Volume 44 part 2 (1999)


General Issues
Continents and Countries

Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.

General Issues


Hawkins, Mike. Social Darwinism in European and American thought, 1860-1945. Nature as model and nature as threat. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1997. x, 343 pp. £19.95; $27.95.
Through a survey of the vast secondary literature on the subject, Dr Hawkins aims to give a comprehensive overview of the origins and development of Social Darwinism and its role in the history of social and political ideas. The author analyses its complex relationship to the theories of Darwin, Lamarck and Herbert Spencer and explores the application of these theories in a number of crucial ideological debates, including eugenics and Fascism. He aims to explain how so many differing political positions could draw on the Darwinian tradition and concludes with a discussion of modern sociobiology in order to assess the continuing vitality of Social Darwinism.

Steinacker, Guido. Philanthropie und Revolution. Robert Owens "Rational System of Society" und seine Kritik durch Karl Marx und Friedrich Engels. [Schriften zur politischen Ethik, Band 7.] Verlag für Entwicklungspolitik Saarbrücken GmbH, Saarbrücken 1997. v, 213 pp. DM 40.00; S.fr. 37.00; S 292.00.
This study examines the origins and development of Robert Owen's theoretical concept of a "Rational System of Society" and his theoretical work Book of the New Moral World (1836-1844). Mr Steinacker then analyses the critique from Marx and Engels of Owen's ideas and concludes that they did not do justice to Owen's theory by characterizing him as "utopist" without providing more substantive comments.

Theorizing Revolutions. Ed. by John Foran. Routledge, London [etc.] 1997. x, 300 pp. £47.50. (Paper: £14.95.)
This volume brings together nine original essays in the contemporary study of revolution. The theoretical approaches considered include state-centred perspectives, structural theories, world-system analysis, elite models, demographic theories and feminism. These approaches are applied to specific historical revolutionary cases from the French Revolution to the revolution in Eastern Europe in 1989. The first four contributions trace the contours of structural theorizing, while the last five focus on issues of agency and culture. Contributors included are Jeff Goodwin, Timothy P. Wickham-Crowley, Richard Lachmann, Jack A. Goldstone, Eric Selbin, Valentine M. Moghadam, Christopher McAuley and John Foran.


Historische Familienforschung. Ergebnisse und Kontroversen. Michael Mitterauer zum 60. Geburtstag. Hrsg. von Josef Ehmer, Tamara K. Hareven und Richard Wall unter Mitarb. von Markus Cerman und Christa Hämmerle. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt/M. [etc.] 1997. 429 pp. DM 78.00.
This Festschrift published on the sixtieth birthday of Professor Mitterauer, the leading Austrian specialist in the field of family history, brings together seventeen contributions on the recent results and controversies within the field. In their contributions Tamara K. Hareven, Peter Laslett, Jürgen Kocka and Hans Medick discuss the place of family history in the larger context of historical scholarship. Other themes dealt with include the family in its societal context, the assessment of the model of the "European family" and a comparison of family systems in the early modern and modern eras in Europe and Japan. Simultaneously with this Festschrift, another one was published by Mitterauer's own Wiener Institut für Wirtschaft- und Sozialgeschichte (see below).

Hutchinson, Frances and Brian Burkitt. The Political Economy of Social Credit and Guild Socialism. [Routledge Studies in the History of Economics, vol. 14.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1997. x, 197 pp. £45.00.
Focusing on the writings of C.H. Douglas in the British socialist journal New Age in the period immediately following Wordl War I, this study analyses the key ideas and main theories of the Douglas Social Credit movement, a guild socialist movement based on Douglas's political economic theories, which would end economic depression and had many adherents in English-speaking countries in the inter-war years. The authors explore the guild socialist origins of Douglas's texts, condense the economic and social theory, analyse the criticism of Douglas's ideas from various perspectives and document the subsequent history of the movement.

Lerner, Gerda. Why History Matters. Life and Thought. Oxford University Press, New York [etc.] 1997. xvii, 249 pp. £25.00.
This volume brings together twelve essays by one of the leading American women historians. Some of the essays have been published previously; others are revised editions of lectures or are published here for the first time. The essays are divided in three sections: i) a section reflecting a more personal perspective; ii) a section focusing on professional concerns and comprising an essay on women's contributions to the field of history and the growing importance of women as a subject in history; and iii) a theoretical section, where Professor Lerner offers a conceptual framework for dealing with the issues of race and class as they relate to women.

Mary Wollstonecraft and 200 Years of Feminisms. Ed. by Eileen Janes Yeo. Rivers Oram Press, London [etc.] 1997. xii, 276 pp. £30.00. (Paper: £12.95.)
The sixteen contributions to this volume, based on a conference held at the University of Sussex in December 1992 in honour of the 200th anniversary of the publication of Mary Wollstonecraft's A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, cover interdisciplinary readings of Wollstonecraft's own writing, historical explorations of later feminist movements and interpretations of current politics of gender. The themes include the role of imagination, reason and romance in sexual politics; the problem of forming feminist identities; the tension between ideas of equality or common humanity and differences of sex, class and race power. Among the contributors are Françoise Basch, Moira Ferguson, Gerry Holloway, Joan B. Landes, Joan Wallach Scott and Barbara Taylor.

Mertens, Lothar. Unermüdlicher Kämpfer für Frieden und Menschenrechte. Leben und Wirken von Kurt R. Grossmann. [Beiträge zur politischen Wissenschaft, Band 97.] Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1997. 437 pp. DM 98.00; S.fr. 89.00; S 715.00.
This dissertation (Potsdam, 1996) is intended as a biographical sketch of the life and work of the German pacifist and human rights activist Kurt Grossmann (1897-1972). As secretary general of the German League for Human Rights, Grossman was a well-known pacifist before 1933 and became a leading figure among the German exiles in Prague and Paris. After emigrating to the United States in the early 1940s, he was active in the World Jewish Congress and played an important role in the German reconciliation. Dr Mertens has added a selective bibliography of Grossmann's extensive and mainly journalistic writings, consisting of 2,183 titles.

"Peripheral" Labour? Studies in the History of Partial Proletarianization. [International Review of Social History, Supplement 4.] Ed. by Shahid Amin and Marcel van der Linden. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1997. iii, 177 pp. Maps. £14.95.
The seven essays in this fourth Supplement to the IRSH all deal with what the editors have labelled as intermediary forms of labour relations, which can be located in the "grey zones" between pure free wage labour, unfree labour and independent labour. The contributions by Gyan Prakash, Dilip Simeon, Madhavi Kale and Samita Sen present Indian examples of these intermediary forms of wage labour. Erick D. Langer's study of nineteenth-century Bolivian mineworkers and Juan A. Giusti-Cordero's essay on early twentieth-century Puerto Rican canefield labour offer a Latin American perspective, whereas Alain Faure's contribution on nineteenth-century Parisian ragpickers offers a European example of a partially proletarianized group.

Reiss, Edward. Marx: A Clear Guide. Pluto Press, London [etc.] 1997. ix, 180 pp. £35.00. (Paper: £10.99.)
This introductory textbook aims to offer an easily accessible guide to the life and work of Karl Marx. Dr Reiss bases his introduction to Marx's ideas primarily on Marx's original work, bypassing the secondary literature. In the appendices, he deals with the historical and contemporary attraction of Marx and his ideas and with the question of the extent to which Stalinism and other totalitarian systems can be traced back to Marx's ideas.

The Return of Looted Collections (1946-1996): An Unfinished Chapter. Proceedings of an International Symposium to Mark the 50th Anniversary of the Return of Dutch Book Collections from Germany in 1946. Amsterdam, 15 and 16 April 1996. Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1997. 126 pp. Ill. D.fl. 29.50.
The eighteen papers in these proceedings were presented at the symposium with the same title, organized in Amsterdam in April 1996 to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the return of looted Dutch collections from Germany. The topics of the contributions include current research on the organization of Nazi looting and still unrecovered materials from Russia, as well as recent recoveries of Dutch and Belgian collections, and the fates of various Dutch collections under the German occupation.

Scott, James C. Seeing Like a State. How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. [The Yale ISPS Series.] Yale University Press, New Haven [etc.] 1998. xiv, 445 pp. £25.00.
See Ronald Creagh's review in this volume, pp. 307-309.

Thompson, Willie. The Left in History. Revolution and Reform in Twentieth-Century Politics. Pluto Press, London [etc.] 1997. vi, 263 pp. £45.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
This study aims to provide a general overview of the history of the left from its origin in the French Revolution to the present crisis of communism and socialism and of the left in general. Dr Thompson deals both with the main currents, such as Bolshevism, Leninism, Stalinism, European social democracy and still "actually existing socialism" in China and Cuba, and with alternative currents as Trotskyism, Maoism and Eurocommunism. He evaluates the potential of the New Left and social movements, such as feminism, environmentalism and "identity" politics, for renewing the left and concludes that any resurrection of the left depends on a clear understanding of the historical lessons from its former embodiments.

Tuskan, Erhan. Inventory of the archives of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) 1949-1993. Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1997. xxiii, 228 pp. D.fl. 19.00.
This inventory lists the archival material of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU), deposited at the International Institute of Social History (IISH), Amsterdam. The materials included cover the period from the founding of the ICFTU in 1949 until 1993. The editor provides a concise historical overview of the origins and development of the ICFTU.

"Was ik maar weer in Bommel". Karl Marx en zijn Nederlandse verwanten. Een familiegeschiedenis in documenten. Bezorgd en ingel. door Jan Gielkens. Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1997. 199 pp. Ill. D.fl. 29.25.
In this source edition all known correspondence between Karl Marx and his family and his Dutch relatives is brought together in Dutch translation. In his extensive introduction Dr Gielkens gives a comprehensive overview of all family relations of the Marx family with Dutch relatives, of which the Philips family, founders of the electronics multinational, is best-known. He qualifies the standard representation, which focuses only on Marx as a sponger borrowing money from his capitalist uncle Lion Philips, and concludes that his closest and warmest relationships, apart from those with his own wife and children, were with his Dutch relatives.

Wiener Wege der Sozialgeschichte. Themen - Perspektiven - Vermittlungen. Hg.: Institut für Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte, Universität Wien. Red.: Franz X. Eder, Peter Feldbauer [und] Erich Landsteiner. [Kulturstudien, Band 30.] Böhlau Verlag, Wien [etc.] 1997. 474 pp. Maps. S 586.00; DM 84.00; S.fr. 76.00.
Simultaneously, two Festschriften were published on the sixtieth birthday of Professor Mitterauer, the Austrian social historian who helped found the Viennese school of historical anthropology and family history (see above for the annotation on the volume Historische Familienforschung). The scope of the twenty contributions in this volume covers the manifold themes and issues Mitterauer has always dealt with. Apart from several essays on the social history of the family, the subjects of the contributions include the new trends in historical anthropology (Gert Dressel), the relationship between historical and other social sciences (Alois Mosser) and social history and group identity (Hannes Stekl).

World of Possibilities. Flexibility and Mass Production in Western Industrialization. Ed. by Charles F. Sabel and Jonathan Zeitlin. [Studies in modern capitalism/Etudes sur le capitalisme moderne.] Maison des sciences de l'homme, Paris; Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1997. x, 510 pp. £60.00; $79.95.
The central theme of the eleven contributions to this volume is that the contemporary experience of fragility and mutability of the modern economy and economic organization has been, in fact, the definitive experience of economic actors in many sectors, countries and epochs in the history of industrial capitalism. Focusing on a range of industries and firms from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries, contributors deal with issues such as firms' choices between mass production and flexible specialization, the ways these choices have influenced the economy's structure and in turn our ideas about the role of the firm in economic history.


Green, Nancy L. Ready-to-Wear and Ready-to-Work: A Century of Industry and Immigrants in Paris and New York. Duke University Press, Durham [etc.] 1997. xi, 426 pp. Ill. $59.95. (Paper: $19.95.)
See Catherine Collomp's review in this volume, pp. 305-307.

Migration Past, Migration Future. Germany and the United States. Ed. by Klaus J. Bade and Myron Weiner. [Migration and Refugees, vol. 1.] Berghahn Books, Providence [etc.] 1997. xvii, 158 pp. £25.00.
This is the first of a series of five volumes dealing with the refugee and migration issues facing the United States and Germany. The four contributions examine migration's past and current impact on the two societies, of which the migration histories have been closely linked. Klaus J. Bade and Reed Ueda give overviews of the historical migration trends in Germany and the United States in the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries. Rainer Münz and Ralf Ulrich, Frank D. Bean, Robert G. Cushing and Charles W. Haynes explore the changing migration patterns in both countries in the postwar era and consider future prospects.

Stalinism and Nazism: Dictatorships in Comparison. Ed. by Ian Kershaw and Moshe Lewin. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1997. xii, 369 pp. £45.00. (Paper: £15.95.)
See Wim Berkelaar's review in this volume, pp. 309-312.

Werelden van verschil. Ambachtsgilden in de Lage Landen. Eds: Catharina Lis [en] Hugo Soly. VUBPress, Brussel 1997. 333 pp. Ill. B.fr. 695.00; D.fl. 37.90.
Since 1994 the International Institute of Social History and research groups at Utrecht University and the Free University of Brussels have worked together on a research project involving a comparative study of guilds and other corporative organizations of craftsmen in Flanders and the Netherlands in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. This collection of nine essays is the second publication resulting from this project (see IRSH, 40 (1995), p. 494). The contributions deal with continuities and changes in the transition from the Middle Ages to the early modern period, with the relations between native and immigrant craftsmen and with hierarchies and cultural representations within corporative organizations of craftsmen.

Western, Bruce. Between Class and Market. Postwar Unionization in the Capitalist Democracies. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1997. xx, 230 pp. £32.50.
In this analysis of labour union organization in eighteen OECD countries from 1950 to 1990 Dr Western examines the ways that the differences in union power among these countries have affected workers' living standards and economic trends and searches for the causes of the enormous variation in unionization and the reasons that organized labour has encountered such hostility in the past decade. Integrating institutional explanations and comparative methods, the author argues that three institutional conditions are essential for union growth: strong working-class political parties, centralized collective bargaining and union-run unemployment insurance. CONTINENTS AND COUNTRIES


Trade Unions and Sustainable Democracy in Africa. Ed. by Gérard Kester and Ousmane Oumarou Sidibé. Transl. by Michael Cunningham. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 1997. xv, 370 pp. £45.00.
The African Workers' Participation Development Programme (APADEP) is a cooperative university-trade union project that aims to strengthen workers' and trade union participation in the process of democratization and economic development in Africa. This volume is the first publication resulting from the programme. The first four of the fourteen contributions give a general overview of the role that the trade union movement has played in the establishment of political democracy and structural economic adjustment in Sub-Saharan Africa. The other contributions focus on the situation in ten African countries in different geographic and language areas.

White Farms, Black Labor. The State and Agrarian Change in Southern Africa, 1910-50. Ed. by Alan H. Jeeves and Jonathan Crush. [Social History of Africa.] Heinemann, Portsmouth; University of Natal Press, Pieter Maritzburg; James Currey, Oxford 1997. xiv, 344 pp. Ill. Maps. £40.00. (Paper: £15.95.)
The rapid growth of commercial agriculture throughout southern Africa in the interwar years was the result of state policies to subsidize white farmers, at the cost of labour market distortion, dislocation and impoverishment of black and white tenant farmers and enormous government spending. The fourteen essays in this volume explore the frequently disastrous results of this agricultural policy for the black farm workers and their families in the farming heartlands of South Africa, colonial Southern Rhodesia, Nyasaland and Swaziland.


Namibia under South African Rule: Mobility & Containment 1915-1946. Ed. by Patricia Hayes, Jeremy Silvester, Marion Wallace [and] Wolfram Hartmann, with Ben Fuller Jr. (The "Trees Never Meet" Project.) James Currey, Oxford 1998; Out of Africa Publishers, Windhoek; Ohio University Press, Athens, Ohio. xx, 330 pp. Ill. Maps. £15.95.
See Reinhart Kößler's review in this volume, pp. 320-322.



Burley, Edith I. Servants of the Honourable Company. Work, Discipline, and Conflict in Hudson's Bay Company, 1770-1870. Oxford University Press, Toronto [etc.] 1997.] v, 319 pp. Ill. Maps. £10.00.
In this study of the workforce of the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) between 1770 and 1879, Dr Burley focuses on the common labourers, who made up about seventy percent of HBC's workforce. The author adopts the perspective of both the London managing committee and HBC's officers, who sought workers from pre-industrial societies willing to accept the traditional master-servant relationship, and of these workers, who came from Scotland, Norway and the new colonies, in present-day Manitoba. She concludes that, although in general the workers accepted the master-servant-like labour relations, they also acted as "modern" workers, bargaining for higher wages and using work stoppages to improve working conditions.

R.C.M.P. Security Bulletins. The Depression Years, Part IV, 1937. The Depression Years, Part V, 1938-1939. Ed. by Gregory S. Kealey and Reg Whitaker. With an Introd. by John Manley. Canadian Committee on Labour History, St. John's 1997. vii, 560 pp.; vii, 508 pp. C$29.95; C$29.95.
These are the fifth and sixth volumes in the series of Security Bulletins from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (R.C.M.P.) and the fourth and fifth volumes of the sub-series on the Depression Years (see IRSH, 41 (1996), p. 443 on previous volumes). In his introductions to these volumes Dr Manley assesses the Popular Front period of the Communist Party of Canada (CPC). In 1937, he argues, the R.C.M.P. had expanded its sphere of interest from its exclusive focus on the CPC to the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO), on which the CPC had a growing influence.

United States of America

Godfried, Nathan. WCFL. Chicago's Voice of Labor, 1926-78. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1997. xix, 390 pp. Ill. $49.95. (Paper: $19.95.)
Chicago radio station WCFL was the first labour station in the United States, beginning in 1926 as a listener-supported station owned and operated by the Chicago Federation of Labor and broadcasting for more than fifty years. This study examines how the station emphasized popular entertainment and labour and public affairs programming and sought during its early decades to help organize workers, increase public awareness and enhance working-class consciousness and culture. Professor Godfried concludes that WCFL, especially in its first decades, represented an effort by organized local labour to break its dependence on big business for information and culture.

Halpern, Rick. Down on the Killing Floor. Black and White Workers in Chicago's Packinghouses, 1904-54. [The Working Class in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1997. xiii, 309 pp. $44.95. (Paper: $17.95.)
Considering three distinct periods (1904-1929, 1930-1946 and the immediate postwar period), this study examines the experiences of black and white workers and the development of the interracial workers' movement in the Chicago meat industry. Dr Halpern uses the detailed case study of the Chicago meat-industry workers to discuss the way that race has shaped the development of the American working class and the role of the limitations of the interracial trade unions in industrial unionism's achievements. In addition to traditional primary and secondary source materials, the author draws upon an extensive set of oral history interviews conducted in the mid-1980s.

Horowitz, Roger. "Negro and White, Unite and Fight!" A Social History of Industrial Unionism in Meatpacking, 1930-90. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1997. xvi, 374 pp. Ill. $44.95. (Paper: $17.95.)
"This book charts the evolution of industrial unionism in meatpacking from the nascent local unions of the 1930s to the collapse of union power in the late 1980s." Concentrating on four meatpacking centres central to the United Packinghouse Workers of America (UPWA) and the industry (Chicago, Kansas City, Sioux City and Austin, Minnesota), Professor Horowitz compares local unions in these four areas to analyse the critical factors that influenced the formation, evolution and subsequent fall of industrial unionism in meatpacking. He argues that the union's decline reflects massive pressure by capital for lower labour costs and greater control over the operations.

Marshall, Susan E. Splintered Sisterhood. Gender and Class in the Campaign against Woman Suffrage. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison [etc.] 1997. xii, 347 pp. Ill. £43.95. (Paper: £17.50.)
This study examines the opposition groups of socially prominent women in the United States, who from the 1870s onward protested against woman suffrage and in 1911 even established a National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage, which was alleged to have a total membership of 700,000 in its heyday. Contrary to the traditional view, Professor Marshall argues that the women who led this antisuffrage campaign were not a group of secluded homemakers but a privileged urban elite of extraordinary wealth, social status and political power, who pursued political self-interest, just as the opposing group of suffragettes did.

Messner, Michael A. Politics of Masculinities. Men in Movements. [The Gender Lens Series in Sociology.] Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks [etc.] 1997. xviii, 137 pp. £29.00. (Paper: £12.50.)
This study presents a gendered sociological analysis of the contemporary "men's movements" in the United States, which arose in the late 1970s, partly in response to the women's liberation and feminist movements. Professor Messner focuses on the political discourse and practice within various groups, such as Christian "Promise Keepers", gay liberationists and profeminist men, "men's rights" activists, "mythopoethic" men's groups and groups of African American men. He aims to offer a sociological framework for understanding men's organized responses to the recent changes, challenges and crises in the social organization of gender.

Milkman, Ruth. Farewell to the Factory. Auto Workers in the Late Twen-.tieth Century. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1997. xiii, 234 pp. $45.00. (Paper: $14.95.)
Focusing on the experiences of workers from a General Motors factory in New Jersey during the past two decades, this study explores the consequences for industrial workers of the radical restructuring of manufacturing that has occurred in advanced capitalist societies in the postindustrial age. The author deals with the role of the trade union - the United Auto Workers (UAW) - in the transformation and the impact of the process on its position, the effects of the job security programmes and the fates of those who left the factory, as well as the consequences of new technologies and new industrial relations for the remaining workforce.

Noble, Charles. Welfare As We Knew It. A Political History of the American Welfare State. Oxford University Press, New York [etc.] 1997. vi, 210 pp. £32.50.
Historically, the United States has always had far more rudimentary social welfare provisions than other rich Western democracies. In this study Professor Noble aims to explain this difference, arguing that decentralized political institutions, a weak labour movement and racial conflicts have limited the possibilities for social reform and welfare. In a historical overview the author explores how this unfavourable political environment has worked against the expansion of public provision at critical junctures. In his concluding chapters he argues that reformers who want to expand social welfare in the future must focus their efforts on political and institutional change.

Reynolds, Moira Davison. Immigrant American Women Role Models. Fifteen Inspiring Biographies, 1850-1950. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, Jefferson (NC) [etc.] 1997. vii, 168 pp. Ill. $32.50.
This book, which is written for a general readership, offers fifteen biographical sketches of women who immigrated to the United States during the period 1850-1950. They all made significant contributions to American society in a variety of fields and as such may be viewed, according to the author, as role models. Apart from women who played a role in the fields of medicine, science, poor relief and social welfare, acting and sports, a portrait is included of Dorothy Jacobs Bellanca, an activist in a local union of the United Garment Workers in America, who later guided this local union into the radical Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America.

Spalek, John M. and Sandra H. Hawrylchak. Guide to the Archival Materials of the German-speaking Emigration to the United States after 1933/Verzeichnis der Quellen und Materialien der deutschsprachigen Emigration in den USA seit 1933. Vol. 3, Part 1/Band 3, Teil 1. Vol. 3, Part 2/Band 3, Teil 2. K.G. Saur Verlag, Bern [etc.] 1997. xvi, 970 pp. (in 2 vols.) DM 368.00; S.fr. 328.00; S 2686.00.
This third volume with inventories of archival materials of German speaking émigrés is the conclusion to a series started in 1979 and covering approximately one thousand émigrés. The guide lists both permanent collections and privately owned materials from collections in transitional stages. This volume comprises a section with materials on organizations, topics and persons not included in the previous two volumes, an Addenda section with newly discovered materials of persons already appearing in the previous volumes and a comprehensive index to all three volumes.



Hathaway, Jane. The politics of households in Ottoman Egypt. The rise of the Qazda l s. [Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1997. xvii, 198 pp. Maps. £30.00; $49.95.
In this revisionist interpretation of Ottoman Egyptian society in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Professor Hathaway challenges the traditional view that Egypt's military elite constituted a revival of the institutions of the Mamluk sultanate. Focusing on the Qazda l household, she contends that this setting was the basic framework within which Egypt's elite operated and was defined as a conglomerate of patron-client ties. In this respect Egypt's elite represented, according to the author, a provincial variation on an empire-wide, household-based political culture.


Ben-Rafael, Eliezer. Crisis and Transformation. The Kibbutz at Century's End. [SUNY Series in Israeli Studies.] State University of New York Press, Albany 1997. xii, 282 pp. $21.95.
Based on a large-scale investigation of the kibbutzim in the beginning of the 1990s, this study examines kibbutz life following the Israeli economic crisis of 1985. Professor Ben-Rafael focuses on the kibbutz's transformation from a well-defined social structure to a collective identified principally by its cultural preoccupation. He states that the crisis enabled the kibbutz's stronger social elements and individuals to produce widespread changes, leaving the overall kibbutz reality fragmented.


Mori, Hiromi. Immigration Policy and Foreign Workers in Japan. Macmillan, Basingstoke 1997; St. Martin's Press, New York. xiii, 227 pp. £42.50.
See Tatsuya Chiba's review in this volume, pp. 322-324.

Seifert, Wolfgang. Gewerkschaften in der japanischen Politik von 1970 bis 1990. Der dritte Partner? Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen [etc.] 1997. 372 pp. DM 64.00.
This study aims to identify the ongoing political changes in the relationship between the trade unions, the employers' organizations and the political-administrative state system in Japan from the 1970s onward that have resulted from the global oil crisis in 1973/1974 and their consequences for the role of the trade unions. Professor Seifert concludes that trade unions have become more actively involved in defining the economic and industrial relations policies of the Japanese state.


Alla ricerca del lavoro. Tra storia e sociologia: bilancio storiografico e prospettive di studio. A cura di Angelo Varni. Rosenberg & Sellier, Torino 1998. 192 pp. L.
This volume comprises eleven articles reflecting a balance between labour sociology and historiography. The twelfth article is a tribute to Luigi Dal Pane, who laid the foundations for labour historiography in Italy. The articles review the changes in labour sociology research from different perspectives in Italy and elsewhere, discuss various aspects of labour history in Italy, Spain and Germany and consider the working class concept in Italian historiography. The anthology's editor is the director of the Centro di ricerca e documentazione per la storia del lavoro in Italia in età contemporanea (Imola, 1995).

Dagli Archivi di Mosca. L'URSS, il Cominform e il PCI (1943-1951). A cura di Francesca Gori e Silvio Pons. [Fondazione Istituto Gramsci, Annali 1995, VII.] Carocci editore, Roma 1998. 462 pp. L. 48.000.
This edition contains a selection of source material that has become accessible at the RCChIDNI in Moscow on subjects concerning Soviet international policy in the period from 1943 (the dissolution of the Comintern) to 1953 (Stalin's death) and in particular the relations between Moscow and the PCI and between the Cominform and the PCI. The book's first section consists of a few essays by Italian and Russian authors about various aspects of the relations between the PCI and Moscow and the Cominform. These essays are based on far more extensive documentation than the selection published here.

Geyer, Robert. The Uncertain Union. British and Norwegian Social Democrats in an Integrating Europe. Avebury, Aldershot [etc.] 1997. vii, 229 pp. £37.50.
Although in the early 1980s both the British and the Norwegian labour parties were strongly anti-European, the British Labour Party had become the party of Europe by the early 1990s, whereas the Norwegian Labour Party remained deeply divided by the issue. This study examines how two similar social democratic parties came to adopt such opposing positions on the European Union. The author concludes that national level changes - particularly the strength of the traditional Norwegian social democratic context - are key factors in understanding the divergent European policies of the two parties.


Meysels, Lucian O. Victor Adler. Die Biographie. Amalthea, Wien [etc.] 1997. 286 pp. DM 48.00.
This biography of the Austrian socialist leader and statesman Victor Adler (1852-1918) is written for a general readership. Dr Meysels, who has had an extended career in journalism, offers a chronological overview of the life and work of one of the most prominent international socialists of the pre-1914 era. The author aims to cover all Adler's major roles throughout his life.


Deneckere, Gita. Sire, het volk mort. Sociaal protest in België 1831-1918. Hadewijch, Antwerpen [etc.]; AMSAB, Gent 1997. 416 pp. B.fr. 1290.00; D.fl. 64.90.
See Carl Strikwerda's review in this volume, pp. 312-314.


Heikkinen, Sakari. Labour and the Market. Workers, Wages and Living Standards in Finland, 1850-1913. [Commentationes Scientiarium Socialium, vol. 51.] The Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters and The Finnish Academy of Science and Letters, Helsinki 1997. 269 pp. Ill. FIM 150.
This study explores the emergence of "modern" wage labour and a modern industrial labour market in Finland and the concurrent changes in the standard of living of the workers, focusing on the first period of industrialization between 1850 and 1913. Using a Weberian "ideal type" of the modern wage labourer, the author concludes that in judicial terms the free wage labourer in Finland was born around 1880, but that the social and economic transformation into a modern wage-labour society was far more gradual. The average long-term standard of living clearly rose in this period, though not equally among all groups of labourers.


Archer, Julian P.W. The First International in France 1864-1872. Its Origins, Theories, and Impact. University Press of America, Inc., Lanham [etc.] 1997. xxii, 347 pp. $65.50.
This study aims to provide an initial comprehensive history of the First International in France from its founding in 1864 to 1872. From a chronological perspective, Dr Archer gives a detailed impression of the founding of the International, the annual congresses in the years 1865-1869 and the activities after 1869, focusing on the activities of the Paris and provincial branches and the role of the French in the annual meetings and after 1869.

Castagnez-Ruggiu, Noëlline. Histoire des idées socialistes en France. [Repères, 223.] Éditions La Découverte, Paris 1997. 125 pp. F.fr.
This little book aims to supply a concise general overview of the development of socialist ideas in France from the late eighteenth century to the present day. The author divides her overview in three parts: utopian socialism from Saint-Simon to Louis Blanc; the impact of scientific socialism and Marxism until the interwar period; and revolutionary and reformist socialism and the postwar developments, including a socialism of the third way.

Leroux, Pierre (1797-1871). A la source perdue du socialisme français. Anthologie établie et prés. par Bruno Viard. [Sociologie économique.] Desclée de Brouwer, Paris 1997. 589 pp. F.fr. 320.00.
This anthology offers a selection of the writings of Pierre Leroux (1797-1871), inventor of the word "Socialism", dissident Saint-Simonist, and important political journalist and philosopher of pre-Marxian socialism (see also IRSH, XXXII (1987), p. 285). As co-editor of several radical journals (Le Globe, Revue encyclopédique, La Revue indépendante, Encyclopédie nouvelle and Revue sociale) Leroux's influence extended outside France. In his introduction, Mr Viard places Leroux's work and ideas in their historical context. A selective bibliography is appended.

Passmore, Kevin. From liberalism to fascism. The right in a French province, 1928-1939. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1997. xvii, 333 pp. Maps. £40.00; $59.95.
Based on a micro-study of the crisis in the liberal-conservative tradition in Lyon in the 1930s, Dr Passmore aims in this study to shed new light on more general aspects of the divisions within the French right and their significance in relation to the rise of French fascism, as compared with German National Socialism. The author rejects both the Marxist explanations and the more recent interpretations as in the work of René Rémond and concludes that the lack of strong leadership and common interests among the conservatives and the success of the Popular Front prevented French fascism from becoming a dominant political force.

Varias, Alexander. Paris and the Anarchists. Aesthetes and Subversives During the Fin de Siècle. Macmillan, Basingstoke [etc.] 1997. viii, 208 pp. Ill. £26.00.
This book deals with the ideas and activities of anarchist artists, poets, critics and activists in fin de siècle Paris and their contributions to and deep influence on political, social and cultural life in Paris. Dr Varias aims to analyse both the anarchists' subversion and hostility to the established order and the ideals they wished to further and considers both aesthetic issues and political dissidence. He examines the nature of the anarchist concerns, including the French revolutionary tradition, the Third Republic, terrorism, the Dreyfus affair, modernization and questions pertaining to art and propaganda.

Williams, Helen Maria. An Eye-Witness Account of the French Revolution by Helen Maria Williams. Letters Containing a Sketch of the Politics of France. [The Age of Revolution and Romanticism, vol. 19.] Ed. by Jack Fruchtman, Jr. Peter Lang, New York [etc.] 1997. vii, 260 pp. S.fr. 65.00.
This volume contains a reprint from the original 1795 first edition of Helen Maria Williams's two-volume work, Letters Containing a Sketch of the Politics of France, From the Thirty-First of May 1793 Till the Twenty-Eighth of July 1794, and of the Scenes Which Have Passed in the Prison of Paris, featuring her eye-witness account of the French Revolution and the Terror in the years between 1790 and 1794. In this work the English poet and novelist Williams (1761-1827) chronicles her experiences during the Terror and her arrest in the fall of 1793. In his introduction the editor sketches Williams's life and work, the radical milieu to which she belonged and the circumstances in which she wrote the letters.


Bebel, August. Ausgewählte Reden und Schriften. Band 7 bis 9. 1899 bis 1913. Band 7/1,2. Reden und Schriften 1899 bis 1905. Band 8/1,2. Reden und Schriften. 1906 bis 1913. Band 9. Briefe 1899 bis 1912. Anmerkungen, Bibliographie und Register zu den Bänden 7 bis 9. Bearb. von Anneliese Beske und Eckhard Müller. K.G. Saur, München 1997. 22*, 919 pp.; 649 pp.; 595 pp. DM 296.00; 296.00; 148.00.
These seventh, eighth, and ninth volumes in the Bebel publication (see IRSH, XV (1970), p. 505), XXVI (1981) p. 118, XXX (1985), p. 159, and 42 (1997), p. 505 for the other volumes) complete this series and feature a selection of 86 documents (volumes 7 and 8) and 163 largely unpublished letters (Volume 9) reflecting his work from November 1899 until his death in August 1913. The selection highlights Bebel's activities as chairman of the SPD and its Reichstagsfraktion, and as a member of the International Socialist Bureau (ISB), as well as his published writings.

Bebel, August und Julie Bebel. Briefe einer Ehe. Hrsg. von Ursula Herrmann. Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 1997. 659 pp. DM 48.00.
August Bebel (1840-1913) and Julie Otto (1843-1910) were married in 1866. This volume brings together the 168 known letters that the couple wrote to each other between 1872 and 1906. The editor, who co-edited volumes 1, 2 and 6 of the Bebel edition (see above) and was one of the authors of a recent Bebel biography, presents the 119 letters by August Bebel and the 49 letters by Julie Bebel in chronological order. Sections are arranged according to the main events in their political and personal lives and include brief introductions by the editor.

Eckert, Rainer. Arbeiter in der preußischen Provinz. Rheinprovinz, Schlesien und Pommern 1933 bis 1939 im Vergleich. Peter Lang, Frankfurt/M. [etc.] 1997. 778 pp. S.fr. 119.00.
See W.R. Lee's review in this volume, pp. 316-317.

Historiker in der DDR. Hrsg. von Karl Heinrich Pohl. [Kleine Vandenhoeck-Reihe, Band 1580.] Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1997. 149 pp. DM 20.80.
Four historians from the former German Democratic Republic (GDR), Karlheinz Blaschke (1927), Werner Bramke (1938), Matthias Hahn (1954) and Joachim Petzold (1933), all active as historians under the communist regime and during the Wende, share their insights regarding their experiences as history scholars working under an authoritarian political system, which used historiography to add an air of historical legitimacy to the socialism that existed under the GDR. In his introduction, the editor sketches his perception of the main shortcomings in GDR historiography and historians in relation to standards of scholarly objectivity and neutrality on the one hand and personal moral responsibility on the other.

Hochstadt, Steve. Mobility and Modernity. Migration in Germany 1820-1989. [Social History, Popular Culture, and Politics in Germany.] The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor 1999. 400 pp. Maps. $52.50.
See Leo Lucassen's review in this volume, pp. 301-305.

Hodenberg, Christina von. Aufstand der Weber. Die Revolte von 1844 und ihr Aufstieg zum Mythos. [Dietz Taschenbuch, Band 73.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 1997. 304 pp. Ill. DM 24.80; S.fr. 24.80; S 181.00.
The uprising of Silesian weavers in June 1844, though not fundamentally different from other labour unrest in this period, has acquired mythical proportions through its interpretations by Heinrich Heine, Karl Marx and Gerhart Hauptmann. In the postwar historiography of East and West Germany the event became a subject of ideological debate and mythologization. This study presents an analysis of both the uprising and the various interpretations over the years for different purposes. Based on source materials hidden in the GDR, Mrs von Hodenberg concludes that the weavers were not desperately poor but were workers with a strong sense of self-awareness who wanted to secure their own position.

Jackson, James H. Jr. Migration and Urbanization in the Ruhr Valley 1821-1914. [Studies in Central European Histories.] Humanities Press, Atlantic Highlands (NJ) 1997. xix, 452 pp. Ill. Maps. $85.00.
See Leo Lucassen's review in this volume, pp. 301-305.

Kassel, Brigitte. Frauen in einer Männerwelt. Frauenerwerbsarbeit in der Metallindustrie und ihre Interessenvertretung durch den Deutschen Metallarbeiter-Verband (1891-1933). [Schriftenreihe der Otto Brenner Stiftung, Band 66.] Bund-Verlag, Köln 1997. 725 pp. DM 139.00.
This dissertation (Technical University Berlin, 1995) examines gender relations and the rise of female wage labour in the German metal industry between 1891 and 1933 and the role of the trade union, the Deutsche Metallarbeiter-Verband (DMV) in devising the social-political structure of the gender relations and the hierarchic place of women working in the industry. Dr Kassel concludes, among others, that the attitude of the DMV toward female wage labour was conducive to the establishment of a gender hierarchy, in which women became subordinate both on the job market and in the household.

Protokoll der "Brüsseler Konferenz" der KPD 1935. Reden, Diskussionen und Beschlüsse, Moskau vom 3. - 15. Oktober 1935. Hrsg. von Erwin Lewin, Elke Reuter und Stefan Weber, unter Mitarb. von Marlies Coburger, Günther Fuchs, Marianne Jentsch und Rosemarie Lewin. Teil. 1. Teil 2. K.G. Saur, München 1997. ix, 897 pp. DM 580.00; S.fr. 516.00; S 4234.00.
This two-volume collection contains the first complete edition of the stenographic protocol from the fourth party conference of the Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (KPD), which was held in exile from 3 to 15 October 1935 near Moscow, and has become known under the cover name "Brussels Conference". In the introduction the editors sketch the conference's historical context: Hitler's seizure of power, problems and conflicts within the KPD during the run-up to the conference and the main issues in the debates. Appended are, among others, a list of participants, biographical data on the delegates and speakers and a selection of related contemporary documents.

Ratz, Ursula. Arbeiteremanzipation zwischen Karl Marx und Lujo Brentano. Studien zur Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung und der Bürgerlichen Sozialreform in Deutschland. [Sozialpolitische Schriften, Heft 73.] Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1997. 387 pp. DM 98.00; S.fr. 89.00; S 715.00.
The twenty essays brought together in this volume offer a representative selection of Dr Ratz's work. All essays were published previously between 1968 and 1994 - half in the journal Neue Politische Literatur. Dr Ratz's central themes include the ambivalent relationship between the labour movement and the bourgeois reform movement in the German Empire and the Weimar Republic. Other main themes are the ideological, organizational and social history of the German labour movement and the emergence of the different ideological and political currents within the socialist movement.

Stanjura, Manfred. Revolutionäre Reden und Flugschriften im rheinisch-pfälzischen Raum (1791-1801). Studien zu literarischen Formen jakobinischer Agitation in Worms, Speyer, Landau, Frankenthal, Bergzabern und Zweibrücken/Blieskastel. Band 1. Historischer Teil. Analytischer Teil. Band 2. Dokumentarischer Teil. [Saarbrücker Beiträge zur Literaturwissenschaft, Band 58.] Röhrig Universitätsverlag, St. Ingbert 1997. 444 pp.; ix, 484 pp. Ill. DM 98.00; S.fr. 89.00; S 715.40 (2 vols).
This dissertation (Saarbrücken, 1997) analyses revolutionary speeches and pamphlets, originating between 1791 and 1801 in the Rhine-Pfalz region and especially in the revolutionary centres Worms, Speyer, Landau, Frankenthal, Bergzabern and Zweibrücken/Blieskastel. The analysis of the rhetoric and dissemination of the texts is preceded by a sketch of the political course of events in this region and the social background of the Jacobinical groups. In the second volume 54 speeches and pamphlets are published in their original form.

Weisberger, Adam M. The Jewish Ethic and the Spirit of Socialism. [Studies in German Jewish History, vol. 1.] Peter Lang, New York [etc.] 1997. xiii, 270 pp. S.fr. 68.00.
This study of the relationship between the German Jewish Community and the German socialist movement during the Wilhelmine period (1871-1918) focuses on the appeal of socialism and socialist politics to alienated bourgeois German Jews. Professor Weisberger's central argument is that German Jews were attracted to socialism by two conditions: a structural marginality resulting from resurgent German anti-Semitism and secular Jewish messianism. In three profiles of prolific Jewish socialists (Eduard Bernstein, Gustav Landauer and Ernst Toller), he analyses the role of Judaism, anti-Semitism and messianism in their support for socialism.

Great Britain

Anderson, Paul and Nyta Mann. Safety First. The Making of New Labour. Granta Books, London 1997. viii, 456 pp. £9.99.
This book aims to analyse the way the Labour Party won its spectacular victory in the general election of 1 May 1997 and the role of "New Labour" in the new Blair administration. The authors, both former editors of the New Statesman, focus on the people and ideas that have taken centre stage in the new government. Dealing with the main events and themes, including the economic, financial, welfare, educational, foreign and defence policies, the relation with the trade unions and the party discipline, Mr Anderson and Mrs Mann adopt a critical libertarian perspective on their subject.

Barlow, Geoffrey Keith. The Labour Movement in Thatcher's Britain. Conservative macro- and microeconomic strategies and the associated labour relations legislation: their impact on the British labour movement during the 1980s. [European University Studies, Series XXXI, Political Science, vol. 320.] Peter Lang, Frankfurt/M. 1997. xiii, 224 pp. S.fr. 56.00.
The aim of this dissertation (Bremen, 1996) is to analyse how the Conservative Government under Margaret Thatcher in Great Britain succeeded in transforming the industrial relations in the British economy of the 1980s. According to Dr Barlow, the Thatcherite economic policies were designed from the early 1970s onward to diminish the government's influence on the economy and to curb the influence of militant trade unionism. The author questions the Labour Party's motive under "new realist" leadership in softening its opposition to these Conservative economic policies.

British trade unions, 1945-1995. Ed. by Chris Wrigley. [DOCUMENTS in Contemporary History.] Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1997; distr. excl. in the USA by St. Martin's Press, New York. ix, 221 pp. £35.00. (Paper: £12.99.)
With selections from over 150 documents this documentary history aims to provide an analysis of trade union development, trade union relations with government and the trade union impact on industrial relations and the economy in general in Great Britain between 1945 and 1995. Professor Wrigley highlights subjects such as the changes in attitudes within the Conservative Party towards the trade unions.

Gender, Health and Welfare. Ed. by Anne Digby and John Stewart. Routledge, London [etc.] 1996. x, 239 pp. £42.50.
The nine contributions in this volume deal with the role of gender in shaping social policy and welfare provisions, both state and voluntary, in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in Britain, before the establishment of the "classic" welfare state. The themes covered include, among others, the attitudes of the Labour Party to child welfare in the inter-war period (the second editor), an examination of how welfare policies in both Victorian England and Meiji Japan affected women's chances in life (Sheila Ryan Johansson) and a study of welfare provision for old people in Britain between the 1870s and the 1940s (Pat Thane).

Hill, Jeffrey. Nelson. Politics, Economy, Community. [Town and City Histories.] Keele University Press, Edinburgh 1997. x, 172 pp. Ill. £14.95.
This study offers a comprehensive historical overview of the economy, politics and culture of Nelson, a Victorian, industrial "new town" in North-East Lancashire, from its origins in the 1860s to the present. Relying almost exclusively on the textile industry, the town played a pioneering role in Labour politics and came to be known in the interwar years as "Little Moscow", with a Municipal Council sponsoring left-wing ideas in a period of economic depression. Dr Hill concludes that the Nelson community has always been characterized by what he describes as "parochial cosmopolitanism".

Lindley, Keith. Popular Politics and Religion in Civil War London. Scolar Press, Aldershot; Ashgate Publishing Company, Brookfield 1997. xiii, 442 pp. £49.50.
This study deals with the rise of popular politics and the role of religious radicalism in the Civil War years 1640-1646 in London. Dr Lindley sketches the rise and progress of mass politics in the whole metropolitan area of the capital, compares the popular appeal of both royalism and parliamentarianism and discusses the divergent responses of Londoners to the demands of the Civil War. He examines the resurgence and impact of religious radicalism and concludes that committed and organized minorities, such as the Levellers movement, may have had a major impact on the course of events.

Mitchell, Austin and David Wienir. Last Time. Labour's Lessons from the Sixties. Bellew Publishing, London 1997. 246 pp. Ill. £9.95.
Mr Mitchell, long-time Labour MP, and Mr Wienir aim to chronicle in this book Labour's victory in the 1964 and 1966 elections and the labour governments under the leadership of Harold Wilson by bringing together interviews with 45 of the Labour politicians and party officials directly involved at the time. The interviewers aimed to reconstruct the way that Labour won and retained power and the Wilson administration's measure of success or failure in its economic policies to reveal the similarities between the Wilson era and the present era of New Labour under Tony Blair's leadership.

New Labour in power: precedents and prospects. Ed. by Brian Brivati and Tim Bale. Routledge, London [etc.] 1997. xii, 212 pp. £40.00.
The eight essays in this volume, stemming from a conference held in May 1997 in London, aim to provide a range of assessments of New Labour by analysing its historical context and exploring its contemporary resonance. Contributors deal with, among others, New Labour's economic policy (Jim Tomlinson), social policy (Nick Ellison), its moral agenda (David Walker), its foreign, defence and European policies (John W. Young) and its attitude towards the Labour party organization and the trade unions (the second editor).

Osgerby, Bill. Youth in Britain since 1945. [Making Contemporary Britain.] Blackwell Publishers, Oxford 1998. xiii, 256 pp. Ill.
See Mel van Elteren's review in this volume, pp. 317-319.

Panitch, Leo and Colin Leys. The End of Parliamentary Socialism. From New Left to New Labour. Verso, London [etc.] 1997. ix, 341 pp. £15.00.
This study examines the origins, development and ideological content of the "new left" within the British Labour Party as it emerged in the late 1950s and early 1960s, its defeat in 1981 and the ideological significance of the project of "modernisation" of the Labour Party with the rise of "New Labour" from the late 1980s onward. The authors aim to provide a more objective, and therefore a more sympathetic, analysis than the historical accounts thus far of Labour's new left, which have been written from the New Labour perspective.

Präuer, Andreas. Zwischen Schicksal und Chance. Arbeit und Arbeitsbegriff in Großbritannien im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert auf dem Hintergrund der "Utopia" des Thomas More. [Schriften zur Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte, Band 52.] Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1997. 342 pp. DM 112.00; S.fr.99.50; S 818.00.
Using a hermeneutic method, this dissertation (Munich, 1996) aims to analyse the development of the early-modern, pre-industrial concept of labour in Great Britain by examining philosophical texts from More's Utopia to Smith's Wealth of Nations, as well as texts of economic lobbyists, political writers and general observers. Through this combination of sources, the author explores the changes in the meaning of labour in a philosophical sense in relation to everyday labour experiences.

Riley, James C. Sick, Not Dead. The Health of British Workingmen during the Mortality Decline. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 1997. xvii, 347 pp. Maps. $69.50.
The life expectancy of British workers rose dramatically during the nineteenth century, but at the same time episodes of disease and injury lasted longer and workingmen began to consult doctors routinely. Drawing on the work attendance and sick visit records of British friendly societies, Professor Riley examines in this study the arrangements made by these organizations in the period 1870-1910 for providing medical care to workingmen and for compensation for wages lost due to sickness. The author also uses claim records to explore the regional patterns of sickness and to elucidate the influence of occupations and living conditions on the incidence and outcome of disease.

Tomlinson, Jim. Democratic socialism and economic policy. The Attlee years, 1945-1951. [Cambridge Studies in Modern Economic History, vol. 3.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1997. xiv, 331 pp. £40.00; $64.95.
This study analyses the economic policies, both international and domestic, of the Attlee Government (1945-1951). Dr Tomlinson highlights the government's concern with issues of industrial efficiency and explains how this concern pervaded all areas of economic policy, including the establishment of the welfare state, where it led to a great deal of austerity in the design of welfare provisions. The author also presents a detailed discussion of the labour market in this period, focusing both on the attempts to "plan" a market and on the tensions in the policies designed to attract more women to do paid work.

Weinbren, Daniel. Generating Socialism. Recollections of Life in the Labour Party. Foreword by Tony Benn. Sutton Publishing, Stroud 1997. vi, 250 pp. Ill. £17.99.
Dr Weinbren, founder and chair of the Labour Oral History Project established in 1993, has brought together in this volume a selection from interviews with Labour Party members. Included are Labour Party activists and members born in every year between 1905 and 1928 and coming from many different places and backgrounds. The selections from the many interviews are structured chronologically, covering the General Strike in 1926, the Depression and the hunger marches of the 1930s, the Spanish Civil War, World War II, the election victory of 1945 and the beginnings and development of the welfare state.

Wood, Ellen Meiksins and Neal Wood. A Trumpet of Sedition. Political Theory and the Rise of Capitalism, 1509-1688. [A Socialist History of Britain.] Pluto Press, London 1997. x, 150 pp. £30.00. (Paper: £9.99).
This book explores the principal milestones in the development of English political thought in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; the period which was marked, according to the authors, by the rise of early capitalism, the modern nation state, the establishment of an international economy and the beginnings of modern colonialism and revolutionary changes in culture and religion. Focusing on both "classic" thinkers, such as Thomas More, Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, and radical thinkers and activists, such as the Levellers, Professor Wood considers political ideas as responses to and reflections on the social, economic and political changes and conflicts marking the early years of capitalism.


Behan, Tom. The Long Awaited Moment. The Working Class and the Italian Communist Party in Milan, 1943-1948. [American University Studies: Series IX, History, vol. 174.] Peter Lang, New York [etc.] 1997. xii, 310 pp. S.fr. 65.00.
This study examines the activities and political development of industrial workers in the Porta Romana area of Milan during the 1940s. Dr Behan focuses on the extent of working-class allegiance to the Italian Communist Party. According to the author, many workers possessed a more radical consciousness than that of the Communist leadership and longingly awaited an actual insurrectionary seizure of power both during the Resistance period of 1943-1945 and in the immediate postwar years.

De Felice, Alessandro. La socialdemocrazia e la scelta occidentale dell'Italia (1947-1949). Saragat, il Psli e la politica internazionale da Palazzo Barberini al Patto Atlantico. [Biblioteca Storico - Politica.] Edizioni Boemi, Catania 1998. 574 pp. L. 60.000.
Saragat's establishment of the Partito Socialista dei Lavoratori Italiani (Psli) in January 1947 was in part the outcome of the international changes (i.e. the rising contrast between East and West). The Psli chose to align Italy with the West. This study analyses the changes within Italian social democracy and the role of the Psli in the Italian government's decision to side with the West. The author also uses American and British source material. The extensive appendix contains the minutes of the meetings of the Italian-American Labor Council from 1945 until 1950, which was pivotal in influencing the Italian labour movement and was affiliated with the American Federation of Labor.

Una famiglia di socialisti. Camillo Biserni e Anita Cenni, nella grande guerra e nella resistenza al fascismo. (Dalle carte della Fondazione di studi storici "Filippo Turati"). A cura di Giuseppe Muzzi. Piero Lacaita Editore, Manduria [etc.] 1998. Ill. L. 15.000.
This booklet contains correspondence between the Italian couple Camillo Biserni (1882-1956) and Anita Cerni (1872-1949) in 1915 during World War I, when Camillo was a soldier at the front. Biserni was a reformist socialist from Turati and Kuliscioff's adherents, his wife a schoolteacher and freethinker. The second part comprises a few of Anita Cerni's pedagogical writings and other documents on and about Biserni and Cerni. Two biographical sketches and a series of photos complete the book.

Filippo Turati e i corrispondenti italiani nell'esilio (1927-1932). Tomo I: 1927-28. [Strumenti e fonti, 11.] Piero Lacaita Editore, Manduria [etc.] 1998. 335 pp. L. 35.000.
This is the first volume of the second part of the major project involving the publication of Filippo Turati's correspondence being conducted by the Fondazione di Studi Storici ‘Filippo Turati'. His letters to and from foreign correspondents were published previously (see IRSH, 42 (1997), p. 114). Turati's correspondents in this period included Salvemini, Nenni, Carlo Rosselli, Berneri, Sandro Pertini and Alceste De Ambris. His correspondence comprises letters to and from Turati. The selection of 300 letters from his political correspondence is published in chronological order. The letters he exchanged with Bianca Pittoni, which were more personal, are not included.

Giorgi, Massimiliano. Nel sindacalismo di azione diretta prima della Grande Guerra: Alberto Meschi e la Camera del Lavoro di Carrara (1911-1915). La Cooperativa Tipolitografica Editrice, Carrara 1998. 506 pp. Ill. L. 40.000.
This is a very detailed history of the term of the Italian anarchist mason Alberto Meschi (1879-1958) as secretary of Carrara's Camera del Lavoro (CdL). The CdL was the local workers' organization. In 1912 Carrara's organization joined the revolutionary-syndicalist Unione Sindacale Italiana. Inspired by Meschi, Carrara's workers, who worked largely in marble quarries, were highly militant. Meschi, an aspiring journalist, published widely in the movement's press and is quoted extensively here. Several sections of photographs enliven the book.

Goetz, Helmut. Intellektuelle im faschistischen Italien. Denk- und Verhaltensweisen (1922-1931). Verlag Dr. Kova , Hamburg 1997. 520 pp. DM 148.00.
This study aims to give a comprehensive overview of the attitude of intellectuals in Italy towards fascism in the first decade of Mussolini's fascist regime (1922-1931). The author deals consecutively with the collaborating intellectuals, the definitive split in supporters and opponents following a fascist manifest by the philosopher Giovanni Gentile and the oppositional intellectuals in parliament, in the media and at universities. The epilogue features a comparison with the role and position of intellectuals in Germany after 1933.

Maggi, Stefano. Il tormento di un'idea. Vita e opera di Cesare Pozzo. Dal sindacato al socialismo (1853-1898). [Fondazione di Studi Storici Filippo Turati.] FrancoAngeli, Milano 1998. 219 pp. Ill. L. 34.000.
This is the biography of Cesare Pozzo (1853-1898), who was the leader of the Italian railroad workers in the 1880s and 1890s. Initially a supporter of Mazzini, Pozzo became one of Bakunin's sympathizers and finally a socialist. The author primarily reconstructs his role as an organizer, first of the mutual aid society for railroad workers and subsequently of their union. In the absence of correspondence, the book is based on Pozzo's writings, newspaper articles and police records. The book concludes with an appendix comprising three brief texts by Pozzo.

Nicola Badaloni, Gino Piva e il socialismo padano-veneto. A cura di Giampietro Berti. [Rapporti polesine e cultura padana, 8.] Minelliana, Rovigo 1997. 366 pp. Ill.
This book comprises the 27 contributions to the XXth Colloquium for Historical Studies, which was organized by the Associazione Culturale Minelliana in 1996. The ones in the first part address socialism on the Po plateau, the region of Venice and near the estuary of the Po in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The subjects covered include the farmers' movement, social conditions among day labourers, strikes by day labourers, anarchism and the socialist press. The second part is devoted to the lives of two individuals: the physician and reformist socialist Nicola Badaloni (1854-1945) and the socialist journalist Gino Piva (1873-1946).

Parini, Aldo. La vita di Giacomo Matteotti. Manoscritto inedito conservato presso il Centro studi Piero Gobetti di Torino. A cura di Marco Scavino [e] Valentino Zaghi. [Polesine contemporaneo, 100.] Minelliana, Rovigo 1998. 121 pp.
This is the first published edition of Aldo Parini's biographical sketch of Giacomo Matteotti, which was supposed to be issued by Piero Gobetti's publishing company in June 1925, one year after the socialist leader's death. Parini (1891-1958) was a socialist journalist who worked with Matteotti in the years 1915-1921, when they both lived in Rovigo. The book also contains correspondence between Gobetti and Parini concerning the publication, an essay by M. Scavino about Gobetti's publicity campaign surrounding Matteotti's murder, a biographical essay about Parini by V. Zaghi and Parini's letters to Mussolini, as well as a text he wrote about De Gobineau during a more turbulent period in his life.

Rosati, Ilario. Pane e lavoro. I moti a Sesto Fiorentino, 5 maggio 1898. [Tracce, 20.] Giampiero Pagnini editore, Firenze 1998. 165 pp. Ill. L. 28.000.
The poor harvest of 1897 gave rise to an increase in the price of bread in Italy, which culminated in food riots throughout Italy, first in January 1898 and then in May of that year. Martial law was proclaimed in several areas, and political organizations and trade unions were disbanded and newspapers shut down. This book offers a detailed overview of the serious incidents in Sesto Fiorentino (Tuscany) on 5 May 1898 and their subsequent repression by the authorities. The author concludes that women were at the vanguard here, as has often been the case with food riots.

The Netherlands

Kalb, Don. Expanding Class: Power and Everyday Politics in Industrial Communities, The Netherlands, 1850-1950. [Comparative and International Working-Class History.] Duke University Press, Durham [etc.] 1997 [recte 1998]. xi, 341 pp. Ill. $21.95; £19.95.
See Lex Heerma van Voss's review in this volume, pp. 314-316.


Blachetta-Madajczyk, Petra. Klassenkampf oder Nation? Deutsche Sozialdemokratie in Polen 1918-1939. [Schriften des Bundesarchivs, Band 49.] Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 1997. xiv, 315 pp. DM 72.00.
In this revised edition of a dissertation (Technische Hochschule, Darmstadt, 1997), Dr Blachetta-Madajczyk examines how the German socialist minority in Poland in the interwar period (united since 1929 in the Deutsche Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei Polens [DSAP]) sought a balance between loyalty to the Polish state, German nationalism and socialist internationalism. The author concludes that while the DSAP opted for a clear socialist internationalist course upon the rise of Hitler's National Socialism, it was unable to cope with the resulting conflicts in loyalty and was doomed.

Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Critical Companion to the Russian Revolution 1914-1921. Ed. by Edward Acton, Vladimir Iu. Cherniaev [and] William G. Rosenberg. Arnold, London [etc.] 1997. xviii, 782 pp. £59.99.
This Companion offers in 67 short chapters a handbook overview of the Russian Revolution. Covering the years 1914-1921, the 46 contributors address the following subject areas: principal events and actors; parties, movements and ideologies; institutions and institutional cultures; social groups, identities and questions of consciousness; economic issues and problems of everyday life; and nationality and regional questions. Suggestions for further reading are included at the end of each chapter.

Depretto, Jean-Paul. Les ouvriers en U.R.S.S. 1928-1941. Préf. de René Girault. [Publications de la Sorbonne, Série internationale, 55; Collection historique de l'Institut d'études slaves, XXXVII.] Publications de la Sorbonne, Paris; Institut d'études slaves, Paris 1997. 423 pp. F.fr. 180.00.
This is a very broadly structured overview of the social status, social mobility and social interaction of the Soviet Russian proletariat in the period 1928-1941. It focuses on the changes during the first five-year plan (1928-1932), because status and dynamics changed the most in this period. The analysis covers the 1920s and the period until 1941 as well. In addition to Russian sources, British, German, Italian and of course French ones are addressed. The book, which is a modified version of a dissertation from 1992 provides selective coverage of archives and publications that have become available since that date.

Gessen, Masha. Dead Again. The Russian Intelligentsia After Communism. Verso, London [etc.] 1997. xi, 211 pp. £14.00.
This study depicts the Russian intelligentsia in the post-Soviet era. Mrs Gessen examines how Russian intellectuals of various descriptions have tried to find a new identity and role after the fall of Communism. The author argues that while during the Soviet era the role of the Russian intelligentsia was defined by its resistance to the regime and the official ideology, the influence of intellectuals is minimal at present. She includes sketches of individual intellectuals to portray their various ways of trying to find a new faith and a new role in the turmoil of contemporary Russian society.

Kent, Leonard J. A Survivor of a Labor Camp Remembers. Expendable Children of Mother Russia. The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston [etc.] 1997. $109.95.
These are the personal memoirs, compiled by Mr Kent, of Yakov Avidon, a Russian Jewish émigré who in the 1960s spent several years in a Soviet labour camp, where he was seriously injured and became disabled following an accident caused by one of his guards. Avidon, a young man with a degree in railroad engineering, was sentenced to two years in a labour camp for attending a privately organized class for learning Hebrew. In 1980 he emigrated with his family to the United States.

Messmer, Matthias. Sowjetischer und postkommunistischer Antisemitismus. Entwicklungen in Russland, der Ukraine und Litauen. Mit einem Vorwort von Walter Laqueur. Hartung-Gorre Verlag, Konstanz 1997. viii, 533 pp. DM
This study deals with the social, political and ideological development of anti-Semitism in Russia from the end of the tsarist epoch, through the Soviet era to the post-Communist era, including developments in Ukraine and Lithuania. Dr Messmer focuses on the relationship between Russian Jewry and the state, which he, like Hannah Arendt, regards as the key to the growing animosity among different social movements toward Jews. According to the author, the statal anti-Semitism, typical of the Soviet era, has been "privatized" into an intellectual and popular anti-Semitism since 1991.

Perdu, Jacques. La Révolution manquée. L'imposture stalinienne. Edition ét. et prés. par Charles Jacquier. Editions Sulliver, Arles 1997. 237 pp. F.fr. 135.00.
This is the reedition of a book that was first published in 1940. The author, whose real name was Jean-Jacques Soudeille (1899-1951), had previously published two historical texts (under the name Jean Jacques) in the series Cahiers Spartacus about the revolt of the canuts and about social struggle and strikes under the Ancien Régime. A member of the PCF since its establishment, he soon followed in Boris Souvarine's footsteps by resisting the methods used within the party to suppress dissenting opinions and the "tradition of lies in the French labour movement". After his expulsion from the party in 1925, he remained active as an oppositional communist and wrote this critique of the Russian Revolution. The editor provides a biographical sketch of Soudeille.

Pohl, J. Otto. The Stalinist Penal System. A Statistical History of Soviet Repression and Terror, 1930-1953. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, Jefferson (NC) [etc.] 1997. ix, 165 pp. $35.00.
This study aims to convey the information recently gathered by Russian scholars and others in the newly opened archives of the Soviet security organs on the Stalinist penal system in an English language edition. The author sketches the Soviet penal system's development and structure during the years of Stalin's reign. The 76 tables offer figures on the number of people who fell victim to the Stalinist penal system, totalling more than 20 million, including over 2.7 million deaths.

Service, Robert. A History of Twentieth-Century Russia. Penguin Books, London [etc.] 1997. xxxiv, 654 pp. Maps. £11.99.
In this handbook of Russia's twentieth-century history, Professor Service sketches a panorama of the principal political developments in the century of Russian history that was dominated by seven decades of communist rule. Drawing on chief insights of the various, often contending interpretations of Soviet history and focusing on the complex interaction between rulers and ruled from Nicholas II to Boris Yeltsin, the author analyses how the communist political system penetrated every aspect of economic, social and cultural life and continues to influence Russian society today.

Das wahre Leben. Tagebücher aus der Stalin-Zeit. Hrsg. von Véronique Garros, Natalija Korenewskaja [und] Thomas Lahusen. Aus dem Russischen übers. und ann. von Barbara Conrad und Vera Stutz-Bischitzky. Rowohlt, Berlin 1998. 443 pp. DM 68.00.
This is a well-considered selection of seven diaries from the list of about 200 titles currently available to researchers examining the 1930s. Given the risk taken by everybody who kept a diary in the 1930s, the description is surprisingly direct and detailed. The selection, previously published in New York as Intimacy and Terror. Soviet Diaries of the 1930s, appears here in a new translation of the Russian originals.

Young, Glennys. Power and the Sacred in Revolutionary Russia. Religious Activists in the Village. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park 1997. xvii, 307 pp. Ill. $47.50; £42.95.
This study examines the relationship among Orthodox clergy, laity and Communist party cadres during the establishment of Soviet power in the Russian countryside in the period of New Economic Policy (NEP), 1921-1928, when an intensive antireligious campaign led by organizations such as the League of the Godless was launched by the Bolshevist party. Professor Young concludes that rural Orthodox clergy and laity organized themselves in opposition to the Bolshevist campaign and revived factional politics within the village soviets to defend their religious interests, thus forcing the Bolsheviks to adapt their strategies.


Castillo, Santiago. Hacia la mayoría de edad: 1888-1914. [Historia de la U.G.T., Tomo I.] Publicaciones Union, Madrid 1998. ix, 256 pp. Ill. Ptas. 3.000.
This is the first volume in a series of six about the history of the socialist trade union federation in Spain. This classical organization history reviews the difficult early years of the UGT after an overview of changes in the labour movement that preceded its establishment. The volume concludes with the years of growth that the UGT experienced from the turn of the century, when the reformist strategy began pursuing two courses: the social struggle to improve working conditions and the struggle to enact social legislation. The appendices comprise a few biographies, the articles of association and a list of members of the national committees and a chronology for the period 1874-1913.

España en sociedad. Las asociaciones a finales del siglo XIX. [Por] Francisco Alía Miranda, Manuel Ortiz Heras, Isidro Sánchez Sánchez [et al.] [Humanidades, 22.] Ediciones de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Cuenca 1998. 229 pp.
Spanish social historians began studying sociability in Spain quite recently. The present study serves three purposes: a preliminary contemplation of sociability throughout Spain with due regard for the restrictions arising from the use of a single source (Bailly-Baillière's yearbook) for one year (1895), the publication of an orderly list of all 3,984 associations contained in the source and suggestions for additional research. Following a lexicographic overview of all terms concerning association activities from academia to velada, the study analyses the distribution of the different types of associations throughout Spain.

Estado, protesta y movimientos sociales. Actas del III.er Congreso de Historia Social de España. Vitoria-Gasteiz, julio de 1997. Coords.: Santiago Castillo [y] José M.0 Ortiz de Orruño. Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Bilbao 1998. xvii, 718 pp.
This volume comprises the 63 papers presented at the IIIrd Congress of the Asociación de Historia Social held in 1997. The contributions are arranged according to four themes and cover the period from the Ancien Régime to the Franco Era. The themes are: "The state and social movements" (about subjects such as public order, repression, social reform and public institutions); "Popular resistance against the state and established powers" (about the farmers' movement, tax revolts and food riots, anti-clerical resistance to the church); "Cooperative movements" (about cooperatives, mutual aid societies and associations, e.g. as a form of resistance against Franco); "Economic relationships and social conflict" (resistance against economic exploitation).

La Guerra civil española y las Brigadas Internacionales. [Por] Manuel Espadas Burgos, Santos Juliá, Nicolás García Rivas [et al.] Coord.: Manuel Requena Gallego. Ediciones de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Cuenca 1998. 182 pp. Ill. Ptas
This anthology of ten articles comprises the contributions to two seminars about the International Brigades (IB) held at the University of Castilla-La Mancha in November 1996. The first four articles deal with a few general aspects of the Civil War. The remaining articles address the military role of the IB, the cinematic production about the war and the Brigades, the mythologization surrounding the IB by press and propaganda and the literature about war and Brigades. The last article, which is by Manuel Requena Gallego of the Centro de Documentación de las Brigadas Internacionales, analyses the Brigades' performance at their base Albacete.

López Martínez, Mario y Rafael Gil Bracero. Caciques contra socialistas. Poder y conflictos en los ayuntamientos de la República Granada 1931-1936. Diputación Provincial de Granada, Granada 1997. [recte 1998.] 579 pp. Ptas
This is the first volume in a trilogy about the crisis in the province of Granada in the 1930s. This volume focuses on the power struggle within the city councils of the province of Granada during the Second Republic before the Civil War broke out. The battle took place in a setting dominated by the traditional caciquismo and the socialist party, which drew massive support in both the cities and the countryside. The authors sketch this contradiction's socioeconomic context while highlighting the agrarian issue and analyse the various political and syndicalist forces, as well as the local and national election results. An extensive appendix of documents illustrates the argument.

Luis Martín, Francisco De. Historia de la FETE (1909-1936). Fondo Editorial de Enseñanza, n.p. 1997. 255 pp. Ill. Ptas.
This is a history of the socialist union of teachers. After the introduction about the pedagogical ideas among socialists and the educational centres in the Casas del Pueblo, the author reviews the history of the FETE's predecessors from 1909 until the union's establishment in 1931 and the subsequent changes until the Civil War. The twofold theme presented chronologically concerns the organization's structure and progression and in the same light the question of joining the Communist or Socialist International, which gave rise to an internal power struggle. The matter is inextricably associated with the radically different views within the organization about pedagogy and the role of schools in society, which are the book's second main theme.

Molinero, Carme Y Pere Ysás. Productores disciplinados y minorías subversivas. Clase obrera y conflictividad laboral en la España franquista. [Historia] Siglo Veintiuno Editores, Madrid [etc.] 1998. xiii, 281 pp. Ptas. 2.600.
This study offers a quantitative and qualitative analysis of tendencies toward labour conflict in Spain under Franco's dictatorship and focuses on the 1960s and 1970s. The authors aim to relate this situation to several social, political and institutional factors, such as the vast migration, the tough labour relationships and the way the workers organized. Among their sources, the authors include previously unused data from the Organización Sindical Española and the Ministry of the Interior, which also shed light on decision-making within the government.

Preston, Paul. Las tres Españas del 36. [Así Fue, La Historia Rescatada.] Plaza & Janés, Barcelona 1998. 472 pp. Ill. Ptas. 2.800.
According to Paul Preston, the two Spains of the belligerents during the Civil War were complemented by a third one that did not take sides but became the victim of both parties. He found that this Spain was not limited to a small group of intellectuals but concerned broad layers within both parties. Of the nine prominent individuals that Preston addresses (Franco, Millán Astray, José Antonio and Pilar Primo de Rivera, de Madariaga, Besteiro, Azaña, Prieto and Ibárruri), the first two are exceptions in that they pursued their goals through violence and terror. The lives of the others convey doubts, the quest for reconciliation and sorrow.

Torres Planells, Sonya. Ramón Acín (1888-1936). Una estética anarquista y de vanguardia. Virus, Barcelona 1998. 270 pp. Ill. Ptas. 1.900.
This is the biography of the Spanish anarcho-syndicalist artist, caricaturist and writer Ramón Acín (1888-1936). The biography places his artistic activities in the context of his political involvement and is based on very extensive documentation, given the author's effort to trace his entire literary and artistic oeuvre. This richly illustrated volume concludes with chronological indexes of all his articles and drawings and several detailed bibliographic overviews about Acín and anarchist aesthetics.