Volume 43 part 3 (1998)


General Issues
Continents and Countries

Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.

General Issues


Angresano, James. The Political Economy of Gunnar Myrdal. An Institutional Basis for the Transformation Problem. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham [etc.] 1997. xiii, 197 pp. £49.95.
This book features an evaluation of the intellectual development of the Swedish economist and sociologist Gunnar Myrdal (1898-1987), focusing on his methodology and his beliefs about economics and the role of economists in modern society. Myrdal's main argument is, according to Professor Angresano, that economists, despite being trained in the orthodox neoclassical tradition, can form an alternative conception that is more relevant and appropriate for analysis and policy making in developing and transition economies. Specific issues discussed include social problems and transformation policy for Central and Eastern Europe.

Berger, Denis [et] Henri Maler. Une certaine idée du communisme. Répliques à François Furet. [Questions d'époque.] Éditions du Félin, Paris 1996. 210 pp. F.fr. 125.00.
In Le passé d'une illusion: essai sur l'idée communiste au xxe siècle (1995), François Furet presented a critical analysis of communist ideology and its political results, as manifested by "real socialism", i.e. Soviet communism. In this book Dr Berger and Dr Maler present a sharp critique of Professor Furet's analysis. Their main argument is that, by justly condemning one form of communism (stalinism), Professor Furet uses an unfounded a priori argument that liberal democracy is the only democratic alternative left after the demise of communism, thereby repudiating all other forms of socialism or emancipatory social thought as undemocratic.

Feminist Interpretations of Mary Wollstonecraft. Ed. by Maria J. Falco. [Re-Reading the Canon.] The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park 1996. xiv, 234 pp. $35.00; £31.50. (Paper: $16.95; £15.50.)
The twelve essays in this collection, designed in part to commemorate the 1992 bicentennial of the publication of Mary Wollstonecraft's A Vindication of the Rights of Women, aim to show that Wollstonecraft belongs in the "canon" of eighteenth-century political philosophers, notwithstanding her lack of acknowledgment as such by the mainstream contemporary political philosophy. The authors, from the fields of political philosophy, law, literature and psychology, consider various aspects of Wollstonecraft's thought from a feminist perspective. A bibliographic essay reviewing the changing interpretations of her work over the past two centuries is included.

Foucault and political reason. Liberalism, neo-liberalism and rationalities of government. Ed. by Andrew Barry, Thomas Osborne [and] Nikolas Rose. UCL Press, London 1996. x, 278 pp. £38.00. (Paper: £12.95.)
Focusing on liberalism and neo-liberalism and on analyses of modernity, this collection of twelve essays addresses the importance of Michel Foucault's work for the study of government and the state. Challenging the traditional oppositions that inform liberal thought, such as freedom vs. constraint, public vs. private and state vs. market, the contributors emphasize nineteenth and twentieth-century liberal government's technical nature, the importance of ethics to liberalism and the particular spatial and temporal context of liberal politics.

Kessous, Naaman. Two French Precursors of Marxism: Rousseau and Fourier. Avebury, Aldershot [etc.] 1996. vi, 122 pp. £32.50.
The purpose of this essayistic study is to demonstrate to what extent and in which respects Rousseau and Fourier may be considered precursors of Marxism and to analyze the fundamental differences between their ideas and those of Marx and Engels. Arguing from a strictly materialist and historically determinist standpoint, the author discerns five areas of similarity and contrast: compassion with the suffering; social criticism; social reconstruction; education; and alienation.

Pakulski, Jan and Malcolm Waters. The Death of Class. Sage Publications, London [etc.] 1996. viii, 173 pp. £37.50. (Paper: £12.95.)
See Bryan S. Turner's review in this volume, pp. 482-484.

Peterson, Richard T. Democratic Philosophy and the Politics of Knowledge. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park 1996. vii, 344 pp. $55.00; £49.50. (Paper: $17.95; £17.95.)
In this analysis of the relationship between modern philosophy, epistemology, the social role of intellectuals and politics, Professor Peterson aims to develop a democratic conception of philosophy. Against the post-modernist rejection of systematic reflection on rationality, the author argues that a reflection on rationality, in appropriate social terms, is needed to confront urgent political issues about the role of intellectuals. Invoking diverse thinkers, such as Kant, Hegel, Marx, Habermas and Foucault, he states that a democratic conception and practice of philosophy is inseparable from democracy in general.

Porta, Donatella della [e] Mario Diani. I movimenti sociali. La Nuova Italia Scientifica, Roma 1997. 339 pp. L. 42.500.
In this book the authors examine the new social movements that became permanently embedded in Western democratic societies in the 1960s. The study is written according to the perspective of the political and social sciences and illustrates the problems caused by the rise of the social movements and the responses formulated in scholarly literature in the past three decades.


Biagini, Furio. Nati altrove. Il movimento anarchico ebraico tra Mosca e New York. Pref. di Nathan Weinstock. [Biblioteca di storia dell'anarchismo 6.] BFS edizioni, Pisa 1998. 190 pp. Ill. L. 25.000.
This is the first comprehensive scholarly study published in Italy on the international Yiddish-speaking anarchist movement. The author attributes the support for anarchism among East-European Jewish emigrants in Western Europe and the Americas to Judaism's eschatological tendencies. The extended tradition of fairly autonomous Jewish communities also made the Jewish workers receptive to anarchism's federal and associative nature. After covering the Jewish proletariat in Russia, the author devotes several chapters to Jewish anarchism in the United States, Great Britain, Argentina and France, as well as the trials and tribulations of the Steimer group, which opposed U.S. involvement in World War I.

Blackburn, Robin. The Making of New World Slavery. From the Baroque to the Modern 1492-1800. Verso, London [etc.] 1997. vi, 602 pp. Ill. Maps. £25.00.
See Stanley L. Engerman's review in this volume, pp. 473-475.

Docherty, James C. Historical Dictionary of Organized Labor. Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements, No. 10. The Scarecrow Press, Inc., Lanham (Md.) [etc.] 1996. xviii, 357 pp. $54.00.
This historical dictionary of organized labour features 227 entries on individual countries, international and national labour organizations, major labour unions, labour union leaders, ideologies and political parties related to organized labour and other aspects, such as the changes in membership. Country entries cover all countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). A glossary of terms, as well as a chronology, statistical appendix and bibliography are included. In his introduction, Dr Docherty shares observations on the crisis that has affected organized labour in many countries since the 1980s.

Enterprise and Labour: from the Eighteenth Century to the Present. Ed. by Peter Mathias and John A. Davis. [The Nature of Industrialization, vol. 3.] Blackwell Publishers, Oxford 1996. vi, 214 pp. £40.00; $42.95.
The nine essays in this volume explore the changing relations between employers and workers in industrial production from the earlier phases of industrialization to the present day. The authors examine the influence of these changing industrial relations on industrialization. Most contributors offer broad general surveys, focusing on Britain (the first editor and Pat Thane on women in British industrial relations), France (Roger Magraw), Italy (the second editor), Nazi Germany (Stephen Salter), interwar Japan (Takao Matsumura) and the United States (P.K. Edwards). Richard Whipp contributes a case study on industrial relations in the early twentieth-century British pottery industry.

Essential Papers on Jews and the Left. Ed. by Ezra Mendelsohn. [Essential Papers on Jewish Studies.] New York University Press, New York [etc.] 1997. vii, 552 pp. $75.00. (Paper: $27.50.)
This anthology brings together seventeen texts, published between 1949 and 1992, on the impact of the left on modern Jewry and, vice versa, the influence of Jews on the left. Included are contributions by, among others, Isaiah Berlin on Moses Hess, Antony Polonsky on the Bund in Poland in the 1930s, Leonard Schapiro on the role of the Jews in the Russian Revolution, Arthur Liebman on Jewish support for the left in the United States, Jack Jacobs on Karl Kautsky and classical texts by Edmund Silberner ("Was Marx an Anti-Semite?") and Shlomo Avineri ("Marx and Jewish Emancipation").

Ferro, Marc. L'Internationale d'Eugène Pottier et Pierre Degeyter. Éditions Noêsis, Paris 1996. 111 pp. Ill. F.fr. 78.00.
This booklet offers a concise history of l'Internationale, the best-known socialist and communist hymn, the anthem of the Second and Third and the Socialist Internationals and until 1944 the national anthem of the Soviet Union. Professor Ferro, director of Annales, deals with, among others, the music's contested authorship, the poem's dissemination after 1883, the history of its success as a socialist anthem, the emergence of the different versions and the song's versatility. A small selection of foreign versions (inter alia the Korean, Chinese and Indonesian versions) is appended.

Free and Unfree Labour. The Debate Continues. Ed. by Tom Brass and Marcel van der Linden. [International and Comparative Social History, Band 5.] Peter Lang, Bern [etc.] 1997. 603 pp. S.fr. 98.00.
This collection of 24 essays, based on a conference organized by the International Institute of Social History (IISH) in January 1995, deals with the theoretical debate about free and unfree labour and features fifteen case studies examining the presence of absence of coerced labour in North and Latin America, Russia, Asia and Australasia. The authors use various Marxist or neoclassical approaches and debate on four substantive points: the market, labour scarcity, gender and state intervention. Contributors include Jan Lucassen, André J.F. Köbben, Reinhardt Kössler, Robert J. Steinfeld, Stanley L. Engerman, Ralph Shlomowitz, Wendy K. Olsen and Ian J. Kerr.

Une histoire en révolution? Du bon usage des archives, de Moscou et d'ailleurs. Sous la dir. de Serge Wolikow, avec la collab. de Maurice Carrez, Michel Cordillot, et Jean Vigreux. [Publications de l'Université de Bour- gogne, tome LXXXIV.] Editions Universitaires de Dijon, Dijon 1996. 315 pp. F.fr. 130.00.
The common theme of the twenty-three contributions in this volume is the impact of the opening of previously secret or inaccessible archives of the former Soviet Union on historical research on the international labour and socialist movements, and in particular on the historiography of the First, Second and Communist International and ancillary organizations. The contributors include Michel Cordillot, Daisy E. Devreese, Bernhard H. Bayerlein, Pierre Broué, Aldo Agosti, Claude Pennetier, Michel Dreyfus and Brigitte Studer.

Images de Robespierre. Actes du colloque international de Naples, 27-29 septembre 1993. Textes réunis par Jean Ehrard avec le concours d'Antoinette Ehrard et de Florence Devillez. [Biblioteca Europea, 7.] Vivarium, Napoli 1996. xi, 487 pp. Ill. L. 80.000.
These are the proceedings of an international colloquium, organized by the Istituto Italiano per gli Studi Filosofici and the Centre de Recherches Révolutionnaires et Romantiques in September 1993 in Naples, on "Images of Robespierre". The twenty-three contributions (in French and Italian) examine the various images of Robespierre that prevailed or remain among his contemporaries in French historiography of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, lycée textbooks, visual arts and literature and outside France. The contributors include Bronislaw Baczko, Michel Vovelle, François Marotin and Paolo Viola.

Social Security Mutualism. The Comparative History of Mutual Benefit Societies. Ed. by Marcel van der Linden, in collab. with Michel Dreyfus, Bernard Gibaud and Jan Lucassen. [International and Comparative Social History, 2.] Peter Lang, Bern [etc.] 1996. 707 pp. S.fr. 98.00; DM 123.00; S 817.00; $78.95; £52.00;F.fr. 392.00.
See Michael Hanagan's review in this volume, pp. 475-478.

Walt, Stephen M. Revolution and War. [Cornell Studies in Security Affairs.] Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1996. x, 365 pp. £27.50. (Paper: £15.50.)
Challenging the existing theories about the relationship between revolution and war, Professor Walt explores the basic question of international relations: the connection between domestic politics and foreign policy. He argues that revolutions cause war by altering the balance of threats between a revolutionary state and its rivals and traces the dynamics of this argument through studies of the French, Russian and Iranian revolutions, briefer treatment of the American, Mexican, Turkish and Chinese cases and the recent events in the former Soviet Union.


American Exceptionalism? US Working-Class Formation in an International Context. Ed. by Rick Halpern and Jonathan Morris. Macmillan Press Ltd, Basingstoke [etc.] 1997; St. Martin's Press, Inc., New York. x, 325 pp. £42.50.
In this collection of twelve essays, American and British labour historians adopt a comparative approach to assessing the differences between working-class formation and politics in the United States and in other nations (especially in Europe), thus reinvigorating and at the same time evaluating the ongoing debate on "American Exceptionalism". Themes explored include the influence of liberal politics, the impact of Catholicism on the American working class and the role of racial and ethnic division. Contributors are, among others, Michael Zuckerman, Ira Katznelson, Robin Archer, Roger Horowitz, Neville Kirk, Leslie Woodcock Tentler, David Roediger and James R. Grossman.


Arbeitskampfkulturen. Recht und Strategien von Streik und Aussperrung im deutsch-französischen Vergleich. [Von] Leo Kißler, Meinhard Zumfelde, Peter Jansen [und] Patrick Hunout. [Deutsch-französische Studien zur Industriegesellschaft, Band 20.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1997. 113 pp. DM 38.00.
This study compares the emergence of legislation concerning labour disputes and the cultural and social frameworks of such legislation in contemporary Germany and France. Its extensive harmonization in Europe is often believed to be complicated too much by widely differing national traditions and cultures to be fruitful. By comparing this legislation, as well as the attitudes, willingness and the interests of the social actors in both countries, the authors assess the validity of this objection.

Arbeitslosigkeit und Wohlfahrtsstaat in Westeuropa. Neun Länder im Vergleich. Hrsg. von Hans-Jürgen Bieling [und] Frank Deppe. Leske + Budrich, Opladen 1997. 375 pp. DM 68.00; S.fr. 64.60; S 496.00.
Looking at the development of labour-market and social policies in Great Britain, France, Austria, the Netherlands, Sweden, Finland, Ireland, Spain and Greece, the nine case studies and two general essays in this collection analyze the ways the various welfare systems in Western Europe are coping with the contemporary mass unemployment and transformation of the socio-economic structure. In the concluding general essay, the editors assess the convergence or divergence of the different types of European welfare state regimes in the national developments. CONTINENTS AND COUNTRIES



Isaacman, Allen. Cotton is the Mother of Poverty. Peasants, Work, and Rural Struggle in Colonial Mozambique, 1938-1961. [Social History of Africa.] Heinemann, Portsmouth (NH); David Philip, Cape Town; James Currey, London 1996. xii, 272 pp. Ill. Maps. £35.00. (Paper: £14.95.)
Between 1938 and 1961, the Portuguese colonial regime in Mozambique forced hundreds of thousands of peasants to cultivate cotton for the staple market. In the process, the colonial authorities and cotton concessionary companies imposed a coercive and brutal labour regime, which permeated almost every aspect of peasant life. This study explores the labour regime and the way it was experienced by the peasant cotton producers. Professor Isaacman finds that the peasants remained somewhat autonomous from the colonial state and the cotton companies because of their role as peasants and because of the limits of colonial state power.

South Africa

Delius, Peter. A Lion Amongst the Cattle. Reconstruction and Resistance in the Northern Transvaal. [Heinemann Social History of Africa Series.] Heinemann, Portsmouth (NH); Ravan Press, Johannesburg; James Currey, Oxford 1996 [recte 1997]. xvi, 268 pp. Ill. £40.00. (Paper: £14.95.)
In this study of the social and political developments in rural South Africa from the 1930s to the 1980s, Professor Delius focuses on the former Pedi kingdom in Northern Transvaal to document the ways the black communities coped with the problems and hardships of migrant labour and the negative impact and ecological toll of apartheid on the countryside. Comparing two dramatic revolutions - in 1958, when the blacks tried to defend their few remaining freedoms by arms, and in 1986, when youth gangs set out to purge black communities - the author addresses anti-apartheid struggles, as well as social and political conflicts within Pedi society.

Onselen, Charles van. The Seed is Mine: the Life of Kas Maine, a South African Sharecropper, 1894-1985. James Currey, Oxford 1997. xvi, 649 pp. £14.95.
See Peter C.W. Gutkind's review in this volume, pp. 494-498.


Bergquist, Charles. Labor and the Course of American Democracy. US History in Latin American Perspective. [The Haymarket Series.] Verso, London [etc.] 1996. xiv, 209 pp. Ill. £14.00.
In this collection of five essays Dr Bergquist reinterprets the histories of the United States and Latin America and their relationship from labour's perspective. Four of the essays are built around critiques of influential texts on United States and Latin American history, such as Samuel Flagg Bemis' The Latin American Policy of the United States (1943), Walter LaFeber's The New Empire and Ariel Dorfman's and Armonad Mattelart's How to Read Donald Duck. The author submits that labour's struggle in both the northern and southern parts of the Western hemisphere have had a reciprocal geographic influence on the course of capitalism and democracy.


Grez Toso, Sergio. De la "Regeneración del pueblo" a la huelga general. Génesis y evolución histórica del movimiento popular en Chile (1810-1890). [Sociedad y Cultura.] Ediciones de la Biblioteca Nacional de Chile, Santiago de Chile 1997. 828 pp. CLP 15.000; $31.00
Chile differs from most Latin-American countries in its fairly early establishment of a solid government with a European-style political structure and early participation in public life by organizations of craftsmen. In this pathbreaking study of Chilean mass movements predating syndicalism, the author has relied heavily on the archives of mutual aid societies. After outlining the social-economic context in which these movements emerged, he examines the social and political history of the organizations of typographers, longshoremen and various groups of artisans.


French, William E. A Peaceful and Working People. Manners, Morals, and Class Formation in Northern Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque 1996. ix, 262 pp. $40.00.
This study considers the struggle over manners and morals that accompanied the formation of a working class in the North of Mexico, in the District of Hidalgo, during the period known as the Porfiriato, 1876-1891. The rise of a capitalist economy and culture in the region called, according to the author, for the creation of subordinate and suitably motivated workers. Dealing with management's disciplinary strategies with respect to workers, the campaign for moral reform of the emerging middle class and the reaction of the workers and their families to these developments, Professor French aims to show that both the middle class and the working class constructed themselves in relation to each other.

United States of America

DuBois, W.E.B. The Philadelphia Negro. A Social Study. With a new Introd. by Elijah Anderson. Together with a Special Report on Domestic Service by Isabel Eaton. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 1996. xxxix, 520 pp. £15.95.
This is a new reprint of the classic sociological work of W.E.B. DuBois, an in-depth study on the Negro community in Philadelphia, combining urban ethnography, social history and descriptive statistics, originally published in 1899. In his introduction to this edition, Professor Anderson traces DuBois's life before his move to Philadelphia, examines the changes in the neighbourhood studied by DuBois over the years and compares the status of blacks today with their status around 1900.

Frazer, Heather T. and John O'Sullivan. "We Have Just Begun to Not Fight": An Oral History of Conscientious Objectors in Civilian Public Service during World War II. [Twayne's Oral History Series, no. 18.] Twayne Publishers, New York; Prentice Hall International, London [etc.] 1996. xxv, 269 pp. Ill. $28.95.
Nearly 12,000 American men entered the Civilian Public Service (CPS) as conscientious objectors during World War II. This study is an oral history of the diverse group, which was motivated by a wide range of religious, philosophical and political beliefs. Professors Frazer and O'Sullivan have recorded the histories of fifteen CPS men and two CPS wives, who describe the hardships, family disruptions and moral anguish they endured by rejecting combat duty and sketch the conditions under which they performed alternative civilian service.

Friedman-Kasaba, Kathie. Memories of Migration. Gender, Ethnicity, and Work in the Lives of Jewish and Italian Women in New York, 1870-1924. [SUNY Series on Women and Work.] State University of New York Press, Albany 1996. xii, 242 pp. Ill. $19.95.
This study analyses and contrasts the migration experiences of Russian-Jewish and Italian women who came to the United States from the last third of the nineteenth century to 1924 in order to determine whether and in what measure, migration altered their social position. After focusing on the respective homeland background of the Russian-Jewish and Italian women and their reasons for departure, Dr Friedman-Kasaba contrasts the experiences of the two groups of women, differentiating the experiences of married and single women, and subsequently compiles an inventory of the factors for improvement, deterioration or transformation of the women's social positions.

Gay, Ruth. Unfinished People. Eastern European Jews Encounter America. W.W. Norton & Company, New York [etc.] 1996. vii, 310 pp. £19.95.
Based partly on her own memories as the daughter of East European Jewish immigrants, Mrs Gay explores in this book the everyday experiences of the first generations of these immigrants in the 1920s and 1930s and shares an impression of experiences with the transition among the newcomers in New York. While focusing in the main part of the book on everyday aspects such as housing, furniture, clothing, food and the role of tradition, the author frames her story with two survey essays of the life and times of the East European Jewish immigrants in their countries of origin and subsequently in New York.

Hunter, Tera W. To 'Joy My Freedom. Southern Black Women's Lives and Labors After the Civil War. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1997. ix, 311 pp. Ill. £19.95.
At the end of the Civil War newly emancipated women moved to Atlanta to find employment as household labourers and washerwomen. This is a study of the workplace experiences and everyday culture of these black working women in the period until to the beginning of World War I. Tracing the ways they constructed their own world of work, culture and community organization, Professor Hunter argues that their experiences and efforts were central to the African-American struggle for freedom and justice. The implementation of Jim Crow laws and segregation from the 1880s onward, however, spurred growing numbers of black working women to migrate to the North.

Klehr, Harvey, John Earl Haynes, and Kyrill M. Anderson. The Soviet World of American Communism. [Annals of Communism.] Yale University Press, New Haven [etc.] 1998. xxxv, 378 pp. Ill. £25.00.
After The Secret World of American Communism (1995) (see IRSH, 42 (1997), p. 121), this is the second document publication from recently opened archives of the former Soviet Union on the relationship between the Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) and the Soviet Union. Based on a detailed investigation of the personal, organizational and financial links between the CPUSA and the Soviet Communists, the authors find that Moscow maintained extensive control of the CPUSA, even of its rank and file, and that, although individuals within the organization may not have been aware of Moscow's influence, the leaders of the organization were.

The United Mine Workers of America. A Model of Industrial Solidarity? Ed. by John H.M. Laslett. The Pennsylvania State University Press, in assoc. with The Pennsylvania State University Libraries, University Park 1996. xvi, 576 pp. Ill. $65.00; £58.50.
The twenty-two contributions to this volume offer a comprehensive history of the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) and evaluate this large and powerful labour organization's impact on the course of the labour movement in the twentieth-century United States. The essays examine subjects including the UMWA's role in the establishment of industrial unionism by the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), the impact of mechanization on the coal industry, ethnic and race relations among the miners, women's participation in coal-mining communities and changes in the UMWA in recent decades.

Young, R.J. Antebellum Black Activists. Race, Gender, and Self. Garland Publishing, Inc., New York [etc.] 1996. xii, 254 pp. $53.00.
This study of African American activists in the Northern United States in the period from 1830 to the eve of the Civil War aims to identify the male and female activists' aspirations, their self-images and the values, especially in relation to concepts of manhood and womanhood, that underlay their beliefs. Some of the findings are based on a substantive analysis of 1,004 resolutions of local and state meetings of African Americans in this period.


Putting Class in Its Place. Worker Identities in East Asia. Ed. by Elizabeth J. Perry. [China Research Monograph, 48.] Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley 1996. ix, 250 pp. $18.50.
The eight contributions to this volume on workers' identities in the industrializing countries in East Asia all aim to dispel the myth of the quiescent East Asian worker in favour of a more complicated and combative image, not necessarily based on the Western paradigm of class. Examining a wealth of primary research, the contributors focus on subjects including conflicts surrounding unionization in the Japanese steel industry (Andrew Gordon), the quest for more humane treatment among female factory workers in Korea in the 1980s (Hagen Koo), the rise of class identity among blue-collar workers in Taiwan (Nai-teh Wu and Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao) and the explosion of migration and prostitution among Chinese workers in the post-Mao era (Gail Hershatter and Emily Honig).


Cohen, Paul A. History in Three Keys. The Boxers as Event, Experience, and Myth. Columbia University Press, New York [etc.] 1997. xviii, 428 pp. Ill. Maps. £27.50.
In this new study of the Boxer uprising of 1898-1900, the major explosion of anti-foreign sentiments in China, Professor Cohen juxtaposes the historiography on the uprising against the accounts of participants in and witnesses to the event and subsequently compares these two perspectives with the range of popular myths - both negative and positive - that were fashioned about the Boxers. Through this three-level perspective on the Boxer uprising, the author explores a broad range of issues pertaining to the writing of history as a craft and to its use in people's various ways of reflecting about and relating to the past.

Kwan, Daniel Y.K. Marxist Intellectuals and the Chinese Labor Movement. A Study of Deng Zhongxia (1894-1933). [Jackson School Publications in International Studies.] University of Washington Press, Seattle [etc.] 1997. xiv, 309 pp. Ill. $45.00.
This is a study of the political career and thought of Deng Zhongxia (1894-1933), the organizer and leader of the Guangzhou-Hong Kong General Strike of 1925-1926 and one of China's leading labour activists in the 1920s. Through a study of Deng's political thought, Professor Kwan places the Communist leadership in China in this period in a new perspective, focusing on the fundamental dilemma caused by conflicting visions of revolution among workers and Marxist intellectual Party leaders, such as Deng.


Bayat, Asef. Street Politics. Poor People's Movements in Iran. Columbia University Press, New York 1997. xxiii, 232 pp. Ill. $47.50. (Paper: $17.50.)
Professor Bayat, who previously published studies on workers' control and self-management (see IRSH, XXXIII (1988), p. 81, and XXXVII (1992), p. 417), explores in this study the strong underclass movement which arose in the streets of Iran's largest cities from the mid 1970s onward. Fleeing from the impoverished countryside, the unemployed poor constructed shantytown communities with their own rudimentary infrastructure and developed an alternative economy almost wholly outside the new regime's control. Drawing on interviews with squatters and activists, the author aims to demonstrate the real social power poor people have and to offer a new perspective on grassroots activism in third world cities.


Garon, Sheldon. Molding Japanese Minds. The State in Everyday Life. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1997. xvii, 313 pp. Ill. $24.95; £19.95.
According to Professor Garon, "social management", in the sense of the state's intervention to influence the thinking and conduct of ordinary people, has been a powerful pattern of governance in twentieth-century Japan. Presenting four case studies in the changing relationship between the state and society from the late nineteenth century to the present (the evolution of the "Japanese-style" welfare system; the religions policy; the development of the extensive system of licensed prostitution; and the evolution and role of women's organizations), he illustrates the mechanisms by which the Japanese state achieved not simply passive compliance from the people but the enthusiastic participation of many private groups in its ambitious programmes to manage society.

Nimura, Kazuo. The Ashio Riot of 1907. A Social History of Mining in Japan. Ed. by Andrew Gordon. [Comparative and International Working-Class History.] Transl. by Terry Boardman and Andrew Gordon. Duke University Press, Durham [etc.] 1997. xviii, 275 pp. Ill. £52.00. (Paper: £16.95.)
This is the English edition of Ashio Bodo no shiteki bunseki (1988), both a case study of a riot at Japan's largest copper mine in 1907 and a critique of practices in labour economics and social history in postwar Japan. Professor Nimura uses the case study of the Ashio riot - which was conducted in the 1950s and published in part in 1959 - as a reference for analyzing early Japan's social, economic and political structure. In his critique, he attacks the "atomized worker thesis" and the "migrant labour thesis", both dominant in Japanese postwar social history, and introduces the idea of a dispute-centred study.



Kirkby, Diane. Barmaids. A History of Women's Work in Pubs. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1997. xii, 244 pp. Ill. £45.00; $64.95. (Paper: £15.95; $24.95.)
Combining labour and cultural history, Dr Kirkby explores in this study the history of women's work in pubs in Australia in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Dealing with the labour conditions, social position and cultural significance of barmaids, the author shows how gender shaped the pub through the interaction between female bar staff and male clientele and traces the industry's sexualization.


L'altra faccia della luna. I rapporti tra PCI, PCF e Unione Sovietica. A cura di Elena Aga-Rossi et Gaetano Quagliariello. Società editrice il Mulino, Bologna 1997. 287 pp. L. 35.000.
This collection of 12 essays by French, Italian and Russian historians results from a colloquium held on 27 May 1995 and reflects innovations in the study of relations between the USSR and Europe's communist parties enabled by the opening of the archives in Moscow. The essays are based on a critical examination of historiography on the PCF and the PCI, the central role of the Soviet Union's domestic policy in the strategic decisions by the national communist parties and a comparative perspective on the study by the PCF and the PCI. Annie Kriegel's essay about Thorez was her last contribution to a colloquium before her death.

Antifascismi e Resistenze. A cura di Franco De Felice. [Fondazione Istituto Gramsci, Annali VI.] La Nuova Italia Scientifica, Roma 1997. 538 pp. L. 70.000.
This book contains 23 contributions to an international colloquium organized by the Fondazione Istituto Gramsci in Rome in October 1995 to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the end of World War II. Although Italy is the focus of various case studies, all of Europe is addressed. Anti-fascism is discussed in a broad perspective from the emergence of mass society between the two World Wars to Europe's reconstruction after 1945. The other themes are the history of the Resistance and its relation to anti-fascism.

Bartosek, Karel. Les aveux des archives. Prague-Paris-Prague 1948-1968. [Archives du communisme.] Éditions du Seuil, Paris 1996. 464 pp. Ill. F.fr. 160.00.
The Czech historian Karel Bartosek, who was active in the opposition during the Prague Spring in 1968 and was eventually forced into exile in 1982, was among of the first to obtain admission to the archives of the Central Committee of the Czecho-Slovakian Communist Party after the Velvet Revolution of 1989. In this book he reports his findings in a personal, "baroque" style. According to Professor Bartosek, the archives reveal that Prague was a secret meeting place for international communist organizations and the officials responsible for Moscow's secret financing of European communist parties. The appendices, which comprise over one hundred pages, feature a selection of the documents.

Cleve, Ingeborg. Geschmack, Kunst und Konsum. Kulturpolitik als Wirtschaftspolitik in Frankreich und Württemberg (1805-1845). [Kritische Stu- dien zur Geschichtswissenschaft, Band 111.] Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1996. 455 pp. Ill. DM 68.00.
Focusing on France and the German Land of Württemberg in the first half of the nineteenth century, this study analyses the relationship between early industrialization, consumption and visual art. According to the author a conceptual understanding emerged from the beginning of the nineteenth century in Western Europe between producers and consumers regarding the aesthetics of goods and consumer habits. She explores the role of museums, industrial exhibitions and art associations in devising a general concept of "good taste". Dr Cleve argues that this conceptual understanding was a condition for progressive industrialization and the rise of a consumer society.

Echo und Wirkungen der Französischen Revolution bei den slawischen Völkern und ihren Nachbarn. Hrsg. von Erich Donnert. [Demokratische Bewegungen in Mitteleuropa 1770-1850, Band 20.] Peter Lang, Frankfurt/M. [etc.] 1996. S.fr. 56.00.
The eleven contributions in this collection, written by scholars from Germany, Russia, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria and Hungary, deal with the reverberations and effects of the French Revolution on the Slavs and neighbouring peoples and on the changes in national politics, culture and public administration in the relevant national states in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Friedrich Engels (1820-1895). Un esempio da seguire, un pensiero da usare. Atti del convegno nazionale di studi, Gallarate, 13 maggio 1995. A cura di Claude Pottier. Centro Italiano di Studi Engelsiani, Gallarate 1997. iii, 141 pp. L.
Friedrich Engels and his ideas elicited little interest in Italy following World War II. At the convention organized in an effort to change this situation - a century after the death of Engels - the seven papers were presented and the debate conducted that appear in this book. Eleonora Fiorani and Ferdinando Vidoni respectively addressed the relation between nature and society in the dialectical materialism of Engels and the relation between Engels and Darwin. The appendix includes a paper previously delivered by Franco Molfese on the Communist Manifesto and a partial bibliography of Italian editions of Engels's work published between 1883 and 1926 by Aldo Serafini.

Gittig, Heinz. Bibliographie der Tarnschriften 1933 bis 1945. K.G. Saur, München [etc.] 1996. xxiv, 260 pp. DM 248.00.
This bibliography of Tarnschriften, illegal, camouflaged books, booklets and serial publications originating from the German and Austrian resistance in the period 1933-1945, is a revised and considerably expanded edition of the bibliography published by the author in 1972 as Illegale antifaschistische Tarnschriften 1933 bis 1945 (see IRSH, XVIII (1973), p. 317).

Meignen, Louis. Histoire de la révolution industrielle et du développement 1776-1914. [Économie.] Presses Universitaires de France, Paris 1996. viii, 286 pp. F.fr. 148.00.
In this survey of the extended industrial revolution in Western Europe, covering the years 1776-1914, Mr Meignen focuses on themes including new conceptions of labour; financial and monetary circumstances; development of new juridical frameworks; revolutionary developments in the transport sector; transformation of agriculture; industrialization of production; the role of cycles and crises; and demography. His approach demonstrates the industrial revolution's embedment in and relation to general societal progress in this era.

Die Modernisierung der Gewerkschaften in Europa. Hrsg. von Ulrich Mückenberger, Eberhard Schmidt [und] Rainer Zoll. Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster 1996. 345 pp. DM 44.00.
The central question in this volume concerns the capacity of the trade unions in the countries of the European Community to confront the challenges and problems arising from the ongoing European unification. In the first five contributions the authors compile an inventory of these challenges and problems. The next eight essays explore the responses of the trade union movements in France, Austria, Denmark, Spain, Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands and Great Britain. Three representatives of the European Trade Union Confederation then analyze, together with the editors, the future prospects for the European trade union movement in general.

Nationalsozialismus in der Region. Beiträge zur regionalen und lokalen Forschung und zum internationalen Vergleich. Hrsg. von Horst Möller, Andreas Wirsching und Walter Ziegler. [Schriftenreihe der Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschrifte, Sondernummer.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 1996. 350 pp. DM 78.00.
The twenty-two contributions to this volume explore various aspects of the relationship between centralism and regionalism in national socialism and the Third Reich: historiography on the regional history of national socialism; regional profiles of nationalism before 1933; centralism, power among private citizens and regional identities in the Nazi state; social and religious milieus, local society and national socialism, national socialism and the German minorities in neighbouring countries and the relation between regionalism and centralism in fascist movements in Italy, Spain and Austria.

Priess, Lutz, Václav Kural [und] Manfred Wilke. Die SED und der "Prager Frühling" 1968. Politik gegen einen "Sozialismus mit menschlichem Antlitz". [Studien des Forschungsverbundes SED-Staat an der Freien Universität Berlin.] Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1996. 300 pp. DM 98.00.
Based on recently opened archives of the Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands (SED) and protocols of the emergency summit meetings of the countries of the Warsaw Pact between March and September 1968, this study analyses the role of the SED and the East-German regime in the intervention in the reform process in Czecho-Slovakia, known as the "Prague Spring". The authors conclude that the SED interfered with the Czecho-Slovakian reform process quite early on and even launched activities independently.

Proto-industrialisation. Recherches récentes et nouvelles perspectives. Mélanges en souvenir de Franklin Mendels / Proto-industrialization. Recent Research and New Perspectives. In Memory of Franklin Mendels. René Leboutte (éd.). [Publications du Centre d'histoire économique internationale de l'Université de Genève, No 11.] Librairie Droz S.A., Genève 1996. iv, 320 pp. Ill. Maps. S.fr. 40.00.
The twelve studies (in English, French and German) in this book in memory of the economic historian Franklin Mendels all deal with the strengths and limitations of the application of Mendels' proto-industrialization concept (which he devised in 1972) and recent research using his multi-dimensional model for the transition from a rural society to modern industrial one. The contributors include Peter Kriedte, Jürgen Schlumbohm, Hans Medick, Ulrich Pfister, Kirti N. Chaudhuri, Myron P. Gutmann, Maxine Berg, Chris Vandenbroeke and Herman Van der Wee.

Sator, Klaus. Anpassung ohne Erfolg. Die sudetendeutsche Arbeiterbewegung und der Aufstieg Hitlers und Henleins 1930-1938. [WB-Edition Universität, Band 2.] Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1996. viii, 390 pp. Ill. DM 39.80; S.fr. 37.00; S 295.00.
This revised dissertation (Darmstadt, 1995) examines the attitude, politics and resistance among the German social democrats and communists in Sudetenland, respectively organized in the Deutsche Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei in der Tschechoslowakei and the Kommunistische Partei der Tschechoslowakei, regarding both the rise of Hitler and the national-socialist movement in Germany and the Sudeten-German national-socialist and German-nationalist movements in Czechoslovakia led by Konrad Henlein. In addition to mentioning objective factors in his evaluation of the reasons for the failure of the oppositional policy of the marxist parties, Dr Sator notes their failure to regard Hitler and Henlein's growing popularity as cause for questioning their own ideology and views of reality.


Christiansen, Palle Ove. A manorial world. Lord, peasants and cultural distinctions on a Danish estate 1750-1980. Scandinavian University Press, Oslo [etc.] 1996. 596 pp. Ill. Maps. N.kr. 498.00; $79.95; £48.50.
Based on fieldwork in the early 1970s, as well as on historical research, this book reviews changes and continuities in the relations between the lord and the peasants and between the estate and the villages on a Danish estate on the island of Zealand in the period 1750-1980. Dr Christiansen sketches economic relations and production structures and the labour relations between the estate and the villages and between the lord and the peasants as the background to contemporary developments in the social and cultural landscape around the Giesegaard estate.


Andolfatto, Dominique [et] Dominique Labbé. La CGT. Organisation et audience depuis 1945. Éditions La Découverte, Paris 1997. 303 pp. F.fr. 175.00.
This is a comprehensive study of the changes since 1945 in the organization and support of the Confédération générale du travail (CGT), the largest confederation of trade unions in France. The authors submit that the organization of the CGT has grown considerably more homogeneous but has also become highly introverted and has deteriorated. They note the emergence of a growing organizational apparatus from the 1960s onward, which coincided with a rising communist influence. The CGT membership's substantive erosion is attributed to the progressive introversion, the downfall of communism and the decline of syndicalism in France.

Babeuf, François-Noël [Gracchus] [et] Sylvain Maréchal. Une passion qui commence. Textes de Gracchus Babeuf, choix suivi de "L'opinion d'un homme" et du "Manifeste des Égaux" de Sylvain Maréchal. [Éd. par] Lionel Bourg. Éditions Paroles d'Aube, Vénissieux 1997. 155 pp. Ill. F.fr. 95.00.
Gracchus Babeuf was sentenced to death in 1797. This slim volume, of which 1,797 copies were printed in 1997, features a selection of texts by Babeuf and two by Sylvain Maréchal, one pertaining to Babeuf's trial and the Manifeste des Égaux. A personal statement by the editor serves as the introduction. This edition is based on Maurice Dommanget's publication Pages choisies de Babeuf (1935).

Barzman, John. Dockers, métallos, ménagères. Mouvements sociaux et cultures militantes au Havre (1912-1923). Avec une préface de Jean-Jacques Becker. [Publications de l'Université de Rouen no 230 et du Havre no 4.] Presses Universitaires de Rouen et du Havre, n.p. [Mont-Saint-Aignan] 1997. 423 pp. Ill. Maps. F.fr. 170.00.
In this study of social movements and militant cultures in the French town of Le Havre, Dr Barzman analyses various forms of popular collective action as alternatives available to the local working class, depending on the varying circumstances formed by waves of intensified and abating social conflict in the period 1912-1923. Within this analysis, he focuses on the origins of communism in France, aiming to explore the role of the intensified social conflicts during World War I in France or the attraction of the Bolshevist model of the Russian Revolution in the rift within the French labour movement.

Brochon, Pierre. Eugène Pottier, naissance de "L'Internationale". Christian Pirot, St-Cyr-sur-Loire 1997. 279 pp. Ill. F.fr. 150.00.
This is a general biography of Eugène Pottier (1816-1887), who wrote the lyrics for l'Internationale, the best-known socialist hymn. Mr Brochon analyses the origins of the lyrics to l'Internationale in 1871 in the context of Pottier's other literary work and his political and ideological commitment to socialist utopianism. He sketches the lyricist's social background as an artisan's son and his political career as an agitator during the revolution of 1848 and member of the Commune in 1871 and describes how during the tragic last phase of his life, in which he returned penniless from exile, his poem was finally discovered in 1883, a few years before his death.

Coffin, Judith G. The Politics of Women's Work. The Paris Garment Trades 1750-1915. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1996. xiii, 289 pp. Ill. $35.00.
See Louise Tilly's review in this volume, pp. 484-487.

David, Marcel. La souveraineté du peuple. [Questions.] Presses Universitaires de France, Paris 1996. vi, 337 pp. F.fr. 168.00.
This work by Professor David addresses the history of political ideas, reviewing the history of theories on popular sovereignty from the Middle Ages to the beginning of the Fifth Republic in France. The chapters in between deal with theories of statehood from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Enlightenment, the French Revolution and the Empire, and with different schools of thought on popular sovereignty from the parti républicain to the Paris Commune, as well as those from the Third and Fourth republics.

Gottraux, Philippe. "Socialisme ou Barbarie". Un engagement politique et intellectuel dans la France de l'après-guerre. [Sciences politiques et sociales.] Editions Payot Lausanne, [Lausanne] 1997. 427 pp. S.fr. 44.90; F.fr. 169.00.
This version of a doctoral thesis (Lausanne, 1995) offers a detailed reconstruction of the history of the French revolutionary group "Socialisme ou Barbarie" (1949-1965). Using archival research and a great many oral interviews, Dr Gottraux describes the group's political, theoretical and organizational course and main spokespersons (including Cornelius Castoriadis, Claude Lefort, Jean-François Lyotard), as well as its place in France's leftist sphere of influence during the Cold War.

Huet, Marie-Hélène. Mourning Glory. The Will of the French Revolution. [Critical Authors & Issues.] University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 1997. viii, 223 pp. Ill. $37.50; £35.00. (Paper: $17.50; £16.50.)
The seven essays in this book provide a critical discursive analysis of the revolutionary will of the French Revolution, where "will" is to be understood both as a reasoned declaration of intent and as a testament. Professor Huet focuses in the first four essays on the relationship between revolutionary theory and political praxis and on the revolutionaries' (especially Robespierre's) own evaluation of this troublesome relationship. In the last three essays she examines the way historians have dealt with the French Revolution and have struggled with its paradoxal legacy of freedom and terror.

Kaplan, Steven Laurence. The Bakers of Paris and the Bread Question 1700-1775. Duke University Press, Durham [etc.] 1996. xviii, 761 pp. Ill. £47.50.
This is the fourth volume of a series Professor Kaplan started twenty years ago on the subject of the bread question in ancien régime France (see IRSH, XXII (1977), p. 449). After dealing with the government's role in policing grain and flour trades, consumers and the Flour War of 1775 and the merchants and millers in the previous volumes, this volume focuses on the fabricated bread, the artisans who supplied it and the policing of bread baking and sales. As in his previous works on the subject, the author challenges the traditional view on the bread question, which is too strongly influenced, in his opinion, by the critical view of the Enlightenment philosophes.

Luzzatto, Sergio. L'impôt du sang. La gauche française à l'épreuve de la guerre mondiale (1900-1945). Trad. de l'italien par Simone Carpentari Messina. Presses Universitaires de Lyon, Lyon 1996. 186 pp. F.fr. 125.00.
This is the French translation of the previously published La "Marsigliese" stonata. La sinistra francese e il problema storico della guerra giusta (1992). The author shares a critical reflection on the ideology of revolutionary universalism prevailing within the French left wing, which obliges every Frenchmen to dedicate his life not only to defending the Fatherland but also to exporting freedom. He observes that this ideology has been eroded by the trials and tribulations of the war.

Maurice Dommanget (1888-1976). Citoyen, pédagogue, historien. Actes du Colloque international organisé à Beauvais les vendredi 6 et samedi 7 mai 1994. Archives départementales de l'Oise, n.p. [Beauvais] 1996. 262 pp. Maps. F.fr. 230.00.
These are the proceedings of a colloquium held in Beauvais in May 1994 about the life and work of Maurice Dommanget (1888-1976), a well-known historian of the French Revolution, the French labour movement and socialism, a union and socialist activist, a village teacher and educational reformer and a freethinker. The thirty-one contributions address the various aspects of Dommanget's life and work: his political activities as a radical left-wing socialist, his educational endeavours and his historical work on, among others, Babeuf, Blanqui, the French labour movement, the role of religion and the Beauvais region. In his concluding contribution Professor Vovelle reveals the relationship between these various aspects of Dommanget.

Müller Hofstede, Daniel. Aristide Briand und der französische Sozialismus. Die Frühzeit des Politikers 1883-1906. Lit, Münster 1996. vii, 261 pp. DM 58.80.
Focusing on the period 1883-1906, this dissertation offers a reappraisal of the early years in the career of the French politician Aristide Briand (1862-1932). Dr Müller Hofstede aims to refute the conventional interpretation of Briand's career, which divides it into a radical socialist phase until 1906 and a moderate republican phase after a sudden and definitive break with socialism. According to the author, both during Briand's early, radical phase and in his subsequent political career, the politician's ideas were based on a moderate social reformism and were far less extreme and thus more consistent with his later political views than Briand's main biographer, George Suarez, has asserted.

Parker, David. Class and State in Ancien Régime France. The road to modernity? Routledge, London [etc.] 1996. xvii, 349 pp. £40.00.
This study explores the economic, social, ideological and political foundations of French absolutism. Rejecting both revisionist historiography and previous Marxist interpretations, which treated French absolutism as an instrument of either political modernization or capitalism, Dr Parker presents French absolutism as a remarkably successful attempt to preserve the political and ideological structures of the traditional political order and compares the situation in France with the one in Britain. There, the decline of monarchial authority facilitated the rise of capitalism and the emergence of a modern nation state. In his reassessment the author discusses contentious issues, such as the agrarian foundations of capitalism and the relationship between class and status.

Paxton, Robert O. French Peasant Fascism. Henry Dorgères's Greenshirts and the Crises of French Agriculture, 1929-1939. Oxford University Press, New York [etc.] 1997. xii, 244 pp. £35.00.
Paxton, Robert O. Le temps des Chemises vertes. Révoltes paysannes et fascisme rural 1929-1939. Trad. de l'anglais (États-Unis) par Jean-Pierre Bardos. Éditions du Seuil, Paris 1996. 316 pp. F.fr. 160.00.

These are the original English version and the French translation (published even before the original work) of a study of the radical right-wing peasant movement in France in the interwar years, known as les Chemises Vertes (the Greenshirts), and its founder and leader, Henry Dorgères (1897-1985). Professor Paxton treats Dorgérism more as political and cultural behaviour of French peasants than as an official rural political organization, which it never actually became. Against a general account of the stresses experienced by many French peasants in the 1930s and the origins of Dorgères and his movement, the author highlights the movement's regional and local activities and its connections and relations with the traditional agricultural organization and the rural elites.

Peabody, Sue. "There Are No Slaves in France". The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien Régime. Oxford University Press, New York [etc.] 1996. x, 210 pp. £30.00.
This study examines the paradox of political antislavery and institutional racism in Ancien Régime France in the century prior to the French Revolution. On the basis of the Freedom Principle, a judicial maxim granting freedom to any slave who set foot in the kingdom, hundred of slaves won their freedom. Professor Peabody reviews actual court cases that decided the fates of petitioning slaves to demonstrate the ever-increasing tension between the long-standing juridical commitment to freedom and the growing national belief that blacks were an inferior race, resulting in a series of laws prohibiting blacks from entering France.

Piguet, Marie-France. Classe. Histoire du mot et genèse du concept des Physiocrates aux Historiens de la Restauration. Presses universitaires de Lyon, Lyon 1996. 196 pp. F.fr. 160.00.
See Lout Bots's review in this volume, pp. 480-482.

Robert, Vincent. Les chemins de la manifestation (1848-1914). [Collection du Centre Pierre Léon.] Presses universitaires de Lyon, Lyon 1996. 394 pp. Maps. F.fr. 150.00.
In this revised thèse (University of Lyon II, 1994) the author explores the gradual transition between 1848 and 1914 of political manifestations, demonstrations and marches in France from an outspoken anarchist act to a widely accepted form of popular political expression. Focusing on the city of Lyon, Dr Robert examines the rituals, slogans and songs and banners and plates to sketch the emergence of political expression from the folklore and traditions, as well as its reciprocal influence on such customs.

Terrier, Didier. Les deux âges de la proto-industrie. Les tisserands du Cambrésis et du Saint-Quentinois, 1730-1880. [Recherches d'histoire et de sciences sociales, 64.] Éditions de l'École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris 1996. 311 pp. Maps. F.fr. 150.00.
In this study of the cottage industry for linen and cotton fabrics in the French region of Cambrai and Saint-Quentin (southeast of Lille) in the period 1730-1880, Mr Terrier analyses the rise and fall of the region's textile cottage industry from the perspective of the proto-industrialization concept devised by Franklin Mendel (see IRSH, this volume). Using a wide range of sources, the author explores the relation between industrialization and the agrarian and demographic changes and examines the forms of collective action among the textile workers.


Arbeiterrecht. Bearb. von Wolfgang Ayass, Karl-Heinz Nickel und Heidi Winter, unter Mitarb. von Marek Czapliski und Elmar Roeder. [Quellensammlung zur Geschichte der Deutschen Sozialpolitik 1867 bis 1914; I. Abt.: Von der Reichsgründungszeit bis zur kaiserlichen Sozialbotschaft (1867 bis 1881), Band 4.] Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1997. xli, 729 pp. DM 188.00.
This is volume four of the first section of a series of source editions, which started in 1966 and has since appeared irregularly (see IRSH, XI (1966), p. 497, XXVIII (1983), pp. 371f., 40 (1995) pp. 171, 172, 42 (1997), pp. 328, 329). The 205 documents in the present volume cover topics including the origins and development of collective labour law during the founding years of the German Empire, including the pursuit of legislation regarding professional associations and specific jurisdiction with respect to labour, as well as the course of the major labour conflicts in this period.

Dickinson, Edward Ross. The Politics of German Child Welfare from the Empire to the Federal Republic. [Harvard Historical Studies, 121.] Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1996. xiv, 365 pp. £28.50.
Through an examination of child welfare policy in Germany between 1871 and 1961, this study addresses continuity and discontinuity in late nineteenth and twentieth-century German history and the relationship between the modern welfare state and modern regime forms (e.g. democracy and fascism). Dr Dickinson concludes, among others, that the politics of child welfare policy in Germany reflected democratic continuities between the Empire and the Federal Republic that were as important as the antidemocratic continuities between the Empire and the Third Reich.

Engelbrecht, Jörg. Das Herzogtum Berg im Zeitalter der Französischen Revolution. Modernisierungsprozesse zwischen bayerischem und französischem Modell. [Quellen und Forschungen aus dem Gebiet der Geschichte, Neue Folge, Heft 20.] Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn [etc.] 1996. 344 pp. DM 78.00.
The transition from the class society of the ancien régime to a modern one occurred in the German Rhineland earlier than in any other German lands and states. This dissertation (Düsseldorf, 1993) examines the conditions surrounding this modernization in the Duchy of Berg on the right bank of the Rhine in the era of the French Revolution and compares the process with contemporary social, economic and political trends in Bavaria. Dr Engelbrecht refers to the emergence of a modern bourgeois economic elite, as well as the proximity of the French case, as possible explanations for the Sonderweg of the Rhineland.

Gawrich, Rolf. Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund und polnische Gewerkschaftsbewegung. Der DGB als transnationaler Akteur und seine Beziehungen zur "offiziellen" und "oppositionellen" Gewerkschaftsbewegung in der Volksrepublik Polen (1970-1989). [Hochschulschriften 288.] Pahl-Rugenstein, Bonn 1996. v, 437, v pp. DM 58.00; S.fr. 58.00; S 406.00.
This dissertation (Nijmegen, 1996) examines the operational scope of the overarching German trade union federation, the Deutsche GewerkschaftsBund (DGB) with respect to the course of relations between the German trade union with the official and oppositional trade unions in Poland in the period 1970-1989. Dr Gawrich examines whether the DGB, as a "transnational actor", could pursue political objectives autonomously, or whether it depended totally on the German government's foreign policy. He concludes that although in general the DGB conformed fully with the SPD government's "Ostpolitik", especially with respect to its attitude toward and assessment of the importance of Solidarnošc, its course was relatively independent.

Germany. A New Social and Economic History. Vol. 1. 1450-1630. Ed. by Bob Scribner. Vol. 2. 1630-1800. Ed. by Sheilagh Ogilvie. Arnold, London [etc.] 1996. xiv, 399 pp.; xvi, 426 pp. Maps. £45.00. (Paper: £19.99 per vol.)
These are the first two volumes in a series of three, which aims to present a history of long-term, continuous social and economic change in Germany from the Middle Ages to the present. The twelve contributions in the first volume trace the roots of sixteenth-century developments as far back as 1300, establishing basic economic frameworks in population and agrarian development, patterns of town and town-country relations, social structure and changing patterns of consumption and daily life. The twelve articles in the second volume address the dislocation caused by economic downturn and the Thirty Years War in the first half of the seventeenth century, the gradual recovery up to 1800 and the long-term structural legacy of the seventeenth-century crisis. The contributors aim both to summarize recent research and to provide fresh thematic approaches and, where appropriate, situate German developments in the broader European context.

Hoffmann, Dierk. Sozialpolitische Neuordnung in der SBZ/DDR. Der Umbau der Sozialversicherung 1945-1956. [Studien zur Zeitgeschichte, Band 47.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 1996. 366 pp. DM 88.00.
This dissertation (Munich, 1994) describes the objectives, course and results of the effort to establish a new social policy in the Soviet Occupation Zone and the German Democratic Republic in the period 1945-1956. Dr Hoffmann focuses on the institutional rearrangement of the East-German social security system according to the principles of a unitary and national insurance scheme, its inclusion in the central planned economy and the take-over of the administration by the Freier Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund (FDGB).

Hoffmann, Jürgen. Politisches Handeln und gesellschaftliche Struktur. Grundzüge deutscher Gesellschaftsgeschichte. Vom Feudalsystem bis zur Vereinigung der beiden deutschen Staaten 1990. Dreizehn Vorlesungen. Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster 1996. 593 pp. DM 68.00.
The relation between political action and societal order and between event and structure is the foundation for this general introduction to the history of German society from the feudal system to the reunification of Germany in 1990. Based on an introductory lecture series on political history for sociologists, Professor Hoffmann provides a chrono- logical overview of German history, using the revolutionary epoch in seventeenth-century England, the French Revolution and the Russian Revolution as counterpoints to the German developments, thus aiming to assess in what measure German history can be seen as a Sonderweg.

Housden, Martyn. Resistance and conformity in the Third Reich. [Routledge Sources in History.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1997. xiii, 199 pp. Ill. £40.00. (Paper: £12.99.)
This textbook offers a selection from a wide range of primary and secondary sources dealing with the relationship between ordinary Germans and the Hitler regime and aiming to clarify the decisions made by different social groups to resist or to conform to the Nazi regime. Adopting a thematic approach, Dr Housden focuses on the attitude of workers, the churches, the German youth, conservative elites and German Jewry towards the Nazi regime and its policies, on that of ordinary, non-Jewish Germans towards the Nazi racial policy and on the extent of their opposition and actual resistance to the Nazi regime.

Kasper-Holtkotte, Cilli. Juden im Aufbruch. Zur Sozialgeschichte einer Minderheit im Saar-Mosel-Raum um 1800. [Forschungen zur Geschichte der Juden: Abt. A, Abhandlungen, Band 3.] Verlag Hahnsche Buchhandlung, Hannover 1996. xiv, 493 pp. DM 96.00.
This dissertation (Trier, 1992) examines the changing position of the Jewish population in the Saar-Mosel region during the French occupation of the left bank of the Rhine between 1792 and 1813. Dr Kasper-Holtkotte describes the juridical and constitutional emancipation of the Jewish population under the Napoleonic regime and demonstrates that this constitutional emancipation did not coincide with actual social emancipation. She observes the growing hostility among the Gentile population in this period, due in part to growing envy of the economic successes of the Jewish population. The author also touches on the increasing contrast between the positions of Jews in rural and in urban areas.

Kulczycki, John J. The Polish Coal Miners' Union and the German Labor Movement in the Ruhr, 1902-1934. National and Social Solidarity. Berg, Oxford [etc.] 1997. xv, 283 pp. £34.95.
See John Belchem's review in this volume, pp. 487-488.

Müller, Dirk H. Arbeiter - Katholizismus - Staat. Der Volksverein für das katholische Deutschland und die katholischen Arbeiterorganisationen in der Weimarer Republik. [Reihe Politik- und Gesellschaftsgeschichte, Band 43.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 1996. 352 pp. DM 49.80; S.fr. 49.80; S 369.00.
Focusing on two Catholic working-class laymen's organizations (the Volksverein für das katholische Deutschland and the Reichsverband katholische Arbeitervereine), this study, part of a series comparing the history of social-democratic and Catholic organizations in the Weimar Republic (for previous volumes, see IRSH, XXXVII (1992), pp. 141f. and 435, and 39 (1994), pp. 138f.), explores the relationship between the working class, Catholicism and the German state from the 1890s to the end of the Weimar Republic and the signing of the Reichskonkordat in 1934.

Nonn, Christoph. Verbraucherprotest und Parteiensystem im wilhelminischen Deutschland. [Beiträge zur Geschichte des Parlamentarismus und der politischen Parteien, Band 107.] Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 1996. 364 pp. DM 78.00.
This revised edition of a dissertation (Trier, 1993) analyses the contradictions and conflicts between consumers and agrarian producers in late Imperial Germany (i.e. 1890-1914). Dr Nonn reviews case studies of the cities of Berlin, Cologne, Trier and Göttingen and six different agrarian regions and focuses on the smouldering protests against increases in food prices from the early twentieth century onward to examine the effect of these contradictions and conflicts on trends in party policies in this period and the emergence of parliamentary democracy in Germany.

Quellen zur deutschen Revolution 1848-1849. Hrsg. von Hans Fenske. [Ausgewählte Quellen zur deutschen Geschichte der Neuzeit, Band 24.] Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1996. xxi, 381 pp. DM 128.00; S.fr. 128.00; S 765.00.
This source edition offers a selection of original documents on the German Revolution of 1848-1849, addressing the issue perceived by the author as central to the Revolution, namely the establishment of a unified German state. The selected documents focus on the motives of the leading political persons involved, the position of the various governments of the German states and the causes underlying the failure of the quest for unity in this period.

Schartl, Matthias. Sozialdemokratie und Sammlungspolitik im Raum Flensburg 1870-1914. Die Reichstagswahlen und die Politisierung der Region im nördlichen Schleswig-Holstein. [Veröffentlichungen des Beirats für Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung und Demokratie in Schleswig-Holstein, Band 17.] Malik Regional Verlag, Kiel 1996. 586 pp. DM 39.80.
In the first part of this dissertation (Hamburg, 1993), Dr Schartl gives a comprehensive picture of the changes in the social-democratic milieu in Northern Schleswig-Holstein and the city of Flensburg between 1870 and 1914 and of social-democratic activism among the agrarian population. He examines the region's resulting politicization and the development of anti-socialist, anti-working class and even anti-Semitic political currents among the agrarian population. In the second part he analyses the Reichstag elections between 1890 and 1912 in the context of this social-democratic emancipation and politicization in the region.

Great Britain

Buchanan, Tom. Britain and the Spanish Civil War. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1997. xiii, 241 pp. Ill. £40.00; $64.95. (Paper: £14.95; $24.95.)
This book offers a comprehensive account of Britain's response to the Civil War. Dr Buchanan, who published a study on the Spanish Civil War and the British labour movement in 1991 (see IRSH, 38 (1993), pp. 280f.), addresses common themes including the role of the British government, the leftist intellectuals and the International Brigades, as well as right-wing and religious opinions in Britain on the Spanish Civil War.

Ceadel, Martin. The Origins of War Prevention. The British Peace Movement and International Relations, 1730-1854. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1996. x, 587 pp. £55.00.
From the 1730s onward, the dominant pre-modern theory of international relations, which fatalistically assumed that war was beyond human control, began to be debated. This study examines the debate and focuses on the world's first peace movement, which originated in Britain in the 1790s as a response to the French wars, and on the first enduring national peace association (the Peace Society), founded in 1816.

Hollis, Patricia. Jennie Lee. A Life. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1997. xvii, 459 pp. Ill. £25.00.
This is a comprehensive biography of Jennie Lee (1904-1988), pioneering socialist Member of the British Parliament at the age of 24. Dr Hollis focuses, among others, on her "political" marriage to Aneurin (Nye) Bevan and her role as Bevan's "dark angel", and on the relation between Lee's socialism and feminism. After Bevan's early death in 1960 Lee became the first Minister for the Arts under Harold Wilson and founded the Open University.

Hooper, Barbara. Mary Stocks 1891-1975. An Uncommonplace Life. The Athlone Press, London [etc.] 1996. xii, 203 pp. Ill. £25.00.
This is a biography of Mary Stocks (1891-1975), a feminist, suffragist, birth control campaigner and social reformer, who, in addition to her academic career, gained national notoriety as a popular broadcaster on women's and social issues and entered the House of Lords in 1966 as a Labour Life Peer. As Mary Stocks had her correspondence destroyed after her death, the author had to draw heavily on Stocks's two-volume autobiography.

Huberman, Michael. Escape from the market. Negotiating work in Lancashire. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1996. xviii, 222 pp. £35.00; $54.95.
At the outset of the industrial revolution the cotton-spinning labour market in Lancashire was highly competitive, with wages quickly and easily adjusting to changes in the demand for and supply of labour: a model of a capitalist labour market. Within two generations, however, workers and employers had retreated from the market: firms paid fixed rates, and workers sought long-term associations, while social norms protected the new labour-market arrangements. This study places the causes and effects of these changes in the context of new developments in labour economics and social and economic history.

Hunt, Margaret R. The Middling Sort. Commerce, Gender, and the Family in England, 1680-1780. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1996. xiii, 343 pp. $48.00; £38.00.
This study of the "middling sort", the swelling ranks of shopkeepers, tradesmen, merchants, financiers, professionals and white-collar workers in late seventeenth and eighteenth-century urban England, highlights the role and place of the family in the middling society. Professor Hunt finds that commercial and social needs largely coincided in entrepreneurial families and, investigating the intertwinement of gender with class and family hierarchy, that more women ran businesses than is commonly thought. According to the author, the growing middling class was largely responsible for the significant expansion in trade and commerce that preceded the take-off to industrialization.

The Labour Party. "Socialism" and society since 1951. Ed. by Steven Fielding. [DOCUMENTS in Contemporary History.] Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1997; distr. excl. in the USA by St. Martin's Press, New York. xi, 171 pp. £39.00. (Paper: £11.99.)
This documentary history brings together selections from nearly one hundred documents tracing the history of the Labour Party from its electoral zenith in 1951, through the downfalls and divisions in the early 1980s to its apparent revival as "New Labour" under Tony Blair. The collection focuses on the responses to electoral failure among competing elements within the Party. Dr Fielding indicates the extent of the vision of socialism's consequent transformation and its perpetual status as a contested concept. The chronology included conveys the electoral development of Labour from 1951.

Morgan, Kenneth O. Callaghan. A Life. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1997. xvi, 800 pp. Ill. £25.00.
Professor Morgan, whose previous works include a biography of Keir Hardie and a history of the Attlee government (see IRSH, XX (1975), p. 305 and XXIX (1984), p. 290), characterizes the subject of this comprehensive biography as one of the representative figures of British history in the second half of the twentieth century. Jim Callaghan (1912) has figured in British public life for well over sixty years and has held more major offices than any other modern British politician. According to his biographer, Callaghan's success as leader of the Labour Party came from his total and sincere identification with the British working class.

Phillips, Jim. The Great Alliance. Economic Recovery and the Problems of Power 1945-1951. Pluto Press, London [etc.] 1996. ix, 158 pp. £40.00. 12
This study of the "Great Alliance" between the British Labour Party and the Trade Union Congress (TUC) during the years of the Attlee government (1945-1951) examines this alliance's role in sustaining and supporting the Attlee administrations. Focusing on the labour relations in the dockyards and the wave of unofficial strikes that swept the dockyards in this period, Dr Phillips argues that the official union's failure to support these strikes and the resulting tensions between the union leadership and the members on the one hand and the government on the other undermined the popularity of the Labour Party, foreshadowing the difficulties in labour relations in the 1960s and 1970s.

Richards, Andrew J. Miners on Strike. Class Solidarity and Division in Britain. Berg, Oxford [etc.] 1996. x, 269 pp. £34.95. (Paper: £14.95.)
This book offers an explanation for the differences between the outcomes of the British miners' strikes in 1972 and 1974 - which resulted in a total victory for the miners and reinforcement of the National Union of Mineworkers' (NUM) position - and the dramatic strikes in 1985, which ended in bitter defeat for the NUM. Professor Richards goes against mainstream interpretation by arguing that these differing outcomes illustrate the complexity rather than the disappearance of collective identity and class-consciousness among miners and maintains that remarkably high levels of solidarity were achieved in 1985, despite the inherently divisive issue.

Richards, Huw. The Bloody Circus. The Daily Herald and the Left. Pluto Press, London [etc.] 197. x, 246 pp. Ill. £40.00. (Paper: £13.99.)
At its peak in the early 1930s, the Daily Herald's circulation was higher than that of any other newspaper in the world (with the exception of the Pravda) and was therefore the most meaningful attempt by the British left to counter the right-wing political bias of the national press. This is a comprehensive history of the paper from its origins in 1912 as an independently owned radical newspaper to its transition to commercial publishing and its subsequent demise in 1964. Mr Richards explores the content of the paper, the political and organizational background to its publication and the relationship with the Labour Party and the trade unions.

Winch, Donald. Riches and Poverty. An intellectual history of political economy in Britain, 1750-1834. [Ideas in Context.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1996. xi, 428 pp. £50.00; $64.95. (Paper: £16.95; $22.95.)
See Arnold Heertje's review in this volume, pp. 478-480.


Armani, Giuseppe. Carlo Cattaneo. Una biografia. Garzanti, n.p. [Milano] 1997. 251 pp. L. 35.000.
Carlo Cattaneo was one of the founding fathers of Italian unity. He was also a theoretician of Italian federalism and a prominent social figure in Milan, where he led the uprising against Austria in 1848. Mr. Armani, who published a bibliographic essay on writings about Carlo Cattaneo in 1973 and serves on the Italo-Swiss committee for the publication of Cattaneo's works, has now written a well-documented biography on him.

Bozzi, Franco. Storia del Partito Socialista in Umbria. Pres. di Giorgio Spini. Edizioni Era Nuova, Ellera Umbra (PG) 1996. 234 pp. Ill. L. 38.000.
Socialism came rather late to the Italian region of Umbria, which at the time of Italy's unification was at a severe social-economic, political and cultural disadvantage. The author of this book traces Umbrian socialism from its earliest forms in the 1870s - small groups of members of the anti-authoritarian First International and mutual aid societies - to the postwar years. Appended are, among others, indexes of social-cultural associations and political parties and of journals and reviews.

Canali, Mauro. Il delitto Matteotti. Affarismo e politica nel primo governo Mussolini. Società editrice il Mulino, Bologna 1997. 619 pp. L. 50.000.
The murder of Giacomo Matteotti in 1924 by the fascist regime elicited an emotional backlash (cf. IRSH, vol. XLII (1997), p. 139) and investigations of the crime by many historians, including Salvemini, Renzo de Felice and Rossini (see IRSH, vol. XII (1967), p. 348). The author of this work has conducted extensive research in both Italian and U.S. archives and has used substantial unpublished and sometimes unknown material, albeit not the proceedings of the deliberations by the investigating judges in the post-war trial to which Capecelatro and Zaina, authors of La banda del Viminale (see IRSH, vol. XLII (1997), p. 513) did have access. The material leads the author to conclude that the evidence indicated both that Mussolini had been involved, and that a business scandal lay at the origin of the crime.

Fabei, Stefano. Guerra e proletariato. 1914: il Sindacalismo Rivoluzionario dalla neutralità all'interventismo. Società Editrice Barbarossa, Milano 1996. 139 pp. L. 15.000.
This booklet describes the revolutionary-syndicalist debates about the war in Italy during the 1900s and the 1910s. In the summer and autumn of 1914 they focused on the urgent question of whether to remain neutral or to enter the war. Most of this work deals with the discussions within the Unione Sindicalista Italiana and in periodicals sympathetic to revolutionary syndicalism, such as L'Internazionale and Pagine Libere, about entering the war on the side of the Entente to avert a victory by the reactionary German Empire.

Fo, Jacopo [e] Sergio Parini. '68. C'era una volta la rivoluzione. I dieci anni che sconvolsero il mondo. Feltrinelli, Milano 1997. 183 pp. Ill. L. 12.000.
This booklet offers a rather jovial impression of the history of the movement of cultural and political change in Italy, which was founded in 1968 and lasted about ten years. The book focuses on cultural and political activism and the ensuing repression. A chronology (1960-1978) is appended.

Italian Socialism. Between Politics and History. Ed. by Spencer M. Di Scala. University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst 1996. xii, 243 pp. $35.00; £27.95.
The twenty-four contributions in this volume, based on an international symposium in honour of the centenary of Italian Democratic Socialism held in Boston in March 1993, trace the Italian Socialist party from its origins in the late nineteenth century, through the crisis brought on by Italian Fascism to the unstable postwar Italian democracy. Contributors include, among others, Antonio Landolfi, Alexander De Grand, Borden W. Painter Jr, Giorgio Spini, Margherita Repetto Alaia, Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr and Elisa Carrillo. In a concluding essay Gino Giugni, former president of the Socialist party, shares his vision on the future of the Left in Italy and Europe.

Losurdo, Domenico. Antonio Gramsci dal liberalismo al "comunismo critico". [Per Gramsci, 1.] Gamberetti Editrice, Roma 1997. 259 pp. L. 29.000.
This intellectual biography of Gramsci contains the revised texts of lectures delivered at the Istituto Italiano per gli Studi Filosofici and at scholarly gatherings organized by this Institute. Professor Losurdo studies Gramsci's ideological transition from liberal views to critical communism. The author asserts that Gramsci initially favoured modernity and individual self-determination, which were counteracted by World War I and the resulting encapsulation of the masses. Following the Russian revolution he adopted a critical view of liberalism and embraced a communism presented as the successor to the acquisitions of modernity.

Slaughter, Jane. Women and the Italian Resistance 1943-1945. [Women and Modern Revolution Series.] Arden Press, Inc., Denver (Colorado) 1997. xx, 171 pp. Ill. $32.00. (Paper: $22.50.)
In this study of women's participation between 1943 and 1945 in the Italian resistance movement, Professor Slaughter presents a profile of the 50,000 Italian Resistance women and examines the motives for their activism and the impact of their contribution. In the final chapter, the author focuses on the role women's involvement in the Resistance in promoting political and feminist consciousness and female emancipation.

The Netherlands

Dudink, Stefan. Deugdzaam Liberalisme. Sociaal-liberalisme in Nederland 1870-1901. [IISG: Studies + Essays, 25.] Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1997. 304 pp. Ill. D.fl. 58.00.
This dissertation (University of Amsterdam, 1997) studies the emergence and development of social liberalism's social and sociological dimension in the Netherlands in the period 1870-1901. Dr Dudink aims at a historical reading of social liberal politics and ideas, revealing how social liberalism was deeply embedded in a set of moral assumptions. Analysing the social liberal and the closely related sociological discourse on social policy and citizenship, the author argues that the ideology was based on a nineteenth-century, Victorian belief of moral progress, which lost its credibility at the beginning of the twentieth century, after having contributed substantially to fundamental modernization of the Dutch state and politics.

Eijl, Corrie van. Maandag tolereren we niets meer. Vrouwen, arbeid en vakbeweging 1945-1990. Stichting beheer IISG/Stichting FNV-Pers, Amsterdam 1997. 351 pp. Ill. D.fl. 39.50.
This study of the changing role of women in the trade union movement in the Netherlands in the period between 1945 and 1990 was published in honour of the thirtieth anniversary of the women's secretariat of the NVV/FNV, the general confederation of trade unions. Dr van Eijl examines the trade union's progression in the decades after 1970 from an organization dedicated almost exclusively to protecting the interests of the male breadwinners to one that increasingly advocated a different distribution of labour between men and women.

Hendrickx, F.M.M. "In order not to fall into poverty". Production and Reproduction in the Transition from Proto-industry to Factory Industry in Borne and Wierden (the Netherlands), 1800-1900. [IISG: Studies + Essays, 26.] Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1997. 256 pp. Maps. D.fl. 58.00.
One of the theses in the concept of proto-industrialization is that a strong presence of cottage industry in a region influences population development in general and the family formation processes of those involved in particular. In this dissertation (Nijmegen, 1997) Dr Hendrickx examines the hypothesis in two towns in Twente (Borne and Wierden) in the east of the Netherlands in the nineteenth century. He finds that the agriculture's continued importance, alongside the cottage industry, in the family economy in the region precluded the demographic pattern described above.

Poelstra, Jannie. Luiden van een andere beweging. Huishoudelijke arbeid in Nederland 1840-1920. Het Spinhuis, Amsterdam 1996. xi, 402 pp. D.fl. 47.50.
This dissertation (University of Amsterdam, 1996) analyses changing views in the Netherlands between 1840 and the 1920s on domestic servants and the "servants' issue" with respect to social concerns and women's emancipation. Dr Poelstra explores the discourse in which servants were labelled as "others" in social terms and the implications of this status. She examines living and working conditions among domestic servants, trends in the labour market for these workers and their social and legal rights.


Kenney, Padraic. Rebuilding Poland. Workers and Communists, 1945-1950. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1997. xvii, 360 pp. Ill. Maps. $39.95.
Focusing on the cities of Lódz and Wroclaw, Professor Kenney examines the communist takeover in Poland in the period 1945-1950 from the perspective of the workers. He argues that the communist takeover was also a social revolution, in which workers expressed their hopes for social change and influenced the evolution of the communist regime. Contrasting the strikes in textile mills in Lódz with the absence of labour conflict in Wroc aw, the author identifies the beginnings of the end of the communist regime in the communist defeat in the contemporary struggle for worker identity.

Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Altrichter, Helmut. Rußland 1917. Ein Land auf der Suche nach sich selbst. Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn [etc.] 1997. 605 pp. Ill. Maps. DM 78.00.
This comprehensive history of the Russian Revolution by Professor Altrichter comprises three parts. First, he reviews the political highlights of the revolutionary year 1917. Second, he deals with the main social groups and movements involved in the revolutionary turmoil: workers, soldiers, farmers and the bourgeoisie. Third, he reflects on the disintegration of the multi-ethnic Russian empire and the impact of the Revolution on the various nationalist movements in Poland, Finland, the Baltic, Ukraine, Trans-Caucasia and Central Asia.

The Bolsheviks in Russian Society. The Revolution and the Civil Wars. Ed. by Vladimir N. Brovkin. Yale University Press, New Haven [etc.] 1997. 333 pp. £21.00.
The fourteen contributions to this volume challenge the revisionist view that the Bolsheviks enjoyed widespread support among the populace. The authors discuss the various movements in Russian society opposing the Bolsheviks, oppressive Bolshevik politics and Bolshevik ideology and culture in the period 1917-1921. Contributions included focus on, among others, the Mensheviks (O.V. Volobuev), the Left Socialist Revolutionaries (Michael Melancon), the Socialist-Revolutionaries (Scott Smith), workers' protest (Sergei Pavliuchenkov), peasant rebellions (Taisia Osipova and Delano DuGarm), the role of Lenin (Richard Pipes) and the emergence of the Bolshevik ideology (Dmitry Shlapentokh) and culture (Christopher Read).

Bukhovets, Oleg Grigor'evich. Sotsial'nye konflikty i krest'ianskaia mental'nost' v rossiiskoi imperii nachala XX veka. Novye materialy, metody, rezul'taty. Mosgoarkhiv, Moskva 1996. 398 pp.
See Tatyana Moisseenko's review in this volume, pp. 491-493.

Clements, Barbara Evans. Bolshevik women. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1997. xiv, 338 pp. Ill. £50.00. (Paper: £16.95.)
This study is a history of the women who joined the Soviet Communist Party before 1921 and examines their reasons for becoming revolutionaries, the work they did in the underground before 1917, their participation in the revolution and civil war and their service in establishing the Soviet Union. The author argues that women were important members of the Communist Party's lower echelons during its formative years and launched a remarkable effort to achieve emancipation from traditional society.

Ivanov, Leonid J. Rußland nach Gorbatschow. Wurzeln, Hintergründe, Trends der sich formierenden Gruppierungen. Perspektiven für die Zukunft. Wissenschaftsverlag Rothe, Passau 1996. 447 pp. Ill. DM 58.00; S.fr. 58.00; S 406.00.
Mr Ivanov examines in this study the origins and ideological backgrounds of the political changes in Russia after the fall of the Soviet regime, focusing on the broadly defined rightist section of the political spectre. Using the term "patriots" and "national patriots" rather than nationalists, the author stresses the importance of acknowledging the myriad subtle differences in the assorted rightist political movements and ideologies. He explores the influences of philosophical and religious movements and includes an inventory of more than sixty political rightist movements and their most prominent members in the final section of the book.

Plaggenborg, Stefan. Revolutionskultur. Menschenbilder und kulturelle Praxis in Sowjetrussland zwischen Oktoberrevolution und Stalinismus. [Beiträge zur Geschichte Osteuropas, Band 21.] Böhlau Verlag, Köln [etc.] 1996. viii, 393 pp. DM 98.00.
In this dissertation (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1993) the revolutionary culture in Soviet Russia from the Bolshevist Revolution to the beginning of Stalinism around 1932 is examined. Dr Plaggenborg analyses revolutionary culture according to its broadest possible scope, encompassing both the revolutionary idea of creating a new, revolutionary mankind and the forms of cultural expression and activities (physical culture, media, art, history, festivals and festivities and the attitude toward religiosity). The author employs a top-down approach, concentrating on the role and ideas of revolutionary intellectuals in establishing and enriching the revolutionary culture.

Thurston, Robert W. Life and Terror in Stalin's Russia 1934-1941. Yale University Press, New Haven [etc.] 1996. xxi, 296 pp. Ill. £19.95.
Drawing on memoirs, interviews and recently opened archives, this study offers a revisionist interpretation of the crucial phase of the Stalinist Terror (1934-1941). Focusing on police and court practices and everyday life, Professor Thurston argues that many more believed in Stalin's quest to eliminate internal enemies than were frightened by it. Thus, he states, the key factor keeping the Stalinist regime in power was not coercion but voluntary support, fostered by extensive opportunities to criticize conditions and participate in local decision making.


Carbonell i Esteller, Montserrat. Sobreviure a Barcelona. Dones, pobresa i assistència al segle XVII. [Referències, 20.] Eumo Editorial, Vic 1997. 207 pp. Maps. Ptas.
Confronted in the late eighteenth century with the consequences of incipient industrialization, the workers in Barcelona devised survival strategies including reliance on poor relief. The author has used the vast but previously virtually unexplored archives of the poorhouse (the Casa de Misericòrdia) to reconstruct the women's lives as a cohesive element in the study and to explain the poverty among the urban masses. She illustrates another strategy by touching on the role of the Credit Bank.

Cultura y movilización en la España contemporánea. Eds.: Rafael Cruz y Manuel Pérez Ledesma. Alianza Editorial, Madrid 1997. 386 pp.
This collection of twelve articles combines traditional social history's study of collective action with the new social historical study of culture, according to the assumption that culture, in addition to social-economic factors, is in part responsible for people's actions. The authors apply this joint perspective in addressing subjects such as anti-clericalism, carlism, ideological currents, the establishment of the labour movement, images of the Soviet Union during the Second Republic, the efforts to obtain amnesty following the Franco regime etc. Rafael Cruz wrote the theoretical introductory essay.

Kasmir, Sharryn. The Myth of Mondragón. Cooperatives, Politics, and Working-Class Life in a Basque Town. [SUNY Series in the Anthropology of Work.] State University of New York Press, Albany 1996. xvi, 243 pp. Ill. $23.95.
The production and consumer cooperatives in the Basque region of Mondragón, Spain are renowned as alternatives to standard industrial organization. Originating from the 1950s and dominating industrial relations in the region from that point onward, they are considered a successful example of democratic decision making and worker ownership. In this ethnographic study, Professor Kasmir argues that an idealized image of the cooperatives falsely portrays them as apolitical institutions and ignores the often more negative experiences of shop floor workers. She aims to demonstrate that this "myth" discredits labour unions and working-class organizations.

Luis Martín, Francisco de [y] Luis Arias González. Las Casas del Pueblo socialistas en España (1900-1936). Estudio social y arquitectónico. [Ariel Historia.] Editorial Ariel, S.A., Barcelona 1997. 238 pp. Ill.
This is the first global description of the Casas del Pueblo in Spain since Víctor Manuel Arbeloa's publication two decades ago. Using source materials that were difficult to trace in many cases (here, too, the Civil War resulted in massive destruction), the authors analyze the history and operation of over one hundred Casas del Pueblo and their role in the Spanish socialist labour movement, dealing extensively with the architecture of the buildings. The annexes include a list of Casas and an overview of architects, as well as several documents, especially about the famous Casa of Madrid.

Montañés, Enrique. Transformación agrícola y conflictividad campesina en Jerez de la Frontera (1880-1923). Universidad de Cádiz, Cádiz; Ayuntamiento de Jerez de la Frontera 1997. 309 pp. Ptas. 3.120.
This book describes the economic, social and political circumstances in the countryside surrounding Jerez de la Frontera in the years of economic stagnation at the turn of the century. The situation led to a long-lasting social conflict of which the origins are covered in detail by the author through a lengthy analysis of changes in the agricultural economy.

Radcliff, Pamela Beth. From mobilization to civil war. The politics of polarization in the Spanish city of Gijón, 1900-1937. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1996. xviii, 354 pp. Maps. £40.00; $59.95.
See Angel Smith's review in this volume, pp. 488-491.


Rothstein, Bo. The Social Democratic State. The Swedish Model and the Bureaucratic Problem of Social Reforms. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh [etc.] 1996. $39.95.
In this study Dr Rothstein analyses a social democratic government's opportunities and limitations for using the state to implement massive social change. Focusing on the case studies of two social reform programmes implemented in Sweden by governments led by the most successful social democratic party in the world, the Swedish Social Democratic Party (SAP), the author concludes that a progressive reform programme's success depends to a considerable extent on the organization of the administrative apparatus responsible for implementing the policy.


Fluder, Robert. Interessenorganisationen und kollektive Arbeitsbeziehungen im öffentlichen Dienst der Schweiz. Entstehung, Midgliedschaft, Organisation und Politik seit 1940. Seismo Verlag, Zürich 1996. xxiv, 571 pp. S.fr. 68.00.
This study offers a comprehensive overview of the development of the labour relations and organizations of workers in the Swiss civil service from 1941 onward. Central issues include increases in membership, internal structure and democratic features of the labour unions and the nature of protection of interests in the context of contemporary societal changes. Dr Fluder concludes, among others, that the civil service sector is significantly more organized than the private sector.