Volume 42 part 3 (1997)


General Issues
Continents and Countries

Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.

General Issues


Berger, Herbert. Negative Kausalität. Soziale Welt bei Hume und Bakunin. [Hochschulschriften Philosophie, Band 20.] Traude Junghans Verlag, Cuxhaven [etc.] 1995. x, 220 pp. DM 44.00.
This dissertation (Augsburg, 1993) deals with the critique of metaphysics as found in the works of Hume and Bakunin. Dr Berger aims to refute both Hume's philosophical reputation as a simple sceptic and Bakunin's reputation as an eclectic, relevant only to the history of anarchism. The larger part of this study is devoted to exploring Bakunin's philosophical ideas, which have, according to the author, an autonomous originality in their systematic construction of a philosophical foundation to replace metaphysics.

Korsch, Karl. Krise des Marximus. Schriften 1928-1935. Hrsg. und eingel. von Michael Buckmiller. [Karl Korsch Gesamtausgabe, Band 5.] Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1996. 960 pp. DM 159.80.
This fifth volume of the Karl Korsch Gesamtausgabe (see also IRSH, XXVI (1981), pp. 394f.) contains Korsch's political writings from 1928-1935. During this period, Korsch used his criticism of Kautsky and Marxism-Leninism to formulate the theoretical task of a critique and continuation of Marxism as a scientific theory. The collaboration with the "Society for empirical philosophy" plays a major role here. In his extensive introduction Professor Buckmiller deals with Korsch's analytical reflection on the function of the Marxian theory in this period of defeat of the labour movement and the rise of fascism and stalinism.

Murray, Mary. The Law of the Father? Patriarchy in the transition from feudalism to capitalism. Routledge, London [etc.] 1995. ix, 160 pp. £37.50. (Paper: £11.99.)
This sociological study examines the relationship between patriarchy and class during the transition from feudalism to capitalism. Focusing on Anglo-Saxon feudal and capitalist societies, she views class and patriarchy as particular expressions of the fundamental social relation of property that they constitute together. At the heart of the transition from feudalism to capitalism was, according to Dr Murray, a fundamental shift in property relations which were patriarchally structured.


American Intelligence and the German Resistance to Hitler. A Documentary History. Ed. by Jürgen Heideking and Christof Mauch, with the ass. of Marc Frey. [Widerstand: Dissent and Resistance in the Third Reich.] Westview Press, Boulder [etc.] 1996. xxii, 457 pp. £28.95.
Based on over a hundred newly released documents from the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), predecessor of the CIA, this documentary history reveals the comprehensive story of the U.S. wartime knowledge and encouragement of and secret collaboration with the German resistance to Hitler. According to the editors, these documents show that the American government was well informed of the circumstances in the Third Reich and of the pro-Nazi and anti-Nazi sentiments among different social groups. The documents are arranged chronologically and are placed in their historical context in the introduction.

Bürgi, Markus. Die Anfänge der Zweiten Internationale. Positionen und Auseinandersetzungen 1889-1893. [Quellen und Studien zur Sozialgeschichte, Band 16.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1996. 651 pp. Ill. DM 148.00; S.fr. 137.00; S 1095.00.
In his dissertation (Zürich, 1991) Dr Bürgi gives a comprehensive overview of the origins of the Second International, as it arose from the discussions between the various schools in the international labour movement between 1889 and 1893. Focusing on the debate in the preparatory stage of the various congresses (Paris 1889, Brussels 1891 and Zürich 1893) and the emerging "socialist diplomacy", the author devotes special attention to the schools hitherto somewhat neglected in the historiography: the non-socialist and anarchist factions.

Centre and Periphery. The History of the Comintern in the Light of New DOCUMENTS. Ed. by Mikhail Narinsky and Jürgen Rojahn. International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam 1996. 267 pp. D.fl. 38.50.
This volume contains a selection of the papers presented at an international conference on "The History of the Comintern in the Light of New DOCUMENTS", held in Moscow in October 1994. The 23 contributions, in English and French, deal with the origins and present state of the Comintern archives, recent literature on the Comintern, problems with periodization of the Comintern history, organizational structures and decision-making processes in the Comintern and the relation between the central organization and its national sections.

Child Labour in Historical Perspective 1800-1985. Case Studies from Europe, Japan and Colombia. Ed. by Hugh Cunningham and Pier Paolo Viazzo. UNICEF International Child Development Centre, Florence; Istituto degli Innocenti, Florence 1996. 105 pp. Ill. $9.00.
See Jane Humphries's review in this volume, pp. 463-465.

European Migrants. Global and Local Perspectives. Ed. by Dirk Hoerder and Leslie Page Moch. Northeastern University Press, Boston 1996. vii, 329 pp. £45.00. (Paper: £17.00.)
The ten essays in this collection, two of which were published previously, place the mass migration which took place in Europe in the period 1840-1914 in the context of both local history and a global perspective, combining new findings on the impulse to migrate within and from Europe with the progressive globalization of migration studies. The first four contributions address overarching questions about the transatlantic migration. Three essays illuminate departures from Europe from a macro and micro perspective, while the last three contributions provide a comparison of migrants at their respective points of destination.

Faroqhi, Suraiya. Kultur und Alltag im Osmanischen Reich. Vom Mittelalter bis zum Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts. Verlag C.H. Beck, München 1995. 402 pp. Ill. DM 58.00.
This comprehensive history relates daily life and culture in the Ottoman Empire from the Middle Ages to the early twentieth century. Professor Faroqhi focuses on the world of the common city dwellers, examining their everyday experiences, their celebrations and festivals, the influence of religion and "high" culture on their daily lives and the aspects of the non-Islamic world that penetrated from outside the Empire, as mediated by seamen and merchants. The author concludes that Ottoman culture was in many respects equivalent and in some areas even superior to European culture in this period.

The Ideas of Leon Trotsky. Ed. by Hillel Ticktin and Michael Cox. Porcupine Press, n.d. [1996.] viii, 386 pp. Ill. £14.95.
This collection of eighteen essays aims, first, to assess Trotsky's contribution to Marxist thought in the twentieth century, second, to contribute to the history of the Trotskyist Left Opposition and, third, to discuss the ways he has been interpreted and misinterpreted. Four contributions, all by the first editor, deal with Trotsky's ideas in the field of political economy. Trotsky's ideas on philosophy and culture are discussed by Antonio Carlo, Michael Löwy and Alan Wald, among others. The second editor has contributed two essays, including one on the relation between Trotsky and the New Left Review. Two previously untranslated pieces by Trotksy on the world economy in the interwar period are appended.

Monk, Ray. Bertrand Russell. The Spirit of Solitude. Jonathan Cape, London 1996. xx, 695 pp. Ill. £25.00.
This is the first part of a comprehensive biography of Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), covering the period of Russell's life to 1921. Dr Monk aims to consider all of the three passions that governed his life: "his need for love, his yearning for certain knowledge, and his sometimes overpowering impulse to become involved in the great political issues of his day. [...] In each of their various ways, Russell's three great passions were attempts by him to overcome his solitariness through contact with something outside himself: another individual, humanity at large, or the external world."

More, Thomas. Utopia. Latin Text and English Translation. Ed. by George M. Logan, Robert M. Adams and Clarence H. Miller. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xlvi, 290 pp. 55.00; $79.95.
First published in Latin in 1516, this is the first edition of Thomas More's Utopia to combine More's Latin text with an English translation since the Yale edition of 1965. The translation is a revised version of the 1989 translation by the first two editors. The edition provides a Latin text based on the Froben edition of March 1518 but with spelling and punctuation regularized according to modern convention. Incorporating the results of recent Utopian scholarship, the edition includes an introduction, a textual apparatus, a complete commentary and a guide to scholarly and critical literature on Utopia.

Mujal-Léon, Eusebio [and] Ann-Sofie Nilsson. Die Sozialistische Internationale in den 80er Jahren. Dritte-Welt-Politik zwischen den Blöcken. [Studien zur Politik, Band 23.] Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn [etc.] 1995. 294 pp. DM 44.00.
This study surveys the response by the Socialist International (SI) and especially four of its most prominent members in Germany (SPD), France (PS), Spain (PSOE) and Sweden (SAP) to a selection of conflicts in the Third World in the 1970s and 1980s. Focusing on outbreaks in Latin and Central America, Southern Africa and the Middle East, the authors analyze the background of the SI's activities and involvement in this field, which they attributed to factors including the end of the U.S. hegemony in international politics.


Wollstonecraft's Daughters. Womanhood in England and France 1780-1920. Ed. by Clarissa Campbell Orr. Manchester University Press, Manchester 1996; distr. excl. in the USA and Canada by St Martin's Press, New York. x, 206 pp. £40.00.
The ten contributions in this collection, based on a conference held in October 1992 in Cambridge, deal with Mary Wollstonecraft's nineteenth-century legacy in England and France in relation to three main themes in her work: the nature of motherhood; religion and women's empowerment; and women's contributions to the sciences of "man". Contributions included deal with, among others, the philanthropy of French Catholic women and the Catholic feminist tradition; Flora Tristan's debt to Wollstonecraft; and the contrasting feminism of Elizabeth Hamilton, Maria Rye and the Swiss educationalist Albertine Necker de Saussure. The introduction supplies a framework for comparing French and English women in the nineteenth century.


Between Plan and Market. Social Change in the Baltic States and Russia. [Societies in Transition, 6.] Ed. by Raimo Blom, Harri Melin [and] Jouko Nikula. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin [etc.] 1996. ix, 182 pp. DM 102.00.
The eight sociological contributions to this volume merge systemic, social and communal levels of analysis in their examination of the social transformation in the Baltic states and Russia since the collapse of the Soviet system in 1991 and the development of a capitalist economy. Contributions included deal with, inter alia, the obstacles to capitalist development in the Baltic states (the editors), the beginning of a working-class movement in the Soviet Union and the post-Soviet societies (1989-1991) (Leonid Gordon) and privatization of agriculture and the family farm ideology in the Baltic states (Ilkka Alanen).

Lavalette, Michael and Jane Kennedy. Solidarity on the Waterfront: The Liverpool Lock Out of 1995/96. [The History and Society of Merseyside Series.] Liver Press, Merseyside 1996. x, 147 pp. Ill. £5.95.
This book is an sympathetic account of the struggle of 500 Liverpool dock labourers, fired and locked out following a conflict over ongoing casualization of work and deteriorating working conditions since the abolition of the National Dock Labour Scheme in 1989. The authors analyze the background of the management's hardening policy, the failure of the Transport and General Workers Union (TGWU) to back their Liverpool members adequately and the continuing fight of the dockers for re-instatement. CONTINENTS AND COUNTRIES


Cotton, Colonialism, and Social History in Sub-Saharan Africa. Ed. by Allen Isaacman [and] Richard Roberts. [Social History of Africa.] Heinemann, Portsmouth (NH); James Currey, London 1995. Maps. £35.00. (Paper: £14.95.)
Focusing on cotton growing in sub-Saharan Africa during the colonial period, the eleven case studies in this interdisciplinary collection compare the different colonial agricultural policies, labour regimes, and African responses to colonial economic policies in Nigeria, Togo, Sudan, Angola, Mozambique, Tanzania, Congo, Ivory Coast and Malawi.


From Chattel Slaves to Wage Slaves. The Dynamics of Labour Bargaining in the Americas. Ed. by Mary Turner. Ian Randle, Kingston; Indiana University Press, Bloomington [etc.]; James Currey, London 1995. x, 309 pp. Ill. £35.00. (Paper: £12.95.)
The fourteen contributions in this collection, based on a conference held in London in May 1991, deal with the terms on which slave, contract, full and part-time wage work was extracted and the methods workers used to secure and improve living standards. The contributions relate to the Caribbean and to mainland America from the mid-eighteenth to the mid-twentieth centuries. According to the editor in her introduction, the studies incorporated demonstrate that, despite changes in legal status, the methods available for workers to improve their terms of work have remained substantively the same.

Lavrin, Asunción. Women, Feminism, and Social Change in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay, 1890-1940. [Engendering Latin America, Vol. 3.] University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln [etc.] [1995.] x, 480 pp. Ill. $60.00.
This study examines the development of feminism in its context of social change in the Southern cone of South America (i.e. Argentina, Chile and Uruguay) in the years 1890-1940. After exploring the relationship between the beginning industrialization, the rise of an organized labour movement and the development of feminism in general, the author focuses on five specific themes (public health and motherhood; sexuality; birth control; legal equality of men and women; and divorce legislation) before dealing with women's politics and suffrage in the three countries.


Leier, Mark. Red Flags and Red Tape. The Making of a Labour Bureaucracy. University of Toronto Press, Toronto [etc.] 1995. xviii, 245 pp. Ill. $50.00; £32.00. (Paper: $17.95; £11.50.)
Focusing on the formative years of the Vancouver Trades and Labour Council, from 1889 to 1910, Professor Leier explains how and why bureaucracy came to dominate an organization established to promote greater democracy for the working class. After outlining the theoretical debates on the labour bureaucracy, he compares the ideology of the bureaucrats to that of the members and concludes that bureaucrats are defined by their power over a movement rather than by their ideology.

McKay, Colin. For a Working-Class Culture in Canada. A Selection of Colin McKay's Writings on Sociology and Political Economy, 1897-1939. Ed. and Annotated by Ian McKay. Researched and Introd. by Lewis Jackson and Ian McKay. Canadian Committee on Labour History, St. John's 1996. lii, 615 pp. $29.95.
Colin McKay (1876-1939) was a Canadian labour activist and progressive journalist, who was active in the left from the 1890s to the 1930s and who left over 950 articles on a broad range of social, economic and cultural issues. This collection contains 125 excerpts from his writings on sociological issues and political economy, divided according to four chronological sections that reflect McKay's political and ideological development. In the introduction the editors give a biographical sketch and analyze McKay's development from an adherent of liberal Christian progressivism to a socialist and an advocate of industrial unionism.


Bergad, Laird W., María del Carmen Barcia [and] Fe Iglesias García. The Cuban Slave Market 1790-1880. [Cambridge Latin American Studies, 79.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xxi, 245 pp. £35.00; $59.95.
See Joan Casanovas's review in this volume, pp. 465-468.


Brunk, Samuel. Emilio Zapata. Revolution & Betrayal in Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque 1995. xvi, 360 pp. Ill. $45.00. (Paper: $24.95.)
See Norman Caulfield's review in this volume, pp. 468-470.

Pérez Toledo, Sonia. Los hijos del trabajo. Los artesanos de la ciudad de México, 1780-1853. El Colegio de México, México; Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, México 1996. 300 pp. Maps.
This revised version of a dissertation studies the artisans of Mexico City during the transition to independence (1780-1853). The author explains the attitude of the artisans towards the abolition of their guilds and towards the political changes related to Mexico's independence.

United States of America

Baker, Christina Looper. In a Generous Spirit. A First-Person Biography of Myra Page. Foreword by Alice Kessler-Harris. Afterword by Mary Frederickson. [Women in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1996. xxiii, 274 pp. Ill. $48.95. (Paper: $15.95.)
Myra Page, the pseudonym of Dorothy Markey-Gary (1897-1993), was a well-known radical journalist and novelist, communist and feminist who wrote for publications such as the Daily Worker. Her novels, which reflected social concern, included The Gathering Storm, Daughter of the Hills, and Moscow Yankee. Professor Baker blends historical research, interviews by herself and others with Page and ego-documents from Page into a "first-person biography". In her foreword Dr Kessler-Harris deals with the role of the Communist Party in the lives of Myra Page and other intellectuals from the 1920s onward.

Bell, Daniel. Marxian Socialism in the United States. With a New Introd. by Michael Kazin and a New Afterword by the Author. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1996. xlv, 222 pp. $16.95; £13.50.
This is a new edition of a classic account of the history of the American socialist Left, which was originally published in 1957. Central argument in Bell's study is that the Marxists failed to appeal to the American working masses in part because of their eschatological view of the future. In his introduction to this edition Dr Kazin reevaluates the book in the context of subsequent work on the subject and the recent history of the American Left. In the afterword Professor Bell assesses the development of the Left since the book's original publication.

Form, William. Segmented Labor, Fractured Politics. Labor Politics in American Life. [Plenum Studies in Work and Industry.] Plenum Press, New York [etc.] 1995. xviii, 377 pp. $42.50.
Based on case studies of labour's political activities in Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati, Dr Form examines in this study of contemporary American labour politics the divisions within the labour movement and its inability to forge a cohesive political strategy. The author provides a broad perspective, describing the changes in labour's social class composition over the last thirty years, examining labour's electoral effectiveness and tracing labour's influence on the Democratic Party since 1930 and the effectiveness of its Congressional lobbying since the 1970s. According to the author, the main obstacles to labour growth are within labour itself.

Griswold del Castillo, Richard and Richard A. Garcia. César Chávez. A Triumph of Spirit. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman [etc.] 1995. xvii, 206 pp. Ill. £15.95.
This is the first biography of César Chávez (1972-1993), co-founder and life-long leader of the United Farm Workers (UFW), after his unexpected death in April 1993. According to his biographers, Chávez's life mirrors the major events in twentieth-century Mexican American history. The authors submit that Chávez's importance exceeds that of a Mexican-American labour leader and view him as one of the major American reformers, alongside individuals such as Martin Luther King Jr. Professors Griswold del Castillo and Garcia see Chávez's main significance as moral, as he became a spiritual leader for many Mexican Americans.

Klingaman, William K. Encyclopedia of the McCarthy Era. Facts on File, Inc., New York 1996. viii, 502 pp. Ill. $45.00.
With more than 250 entries, cross-references, a chronology, a selected bibliography and nearly one hundred photographs, as well as appendices with related documents, this book offers a comprehensive overview of the McCarthy era. Issues like the blacklist, the Hollywood Ten, the Army-McCarthy Hearings and loyalty review boards are dealt with in the entries alongside biographical sketches of the most prominent related personalities. Covering the years 1947-1954, the book also addresses the investigation of Soviet espionage in the U.S. atomic energy programme and the activities of the China lobby following the defeat of Chiang Kai-shek.

Levinson, Edward. Labor on the March. With an Introd. by Robert H. Zieger. [Literature of American Labor Series.] ILR Press, Ithaca 1995. xvii, 325 pp. £13.50.
First published in 1938 and reprinted in 1956, this is a classical account of the division between the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO). In his introduction to this new edition, Professor Zieger - who recently published a history of the CIO (see below) - relates Levinson's career as a journalist and an advocate of the new unionism as embodied by the CIO in the 1930s and places the book in its historical context.

Lloyd, Henry Demarest. Henry Demarest Lloyd's Critiques of American Capitalism, 1881-1903. Ed. by Alun Munslow and Owen R. Ashton. The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston [etc.] 1995. xiv, 219 pp. $89.95.
The American journalist, reformer and labour propagandist Henry Demarest Lloyd (1847-1903) was one of the early critics of American capitalism and the character of late nineteenth-century corporate America. His fame is most of all based on his 1894 book exposing the monopolistic business practices of the Standard Oil Company Wealth Against Commonwealth. Reprinted in this volume are thirteen of his contributions to the radical democratic critique of American capitalism. The introduction describes the biographical context and ideological background and development.

McKillen, Elizabeth. Chicago Labor and the Quest for a Democratic Diplomacy, 1914-1924. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1995. xiv, 239 pp. £27.50.
Aiming to reconcile the insights of diplomatic and labour history, Professor McKillen's study sets out to establish the impact of U.S. foreign policy during the World War I era on the development of the labour movement. Applying the methods of community study, she reconstructs the campaign waged by the Chicago Federation of Labor (CFL) against the foreign policy objectives of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) under the leadership of Samuel Gompers and analyses how CFL leaders marshalled popular opposition first to the war and economic imperialism and later to the League of Nations and American post-war policies in Europe and Latin America.

Morawska, Ewa. Insecure Prosperity: Small-Town Jews in Industrial America, 1890-1940. Princeton University Press, Princeton [etc.] 1996. xxv, 369 pp. Ill. $35.00; £29.95.
See Leo Lucassen's review in this volume, pp. 470-473.

Shaw, Stephanie J. What a Woman Ought to Be and to Do. Black Professional Women Workers During the Jim Crow Era. [Women in Culture and Society.] The University of Chicago Press, Chicago [etc.] 1996. xvi, 347 pp. $16.95.
In this study of African-American professional women during the Jim Crow era, Professor Shaw focuses first on the period from the 1880s to the 1930s, exploring the emerging child rearing principles, community awareness and educational reinforcements within black society to promote socially responsible individualism. In the second part, covering the 1890s to the 1950s, she focuses on the professional lives and careers of social workers, librarians, nurses and teachers. The author concludes that within the African-American community a construction of gender existed that was deliberately designed to enable women to transcend the multiple disabling factors of race, class and sex.

Zieger, Robert H. The CIO 1935-1955. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 1995. x, 491 pp. Ill. $39.95.
This is a comprehensive history of the Congress of Industrial Organization from its founding in 1935 to its merger with the American Federation of Labor (AFL) in 1955. Combining the institutional history of the CIO with sketches of the working-class life, Professor Zieger, the author of a recent biography of CIO leader John L. Lewis (see IRSH, XXXIV (1989), p. 363), analyses the racial and gender relations, details the ideological conflicts within the CIO and assesses the CIO's role in shaping the political and socio-economic order in the United States and internationally in this period.


Farnsworth, Robert M. From Vagabond to Journalist. Edgar Snow in Asia 1928-1941. University of Missouri Press, Columbia [etc.] 1996. xii, 451 pp. Ill. £31.95.
This biography of Edgar Snow (1905-1972), journalist and author of the classical account of the rise of the Chinese Red Army in Red Star over China (1937), focuses on Snow's life in China and other parts of Asia (1928 to 1941). Professor Farnsworth describes the origins of Snow's interest in China and the development of his contacts with all the important political and military leaders in China, including Mao Zedong and Chiang Kai-shek. He aims to show how Snow's personal life and philosophical perspective enhanced his writing and contributed to his success.


Kiernan, Ben. The Pol Pot Regime. Race, Power, and Genocide in Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, 1975-79. Yale University Press, New Haven [etc.] 1996. xiii, 477 pp. Ill. Maps. £25.00.
This comprehensive study of the Pol Pot regime describes the violent origins, social context and course of the Khmer Rouge revolution in the years 1975-1979. Based on more than five hundred interviews with Cambodian refugees, survivors and defectors, as well as on a collection of previously unexplored archival material from the Pol Pot regime, Professor Kiernan explores the nature of the Khmer Rouge regime and concludes that its atrocities can be explained by its ideological preoccupation with racist and totalitarian policies.


Barmé, Geremie R. Shades of Mao. The Posthumous Cult of the Great Leader. ("An East Gate Book".) M.E. Sharpe, Armonk (New York) [etc.] 1995. xii, 323 pp. Ill. $62.95; £50.50. (Paper: $22.95; £17.95.)
The late 1980s saw a Maoist revival in China that was markedly different from the Maoist personality cult in the Cultural Revolution. The phenomenon of "a search for Mao Zedong" became enormously popular in the ideological vacuum left by the Tiananmen massacre and the subsequent purge of 1989. This anthology contains a selection including memoirs, poems, fiction and Communist Party documents, all relating to the posthumous, second Mao cult. In his introductory essay "The Irresistible Fall and Rise of Mao", Dr Barmé gives an overview and interpretation of the cult's origins and development. Some fifty illustrations vividly convey this popular movement.

Mao Zedong - Der unsterbliche Revolutionär? Versuch einer kritischen Neubewertung anläßlich des 100. Geburtstages. [Mitteilungen des Instituts für Asienkunde Hamburg, Nr 247.] Institut für Asienkunde, Hamburg 1995. 222 pp. DM 28.00.
The eight contributions in this collection originate from a symposium held at the University of Trier in 1993, on the occasion of the hundredth birthday of Mao Zedong. Aiming at a new evaluation of the Mao's life and work, the contributors - Sinologists, political scientists, economists and sociologists from Germany and China - cover areas including the origins of the new Mao cult, the figure of Mao as an object in biographies and memoirs and the social costs of Mao's development strategy and evaluate his ideological reforms from the perspective of the theory of totalitarianism.

The Rise to Power of the Chinese Communist Party. DOCUMENTS and Analysis. Ed. by Tony Saich, with a contrib. by Benjamin Yang. M.E. Sharpe, Armonk (NY) [etc.] 1996. lxix, 1431 pp. $45.00.
This bulky volume presents more than two hundred key documents covering the rise to power of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) from its inception in 1920 through the Civil War in the late 1940s that brought Mao Zedong to rule in 1949. Dr Saich supplies detailed annotation for the documents and commentaries with the eight sections divided chronologically. In his introduction and commentaries he analyses the complex picture of the party's policies and its relationship to different social forces in the countryside and in the cities, its ideological development, the growth of the CCP as an organization with its internal diversity and the rise of Mao as the dominating leader.

Roux, Alain. Grèves et politique à Shanghai. Les désillusions (1927-1932). Éditions de l'École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris, 1995. 408 pp. F.fr. 250.00.
The Shanghai labour movement and its defeat by the Guomindang in the late 1920s and early 1930s, well-known through works such as Malraux's La condition humaine, is the subject of this revised version of the first part of the thèse de doctorat (Université de Paris I, 1991) of Professor Roux. Whereas journalists and historians have described the events in Shanghai mainly in terms of a battle between Trotskyism and Stalinism, Professor Roux relates the grassroots history here, focusing on the rank-and-file and showing that a strong reformist labour movement was successful after the defeat of the communists in several strikes, until it was ultimately crushed through infiltration by the Guomindang and gangsters.



Strachan, Glenda. Labour of Love. The History of the Nurses' Association in Queensland, 1860-1950. Allen & Unwin, St Leonards 1996. xxiii, 291 pp. Ill. $24.95.
In the late nineteenth century nursing in Australia advanced from a low status male and female service to become the work of educated women. An ideal rapidly developed of women who worked for the love of humanity and not for monetary gain. Focusing on the Australasian Trained Nurses' Association in Queensland, this study traces the change in nursing work over a century and examines how this ideal of service and sacrifice influenced the work of the Association, evolving into a fully-fledged trade union prepared to play an industrial role on behalf of its members.


Adam, Jan. Why did the Socialist System Collapse in Central and Eastern European Countries? The Case of Poland, the former Czechoslovakia and Hungary. Macmillan Press Ltd, Basingstoke; St. Martin's Press, Inc., New York 1996. xiii, 244 pp. £40.00.
Focusing on Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary, this study discusses the economic, political and social causes of the collapse of the socialist system in these countries. Although Professor Adam mentions a number of economic causes for the collapse (the increasing gap in the level of technology between the East and the West; unfavourable developments in the standard of living; excessive socialization of the means of production; and growing indebtedness), he argues that political factors were at least as important as economic factors in the breakdown.

Bulgarskite socialdemokrati i me dunarodnoto socialisticesko bjuro. Korespondencija 1900-1914/Les socialdémocrates bulgares et le Bureau Socialiste International. Correspondance 1900-1914. S st.: Jivka Kaneva-Damjanova [i] Pol Djumon. Red.: Stojanka Pobornikova/DOCUMENTS recueuillis et éd. par Jivka Kaneva-Damianova et Paul Dumont. MIKOM, Sofija 1996. 306 pp.
The Second International's International Socialist Bureau (ISB) corresponded more intensively with the Russian and Bulgarian sections than with any of the others. The present source publications results in a sevenfold increase in the number of documents available in the Bulgarian file. These contents, which comprise reports and circulars in addition to documents, focus on the factional conflict. The effort by different factions to justify their actions toward the ISB through their "correct" approach to all possible issues generates a detailed impression of the political discourse within the ISB.

Blanning, T.C.W. The French Revolutionary Wars 1787-1802. Arnold, London [etc.] 1996. xvii, 286 pp. Maps. £40.00.
In this second volume in a new series placing modern wars in a long-term perspective (see IRSH, this volume, p. 314), Professor Blanning analyses the French revolutionary wars in the years 1787-1792 and their significance for modern warfare as well as for the French Revolution itself and European international politics. According to the author, the wars led the Revolution rather than vice versa. He characterizes the society of revolutionary France as a militarized one, comparing the rhetoric of the Revolution to that of Hitler's Germany, and France's creation of satellite states in Western Europe to Stalin's policy in Central and Eastern Europe after World War II.

Bürgertum im 19. Jahrhundert. Deutschland im europäischen Vergleich. Eine Auswahl. Hrsg. von Jürgen Kocka. Band I. Einheit und Vielfalt Europas. Band II. Wirtschaftsbürger und Bildungsbürger. Band III. Verbürgerlichung, Recht und Politik. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1995. 252 pp.; 226 pp.; 280 pp. DM 24.80 per vol.
These three volumes contain 23 of the articles published (altogether over 40) in the original 1988 edition of the series, which was noticed in IRSH, XXXV (1990), pp. 483f. This selection contains the contributions dealing directly with the European bourgeoisie rather than the ones that cover the bourgeois influences in other social and cultural areas and the issues surrounding the rise of the middle class. The revised introduction to the first volume incorporates many of the findings in the contributions not included in this edition.

Mastellone, Salvo. A History of Democracy in Europe. From Montesquieu to 1989. Ed. and transl. by Iain L. Fraser. Introd. by Michael E. Good. [Politeia, Scienza e pensiero, 3.] Centro Editoriale Toscano, Firenze 1995. xxvii, 322 pp. L. 34.000.
Tracing the development of the theoretical debate in Europe from Montesquieu to 1989, this study relates a general history of democracy in Europe. Professor Mastellone, former President of the International Commission for the History of Representative and Parliamentary Institutions, presents the main issues of European political literature on democracy in 44 short chapters, covering all major classical and modern works on the subject.

Minderheden in Westeuropese steden (16de - 20ste eeuw)/Minorities in Western European Cities (sixteenth - twentieth centuries). Ed. by Hugo Soly [and] Alfons K.L. Thijs. Institut Historique Belge de Rome/Belgisch Historisch Instituut te Rome, Brussel [etc.] 1995. Ill. 246 pp. B.fr. 991.00.
The eleven contributions to this volume, based on a colloquium organized in Antwerp in 1993, deal with minorities (especially immigrants and religious dissenters) in a number of Western European cities between the sixteenth and twentieth centuries. The contributions, both in English and in Dutch, investigate, among others, minorities in Antwerp (the second editor), the general role of minorities in Western European culture (Peter Burke), the role of migration in the development of ethnic minorities (Colin G. Pooley), Jewish minorities in German towns in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (Ronnie Po-chia Hsia) and the attitude towards Jews in Antwerp between 1918 and 1942.


Marin, Francesco. Pacifisti e socialpatrioti. La socialdemocrazia austriaca alla conferenza per la pace di Stoccolma - 1917. [Collana di monografie, 54.] Società di studi trentini di scienze storiche, Trento 1996. 210 pp. Ill. L. 40.000.
This study deals with the Austrian social-democratic party's role in the preparations for the Conference of Stockholm of the Second International, convened by Camille Huysmans in 1917 but never held. According to the author, "Stockholm" was an awkward problem for all the social-democratic parties in the belligerent countries, as it forced them to adopt clear positions with respect to the war. The author has made extensive use of sources at the International Institute of Social History (IISH), Amsterdam, concerning the relations of the Austrian party and the International Socialist Bureau and of archival materials in the Austrian State Archives and in the party archives at the Verein für Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung, Vienna.

Eire - Ireland

Fannin, Alfred. Letters from Dublin, Easter 1916: Alfred Fannin's Diary of the Rising. Ed. by Adrian and Sally Warwick-Haller. Irish Academic Press, Dublin [etc.] 1995. viii, 56 pp. Ill. £5.95.
Alfred Fannin, managing director of a medical and surgical supply business in Dublin, started a series of letters to his brother abroad on 25 April 1916, the beginning of the 1916 Easter Rising. The letters, published here for the first time ever, offer a day-by-day account of the Rising, providing information on the food shortages, the looting, the role of rumour, the element of surprise in the beginning of the Rising and the military aspects, as well as reflections on the prevailing confusion.


1789-1799. Nouveaux chantiers d'histoire révolutionnaire. Les institutions et les hommes. Textes réunis et publ. par Michel Vovelle. Éditions du CTHS, Paris 1995. 223 pp. Maps. F.fr. 200.00.
This volume brings together thirteen contributions presented at two congresses organized by the commission d'Histoire de Revolution française (Clermont-Ferrand, 1992 and Pau, 1993) on new trends in the historiography of the French Revolution. Jointly designated as a "rediscovery in politics", these new trends are presented in this collection according to four themes: new structures of the state apparatus, political life and political culture in the provinces, individual political careers and political movements of the peasantry during the Revolution.

CGT 1895[-]1995. Le premier siècle. Maquette: Josette Degand. Conception et coordination: Jean-Claude Poitou. VO Editions, Montreuil n.d. Ill.
This large, abundantly illustrated and meticulously designed volume is an official history of France's largest trade-union federation, the Confédération Général du Travail (CGT), to commemorate its centennial in 1995. Eight major contributions review the main themes in the history of the CGT: working-class solidarity, the fight for better working and living conditions, employment, democracy within the trade union, internationalism, the influence of the CGT on the economy, its relation with cultural life and its quest for social improvement. A chronological overview is appended.

Les Chantiers de la paix sociale (1900-1940). Textes réunis par Yves Cohen et Rémi Baudouï. [Sociétés, espaces, temps.] E.N.S. Editions, Fontenay [etc.] 1995. 335 pp. F.fr. 160.00.
The fourteen contributions in this volume deal with social reformism and reformists and the emergence of professional social welfare in France in the first decades of the twentieth century. The contributions revolve around three main themes: the developing technique of social welfare, Catholic social action and social welfare and reformism in the cities and on the shop floor.

Courtois, Stéphane [et] Marc Lazar. Histoire du Parti communiste français. [Thémis.] Presses Universitaires de France, Paris 1995. 439 pp. Maps. F.fr. 149.00.
The opening of Comintern archives in Moscow as well as the multitude of recent publications on the relationship between the Parti communiste français (PCF) and significant groups in French society have occasioned this new history of the PCF. The authors give a chronological overview of the historical development of the PCF from the dual perspective of the political organization led by the Marxist-Leninist doctrine of democratic centralism and unconditional loyalty towards the Soviet Union and the social and cultural role of the PCF.

Flora Tristan. La paria et son rêve. Correspondance établie par Stéphane Michaud. [Sociétés, Espaces, Temps.] E.N.S. Editions, Fontenay/Saint-Cloud 1995. 302 pp. F.fr. 120.00.
Fifteen years after the publication of Flora Tristan's letters edited by Mr Michaud (see IRSH, XXVI (1981), p. 235), this scholar released an entirely new edition of her correspondence containing letters she received as well. A third of her 108 letters in this book were discovered recently and are published here for the first time. The 161 documents arranged in five sections divided according to the phases in her life: marriage and divorce; journey to Peru; early years in Paris; the London years; and the correspondence concerning her last publications Union Ouvrière (1843) and Tour de France (1844), which accounts for the lion's share of the book. Each section is preceded by a detailed chronology and an introduction and followed by extensive annotation. An index of correspondents with short biographical notices is appended.

Forrest, Alan. The Revolution in Provincial France. Aquitaine, 1789-1799. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1996. x, 377 pp. Maps. £45.00.
This study assesses the experience of the French Revolution from a provincial perspective, focusing on Aquitaine in the years 1789-1799. Professor Forrest examines the Revolution within a thematic framework, discussing aspects such as the growth of a local political culture, the incidence of rural insurrection, religious responses to the Revolution, the chequered appeal of federalism and the uneven experience of Terror and political repression. According to the author, local conflicts and personal rivalries are vital to our understanding of the shape the Revolution took in the region, as are contrasting traditions of religious affiliation, peasant radicalism and obedience toward the state.

Frei, Christoph. Direkte Demokratie in Frankreich: Wegmarken einer schwierigen Tradition. Festvortrag zum 60. Geburtstag von Prof. Dr. Alois Riklin, gehalten am Liechtenstein-Institut in Bendern am 6. Oktober 1995. [Kleine Schriften 22.] Verlag der Liechtensteinischen Akademischen Gesellschaft, Vaduz 1995. 29 pp.
In this speech delivered at Professor Alois Riklin's sixtieth birthday, Dr Frei addresses the tradition of direct democracy in modern French history, ranging in this case from the political ideology of Condorcet to the political praxis under General De Gaulle. The author explains why in the country considered the cradle of modern democracy, the tradition of direct democracy - as expressed through referendums - is so weak.

Girault, Jacques. Le Var rouge. Les Varois et le socialisme de la fin de la Première Guerre mondiale au milieu des années 1930. [Histoire de la France aux XIXe et XXe siècle, 36.] Publications de la Sorbonne, Paris 1995. 861 pp. Maps. F.fr. 210.00.
The department of the Var, in the South of France, has a historical reputation as a politically "red" department. Professor Girault, himself a Varois, provides a comprehensive exploration in his thèse de doctorat (Université de Paris I, 1990) of the origins and development of the socialist dominance in this department in the Interbellum. Based on extensive analyses of, among others, the professional population, social stratification and electoral results, he examines the emergence of the socialist dominance between the party's political rifts in 1920 and 1933 and its definitive heyday with the Popular Front after the 1936 elections.

La République et la terreur. Sous la dir. de Catherine Kintzler et de Hadi Rizk. Actes du séminaire organisé par le Collège International de philosophie. Novembre 1993 - juin 1994. [Philosophie, épistémologie.] Éditions Kimé, Paris 1995. 159 pp. F.fr. 130.00.
The eight essays in this collection, based on a series of seminars organized by the Collège Internationale de philosophie, deal with the philosophical origins of the concept of terror that emerged from the French Revolution. According to the editors the development of the political and philosophical concept of terror remained hidden in the celebration of the French Revolution's bicentenary. The contributions presented here bridge this gap by exploring the role of terror in the incipient political concept of the republic in the French Revolution.

Tartakowsky, Danielle. Le Front populaire. La vie est à nous. [Histoire.] Découvertes Gallimard, n.p. [Paris] 1996. 144 pp. Ill.
This richly illustrated booklet is an introductory textbook to the history of the Popular Front in France from its establishment in July 1935 to its disintegration in 1938. Dr Tartakowsky gives a general overview of the preceding events and circumstances in which the political alliance between communists, socialists and radicals arose, the new political culture it generated, the political developments and problems of the period, the proliferation of social policy measures (the forty-hour working week, paid holidays) and the concurrent cultural revolution. She stresses the new inspiration that emanated from the Popular Front.


Als Zwangsarbeiterin 1941 in Berlin. Die Aufzeichnungen der Volkswirtin Elisabeth Freund. Hrsg. und kommentiert von Carola Sachse. [Selbstzeugnisse der Neuzeit, Band 5.] Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1996. 166 pp. Ill. DM 48.00.
Elizabeth Freund (1898-1972) was an academic economist, known during the Weimar era as the author of emancipationist information pamphlets for housewives. During her period as a Jewish forced labourer in a laundry house and at a metal factory in Berlin from April to October 1941, she kept detailed notes, which are published in this volume. Her notes vividly reflect the daily experiences of a Jewish forced labourer and the social relations in the factories and especially the concrete forms of exclusion and humiliation used by the non-Jewish Germans. In her introduction the editor sketches the biographical and general historical context.

Bebel, August. Ausgewählte Reden und Schriften. Bearb. von Anneliese Beske, Bärbel Bäuerle, Gustav Seeber(†) und Walter Wittwer. Endred.: Anneliese Beske und Eckhard Müller. Band 3. Reden und Schriften Oktober 1890 bis Dezember 1895. Band 4. Reden und Schriften Januar 1896 bis Dezember 1899. Band 5. Briefe 1890 bis 1899. Anmerkungen, Bibliographie und Register zu den Bänden 3 bis 5. K.G. Saur, München [etc.] 1995. 15*, 702 pp.; 526 pp.; 320 pp. DM 444.00; 444.00; 444.00.
The present three volumes are the continuation of the Bebel edition of East German origin (see IRSH, XV (1970), p. 505), XXVI (1981) p. 118, and XXX (1985), p. 159) and the first to appear after the German reunification. Based on the editorial preparations by Professor Seeber (who died unexpectedly in 1992), volumes 3 and 4 encompass Bebel's speeches and writings from October 1890 until December 1899. Volume 5 contains his letters from this period, as well as the annotation to all three volumes, a bibliography of Bebel's published work in this period and his literary references, complemented by an index of persons.

Bebel, August. Ausgewählte Reden und Schriften. Band 10/1. Die Frau und der Sozialismus. 1. Aufl. Band 10/2. Die Frau und der Sozialismus. 50. Aufl. Beilagen, Anmerkungen und Register. Mit einem Geleitwort von Susanne Miller. Bearb. von Anneliese Beske und Eckhard Müller. K.G. Saur, München [etc.] 1996. 25*, 809 pp. (in 2 vols.) DM 296.00; S.fr. 286.00; S 2309.00.
This tenth volume of the Bebel edition (see the previous annotation) is dedicated to his classical theoretical work Die Frau und der Sozialismus, which was first published in 1879, translated into twenty languages and reprinted 53 times (in both revised and unrevised editions) during Bebel's lifetime. This volume contains the texts from the first and the fiftieth editions, as well as Bebel's prefaces to the editions he revised: the second (1883), third (1884), ninth (1891), eleventh (1892), twenty-fifth (1895), thirty-fourth (1903) and fiftieth (1910). Enclosed are also all main texts related to the book's inception and publication history.

Biographisches Handbuch der SBZ/DDR 1945-1990. Hrsg. von Gabriele Baumgartner und Dieter Hebig. Band 1. Abendroth - Lyr. Band 2. Maßen - Zylla. Nachtrag zu Band 1. K.G. Saur, München [etc.] 1996. xix, vi, 1057 pp. (in 2 vols.) DM 249.00 per vol.
This biographical handbook of the Soviet zone of occupation and the GDR contains information on a total of 4,500 persons. The chronological scope comprises the period from the establishment of the Soviet zone of occupation on 8 May 1945 until the end of the GDR on 3 October 1990. All information is based on printed sources. The selection of persons described is based on their occupational status within 4 levels of the GDR society as a whole or within the SED: the bodies and organizations of the Party or state and related organizations on the central level; the level of the Bezirke (regional districts); the level of the Kreise (local districts); and the level of communities. Occupational fields included are, among others: politics and administration, art and culture, science and technology, education and sports.

Bouvier, Beatrix. Ausgeschaltet! Sozialdemokraten in der Sowjetischen Besatzungszone und in der DDR 1945-1953. [Forschungsinstitut der Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Reihe Politik- und Gesellschaftsgeschichte, Band 45.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 1996. 367 pp. DM 49.80.
In this study Dr Bouvier examines the operations of the KPD in the Soviet Occupation zone, subsequently the GDR, to eliminate its major competitor, the SPD, in the period 1945-1953. She explores how the KPD succeeded, with Soviet assistance, in dividing the SPD by using old Popular Front tactics forcing the party in the Soviet Occupation zone to merge with the KPD in the newly formed Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands (SED). The author focuses on the SPD officials at the central level of communities and administration, who were essential to the party's survival and who vehemently resisted the party's forced merger. She sketches how their severe suppression and persecution led to the ultimate destruction of the Eastern SPD.

Diewald-Kerkmann, Gisela. Politische Denunziation im NS-Regime oder Die kleine Macht der "Volksgenossen". Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 1995. 256 pp. DM 49.80; S.fr. 49.80; S 389.00.
The interaction between the agents for the Nazi persecution and the political informants from the general public is the subject of this dissertation (Bielefeld, 1994). Using archival materials from the Lippe/Westphalia region, Dr Diewald-Kerkmann analyses the mechanisms of the political informants and their importance in maintaining the Nazi regime of terror. She concludes that informants came from all social strata, and that - contrary to the popular myth - women were not disproportionately involved.

Dokumente zur Geschichte der kommunistischen Bewegung in Deutschland. Reihe 1945/1946. Band 3. Protokoll der Reichsberatung der KPD 8./9. Januar 1946. Band 4. Protokoll der Reichskonferenz der KPD 2./3. März 1946. Band 5. Protokoll des 15. Parteitages der KPD 19./20. April 1946. Bearb. von Günter Benser und Hans-Joachim Krusch. Band 6. Register. Erarb. von Günter Benser mit Unterstützung von Hans-Joachim Krusch und Hans Meusel. K.G. Saur, München [etc.] 1995; 1996; 1996; 1997. xiii, 553 pp.; xiv, 769 pp.; xviii, 694 pp.; 163 pp. Maps. DM 320.00; 380.00; 398.00; 148.00.
These four volumes complete the source publication of all remaining protocols and related materials of the commanding bodies and the central government of the Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (KPD) in the period 1945-1946, reproduced as facsimiles. The first volumes were annotated in IRSH, 39 (1994), pp. 501f. Volume 3 includes the protocol of the Reichsberatung der KPD introduced in January 1946, as well as materials from regional KPD conferences in the British, American and French zones of occupation. Volume 4 contains the protocol of the KPD Reichskonferenz, held in Berlin on 2 and 3 March 1946, whereas the protocol of the fifteenth Parteitag of the KPD, held in Berlin on 19 and 20 April 1946, appears in Volume 5, along with directions and protocols from conferences on economic policy and culture. Indexes on persons and places are published separately in Volume 6, together with systematic and chronological lists of the protocols and documents, lists of maps, tables and diagrams, abbreviations and lists of concordance for archival references.

Fricke, Thomas. Zigeuner im Zeitalter des Absolutismus. Bilanz einer einseitigen Überlieferung. Eine sozialgeschichtliche Untersuchung anhand südwestdeutscher Quellen. [Reihe Geschichtswissenschaft, Band 40.] Centaurus-Verlagsgesellschaft, Pfaffenweiler 1996. xi, 630 pp. Ill. DM 98.00.
This dissertation (Tübingen, 1994) is a comprehensive examination of the situation of the Sinti and Roma in the German region of Württemberg in the era of absolutism (i.e. the second half of the seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries). Dr Fricke investigates the factors that caused these groups of gypsies to be increasingly branded as criminals and persecuted during this period. The main causes he lists include: a new economic mentality; the internal and external expansion of government power under the emergent absolutism; the rise of a civil society with a work ethic and social discipline; and the religious entrenchment of social thought and action.

Henning, Friedrich-Wilhelm. Deutsche Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte im 19. Jahrhundert. [Handbuch der Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte Deutschlands, Band 2.] Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn [etc.] 1996. 1348 pp. Ill. Maps. DM 328.00.
In this second volume of a planned three-volume handbook of the history of Germany from the Middle Ages until the present (see IRSH, XXXVII (1992), p. 124 for the first volume) Professor Henning divides the nineteenth century into three phases: the first period, until the middle of the 1830s, characterized by the changes in the legal preconditions, greater mobility of people and goods and the introduction of new production techniques; the second period, from the 1830s to the 1870s, as the first phase of total industrialization and growth of a distinct working class; and a third period of advanced industrialization, accompanied by the inception of social security.

Klein, Gotthard. Der Volksverein für das katholische Deutschland 1890-1933. Geschichte, Bedeutung, Untergang. [Veröffentlichungen der Kommission für Zeitgeschichte, Reihe B: Forschungen, Band 75.] Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn [etc.] 1996. 597 pp. DM 98.00.
In the first decade of the twentieth century one of the most important and influential Catholic organizations in Germany was the Volksverein für das katholische Deutschland. This dissertation (Eichstätt, 1995) reconstructs the origins, successful development and subsequent demise of this social association in the Weimar Republic, which was founded by laymen in 1890 and comprised over 800,000 members (concentrated in the Rhineland-Westphalia industrial region) in its heyday. According to Dr Klein, its intensive training and schooling activities, based on a Catholic social doctrine, contributed considerably to the social integration of Catholics in imperial Germany.

Lexikon des DDR-Sozialismus. Das Staats- und Gesellschaftssystem der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. Hrsg. von Rainer Eppelmann, Horst Möller, Günter Nooke [und] Dorothee Wilms. [Studien zur Politik, Band 29.] Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn [etc.] 1996. x, 806 pp. DM 128.00.
This lexicon of issues offers a comprehensive reference to political and societal structures and processes in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) as they developed between 1945 and 1990. In more than 200 entries all important areas of the GDR state and society are covered: construction and organization of the political apparatus, the relationship between the Party and the state, the Marxist-Leninist ideology, the economy, justice and the judicial system, foreign policy and Deutschlandpolitik, the military, culture, public opinion and media, science and education, resistance and opposition and the re-unification process. In three short introductory contributions, different authors deal with the GDR as a state (Horst Möller), the rise of socialism in the GDR (Gerhard Wettig) and daily life in the GDR (Ehrhart Neubert).

Lindenberger, Thomas. Straßenpolitik. Zur Sozialgeschichte der öffentlichen Ordnung in Berlin 1900 bis 1914. [Reihe: Politik- und Gesellschaftsgeschichte, Band 39.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 1995. 431 pp. Ill. DM 62.00; S.fr. 63.00; S 484.00.
See Bernd Jürgen Warneken's review in this volume, pp. 473-476.

M.d.L. Das Ende der Parlamente 1933 und die Abgeordneten der Landtage und Bürgerschaften der Weimarer Republik in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus. Politische Verfolgung, Emigration und Ausbürgerung 1933-1945. Ein biographischer Index. Hrsg. von Martin Schumacher. [Veröffentlichung der Kommission für Geschichte des Parlamentarismus und der politischen Parteien in Bonn.] Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 1995. 83*, 210 pp. Ill. DM 48.00.
This biographical index brings together biographical sketches of 1,465 members of the representative bodies of the different German Länder (Landtage and Bürgerschaften) - communists, social democrats, democrats and conservatives of a variety of political parties - who after Hitler's seizure of power on 30 January 1933 were persecuted, exiled or deprived of their citizenship by the Nazis. Among this group, 232 died, directly or indirectly because of the Nazi persecution, in this period. The introduction contains an overview of the fates of the various regional representative bodies after January 1933. This book is a sequel to M.d.R. Die Reichstagsabgeordneten der Weimarer Republik in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus. Politische Verfolgung, Emigration und Ausbürgerung 1933-1945 (1991), which includes similar accounts of the fates of the members of the Reichstag.

Niederlausitzer Industriearbeiter 1935 bis 1970. Studien zur Sozialgeschichte. Hrsg. von Peter Hübner. [Zeithistorische Studien, Band 7.] Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1995. 337 pp. DM 98.00.
As a "coal and energy centre", the lignite region in the Niederlausitz was pivotal to the GDR economy. The contributions in this collection relate the social milieu and the daily living conditions among the industrial workers in this area. The general issue of consideration is social change and continuity during the two successive dictatorial regimes, namely the Nazi and the Soviet-communist eras. The contributions are grouped according to four themes: long-term industrial, social and environmental developments; continuity and change in the social lives of the industrial workers; trends in housing and in cultural progress; and a comparison with life in Lower Silesia, a similar region in Poland.

Physische Gewalt. Studien zur Geschichte der Neuzeit. Hrsg. von Thomas Lindenberger und Alf Lüdtke. [Suhrkamp-Taschenbuch Wissenschaft, 1190.] Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/M. 1995. 368 pp. DM 24.80; S 184.00.
The eleven contributions in this collection examine the role and significance of physical violence in the history of daily life in Germany from the early modern period onward. Focusing on everyday occurrences, the collection covers three main themes: war atrocities, public violence and government regulations and domestic and neighbourhood violence. Contributions included deal with, among others, memories of German soldiers of killing and terror during World War II (Hans Joachim Schröder), militant street violence in the 1930s (Eva Rosenhaft) and violence and gender in a Berlin working-class neighbourhood in the twentieth century (Eva Brücker).

Power, Conscience, and Opposition. Essays in German History in Honour of John A. Moses. Ed. by Andrew Bonnell, Gregory Munro, and Martin Travers. Peter Lang, New York [etc.] 1996. xiv, 538 pp. S.fr. 99.00.
The 26 essays in German history in this volume are published as a Festschrift for Professor John A. Moses from the University of Queensland. Many contributions, from American, European and Australian scholars, reflect Professor Moses's importance in the study of the complex relationship among the Church, the state and oppositional movements such as trade unionism and communism in nineteenth and twentieth-century Germany. Also included are essays on: the interaction of power and ideology in Germany from the Kaiserreich to the Third Reich; the emergence of democratic movements in Germany; debates within contemporary historiography; and Australian-German perspectives.

Pröve, Ralf. Stehendes Heer und städtische Gesellschaft im 18. Jahrhundert. Göttingen und seine Militärbevölkerung 1713-1756. [Beiträge zur Militärgeschichte, Band 47.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 1995. xvi, 373 pp. DM 88.00.
Based on the examples of two regiments billeted in Göttingen in the first half of the eighteenth century, Dr Pröve's dissertation explores the everyday lives of ordinary soldiers and their families and their co-existence with the urban civilian population. According to the author, the common negative image of the living conditions among the soldiers and the relationship between the military and the civilian populations needs to be corrected. To many men, military service offered a solution to temporary problems with satisfying daily needs, while social involvement, economic cooperation and cultural contacts between civilians and the military were far more important in the overall historical experience than the occasional conflicts.

Reemtsma, Katrin. Sinti und Roma. Geschichte, Kultur, Gegenwart. Verlag C.H. Beck, München 1996. 199 pp. DM 19.80.
This book offers a general overview of the history, culture, lifestyle and present situation of the Sinti and Roma and examines the origins and development of the negative stereotype of the various gypsy groups and its role in the oppressive state policy towards gypsies in Germany from the arrival of the first groups in the late Middle Ages until the present day. The study aims improve insight into the history and culture of the Sinti and Roma to redress the persistent prejudices about the various gypsy groups in Germany.

Great Britain

Belchem, John. Popular Radicalism in Nineteenth-Century Britain. Macmillan Press Ltd, Basingstoke [etc.] 1996. vi, 222 pp. £10.99.
This textbook gives a broad overview of radicalism in Great Britain from the mid-eighteenth century to the aftermath of World War I, a period described as the "long" nineteenth century. Writing from a "linguistic turn" and cultural perspective, Dr Belchem pays particular attention to contextual factors: to the changing codes and conventions of political culture and public space. Through a critical interest in revisionist and post-modernist interpretations, the author throws a new light on factors which often divided liberals from radicals - and even radical themselves.

Beynon, Huw and Terry Austrin. Masters and Servants. Class and Patronage in the Making of a Labour Organisation. The Durham Miners and the English Political Tradition. Rivers Oram Press, London 1996. Ill. £12.95.
This historical sociological study of the development of the labour movement in the Durham mining district focuses on the pivotal role of the Durham Miners' Association (DMA) in the process and on daily life and culture among the Durham miners. The authors analyze the influence of the specific, semi-feudal and paternalistic social relations in the area in the initial phase of the labour movement and the role of the strongly religious and Liberal leadership of the DMA in the union's moderate political course.

Bourke, Joanna. Dismembering the Male. Men's Bodies, Britain and the Great War. [Picturing History.] Reaktion Books, London 1996. 336 pp. Ill. £19.95.
This study examines the impact of the World War I on the male body, on men in social respects and on masculine identity in Great Britain in general. Using letters, diaries, oral histories of both members of the military and civilians, as well as illustrations, Dr Bourke deals with different facets of the War and masculinity, such as the position of those who were dismembered or disabled, male intimacy in the army, the way men experienced death and the fates of their bodies after their death. She argues that wartime experiences led to increased sharing of gender identities between men of different classes and ages.

Davies, A.J. To Build A New Jerusalem. The British Labour Party from Keir Hardie to Tony Blair. Abacus, London 1996. xiii, 578 pp. Ill. £9.99; A$19.95; C$18.99.
This is a revised, updated and considerably expanded paperback edition of the book which in 1992 bore as subtitle: "The British Labour Movement from the 1880s to the 1990s" and was annotated in IRSH 38 (1993), p. 281. Issues like Labour's financial history, the relationship with the unions and the Labour Party's grass roots and regional differences are addressed more extensively in this new edition.

Davies, Sam. Liverpool Labour. Social and Political Influences on the Development of the Labour Party in Liverpool, 1900-1939. Keele University Press, Keele 1996. 416 pp. Ill. Maps. £45.00.
The Labour Party in Liverpool came to power only in 1955, extraordinarily late compared to most other large city parties. In this study Dr Davies examines the role of Liverpool's distinctive social and political context and the complex interaction of class, occupation, religion, ethnicity and gender in the development of the Liverpool Labour Party between 1900 and 1939 in order to explain its weakness in the city and its notorious reputation as an undemocratic, right-wing political machine. A large part of the book consists of appendices with a wide variety of detailed data on election results and demographic structure of the city, party and trade-union members and officials.

The English Civil War. A Contemporary Account. Vol. 1: 1625-1639. Vol. 2: 1640-1642. Vol. 3: 1643-1647. Vol. 4: 1648-1656. Vol. 5: 1657-1675. Caliban Books, 1996; 1996; 1996. xxix, 284 pp.; v, 389 pp.; v, 397 pp.; v, 383 pp.; v, 394 pp. Ill. £40.00 per vol.
This series of five volumes consists of excerpts from the Venetian ambassadors' correspondence, written between 1625 and 1675 and having some bearing on the causes, development and consequences of the English Civil War. Grouped together in a preface are the general background intelligence reports, or relazione, which were originally dispersed among the letters and usually provided by departing ambassadors. These reports, together with the historical introduction by Professor Christopher Hill, supply broader historical background information on the events. The first volume covers the years 1625-1639, starting with the accession of Charles I and leading up to the events preceding the outbreak of civil war. The last volume covers the years 1657-1675 including the immediate aftermath of the war. The intervening volumes each cover an even spread of the three periods of armed conflict. In his historical introduction Professor Hill characterizes the English Revolution as "the first of the great political revolutions which marked the passage from the Middle Ages to the modern world, from absolutism to constitutional government". The volumes are illustrated by eighty contemporary prints drawn by the seventeenth-century artist Wenceslaus Hollar.

Fowler, Simon. Sources for Labour History. [PRO Readers' Guide No 12.] PRO Publications, London 1995. xviii, 75 pp. Ill. £10.95.
This guide offers a concise overview of the documents which are of interest to labour historians in the Public Record Office and a variety of other archives and record offices in Great Britain. It reviews the records of trade unions, industrial relations, industrial disputes, conditions of employment, the employment of women and the political wing of the labour movement.

Hill, Clive E. Understanding the Fabian Essays in Socialism (1889). [Studies in British History, vol. 37.] The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston [etc.] 1996. xiii, 474 pp. $109.95.
This book combines a study of the Fabian Essays in Socialism as published in 1889 with a critical synopsis of views on the political and intellectual history of Victorian Britain. It offers a guide to the circumstances of the composition of the Essays (especially the "English socialist revival" of the 1880s), discusses the significance of its arguments and explains the various textual references to contemporary facts and arguments.

Jones, Tudor. Remaking the Labour Party. From Gaitskell to Blair. Routledge, London [etc.] 1996. x, 198 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £12.99.)
This study of the development of revisionist thought in the Labour Party from 1945 onward focuses on a distinctive and controversial aspect of Labour's new ideology: the changed attitude towards public ownership and socialism, private ownership and the market economy. According to Dr Jones, public ownership has played an historic role as the central idea within Labour's "socialist myth". He explores the constantly recurring debates around this and related issues and analyses the consequences of the course of the Labour Party's ideological revision involving Labour's official conversion to a form of European social democracy under Tony Blair's leadership.

Morris, William. The Collected Letters of William Morris. Vol. III. 1889-1892. Vol. IV. 1893-1896. Ed. by Norman Kelvin. Ass. ed.: Holly Harrison. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1996. lxv, 537 pp.; lvii, 465 pp. Ill. $45.00; £35.00. (per vol.)
These are the last two volumes of this series, which started in 1984 (see IRSH, XXIX (1984), p. 412). In the third volume, which covers the years 1889-1892, the letters show Morris's break with the Socialist League and the establishment of his own Hammersmith Socialist Society. His correspondence in this period clearly reveals that his faith in socialism is founded in his faith in art, progressively approaching the aesthetic movement of the 1890s. The period covered in the fourth volume, 1893-1896, is marked by Morris's role in the making of the art and literature of the 1890s. In this volume Morris's article "The Present Outlook of Socialism in England", published in the American journal The Forum in April 1896, is appended.

Shaw, Eric. The Labour Party since 1945. Old Labour: New Labour. [Making Contemporary Britain Series.] Blackwell Publishers, Oxford [etc.] 1996. xiii, 258 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £12.99.)
In this critical overview of the changes in the Labour Party in the post-war period, Dr Shaw examines as key areas of debate: economic policy, industrial policy, industrial relations and employment policies and the nature of the welfare state. He explores the tensions between traditionalism and modernization within the Labour Party and identifies the most significant influences behind the change from "Old Labour" to "New Labour".

Winslow, Barbara. Sylvia Pankhurst. Sexual politics and political activism. Foreword by Sheila Rowbotham. [Women's History.] UCL Press, London 1996. xxviii, 236 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £12.95.)
Focusing on her life as a committed political activist, Professor Winslow examines in this study Sylvia Pankhurst's political involvement in the suffrage, working-class and socialist movements. Though best known for her role in the suffrage movement, she did, according to the author, far more than that: she applied both socialist and feminist theory in practice by building a working women's suffrage and community organization, which fought for full social, political and economic emancipation of women.


Lockman, Zachary. Comrades and Enemies. Arab and Jewish Workers in Palestine, 1906-1948. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1996. xvi, 440 pp. $60.00; £48.00. (Paper: $25.00; £19.95.)
See David De Vries's review in this volume, 484-486.


Capecelatro, Giuliano [e] Franco Zaina. La banda del Viminale. [Nuovi Saggi.] il Saggiatore, Milano 1996. 170 pp. Ill. L. 25.000.
This study is a journalistic reconstruction of the murder of the socialist representative Giacomo Matteotti in 1924. The authors have based their work on the papers from the Matteotti trial, contemporary press materials and other documentation.

De Felice, Renzo. Fascismo, antifascismo, nazione. Note e ricerche. Pref. di Francesco Perfetti. Bonacci editore, Roma 1996. 295 pp. L. 40.000.
In this book the author has assembled a number of his essays published between 1963 and 1993 and dealing with: World War I and its central role in contemporary Italian history; the problem of the revolution that failed during the post-World War I years; the relations between fascism and other political currents; the relations between fascism and culture; and the relation between democracy and the nation-state.

Franzosi, Roberto. The Puzzle of Strikes. Class and State Strategies in Postwar Italy. [Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1995. xxv, 502 pp. £40.00; $54.95.
In this analysis of the temporal dynamics of postwar Italian strikes in the industrial sector, Professor Franzosi disentangles the causal structure in the historical interaction among economic, institutional and political processes. Using a broad range of strike theories (business cycle, economic hardship, resource mobilization, bargaining structure, political exchange and Marxist) and combining a variety of materials, the author examines strikes from the perspective of the strategic interaction between organized interests. He concludes that each of the theories can be of value in explaining the causes of strikes.

Mafai, Miriam. Botteghe Oscure, addio. Com'eravamo comunisti. [Le Scie.] Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Milano 1996. v, 154 pp. L. 26.000.
These are the memoirs of a member of the Partito Comunista Italiano. For nearly half a century, the Party had its headquarters on the via delle Botteghe Oscure in Rome. The author's recollections of her experiences, first as a party official and later as a journalist and a representative in parliament, convey the daily life of the Italian communists from the Togliatti years until the leadership of Occhetto.

Pistillo, Michele. Gramsci - Togliatti. Polemiche e dissensi nel 1926. [Uomini e cose della nuova Italia, 43.] Piero Lacaita Editore, Manduria [etc.] 1996. 153 pp. L. 15.000.
The correspondence between Gramsci and Togliatti in the second half of October 1926 has been subject to many analyses and interpretations. Here, the author reconstructs the developments in 1926 preceding this exchange of letters. He uses documents, some of which were unavailable twenty or thirty years ago, to explain the forces that motivated the various protagonists.

The Netherlands

Bornebroek, Arno. De Strijd voor Harmonie. De geschiedenis van de Industrie- en Voedingsbond CNV, 1896-1996. Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1996. 430 pp. Ill. D.fl. 59.50.
This official history of the Dutch Protestant Industrie- en Voedingsbond CNV was written on the occasion of its centennial. Mr Bornebroek provides a chronological sketch of the development and merge of the various predecessors. The history of the Protestant labour movement should, according to the author, be seen as the history of an emancipation in both social and religious respects.

Koenders, Pieter. Tussen christelijk réveil en seksuele revolutie. Bestrijding van zedeloosheid in Nederland, met nadruk op de repressie van homoseksualiteit. [Studies + Essays, 23.] Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1996. 941 pp. Ill. D.fl. 89.90.
Focusing on attitudes towards homosexuality, this dissertation (Amsterdam, 1996) reveals the policy of the Dutch authorities on morality in the period 1845-1958 and the influence of private volunteer pressure groups in shaping that policy. The beginning and end of the period examined mark, according to Dr Koenders, the respective germination and virtual end of the Dutch moral reform movement. A large section of the study is devoted to the repression of homosexuality under the Nazi occupation.


From the Polish Underground. Selections from Krytyka, 1978-1993. Ed. by Michael Bernhard and Henryk Szlajfer. Transl. by Maria Chmielewska-Szlajfer. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park 1995. xxxv, 458 pp. $75.00; £67.50. (Paper: $19.95; £17.95.)
Krytyka was one of the leading journals of the Polish underground press in the period from 1978 to the end of communism in Poland in 1989 and unique in its devotion to the preservation and development of an independent and critical intellectual culture. Its editorial board consisted of people from the larger oppositional milieu that grew up around the Workers' Defense Committee (KOR), among them leading intellectuals such as Adam Michnik. This collection contains a selection of articles on political, sociological, cultural, economic and historical issues published in Krytyka between 1978 and 1993.

Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

Davies, R.W. Crisis and Progress in the Soviet Economy, 1931-1933. [The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia, 4] Macmillan Press Ltd, Basingstoke [etc.] 1996. xviii, 612 pp. £65.00.
In this fourth volume in the series The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia (see IRSH, XXXIV (1989), p. 551) Professor Davies examines the years of profound economic crisis 1931-1933, which were a period of inflation, economic disorder and delayed industrial growth. According to the author, policies and systems changed significantly in response to the crisis, giving way to a greater realism. Professor Davies argues that during these formative years the economic system acquired the shape it retained until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Denisova, L.N. Rural Russia. Economic, Social and Moral Crisis. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Commack (NY) 1995. v, 259 pp. Ill. $69.00.
In this study the author examines the causes of the economic, social and cultural crisis in Russian rural society that developed under Soviet rule. Based on a new analysis of existing official statistical data, supplemented by data kept secret in the Soviet era, the author concludes that the consistently anti-peasant state policy and the backwardness of the agricultural sector undermined the economic and social foundations of the villages, leading to a massive rural exodus and a cultural and moral crisis in Russian village life.

[Lenin, Vladimir Il'ic.] Lenin's Final Fight. Speeches and Writings, 1922-23. Pathfinder, New York [etc.] 1995. 320 pp. $50.00. (Paper: $19.95.)
This book contains a chronological compilation of Lenin's articles, letters, speeches, resolutions and memos from 21 December 1922 until his last letter of 6 March 1923 and comprises everything that Lenin is known to have written. In addition, writings by other Bolshevik leaders have been included (among them Stalin and Trotsky) that relate to the evolution of political struggle within the Bolshevik party in this period. Some of the documents appear in English for the first time, while the March 1923 report prepared for Lenin on the events in the republic of Georgia is published here for the first time ever.

Stettner, Ralf. "Archipel GULag": Stalins Zwangslager - Terrorinstrument und Wirtschaftsgigant. Entstehung, Organisation und Funktion des sowjetischen Lagersystems 1928-1956. Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn [etc.] 1996. 448 pp. Maps. DM 68.00.
See Leo van Rossum's review in this volume, pp. 476-480.

Tagebuch aus Moskau 1931-1939. Aus dem Russischen übers. und hrsg. von Jochen Hellbeck. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, München 1996. 330 pp. Ill. DM 34.00.
This edition contains a large selection from the entries in the diary of Stepan Podlubnyj (1914), kept from 1931 until October 1939. Podlubnyj, a Ukrainian farmer's son, came to Moscow with the ideological zeal to become a "new man" in the Bolshevik sense. As he became more doubtful about the Bolshevik ideology and Stalinist system, he made entries in his diary of daily life under the increasing terror of the contemporary Stalinist regime alongside a vivid reflection of his personal problems. The introduction provides a detailed sketch of the historical and biographical context.

Voslensky, Michael S. Das Geheime wird offenbar. Moskauer Archive erzählen. 1917-1991. Aus dem Russischen von Kurt Baudisch. Langen Müller, München 1995. 544 pp. DM 58.00.
Professor Voslensky, formerly an interpreter for the Soviet Union at the Nuremberg trials and the author of a volume on the secrets of the Soviet power elite (see IRSH, XXVI (1981), p. 131), sketches a general history in the present book of the Soviet system and the role of terror in the system, based on a selection of secret documents of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union that were released after August 1991. He deals, among others, with the development of the secret service in its different capacities, the role of nomenclature and its hierarchy and the position of the Soviet ideology.


Andreassi Cieri, Alejandro. Libertad también se escribe en minúscula. Anarcosindicalismo en Sant Adrià de Besòs (1925-1939). Prólogo de José Luis Martín Ramos. Hacer Editorial, Barcelona 1996. 159 pp.
This history of the libertarian movement in Sant Adrià de Besòs, on the outskirts of Barcelona, has two main themes. First, it analyses the role of different organizations that constituted the libertarian movement (e.g. the CNT, the FAI, the youth movement and the "ateneos") and cooperatives and other organizations in the changes in the village's social structure at the end of the 1920s and in the 1930s. Second, the author addresses local aspects of the complicated relationship between anarcho-syndicalism and the various republican currents.

Camps, Enriqueta. La formación del mercado de trabajo industrial en la Cataluña del siglo XIX. [Colección Historia Social, Núm. 33.] Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social, Madrid 1995. 305 pp. Maps.
This study analyses industrial labour supply in nineteenth-century Catalonia and the mechanisms underlying its expansion, the distribution of labour in large enterprises and the prevailing standards of living. The author relates the labour market to household economics and family strategies. She submits that a sense of the family strategies that arose from inherited behaviour is necessary to understand the original formation of the nineteenth-century labour market.

Casas I Soriano, Just [i] Manuel Márquez I Berrocal. Història social de població de Sant Adrià de Besòs. Vol. I. La Població: segles XVIII-XX. Hacer Editorial, Barcelona 1996. 256 pp.
This work is the first volume of a social history of Sant Adrià de Besòs, a village in the industrial belt of Barcelona, from the eighteenth through the twentieth centuries. Covering the village's demographic trends, the information provided is essential for the study of its social history. Parish records, tax assessments, censuses and records from the civil registry reveal facts about occupations, literacy, causes of death, life expectancy and birth rates, among others.

Documentación histórica del trosquismo español (1936-1948). De la guerra civil a la ruptura con la IV Internacional. Edición prep. por Agustín Guillamón, Paolo Casciola, Eulogio Izquierdo [y.o.] [Historia: Colección Nuestro Mundo, núm. 48.] Ediciones de la Torre, Madrid 1996. 422 pp. Ptas. 2.800.
This collection of documents includes 156 letters, handbills, articles from the Trotskyist press and other documents concerning the history of Spanish Trotskyism during the Civil War and throughout the 1940s, until the rift between the Spanish Trotskyist movement and the Fourth International. The compilation makes available hitherto unknown documents from archives and libraries all over the world. Main themes dealt with in these documents are the revolutionary developments in Spain since the beginning of the Civil War, the repression of Spanish Trotskyism, stalinism, the theoretical and programmatic position of the Fourth International and its relation to the Spanish branch of the movement. The call numbers of the related archival material are not indicated.

Durgan, Andrew. BOC 1930-1936. El bloque obrero y campesino. Editorial Laertes, Barcelona 1996. 616 pp. Ptas. 2.500.
In 1931 the Bloque Obrero y Campesino originated as a dissident communist party in the Spanish region of Catalonia. It united revolutionaries of different political origins: from the anarcho-syndicalist trade union CNT, the Spanish Communist Party and left-wing Catalan nationalists. The present study analyses the development of first the BOC and then the POUM, the party in which the BOC adherents joined forces with the similarly dissident communists from the Izquierda Comunista de España in 1935. Statistical data on the membership of the parties and their election results, lists of related trade unions and press organs and a list of the names of the party leadership are appended.

Esenwein, George and Adrian Shubert. Spain at War. The Spanish Civil War in Context, 1931-1939. Longman, London [etc. 1995. xii, 313 pp. £36.00.
See Helen Graham's review in this volume, pp. 480-484.

González Pérez, Teresa. Anarquismo y Educación en Canarias. El Baifo, Santa Cruz de Tenerife 1996. 238 pp. Ill.
This book studies the relation between the anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist movements and education on the Canary Islands. As an alternative to state schools, the workers' movements founded schools and libraries, organized meetings and sponsored music and theatre. These schools conformed to the pedagogical principles of the Modern School Movement founded by Ferrer i Guardia. The book contains an important documentary section with articles from the local anarchist press and concludes with facsimiles of the front pages from several anarchist journals.

Nash, Mary. Defying Male Civilization: Women in the Spanish Civil War. [Women and Modern Revolution Series.] Arden Press, Inc., Denver 1995. xvi, 261 pp. Ill. $32.00. (Paper: $22.00.)
See Helen Graham's review in this volume.

Olaya Morales, Francisco. La Gran Estafa. Nossa y Jara Editores, Madrid 1996. 437 pp.
This study, based on extensive archival research, shares the anti-communist point of view in the Spanish debate about the Negrín government's operating procedure at the end of the Civil War and in exile. The author deals largely with this government's financial manoeuvres and the organization of the different rescue operations for Spanish refugees.

El trabajo a través de la historia. Actas del II Congreso de la Asociación de Historia Social. Córdoba, abril de 1995. Coordinator: Santiago Castillo. Centro de Estudios Históricos, Asociación de Historia Social, Union General de Trabajadores (UGT), n.p. 1996. xiv, 577 pp. Ptas. 4500.
The 57 contributions in this volume were originally presented at the Second Congress of the Spanish Social History Association, held in Cordoba in 1995. The Congress dealt with the history of labour in Spain from Antiquity to the present. Two thirds of the papers cover themes from contemporary history. The general goal of the conference was to elucidate similarities and differences in the study of labour history topics over the ages.