Paris (see IRSH, XVII (1972), pp. I-X, 1-624) and worked on several other publications about the Commune, sketches the course of the 72 days that the Commune lasted, the political and ideological background of the Commune and the communards, the role of women, the reconquest by government troops during the bloody week, the executions, the aftermath of the trials and deportations and the commemorations and generation of legends. A section containing eye-witness accounts and original documents concludes this illustrated history. A chronology and selected bibliography are appended.
Sabot, Jean-Yves. Le syndicalisme étudiant et la guerre d'Algérie. L'entrée d'une génération en politique et la formation d'une élite. ["Logiques Politiques".] Éditions L'Harmattan, Paris 1995. 276 pp. F.fr. 140.00.
Focusing on two local student associations (in Grenoble and Dijon) that belonged to the Union Nationale des Étudiants de France (UNEF), Dr Sabot examines in this study the resistance of the UNEF against the French colonial policy and the war in Algeria in the period 1954-1960. Through the examples of a number of careers of political and administrative leaders originating from the UNEF, the author demonstrates that the militant activities in this student union against French colonial policy in Algeria educated local and national UNEF officials in political and social respects.
Schneider, Robert A. The Ceremonial City. Toulouse Observed 1738-1780. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1995. x, 202 pp. $24.95; £14.95.
This study explores the representation of civic and community life in the staging of various ceremonies in the French city of Toulouse during the decades preceding the French Revolution. Based on the unpublished diaries of Pierre Barthès, a Latin tutor who recorded forty years of public activity in the city, Professor Schneider emphasizes the differences between the solemn religious procession, which was highly participatory and represented local concerns, and the more celebratory festival, which vaunted the monarchy and turned people into passive spectators. He argues that both the procession and the festival incorporated powerful ceremonial forms that proved politically useful for the French Revolution.
Violence and Conflict in the Politics and Society of Modern France. Ed. by Jan Windebank and Renate Günther. [Studies in French Civilization, Vol. 5.] The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston [etc.] 1995. ix, 244 pp. $89.95.
The sixteen contributions in this volume, based on a conference on the theme "France, Violence and Conflict", held at the University of Sheffield in September 1993, examine the varied manifestations of violence and conflict in the politics and society of modern France in the period 1789-1945. This volume includes chapters on revolutionary violence in Flora Tristan's campaign, 1843-1844 (Maire Cross), terrorism and the French state (Devyani Vyas), the post-war regulation of workplace conflict, the origins of anti-Arab racism (Neil MacMaster) and the racist discourse of Le Pen (Beverly Adab), state violence in post-war colonial policy (Martin Shipway) and gender relations and violence against women (Gill Allwood, Marie-Victoire Louis).
"Denken heißt Grenzen überschreiten": Beiträge aus der sozialhistorischen Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung. Eine Festschrift zum 60. Geburtstag von Marie-Elisabeth Hilger hrsg. von Elke Kleinau, Katrin Schmersahl [und] Dorion Weickmann. von Bockel Verlag, Hamburg 1995. 213 pp. DM 68.00.
This Festschrift for Marie-Elisabeth Hilger (1935), Professor of women's and gender history at the Institute of Social and Economic History at the University of Hamburg, contains writings by thirteen contributors from a variety of disciplines. Each scholar writes on social and economic history from a gendered perspective. Three contributions deal with theoretical subjects, including the debate over the disappearance of gender as a category. Three essays are explicitly interdisciplinary and connect medical history, literary history and history of education with general social history.
Gilhaus, Ulrike. "Schmerzenskinder der Industrie". Umweltverschmutzung, Umweltpolitik und sozialer Protest im Industriezeitalter in Westfalen 1845-1914. [Forschungen zur Regionalgeschichte, Band 12.] Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn 1995. xv, 601 pp. Ill. Maps. DM 84.00.
Focusing on Westphalia during the industrialization (1845-1914), this dissertation (Münster, 1993) examines the complex relation between the government's environmental policy and public environmental awareness in the context of ecological damage arising from the growing industrial production. By sketching the environmental damage caused by the rise of industrial production and the backlash of social protest, Dr Gilhaus shows that the corresponding main theme was the shift from a paternalistic to a liberalist societal model, from the primacy of social tolerability of economic action to the primacy of economic growth.
Saldern, Adelheid von. Häuserleben. Zur Geschichte städtischen Arbeiterwohnens vom Kaiserreich bis heute. [Reihe: Politik- und Gesellschaftsgeschichte, Band 38.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 1995. 487 pp. Ill. DM 80.00; S.fr. 81.00; S 624.00.
Professor von Saldern's study examines residential patterns among the German working class during five consecutive periods (Imperial Germany, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, the 1950s and 1960s, and the Reform Era of the 1970s and 1980s) from two distinct perspectives. First, she sketches the development and architectonic particularities of working-class quarters while focusing on the social-historical aspects. In the second part she analyzes the way people appropriated their living areas: forms of cohabitation determined by the residential situation; the ways that women, men and children occupied their own "domains"; and the penetration of outside political relationships into the everyday domestic situation.
Salender, Kurt. Gewerkschaftliche Interessenvertretung und gewerkschaftsspezifische Aspekte der Milieukonstituierung im Klassenbildungsprozeß. Berufsdifferenzierung, Arbeitsmarktregulierung und Konfliktverhalten in der Reorganisationsphase der Berliner Gewerkschaftsbewegung in den 80er Jahren des 19. Jahrhunderts. [Hochschulschriften, Band 2.] Köhler Verlag, Berlin 1995. 355 pp. DM 68.00.
This dissertation (Free University, Berlin, 1995) explores the period of the Sozialistengesetze, a stage in the early history of the German labour movement (the 1880s) that tends to be neglected in topical research. In this case study of the labour movement in several branches of industry (machine construction, book binding, mason and plasterer's businesses and upholsterers) in Berlin, Dr Salender focuses on the interrelation between the organizational development of the industrial unions, the development of works councils and the emergence of a specific labour environment. The analysis places these changes in the context of the transition from a traditional artisanal to a modern capitalist economy and the resulting class relations.
Scarpa, Ludovica. Gemeinwohl und lokale Macht. Honoratioren und Armenwesen in der Berliner Luisenstadt im 19. Jahrhundert. [Einzelveröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission zu Berlin, Band 77.] K.G. Saur, München [etc.] 1995. xi, 389 pp. Maps. DM 128.00.
This dissertation (Free University, Berlin, 1991) examines the changing political and social positions of the Honoratioren, the liberal bourgeois elite in the city of Berlin, in the nineteenth century on the basis of their poor relief activities in the quarter of Luisenstadt. The main trend in social care and the role of the Honoratioren was, according to Dr Scarpa, the process of re-politicization: from the middle of the nineteenth century onwards, a polarization between liberals and conservatives dominated social care.
Schmitt, Sabine. Der Arbeiterinnenschutz im deutschen Kaiserreich. Zur Konstruktion der schutzbedürftigen Arbeiterin. [Ergebnisse der Frauenforschung, Band 37.] Verlag J.B. Metzler, Stuttgart [etc.] 1995. 298 pp. DM 48.00.
In this revised edition of a dissertation (Technical University Berlin, 1994), Dr Schmitt uses methods of discourse analysis to study the origins of the forms of legal protection designed specifically for women workers in Germany in the period 1890-1914. The author views the development and implementation of these measures as a construction process that embedded the need for extra protection as a specific characteristic of women's labour in public awareness, reinforced gender segregation and hierarchization in the industrial workplace and increased the perception that women workers were exceptions.
Solga, Heike. Auf dem Weg in eine klassenlose Gesellschaft? Klassenlagen und Mobilität zwischen Generationen in der DDR. Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1995. 265 pp. DM 64.00.
Using class theory as a basis, this study evaluates the German Democratic Republic's conformation to its self-propagated image of a classless society in the forty years of its existence. Its analysis of the life courses of four groups of people selected by year of birth portrays the increase in opportunities for social advancement among these four distinct generations. Dr Solga concludes that contrary to the image propagated officially, the political and economic development of the GDR led to a state-socialist class society in which the rapidly evolving leading ranks of socialist civil servants turned into the privileged class and became increasingly closed to social climbing from below from the 1970s onward.
Die Sozialpolitik in den letzten Friedensjahren des Kaiserreiches (1905-1914). 3. Band, 2. Teil. Das Jahr 1908. Bearb. von Hansjoachim Henning und Uwe Sieg unter Mitarb. von Carsten Dams. [Quellensammlung zur Geschichte der deutschen Sozialpolitik 1867 bis 1914, IV. Abt.] Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart [etc.] 1995. xxii, 495 pp. DM 144.00; S.fr. 138.50; S 1066.00.
This is the second part of the third volume of the fourth section in this series of source editions, which has appeared irregularly since it began in 1966 (see IRSH, XI (1966), p. 497, XXVIII (1983), pp. 371f., 40 (1995) p. 171 and p. 172, this volume). The 103 documents in this volume concern the main social-political problems and developments in Germany in 1908, such as the elaboration of social welfare and insurance measures for women and juveniles, two major strikes in the textile and construction industries, the social security provision for agricultural workers and communal social policies.
Stachow, Helga. Rituale der Erinnerung. Die Maifeiern der Hamburger Arbeiterbewegung zwischen 1890 und 1914. AVK, Marburg 1995. 144 pp. Ill. DM 19.80.
In this study of May Day celebrations among the Hamburg labour movement in Imperial Germany (1890-1914), Ms Stachow uses the concepts of "rituals of memory" and "cultural remembrance" to examine the transformation of these celebrations into a ritual complex that provided the labour movement with a clear group identity for inclusion in the collective memory. The author presents a diverse range of research material from memorabilia to texts and from images to topographical traces.
Trottenberg, Wilhelm. Bundeswehr und Gewerkschaften (1945-1966). Ende einer hundertjährigen Feindschaft. [Bonner Beiträge zur Politikwissenschaft, Band 5.] Lit, Münster [etc.] 1995. xxviii, 467 pp. DM 78.80.
This study explores the development of the relationship between the trade-union movement and the military in post-war Germany against the background of the historical animosity between the two since the trade-union movement's inception at the end of the nineteenth century. The first half of the book provides an historical overview of the causes and growth of this animosity in imperial Germany and during the Weimar Republic, as well as the neutralization of the trade unions by the Nazis and the resulting resistance. In the second half, the author describes the progressive rapprochement between the post-war trade-union movement and the new Bundeswehr.
Von der Kaiserlichen Sozialbotschaft bis zu den Februarerlassen Wilhelms II. (1881-1890). Band 2, 1. Teil. Von der zweiten Unfallversicherungsvorlage bis zum Unfallversicherungsgesetz vom 6. Juli 1884. Bearb. von Florian Tennstedt und Heidi Winter unter Mitarb. von Heinz Domeinski und Elmar Roeder. [Quellensammlung zur Geschichte der deutschen Sozialpolitik 1867 bis 1914, II. Abt.] Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart [etc.] 1995. xliv, 672 pp. DM 164.00; S.fr. 157.50; S 1214.00.
This is the second volume of the second section in a series of source editions, which has appeared irregularly since it began in 1966 (see IRSH, XI (1966), p. 497, XXVIII (1983), pp. 371f., 40 (1995) p. 171 and 172, this volume). The 187 documents in the present volume deal primarily with the tiresome political process that led up to the accident insurance act of 6 July 1884. According to the editors, this law laid a fundamental basis for the German welfare state.
Walter, Stephan. Demokratisches Denken zwischen Hegel und Marx. Die politische Philosophie Arnold Ruges. Eine Studie zur Geschichte der Demokratie in Deutschland. [Beiträge zur Geschichte des Parlamentarismus und der politischen Parteien, Band 104.] Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 1995. 422 pp. Ill. DM 98.00.
This revised version of a dissertation (Cologne, 1991) examines the political philosophy of the leading Junghegelianer and liberal democrat Arnold Ruge (1803-1888), aiming to place Ruge's ideas in the context of the history of German democratic political thought. As the editor (together with Marx) of the Deutsch-französische Jahrbücher and a prominent member of the leftist faction in the Frankfurter National Assembly, Ruge is to be regarded as the theoretical herald of many modern political concepts and phenomena, such as transnationalism, German-French alliance, European unification, international peace and disarmament.
Wupper-Tewes, Hans. Rationalisierung als Normalisierung. Betriebswissenschaft und betriebliche Leistungspolitik in der Weimarer Republik. Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster 1995. 384 pp. DM 56.00.
This dissertation (Bochum, 1993) analyzes the debates on rationalization within industrial engineering science, as well as within actual industries in the Weimar republic. This study highlights the Siemens factory for electric power supplies in Berlin and the role of the German Association of Engineers (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure) and its local chapters. Dr Wupper-Tewes focuses on the relationship between the development of the discourse on and the ideology of rationalization on the one hand and the consequences of the rationalization for daily practice on the shopfloor on the other hand.
Alfred Marshall's Lectures to Women. Some economic questions directly connected to the welfare of the laborer. Ed. by Tiziano Raffaelli, Eugenio Biagini, [and] Rita McWilliams Tullberg. Foreword by Giacomo Becattini. Edward Elgar, Aldershot [etc.] 1995. xv, 198 pp. £39.95.
This is a critical source edition of the famous Lectures to Women given by Alfred Marshall at Cambridge in 1873. In these lectures, which reflect his involvement in women's higher education, Marshall focuses on the future of the working classes and labour welfare. This edition is based on Mary Paley Marshall's notes, corrected by the author himself and supplemented by his lecture outlines. A paper on the future of the working classes from the same year and Marshall's literary debate with the trade unionist John Holmes on the same subject are included.
Clark, Anna. The Struggle for the Breeches. Gender and the Making of the British Working Class. [Studies on the History of Society and Culture, 23.] University of California, Berkeley [etc.] 1995. xv, 416 pp. Ill. $35.00.
Focusing on working people in Glasgow, Lancashire and London in the period 1780-1850, Professor Clark analyzes in this study the formation of the working class from the gender perspective. At the end of the eighteenth century working people faced a persistent sexual crisis, according to the author. While artisans sought a solution for this crisis in misogyny and libertinism, male textile workers opted to cooperate with women at work and at home. Eventually, however, the adoption by the radicals of a rhetoric of domesticity solved the sexual crisis but narrowly defined the working class movement as masculine.
The Era of the Reform League: English Labour and Radical Politics 1857-1872. DOCUMENTS Selected by Gustav Mayer. Ed. by John Breuilly, Gottfried Niedhart and Antony Taylor. [Mannheimer historische Forschungen, Vol. 8.] Palatium Verlag im J & J Verlag, Mannheim 1995. xi, 369 pp. DM 98.00.
This volume contains a selection of 120 documents from the hitherto unpublished document collection entitled "The political history of the English labour movement, 1857-1872". These writings were assembled by the German historian and emigre Gustav Mayer (1871-1948) between 1937, when he became an associate member of the International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam, and 1944. Mayer, biographer of Friedrich Engels and editor of the Lassalle papers, was one of the few historians in this period to devote attention to the decades between the demise of Chartism in 1848 and the rise of organized labour in the 1880s.
Gennard, John and Peter Bain. A History of the Society of Graphical and Allied Trades. Routledge, London 1995. xxiii, 670 pp. Ill. £75.00.
This is the official history of the British Society of Graphical and Allied Trades (SOGAT) on the occasion of its merge with the National Graphical Association into the Graphical, Paper and Media Union in 1991. After a comparative overview of the printing and paper-making industries in 1955, the year of the preliminary formation of the SOGAT, and in 1991, the authors deal with the relation with other printing unions and several other versions of the SOGAT founded throughout the period 1966-1991. They cover the society's decision-making and financial structure, its relations with the wider trade union and labour movement and its relations with employers.
Gray, Robert. The factory question and industrial England, 1830-1860. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1996. xiv, 253 pp. Ill. £35.00; $59.95.
See Sonya O. Rose's review in this volume, pp. 290-294.
Laybourn, Keith. The Evolution of British Social Policy and the Welfare State, c. 1800-1993. Ryburn Publishing/Keele University Press, Keele 1995. 319 pp. £12.95.
This textbook provides a chronologically sequential overview of the development of British social policy and the welfare state from the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834 to the system's decline in the 1990s. The topics covered are the factory question, education, poverty and philanthropy, the social impact of the two world wars, the Attlee years and the challenge to the welfare state since 1951. Extracts from significant documents and original material on voluntary help, the state and the influence of Labour politics are included.
Pennybacker, Susan D. A Vision for London 1889-1914. Labour, everyday life and the LCC experiment. Routledge, London [etc.] 1995. xiv, 315 pp. Ill. £50.00.
From its founding in 1899 until 1907, the London County Council (LCC), the world's largest municipal authority of its time, was led by municipal socialists, the Progressives. In this short period the LCC became renowned as a laboratory for social experimentation. Focusing on the early LCC bureaucracy, on the LCC's relation to the building industry and on the direct contact of the LCC with the Londoners in areas of social and cultural policy, this study aims to assess the LCC accomplishments against the vision of London Progressivism on mastering the problems of metropolitan amelioration, political economy and public culture.
Roberts, Elizabeth. Women and Families. An Oral History, 1940-1970. [Family, Sexuality and Social Relations in Past Times.] Blackwell, Oxford [etc.] 1995. xiv, 277 pp. Ill. £40.00; $54.95. (Paper: £12.99; $21.95.)
This volume can be considered a sequel to A Woman's Place. An Oral History of Working-Class Women 1890-1940 (see IRSH, XXXI (1986), p. 223), as it is based on in-depth interviews conducted in three towns in northern England. This study shows that the period 1940-1970 is marked by a dramatic increase in the number of women doing paid work, along with the growth of the welfare state and the privatization of the family. According to the author, these developments were accompanied by a diminishing sense of community and neighbourliness and by a loss of confidence in previously accepted standards and values.
Thelwall, John. The Politics of English Jacobinism. Writings of John Thelwall. Ed. with an Introd. and Notes by Gregory Claeys. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park (PA) 1995. lxii, 532 pp. $75.00; £67.50. (Paper: $22.95; £20.50.)
This volume reproduces the major political writings of John Thelwall (1764-1834), whom Professor Claeys, the editor of the volume, considers the most important leader of working-class radicalism in Britain after Thomas Paine's flight to France in 1792. In his introduction Professor Claeys argues that Thelwall's most important contribution to radical thought in the 1790s lies in his approach to property and commerce at a crucial turning point in modern social and political reflection and his contribution to the "moral economy" debates in this period.
Wright, Sheila. Friends in York. The Dynamics of Quaker Revival 1780-1860. [Studies in Protestant Nonconformity.] Keele University Press, Keele 1995. 253 pp. £35.00.
Focusing on the Quaker's Monthly Meeting in York, Mrs Wright's book examines the remarkable revival of English Quakerism in the years 1780-1860. According to the author, the York Monthly Meeting was unique in that it had a group of influential members who pioneered the new current of Evangelicism within the Quaker movement. She submits that the women Ministers were particularly vital in propagating this new creed throughout Britain, Europe and America.
Bedani, Gino. Politics and Ideology in the Italian Workers' Movement. Union Development and the Changing Role of the Catholic and Communist Subcultures in Postwar Italy. Berg Publishers, Oxford 1995. xiii, 365 pp.
In this history of the post-war Italian workers' movement, Professor Bedani focuses on the ideological and political development within the trade union movement and throughout Italian society. He argues that despite the bitter conflicts between Catholic and Communist confederations in the 1950s, a tendency towards ideological convergence between the major subculture in the Italian sindacato has been clearly discernable in the last decades. Together with other factors, which are idiosyncratic for Italian post-war society, this trend has led to a social and political strength for the Italian workers' movement that is unique in Europe.
Marelli, Gianfranco. L'amara vittoria del Situazionismo. Per una storia dell'Internationale Situationniste 1957-1972. [Rovesciare il futuro, 4.] Biblioteca Franco Serantini, Pisa 1996. 396 pp. L. 35.000.
This study contains a critical review of the historical experience accomplished by the "Internationale Situationniste" (IS). Step by step it traces the theoretical course covered by this avant-garde movement in a continuous and dialectical relation with the artistic, cultural and social experiences that had an impact on revolutionary circles in the 1950s and 1960s. The study follows the history chronologically from the precursors of the IS (surrealists, literati and the COBRA movement), through the foundation of the IS in 1957, the change towards a more political movement, the participation in the May '68 events, to the movement's dissolution in 1972.
Una società violenta. Morte pubblica e brigantaggio nell'Italia moderna e contemporanea. A cura di Daniele Angelini e Dino Mengozzi. [Società e Cultura.] Piera Lacaita Editore, Manduria [etc.] 1996. iii, 254 pp. L. 25.000.
This collection of essays is the fruit of a scholarly meeting which was organized in 1995 by institutions including the Cultural Cooperative G. Matteotti and the Foundation of Historical Studies "F. Turati". The aim of this meeting was to study banditry in Italy and more generally social deviance beyond the rigid schemes of historiography. These eleven studies deal with an equal number of situations over space and time, all linked by the common denominator of violence. In Italy the farmers' hunger for land and the fact that the countryside remained aloof from the process of national unification were special factors in determining the role of bandits in society.
Blobaum, Robert E. Rewolucja. Russian Poland, 1904-1907. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1995. xx, 300 pp. Ill. $35.00.
This study examines the revolutionary upheavals in the Kingdom of Poland in the period 1904-1907 in their own right, rather than as a part of the Russian revolutionary developments in this period. Professor Blobaum focuses on the social actors of the Polish revolution: urban and industrial workers, the post-emancipation peasantry, students, the imperial Russian state authority and the Roman Catholic Church. He demonstrates that in the Polish resistance against the russification, a complex array of nationalist and socialist allegiances developed, and that the 1905 revolution heralded the emergence of a nationwide Polish labour movement.
Doliesen, Gerhard. Die polnische Bauernpartei "Wyzwolenie" in den Jahren 1918-1926. [Historische und Landeskundliche Ostmitteleuropa-Studien.] Verlag Herder-Institut, Marburg 1995. xi, 287 pp. DM 62.00.
This dissertation (Hamburg, 1991) deals with the political position and role of the Polish farmers' party "Wyzwolnie" from the Polish independence in 1918 until Marshall Pi sudski's coup in 1926. After sketching the origins, organizational and social structure and development of the programme of this most progressive movement among the agrarian Polish parties, Dr Doliesen explores the party's role in the achievement of Polish independence and its role in the Polish parliament. He focuses on the party's position regarding the constitution, the agrarian issue, the minority question and foreign policy.
Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Baron, Samuel H. Plekhanov in Russian History and Soviet Historiography. [Series in Russian and East European Studies, No. 23.] University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh [etc.] 1995. xxii, 274 pp. $59.95.
In this book the author of the standard biography of G.V. Plekhanov (1856-1918) (see IRSH, VII (1963), p. 521) presents eleven of his essays that were all published previously between 1957 and 1986. The essays explore Plekhanov's role in the history of the Russian revolutionary movement. Two essays deal with Plekhanov's relationship with the Marxist historian M.N. Pokrovskii (1868-1932). Another essay is on Plekhanov's vision on the United States. The volume concludes with an autobiographical meditation on Professor Baron's long-lasting interest in the life and work of Plekhanov.
Clarke, Simon, Peter Fairbrother, [and] Vadim Borisov. The Workers' Movement in Russia. [Studies of Communism in Transition.] Edward Elgar, Aldershot [etc.] 1995. v, 431 pp. £49.95.
See David Mandel's review in this volume, pp. 302-304.
Devlin, Judith. The Rise of the Russian Democrats. The Causes and Consequences of the Elite Revolution. [Studies of Communism in Transition.] Edward Elgar, Aldershot 1995. x, 294 pp. £49.95.
This study analyzes the pro-Western democratic movement in Moscow and Leningrad from 1987 to 1991 and explains its eventual loss of direction, inspiration and popularity. Dr Devlin emphasizes the role of the pro-Western intellectual elite in the development of political clubs and associations from which the democratic revolution emerged. She attributes this grass-root movement's ultimate decline to these very intellectual origins: according to the author, the intelligentsia lacked the necessary popular support, and the democratic movement was usurped by politicians who emerged from the lower echelons of the Soviet management system.
Lewin, Moshe. Russia/USSR/Russia. The Drive and Drift of a Superstate. The New Press, New York 1995. xiv, 368 pp. $30.00.
See Andrea Romano's review in this volume, pp. 299-302.
Orttung, Robert W. From Leningrad to St. Petersburg. Democratization in a Russian City. St. Martin's Press, New York 1995. xiv, 332 pp. Maps. $49.95.
This study provides a narrative account of the evolution of local democratic institutions in St Petersburg, Russia's second city, from 1987 to 1994, the transitional period from the communist regime to efforts to establish a more democratic form of government. Dr Orttung emphasizes the design of the new democratic institutions resulting from the electoral laws and the division of power between the legislative and executive branches as the crucial variable in determining the progress of democratization.
Rawson, Don C. Russian Rightists and the Revolution of 1905. [Cambridge Russian, Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies, 95.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xvi, 286 pp. Ill. £40.00; $64.95. (Paper: £19.95; $29.95.)
This study examines the emergence of right-wing organizations in Russia during the political crisis of 1905-1907. Professor Rawson focuses not only on nationally prominent parties, such as the Union of the Russian People, but also on provincial organizations and demonstrates how the rightists attempted to resolve the impasse between autocracy and constitutionalism that Russia had reached by the end of 1905. The author concludes that the rightist organizations, while never a match for the opposition parties, mobilized a substantial segment of public sentiment and helped induce the autocracy to reassert its authority.
Service, Robert. Lenin: A Political Life. Vol. 3. The Iron Ring. Macmillan, Basingstoke [etc.] 1995. xxi, 393 pp. Ill. £45.00.
This is the last volume of a trilogy on the political life of Lenin. After Volume 1, The Strength of Contradiction (1985) and Volume 2, Worlds in Collision (1991), this third volume is the first based upon research in the Moscow archives, which have been open since 1991. It describes and analyzes Lenin's political life from the Brest-Litovsk Treaty in 1918 until his death in 1924. Focusing on the difficulties that Lenin encountered within and outside the party on agrarian and national issues, Professor Service concludes that Lenin exerted by far the greatest influence but was unable to exert unchallenged direction over the party.
Siegelbaum, Lewis H. [and] Daniel J. Walkowitz. Workers of the Donbass Speak. Survival and Identity in the New Ukraine, 1989-1992. [SUNY series in Oral and Public History.] State University of New York Press, Albany 1995. xvi, 226 pp. Ill. $18.95.
This collection of interviews and essays is based on encounters with industrial workers and their families in the eastern Ukrainian city of Donetsk, the coal capital of the Donbass, between 1989 and 1992. The authors aim to convey the workers' struggles for survival and identity amid the prevailing economic, political and social disintegration and transformation. Included are an examination of the older generation that came of age during the Stalin era, an analysis of the miners' movement and trade union politics that emerged out of the 1989 coal miners' strike and an account of the crises and disorientation accompanying Ukrainian independence.
Zelnik, Reginald E. Law and Disorder on the Narova River. The Kreenholm Strike of 1872. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1995. xv, 308 pp. Ill. $38.00; £30.00.
The Kreenholm strike of 1872 at Europe's largest textile plant, located at the border between Estonia and the St Petersburg provinces, was one of the earliest episodes of labour unrest in Russia. Focusing on areas such as the emerging self-consciousness of the workers, Professor Zelnik tells the story of the genesis, progression and suppression of this strike, which was the last industrial conflict, according to the author, that was untouched by the leftist intelligentsia and radical ideologies. In addition to archival sources, this study is largely based on the memoirs of Vasilii Gerasimov, a worker who participated in the strike. A translation of the memoirs is included.
L'aventura del militant. Ed.: Ignacio Iglesias i Victor Alba. Editorial Laertes, Barcelona 1994. 233 pp. Ill. Ptas 1010.
In this volume 40 grassroots militants of the Catalan Partit Obrer d'Unificació Marxista share memories, anecdotes and experiences that document the anecdotal and human interest side of the history of this left-wing marxist party, which was active in Catalonia from its foundation in 1935 until its repression during the Civil War. The book covers four stages from 1930 until 1950: the formative years, the Civil War, the exile period and the resistance to Francoism. A fifth chapter presents short autobiographies and obituaries. One appendix is devoted to the obscure activities of Gerö, an emissary of the Communist International. In another appendix, one of the editors succinctly reviews the experience of party membership among the militants.
Paz, Abel. Durruti en la Revolución española. Introd. de José Luis Gutiérrez Molina. [Colección Biografías y Memorias, 3.] Fundación de estudios libertarios Anselmo Lorenzo, Madrid 1996. 771 pp. Ill. Ptas. 3.750.
This is the most recent edition of a work that appeared for the first time in French in 1972. Since then, several revised and abbreviated translations of the French edition have appeared. The text and notes of the present Spanish edition have been revised and the bibliography updated. These modifications provide Spanish readers with the same book as their German and French counterparts since the translations into those languages in 1994 and 1993, respectively. As Mr Molina emphasizes in his introductory essay, however, this revised edition is also an opportunity for the author to review the existing historiography about Spain in the 1930s.
Woodward, Susan L. Socialist Unemployment. The Political Economy of Yugoslavia, 1945-1990. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1995. xvi, 443 pp. $19.95.
In this analysis of Yugoslavia's political economy during its 45 years as a state (1945-1990), Dr Woodward argues that the contemporary bloody conflicts in former Yugoslavia arise less from ancient ethnic hatreds than from the political and social division created by a failed socialist programme to prevent mass unemployment. Analysing the Yugoslav ideology of economic growth and showing that the international constraints, rather than organized political pressures, defined government policy, she argues that unemployment was made politically "invisible". As a result, the problem corrupted and ultimately dissolved the authority of all political institutions.