Volume 44 part 3 (1999)
Continents and Countries
Brazil | Canada | United States of America
China | Japan | The Philippines
Austria | France | Germany | Great Britain | Hungary | Italy | The Netherlands | Poland | Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics | Spain | Switzerland
Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.
SOCIAL THEORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE
Barbera, Henry. The Military Factor in Social Change. Vol. 1. From Provincial to Political Society. Vol. 2. The State as Revolution. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick [etc.] 1997; 1997. x, 246 pp.; x, 338 pp. $39.95; 49.95.
In this two-volume study of the rise of the modern nation state, or, as the author prefers to call it, the "political society", Dr Barbera criticizes the conventional modernization thesis in which the rise of the modern state is seen as a logical outcome of the Industrial Revolution. According to the author, intrusive and unpredictable events, such as wars, great migrations, natural disasters, and the reaction and subsequent transformation of a given societal order, provide a far better explanation for the rise of the "political society" than development alone. In Volume Two, Dr Barbera explores three historical cases to show how a traditional societal order, or "provincial society," is transformed into a political society due to intrusive events: the kinship society of Athens in the period 750-500 B.C., the feudal society of Sicily between 1061 and 1250 and the class society in Prussia in the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries.
McCann, Gerard. Theory and History. The Political Thought of E.P. Thompson. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 1997. vi, 194 pp. £37.50.
The objective of this study is to bring together and to clarify the constituent parts of Edward Thompson's Marxism and its method of analyzing the historical movement of "people's" politics and thus to introduce and assess Thompson as a Marxist political theorist of considerable significance. The author further aims to outline and assess the central theoretical issues that Thompson addressed, such as his concepts of socialist humanism; protest as a struggle; the assault on the Marxism of Louis Althusser; his opposition to the assimilation of structuralism into British Marxism and his defence of the concept of liberty.
Marshall, Gordon. Repositioning Class. Social Inequality in Industrial Societies. Sage Publications, London [etc.] 1997. xii, 236 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
Professor Marshall, an expert in modern class analysis who published Social Class in Modern Britain in 1988 and co-edited Against the Odds? (1997) (see above), has gathered in this volume ten essays (written and previously published over the past twelve years) that are intended as an illustration of his methodological principles. The issues dealt with include the debate about the unit of class composition, the question of meritocracy, the relationship between class and gender, cross-national similarities and differences in mobility regimes, and proletarianization, distributional struggles, collective identities and the nature of the so-called underclass in advanced societies.
Marx après les marxismes. Sous la dir. de Michel Vakaloulis et Jean-Marie Vincent. Tome I: Marx à la question. L'Harmattan, Paris [etc.] 1997. 384 pp. F.fr. 190.00.
This is the first of two volumes on Marxian theory published by the editors of the French philosophical journal Futur antérieur at the end of the twentieth century. The common view among the contributors is that Marx's thought remains valuable as a point of departure for critical research on capitalist society, especially following the end of the "really existing socialism". According to the editors, many elements in Marx's own work merit renewed critical investigation, primarily because various forms of "Marxisms" have fallen into discredit. Contributors are Tony Andréani, Alain Caillé, Jean-Pierre Durand, Gianfranco La Grassa, Michael Löwy, Peter von Oertzen, Costanzo Preve, Lucien Sève, André Tosel, Michel Vakaloulis, Jean-Marie Vincent and Slavoj Zizek.
Marxism. The Inner Dialogues. Sec. Ed. Ed. by Michael Curtis. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick [etc.] 1997. ix, 386 pp. $22.95.
This is the second edition of a volume that originally appeared in 1970 and contains 31 contributions by social scientists, historians and philosophers on the impact of Marxism on the social sciences, philosophy and political theory some 150 years after its emergence. Contributors include George Lichtheim, Lewis Coser, T.B. Bottomore, Daniel Bell, Alasdair MacIntyre, Oscar Lange, Ralf Dahrendorf and Seymour Martin Lipset. The editor has contributed a new essay to this second edition on the Asiatic mode of production.
Materialist Feminism. A Reader in Class, Difference, and Women's Lives. Ed. by Rosemary Hennesy and Chrys Ingraham. Routledge, New York [etc.] 1997. xi, 430 pp. £16.99.
This reader comprises 33 essays on Marxist feminism, most of which were published previously between 1969 and 1996. The collection is divided in three parts: the essays in the first part offer possible uses for historical materialism in explaining and changing women's oppression and exploitation under capitalism; the second part focuses on Marxist feminists' critique of the concept of identity politics; and in the third part, which features five previously unpublished essays, more recent social changes (e.g. reproductive engineering and ecofeminism) are discussed from a historical materialist viewpoint.
Poltier, Hugues. Claude Lefort. La découverte du politique. [Le bien commun.] Éditions Michalon, Paris 1997. 118 pp. F.fr. 59.00.
This small book conveys a few highlights from the ideas of the French philosopher Claude Lefort (1924), a student of Merleau-Ponty, who entered the radical group Sociali-.sme ou Barbarie via Trotskyism, only to leave in 1958 and pursue an independent course. Lefort's work focuses on themes such as totalitarianism, bureaucracy and democracy.
Snooks, Graeme Donald. The Ephemeral Civilization. Exploding the myth of social evolution. Routledge, London [etc.] 1997. xiv, 585 pp. £75.00.
In this work Professor Snooks elaborates an original theory of changing human civilizations over the past three thousand years. Building on the "dynamic materialist" approach outlined in his previous book The Dynamic Society (1996), the author argues that sharp directional shifts and reversals in institutional change should be explained by struggles between various groups in society struggling for control of the dynamic strategy. This model is used to reinterpret the rise and fall (or rise and rise) of the Roman, Aztec, Greek, Venetian, English and US-American societies. The book closes with the forecast of a clash between the world's four "mega-states" (United States, European Union, Russia, China).
Was bleibt von marxistischen Perspektiven in der Geschichtsforschung? Hrsg. von Alf Lüdtke. Mit Beiträgen von Alf Lüdtke, Ludolf Kuchenbuch, Madhavan K. Palat [u.a.] [Göttinger Gespräche zur Geschichtswissenschaft, Band 3.] Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen 1997. 213 pp. DM 34.00; S.fr. 32.20; S 248.00.
What can marxism teach historians today? In this collection five authors attempt to answer this question: the labour historians Alf Lüdtke and Gareth Stedman Jones, the medievalist Ludolf Kuchenbuch, the Russian historian Madhavan K. Palat and the anthropologist Gerald M. Sider.
Marx, Karl [e] Friedrich Engels. Manifesto del Partito Comunista. In appendice note sulle prime edizioni del Manifesto e sulla sua diffusione. [Classici.] Edizioni Lotta Comunista, Milano 1998. xx, 550 pp. Ill. L. 20.000.
This publication commemorates the hundred fiftieth anniversary of the appearance of "The Communist Manifesto." The book contains the text of the "Manifesto" in German with an Italian translation on the opposite page. The German text is the corrected and modernized version published by Thomas Kuczynski in 1995. The translation is a revised version of the one published by Antonio Labriola in 1902, with the addition of Engels' notes to the English and German editions of 1888 and 1890, respectively. This edition also features the Italian translation of the prefaces by Marx and Engels to seven editions in various languages, a chronology of first editions until 1918 and an appendix accounting for most of the book with remarks about the first editions and the distribution of the Manifesto all over the world from 1848 to 1918. An edition covering the period from 1918 onward is in preparation.
Migration, Migration History, History. Old Paradigms and New Perspectives. Ed. by Jan Lucassen and Leo Lucassen. [International and Comparative Social History, 4.] Peter Lang, Bern [etc.] 1997. 455 pp. S.fr. 89.00.
The seventeen essays in this volume aim to assess current theoretical and historiographical perspectives in the field of migration history and its diverging specializations, such as slavery studies, ethnic history, macro-economic migration studies and gypsy studies. The issues addressed include the problems of ongoing specialization and the integration of the consequences of the new paradigm of migration history into general histories. The contributors are Ida Altman, Robin Cohen, David Eltis, Pieter C. Emmer, Georg Fertig, Donna Gabaccia, Nancy L. Green, Arjan de Haan, Dirk Hoerder, Colin Holmes, Jan Lucassen, Leo Lucassen, Kenneth Lunn, Leslie Page Moch, Eric Richards, Ralph Shlomowitz and Aristide Zolberg.
Migration und Integration. Aufnahme und Eingliederung im historischen Wandel. Hrsg. von Mathias Beer, Martin Kintzinger [und] Marita Krauss. [Stuttgarter Beiträge zur historischen Migrationsforschung. Band 3.] Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 1997. 168 pp. DM 64.00; S.fr. 64.00; S 467.00.
The success and methods of migrants of integrating in the society where they settle is one of the core issues in historical migration research. This collection of ten essays includes two theoretical reflections on this question and eight historical case studies, ranging from the integration of the Sabinian Claudians in the early Roman Republic to the disintegration of the German community in Australia during World War I.
Na'aman, Shlomo. Marxismus und Zionismus. [Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Deutsche Geschichte, Universität Tel Aviv, Band 17.] Bleicher Verlag, Gerlingen 1997. 259 pp. DM 48.00; S.fr. 45.00; S 350.00.
The well-known historian Shlomo Na'aman (1912-1993), whose biographical studies included works on Moses Heß and Ferdinand Lassalle (IRSH, 15 (1970), p. 508, 27 (1982), pp. 382-383) devoted his last years to a book about the attitude of Karl Marx, Marxism and Leninism to the Jews and the so-called Jewish Question. This publication of his incomplete manuscript has been edited by Professor Shulamit Volkov.
The oral history reader. Ed. by Robert Perks and Alistair Thomson. Routledge, London [etc.] 1998. xiii, 479 pp. £55.00.
This anthology brings together 39 texts (of which all but two were published previously) on the theory, method and use of oral history. Arranged in five thematic parts, the work covers key issues in postwar oral history research, including the problems posed by interviewing; issues of ethics; the politics of empowerment; analytical strategies for interpreting memories; and the concerns of archiving and public history. A selective bibliography is appended.
The Rise and Decline of the Male Breadwinner Family? Ed. by Angélique Janssens. [International Review of Social History, Supplement 5.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1998. iv, 196 pp. £15.95.
This collection of seven essays aims to provide new insights into the historical and cross-cultural development of the male breadwinner family and its determinants and thus to contribute to the ongoing debate on patterns of breadwinning. The areas considered include the effects of local labour markets in the interaction with family strategies and family values, the impact of egalitarian communist ideologies and the differential methods of constructing modern welfare states. The contributors are the editor, Sarah Horrell and Jane Humphries, Samita Sen, Lina Gálvez-Muñoz, Michael Hanagan, Lena Sommestad and Christine von Oertzen and Almut Rietzschel.
Rupp, Leila J. Worlds of Women: The Making of an International Women's Movement. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1998. xiii, 325 pp. Ill. £39.50.
See Bob Reinalda's review in this volume, pp. 485-487.
Sheng, Michael M. Battling Western Imperialism. Mao, Stalin, and the United States. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1997. x, 255 pp. £27.50.
This study deals with the Chinese Communist Party's relations with the United States and the Soviet Union from Mao Zedong's rise to power within the Party in 1935 to the proclamation of the People's Republic of China in October 1949. Dr Sheng demonstrates that during this period Mao and Stalin maintained frequent and direct contact by radio and by correspondence, and that Mao's foreign policy consistently followed Stalin's recommendations.
Stolberg, Eva-maria. Stalin und die chinesischen Kommunisten 1945-1953. Eine Studie zur Entstehungsgeschichte der sowjetisch-chinesischen Allianz vor dem Hintergrund des kalten Krieges. [Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte des östlichen Europa, Band 48.] Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 1997. 328 pp. DM 96.00; S.fr. 96.00; S 701.00.
Although the Soviet Union and the Chinese Communists were regarded by the West as natural allies from the establishment of the Chinese People's Republic onward, the Soviet Union's occupation of Manchuria in 1945 and Stalin's friendship pact with Chiang Kai-shek in August 1945 were major sources of political disagreement between the Chinese Communists and the Soviet Union in the period 1945-1953, aside from the considerable ideological differences. This dissertation (Bonn, 1996) examines these differences and the aspects of ambivalence in the relationship between Stalin and the Chinese Communists.
Welzig, Elisabeth. Die Bewältigung der Mitte. Ernst Manheim: Soziologe und Anthropologe. Böhlau Verlag, Wien [etc.] 1997. 292 pp. Ill. S 398.00; DM 58.00.
Ernst Manheim (1900) is an American sociologist and composer of Hungarian-Jewish descent. The present, well-written biography relates the fates of Manheim (a cousin of Karl Mannheim) and his contacts with diverse personalities such as Béla Balázs, Béla Bartók, Ernest Burgess, Hans Freyer, Hans Gerth, Morris Ginsberg, Theodor Litt, Georg Lukács, Hans Morgenthau, Louis Wirth and Kurt Wolff.
Fredrickson, George M. The Comparative Imagination. On the History of Racism, Nationalism, and Social Movements. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1997. viii, 241 pp. $27.50.
Professor Fredrickson, a well-known historian of American race relations and a specialist on comparative history, has brought together in this volume eleven essays that reflect on the current practice of comparative history and on his own work in this field. The essays, most of which were published previously or are revised versions of publications over the last fifteen years, deal with historiographical explorations of recent comparative historical research; history of racism in comparative perspective; and twentieth-century freedom struggles, particularly the comparison between the American civil rights movement and the South African black liberation struggle.
Haydu, Jeffrey. Making American Industry Safe for Democracy. Comparative Perspectives on the State and Employee Representation in the Era of World War I. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1997. x, 261 pp. $49.95. (Paper: $21.95.)
During World War I the workers in American industry acquired more power and demanded a greater say. In the aftermath of the war employers tried to curtail the power of these workers. In his study Dr Haydu demonstrates this process, as well as the essential differences between contemporaneous developments in Britain and Germany.
Jewish Workers in the Modern Diaspora. Ed. by Nancy L. Green, with the collab. of Patrick Altman, Edgardo Bilsky, David Cesarani [a.o.]. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1998. vii, 256 pp. $40.00; £30.00. (Paper: $14.95; £10.95.)
This volume offers a comparative documentary history of Jewish workers and the Jewish poor from the 1880s to 1939 in six geographical areas: New York, London, Paris, Buenos Aires, Germany and Amsterdam. Divided into four thematic chapters ("Daily Life and Work", "Societies, Organizations, and Schools", "Politics and Ideology", and "Culture and Identities"), the contributors emphasize class and ethnicity in their presentation of Jewish workers through a selection comprising pamphlets, newspaper articles, interviews, autobiographies and secondary literature. The term "worker" is meant to encompass the various lower strata, extending to the "entrepreneurial proletariat." Contributors are Patrick Altman (Paris), Edgardo Bilsky (Buenos Aires), David Cesarani and David Feldman (London), Ludger Heid (Germany), Selma Leydesdorff (Amsterdam), Daniel Soyer (New York) and Jack Wertheimer (Germany).
Revolutionary times, revolutionary lives. Personal accounts of the liberation struggle. Ed. by Bob Myers. [South Africa Series, No. 1.] Index Books, London 1997. iii, 117 pp. £4.99.
This small book contains documentation regarding militants from the radical factions within the liberation movements in southern Africa. The material deals in part with left-right conflicts within the African National Congress liberation army in 1984 and with the suppression of radical opposition in Namibia and Angola.
Crankshaw, Owen. Race, Class and the Changing Division of Labour under Apartheid. Routledge, London [etc.] 1997. ix, 214 pp. £45.00.
See Lucien van der Walt's review in this volume, pp. 505-508.
The Gendered Worlds of Latin American Women Workers. From Household and Factory to the Union Hall and Ballot Box. Ed. by John D. French and Daniel James. [Comparative and International Working-Class History.] Duke University Press, Durham [etc.] 1997. 320 pp. Ill. £52.00. (Paper: £17.95.)
The nine essays in this volume examine the lives of Latin American women who entered factory labour in increasing numbers in the early twentieth century. Integrating traditional labour history topics with historical accounts of gender, female subjectivity and community and making extensive use of oral histories, the contributors focus on working women in the urban industrial sector at mid-century in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Guatemala to describe the contradictory experiences of women whose work defied gender prescriptions but was deemed necessary by working-class families in a world of scarcity and need.
Levine, Robert M. Father of the Poor? Vargas and his era. [New Approaches of the Americas.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1998. x, 193 pp. Ill. £35.00; $54.95. (Paper: £12.95; $15.95.)
See Michael Hall's review in this volume, pp. 503-505.
Smith, Doug. Cold Warrior: C.S. Jackson and the United Electrical Workers. Canadian Committee on Labour History, St. John's 1997. x, 274 pp. Ill. C$24.95.
Clarence S. Jackson (1906-1993) was one of the early leaders of industrial unionism in Canada in the 1930s. A co-founder of the Canadian Congress of Labour in 1940, Jackson was expelled from this organization for his association with the Communist Party. Making extensive use of interviews, the present book portrays this "lonely, intelligent, and egotistical man," who led the members of the United Electrical Workers through the Cold War.
United States of America
Anderson, Carlotta R. All-American Anarchist. Joseph A. Labadie and the Labor Movement. [Great Lakes Books.] Wayne State University Press, Detroit 1998. 324 pp. Ill. $34.95.
See Bert Altena's review in this volume, pp. 493-495.
August Sartorius von Waltershausen. The Workers' Movement in the United States, 1879-1885. Ed. by David Montgomery [and] Marcel van der Linden. In Collab. with Jan Gielkens [and] Gregory Zieren. Transl. by Harry Drost. Cambridge University Press, New York [etc.] 1998. viii, 253 pp. £30.00.
August Sartorius von Waltershausen (1852-1938) was an eminent German economist who visited the United States at the beginning of the 1880s and covered the American labour movement in a series of articles that was published in Germany. His training in the historical school of economics provided him with a perspective different from that of laissez-faire economists or socialists of his time. In this book, the articles are translated and presented with a biographical essay by Marcel van der Linden and Gregory Zieren and with an essay on his contribution to American labour historiography by David Montgomery. A bibliography of Sartorius von Waltherhausen, compiled by Jan Gielkens, is appended.
Buhle, Paul. From the Knights of Labor to the New World Order. Essays on Labor and Culture. [Labor in America.] Garland Publishing, Inc., New York [etc.] 1997. xviii, 257 pp. Ill. $49.00.
From the launch in 1973 of the historically orientated New Left journal Radical America onward, Paul Buhle has been a leading historian of American labour and the American left and its culture. The thirteen essays in this volume, all previously published, bring together major elements in his work: from the labour struggles of the nineteenth century to the dilemmas of the AFL-CIO leadership at the end of the twentieth century; from the roots of Jewish linguistic-racial identity to the story of the American left in Hollywood.
Farrell, James J. The Spirit of the Sixties. Making Postwar Radicalism. [American Radicals.] Routledge, New York [etc.] 1997. v, 360 pp. £45.00.
An important current of thought which influenced the civil rights, protest, anti-war and counterculture movements in the United States in the 1960s was political personalism, an eclectic integration of Catholic social thought, communitarian anarchism, radical pacifism, and humanistic psychology. This study examines the personalist influence on various elements of postwar and 1960s radicalism: the Catholic Worker movement, the Beat movement, civil rights activism, the ban-the-bomb movements of A.J. Muste and others, Students for a Democratic Society, anti-Vietnam war activism and the counterculture movement.
Glickman, Lawrence B. A Living Wage. American Workers and the Making of Consumer Society. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1997. xvi, 220 pp. Ill. $35.00; £27.50.
The term "living wage" was first voiced in the United States in the 1870s and subsequently became a natural element of political discourse. The present study reconstructs the term's emergence. Dr Glickman demonstrates that this process coincided with the acceptance of wage labour as such: Workers came to interpret the "living wage" as "consistent with and even constitutive of freedom" and in that way played "an active role in the construction of American consumer society."
Krajcinovic, Ivana. From Company Doctors to Managed Care. The United Mine Workers' Noble Experiment. ILR Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1997. xiv, 212 pp. $37.50.
Established in the 1940s, the Welfare and Retirement Fund of the United Mine Workers of America was unique in transferring financing to the employers and control to the union and in providing a quality of care superior to what was commonly available in the United States. Dr Krajcinovic describes in this study the Fund's establishment, operation and demise, focusing on areas including the transformation that its establishment entailed for industrial and labour relations in the coal mining industry and on the introduction of the managed-care principles - which were unorthodox at the time - for its members.
Labor Histories. Class, Politics, and the Working-Class Experience. Ed. by Eric Arnesen, Julie Greene, and Bruce Laurie. [The Working Class in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1998. xiii, 382 pp. $49.95. (Paper: $19.95.)
The thirteen contributions to this Festschrift all originate from a conference held in June 1992 at the University of Pittsburgh at Greensburg, Pennsylvania, in honour of the leading American labour historian David Montgomery, and were written by former students of his. Reflecting Montgomery's broad fields interest, the contributors address a broad range of themes within nineteenth and twentieth-century American labour history, with as their common argument that class has always been a central concept in labour history research. Contributors include, apart from the editors, James Barrett, Cecelia Bucki, Ileen DeVault, Tera Hunter, Reeve Huston, Kathryn Oberdeck, Gunther Peck, Kimberly Phillips, Peter Rachleff and Shelton Stromquist.
McCartin, Joseph A. Labor's Great War. The Struggle for Industrial Democracy and the Origins of Modern American Labor Relations, 1912-1921. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 1997. xvi, 303 pp. Ill. £37.96. (Paper: £14.40.)
This study of industrial and labour relations in the United States in the decade of World War I explores the political, economic and social backgrounds to the industrial crisis that arose in this period over democracy and authority in the workplace. Professor McCartin aims to show how the effort to resolve this crisis led to the formation of an influential coalition of labour Democrats, unionists of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and Progressive activists. This coalition laid the basis for the ties between the unionists and the Democratic Party, which greatly influenced twentieth-century American political and labour history.
Murphy, Mary. Mining Cultures. Men, Women, and Leisure in Butte, 1914-41. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1997. xviii, 279 pp. Ill. $39.95. (Paper: $18.95.)
This is a social history of Butte, Montana, a copper mining town that is typical of many "instant cities" of the American West. Dr Murphy deals with the 1920s and 1930s, when Butte had already achieved rapid growth. She traces the city's evolution from a male-dominated mining enclave to a community in which men and women participated on a more equal basis as leisure patterns changed and consumer culture grew.
Struggles in the Promised Land. Toward a History of Black-Jewish Relations in the United States. Ed. by Jack Salzman and Cornel West. Oxford University Press, New York [etc.] 1997. viii, 438 pp. $35.00; £25.00.
Against the background of the recent tension in the relationship between African Americans and Jews in the United States, this volume brings together twenty-one essays that aim to provide a historical framework for the present debate on Black-Jewish relations, which is often ideological and emotionally charged. Among the themes highlighted are Jewish involvement in the slave trade; the confluence of Black migration from the South and Jewish immigration from Europe into Northern cities between 1880 and 1935; and the Black-Jewish alliance in the Civil Rights movement and its culmination in the conflicts over Black Power and the Middle East.
Unionizing the Jungles. Labor and Community in the Twentieth-Century Meatpacking Industry. Ed. by Shelton Stromquist and Marvin Bergman. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City 1997. v, 272 pp. $32.95.
The nine contributions in this volume offer historical or anthropological perspectives of the history of the rise and decline of industrial unionism in the United States meatpacking industry during the twentieth century. The topics include welfare capitalism in the 1920s and 1930s (Paul Street), the Independent Union of All Workers, 1933-1937 (Peter Rachleff), the Chicago Packinghouse Workers Organizing Committee (Rick Halpern), the post-1945 UPWA (Roger Horowitz), the struggle for racial equality (Bruce Fehn) and gender relations (Dennis A. Deslippe, Deborah Fink).
Von Eschen, Penny M. Race against Empire. Black Americans and Anticolonialism 1937-1957. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1997. xii, 259 pp. Ill. £31.50. (Paper: £13.50.)
This book traces the rise and fall of the politics of the African-American diaspora from the late 1930s to the early Cold War years. The book focuses on "the most visible and defining anticolonial projects, including African American participation in the 1945 Manchester Pan-African Congress; support of Nigerian trade union struggles [...]; support for striking South African miners; and the joint efforts of African Americans, South Africans, and the government of India in the early days of the United Nations."
Barnouin, Barbara [and] Yu Changgen. Chinese Foreign Policy During the Cultural Revolution. Kegan Paul International, London [etc.] 1998. xi, 252 pp. £55.00; $93.50.
In this study of China's foreign policy during the turbulent years of the Cultural Revolution the authors explore the effect on Chinese foreign policy of the overwhelmingly radical mindset during the Cultural Revolution. They describe how initially the Cultural Revolution engulfed the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and diplomacy, leading to increasing isolation from the international environment. Focusing on the decision-making process in Chinese foreign policy and the principal role played by Mao Zedong, Dr Barnouin and Professor Changgen conclude that the upper echelons of the national leadership dissociated themselves progressively from revolutionary agitation and became preoccupied with the Soviet threat to China's national security.
Chen Duxiu. Chen Duxiu's Last Articles and Letters, 1937-1942. Ed. and Transl. by Gregor Benton. [Chinese Worlds.] Publ. under the auspices of the International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam. Curzon, Richmond 1998. x, 163 pp. Ill. £40.00.
Chen Duxiu (1879-1942) was one of the founders of the Chinese Communist Party in 1921, after a revolutionary career in the New Culture Movement, which overthrew the Manchus and brought about the Republic. In 1929 he helped found the Chinese Trotskyist Opposition. Collected in this volume are the letters and articles he wrote between his release from prison in 1937 and his death in 1942. In his introduction, the editor discusses Chen's position towards Trotskyism, the inspiration his writings have provided to movements in China pursuing greater freedom and democracy and, consequently, the taboo that still rests on his rehabilitation.
Thaxton, Ralph A., Jr. Salt of the Earth. The Political Origins of Peasant Protest and Communist Revolution in China. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1997. xix, 425 pp. Ill. $65.00.
Based on interviews with villagers who were active in the rural-based insurgency against Chiang Kai-shek's nationalist government in October 1949, which brought the Chinese Communists to power, Professor Thaxton aims to revise in this study the standard Western scholarly view on protest and revolution in pre-1949 China. He explores how the Chinese Communist Party fostered revolution primarily thanks to "[...] their intimate connections with local structures of collective action and with existing modes of local protest, both of which were the product of a specific subgroup of rural people acting on their own grievances, interests, and goals."
Zheng, Shiping. Party vs. State in Post-1949 China. The Institutional Dilemma. [Cambridge Modern China Series.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1997. xiv, 294 pp. £40.00; $59.95. (Paper: £14.95; $19.95.)
The Chinese Communist Party's (CCP) role in the process of state building in post-1949 China is this study's central theme. Using a "neo-institutionalist" approach, Dr Zheng argues that the CCP has become "increasingly counterproductive to economic construction and political institutionalization." The very attributes (revolutionary ideology, organizational principles and methods of mass mobilization) that enabled the party to seize power before 1949 proved obstacles to state building after the Revolution.
Gordon, Andrew. The Wages of Affluence. Labor and Management in Postwar Japan. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1998. ix, 270 pp. £21.95.
This is an analysis of changes in labour-management relations, from the workplace level and up, in Japan from the end of World War II to the present day. Professor Gordon examines the emergence of cooperative unionism and corporatism, its role in Japan's postwar economic success, and its consequences for Japanese workers and workplace democracy. Contrary to many recent observations that Japanese industrial relations are on the verge of being transformed into the American free-market image, the author argues that the status quo will probably undergo only minor adjustments.
Lindio-McGovern, Ligaya. Filipino Peasant Women. Exploitation and Resistance. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 1997. xiv, 225 pp. $42.00; £40.00. (Paper: $19.95; £18.95.)
This study documents and analyzes the politics of resistance of two contemporary Filipino peasant women's organizations, the National Federation of Peasant Women in the Philippines (AMIHAN) and the local organization Peasant Women of Mindoro (KAMMI). Based on extensive field research and interviews with peasant women activists, the author sketches the everyday experiences of peasant women in the present-day militarized Philippine society. She describes how through organization, consciousness-raising, land occupation and the establishment of workers' collectives, consumer cooperatives and day care centres, peasant women have formed alternatives for development policies and empowerment strategies.
1848/49 in Europa und der Mythos der Französischen Revolution. Hrsg. von Irmtraud Götz von Olenhusen. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1998. 154 pp. DM 29.80.
The six contributions to this volume aim to examine the influence of the example and the myth of the French Revolution on the revolutionary events of 1848/1849 in various countries and social groups, political strata and revolutionary phases. Daniel Mollenhauer deals with France, Thomas Kroll with Italy, Jonathan Sperber with the German Rhinelands, the editor with Baden and Peter Kurth and Birgitt Morgenbrod with Vienna. Wolfgang Schwentker focuses on the role of the myth of the French Revolution amongst European conservatives during 1848/1849.
Berman, Sheri. The Social Democratic Moment. Ideas and Politics in the Making of Interwar Europe. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1998. xii, 308 pp. £27.95.
Focusing on the Swedish and German Social Democratic parties, this book examines why European Social Democratic parties offer such varied responses to the challenges of democratization and economic crisis in the interwar years, and how these responses influenced the political course of events in the various countries. Professor Berman's central thesis is that decision-making by interwar Social Democratic parties largely reflected the programmatic beliefs of those parties (i.e. their ideas about politics and economics).
Nekrich, Aleksandr M. Pariahs, Partners, Predators: German-Soviet Relations, 1922-1941. Ed. and transl. by Gregory L. Freeze. With a foreword by Adam B. Ulam. Columbia University Press, New York 1997. xiv, 308 pp. $42.00; £28.00.
This book's author, the Russian historian Aleksandr Nekrich (d. 1993), was forced to emigrate because of his dissident publications in 1976. In his last book, now published posthumously, he argues based on the recently opened Central Party Archive in Moscow, that the enmity between Germany and the Soviet Union in the 1920s and 1930s has been exaggerated. Nekrich attempts to show that Stalin's preference for dealing with Hitler rather than with "bourgeois democracies" blinded him to the impending Nazi invasion of the USSR.
McLoughlin, Barry, Hans Schafranek [und] Walter Szevera. Aufbruch - Hoffnung - Endstation. Östereicherinnen und Österreicher in der Sowjetunion 1925-1945. [Österreichische Texte zur Gesellschaftskritik, Band 64.] Verlag für Gesellschaftskritik, Wien 1997. 717 pp. Ill. S 598.00; DM 82.00.
Between 1925 and 1945 thousands of Austrians emigrated to the Soviet Union for political reasons. This extensive study uses Russian, German and Austrian archives to describe the fates of these migrants. The main groups dealt with include the asylum seekers of the Schutzbund (the largest group), the skilled workers, technicians and agricultural colonists and the students at communist "cadre schools" in the USSR. The authors have also reconstructed the repression by the NKVD, which led to executions and forced labour.
Buonarroti, Philippe. La Conjuration de Corse et divers mémoires sur la Trahison de Paoly, sur l'état de cette isle, et sur quelques moyens pour la ramener à l'unité de la République. Ed. établie et présentée par Jean Crozier. Editions Centofanti, Bastia 1997. 195 pp. F.fr. 98.00.
This is a re-edition of the pamphlet Philippe (Filippo) Buonarroti published in 1793 in defence of his policy as commissary, appointed that same year by the National Constituent Assembly to reorganize the administration of Corsica. In his pamphlet Buonarroti turns on Corsican separatism and on those who opposed the island's total inclusion in the French revolutionary state. In the introduction, the editor describes La Conjuration as the link between Buonarroti's work before 1789 and his writings on his conspiracy with Babeuf.
Cova, Anne. Maternité et droits des femmes en France (XIXe - XXe siècles). [Historiques.] Anthropos, Paris 1997. viii, 435 pp. F.fr. 250.00.
This doctoral thesis (European University Institute, Florence 1994) examines the influence of feminists on the emergence of maternity legislation in the period 1892-1939. Dr Cova studies the actions of various interest groups, their views on women's rights and motherhood and their share in the shaping of the French welfare state.
Dictionnaire biographique du Mouvement ouvrier français. Sous la dir. de Jean Maitron et de Claude Pennetier. Tome XLIV. Compléments aux tomes 1 à 43: 1789-1939. Biographies nouvelles. [Par] Michel Cordillot, Claude Pennetier [et] Jean Risacher. Les Éditions de l'Atelier/Les Éditions Ouvrières, Paris 1997. 437 pp. F.fr.
This volume with additions and corrections is the provisional conclusion to the impressive biographical dictionary of the French labour movement (1789-1939) initiated in 1955 by Jean Maitron, who unfortunately did not live to see the completion of the series (see IRSH, 39 (1994), p. 496). The present volume includes brief biographies of Auguste Blanqui, Albert Camus, Charles Fourier, George Sand and Flora Tristan. The editors are preparing a new series covering the period 1940-1968.
L'enfance des comités d'entreprise. De leur genèse dans les conditions de la défaite de 1940 à leur enracinement dans les années 1950. Colloque National, Roubaix 22/23 mai 1996. Centre des Archives du Monde du Travail, Roubaix 1997. 374 pp. F.fr. 100.00.
These proceedings encompass the 23 contributions to a colloquium, organized in 1996 by the Centre des Archives du Monde du Travail in Roubaix, on the origins and early years of the comités d'entreprise. These comités, based on legislation adopted in 1945, resulted from a social and economic reform effort after the Liberation. The contributions offer an overview of various scholarly disciplines (history, law, sociology and ethnology) on the origins and operations of the comités and of the social debate on their areas of authority: workers' control over the course of events in the firm or the organization of cultural and social activities. The book concludes with an account of a round table discussion of the establishment of a system for preserving the archives of the comités d'entreprise.
Manfredonia, Gaetano. La chanson anarchiste en France des origines à 1914. ("Dansons la Ravachole!"). Éditions L'Harmattan, Paris; L'Harmattan Inc., Montréal 1997. 448 pp. F.fr. 220.00.
Based on extensive archival research, Dr Manfredonia's study depicts the development of Anarchist songs in France from their origins during the revolution of 1848-1849, through the period of active terrorism and the Belle Epoque to the beginning of World War I.
Mélanges Michel Vovelle. Sur la Révolution, approches plurielles. Volume de l'Institut d'Histoire de la Révolution Française. Textes réunis par Jean-Paul Bertaud, Françoise Brunel, Catherine Duprat et François Hincker. [Bibliothèque d'Histoire révolutionnaire, Nouvelle série no 2.] Société des Études Robespierristes, Paris 1997. xxvi, 598 pp. F.fr. 300.00.
Michel Vovelle is considered the leading contemporary historian of the French Revolution. His work is remarkable both because of its vastness and because of its thematic diversity, ranging from social-economic aspects to dechristianization, festivities and the history of the church. This broad interest is reflected in the present Festschrift, to which about sixty renowned experts have contributed essays about death, religion, power, spectacles and symbols in and outside France in the years before, during and after the Revolution.
Minguet, Simonne. Mes années Caudron. Caudron-Renault. Une usine autogérée à la Libération (1944-1948). Préf. de Rodolphe Prager. Éditions Syllepse, Paris 1997. 142 pp. Ill. F.fr. 90.00.
From March 1944 to February 1948 the Caudron aircraft factory (Issy-les-Molineux) was the scene of major conflicts between workers and employers and between communists and other political movements. In this slim volume a Trotskyist militant who worked for Caudron during these years describes social and political developments in the factory.
Mollenhauer, Daniel. Auf der Suche nach der "wahren Republik". Die französischen "radicaux" in der frühen Dritten Republik (1870-1890). [Pariser historische Studien, Band 46.] Bouvier Verlag, Bonn 1997. viii, 411 pp. DM 150.00; S.fr. 134.00; S 1095.00.
This dissertation (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1996) analyzes trends within French parliament's radical faction during the beginnings of the Third Republic (1870-1890). Dr Mollenhauer examines how from the 1880s a dichotomy arose within the radical milieu, between a left-wing faction (organized in the Extrême gauche) striving for a far more direct form of democracy than had been achieved in the constitutional compromise of the Third Republic and a far more moderate middle group.
Omnès, Catherine. Ouvrières parisiennes. Marchés du travail et trajectoires professionnelles au 20e siècle. Éditions de l'École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris 1997. 374 pp. Maps. F.fr. 150.00.
This study pertaining to both women's history and labour history describes women's work in the Paris area from the early twentieth century onward. Using a wealth of quantitative and qualitative sources, Dr Omnès reconstructs the labour market's professional, sectoral and geographic segmentation; the changes on the labour market; and the personal history of wage-earning women.
Social and Political Thought of the French Revolution 1788-1797. An Anthology of Original Texts. Sel., Transl. and Ed. with an Introd. and Commentaries on the Texts by Marc Allan Goldstein. Peter Lang, New York [etc.] 1997. xviii, 822 pp. S.fr. 84.00.
This collection of works explores the fundamental notions of political and social theory as developed in the context of the French Revolution (1788-1797). The book comprises texts by many relevant authors, such as Sieyès, Marat, de Rivarol, Barnave, Robespierre, Saint-Just and the Babeuf brothers. "The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen" is also included here.
Tartakowsky, Danielle. Les manifestations de rue en France 1918-1968. [Histoire de la France au XIXe et XXe siècle, 42.] Publications de la Sorbonne, Paris 1997. 869 pp. Ill. Maps. F.fr. 280.00.
See See Gita Deneckere's review in this volume, pp. 498-501.
Barkai, Avraham [and] Paul Mendes-Flohr. Renewal and Destruction 1918-1945. With an epilogue by Steven M. Lowenstein. [German-Jewish History in Modern Times, vol. 4.] Columbia University Press, New York . Ill. Maps. $50.00.
This is the English version of the fourth and final volume in a series of four on German-Jewish history from the early modern period to 1945 (see IRSH, 43 (1998), pp. 179f., and this volume, pp. 133 and 137).
Bodek, Richard. Proletarian Performance in Weimar Berlin: Agitprop, Chorus, and Brecht. Camden House, Columbia (SC) [etc.] 1997. xiv, 184 pp. Ill. $55.00; £45.00.
This study examines the interplay of socialist and communist politics in the late years of the Weimar Republic with the world of the (young) working class in the form of agitprop theatre, workers' chorus and Brecht's modernist theatre. Professor Bodek deals with the very different aesthetics and political assumptions of Social Democrats and Communists and focuses on the Communist agitprop troupes in Berlin, investigating the realities of the lives of the contemporary working-class youth.
Brewka, Siegfried. Zentrum und Sozialdemokratie in der bayerischen Kammer der Abgeordneten 1893-1914. [Europäische Hochschulschriften, Reihe III, Geschichte und ihre Hilfswissenschaften, Band 742.] Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main [etc.] 1997. 613 pp. S.fr. 119.00.
This dissertation (Regensburg, 1996) deals with the political opinions within the Zentrum and Social-Democratic factions in the Bavarian parliament (the Landtag) in the period 1883-1914. Based on a multitude of statistical data on occupation, social origins, age, voting patterns, attendance etc. of the members of these two factions, Dr Brewka examines the factors that determined the dominance of individuals and groups in forming political opinions and the role of public opinion in the process.
Frankfurter Arbeiterbewegung in Dokumenten 1832-1933. Band 1. Vom Hambacher Fest zum Ersten Weltkrieg 1832-1914. Band 2. Vom Ersten Weltkrieg bis zur faschistischen Diktatur 1914-1933. Karten, Tabellen und Register zu Band 1 und Band 2. Hrsg. vom Verein für Frankfurter Arbeitergeschichte e.V. Bearb. von Judit Pàkh. Bund Verlag GmbH, Frankfurt/M. 1994; 1997; 1997. 1503 pp. (2 vols); 84 pp. Ill. Maps. DM 75.00 (3 vols).
At the end of the 1980s the Verein für Frankfurter Arbeitergeschichte initiated a project to collect all relevant archival and document materials concerning the history of the Frankfurter working-class movement between 1832 and 1933. This three-volume documentary history features an extensive selection of these documents. The ten chronologically ordered chapters, each starting with an essay on the developments in the period, present many hundreds of documents and selections of documents on 224 issues and events. Included are pamphlets, protocols, letters and newspaper articles. The third volume offers maps, tables and indexes of geographical locations and names.
Friedrich Ebert als Reichspräsident. Amtsführung und Amtsverständnis. Hrsg. von Eberhard Kolb. [Schriftenreihe der Stiftung Reichspräsident-Friedrich-Ebert-Gedenkstätte, Band 4.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 1997. 319 pp. DM 58.00.
The seven essays in this collection address Friedrich Ebert's political activities during his presidency of the new Weimar Republic (1919-1925). Ludwig Richter deals with Ebert's role in building the Weimar coalition and with the presidential emergency powers; Walter Mühlhausen examines the role of the president's staff and Ebert's relation to his party, the SPD; the editor explores the discussions around the presidential election in the period 1919-1922; Bernd Braun examines the president's relation to the German Ländern; and Heinz Hürten deals with Ebert's defence policy.
Frohn, Hans-Werner. Arbeiterbewegungskulturen in Köln 1890 bis 1933. [Düsseldorfer Schriften zur Neueren Landesgeschichte und zur Geschichte Nordrhein-Westfalens, Band 45.] Klartext, Essen 1997. 359 pp. DM 78.00.
Focusing on the city of Cologne, this dissertation (Siege, 1996) examines cultural involvement within the German Social-Democratic, Communist and Catholic labour movements between 1890 and 1933. Dr Frohn explores the intentions of the various participating organizations, their practical elaboration, responses to the range of cultural activities and the interactions between the organizations of the different political courses. The author's central thesis is that at least from the 1920s onward, three different labour movements existed, each one with its own cultural repertoire to distinguish it from the other political movements.
Groß-Berliner Arbeiter- und Soldatenräte in der Revolution 1918/19. Dokumente der Vollversammlungen und des Vollzugsrates. Vom 1. Reichsrätekongreß bis zum Generalstreikbeschluß am 3. März 1919. Hrsg. und bearb. von Gerhard Engel, Bärbel Holtz, Gaby Huch und Ingo Materna. Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1997. xliv, 888 pp. DM 248.00.
This is the second volume of the source publication on the Groß-Berliner Arbeiter- und Soldatenräte (see IRSH, 40 (1995), pp. 168f. for the first volume), presenting in 71 documents the protocols and related documents of plenary assemblies and of the executive council from the first Reichsrätekongreß (16-20 November 1918) until the general strike resolution of 3 March 1919. The introduction provides a comprehensive and detailed overview of the political developments in the German Council Republic in this period. The documents are again presented in chronological order, and indexes of persons and subjects have been appended.
Hachtmann, Rüdiger. Berlin 1848. Eine Politik- und Gesellschaftsgeschichte der Revolution. [Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Sozialgeschichte e.V., Braunschweig, Bonn.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 1997. 1008 pp. Ill. DM. 98.00; S.fr. 91.00; S 715.00.
Berlin was one of the main revolutionary centres in 1848-1849. This monumental book offers the first comprehensive study on the Berlin Revolution through its integration of political and social history. Dr Hachtmann describes the economic, social, cultural and political backgrounds to the events; analyzes the different social actors, including the lowest strata with their "culture of poverty" (Oscar Lewis), the bourgeoisie and the Protestant Church. He also deals extensively with Berlin's Jews and anti-Semitism; the role of women; and interactions between the events in Berlin and elsewhere (in and outside Prussia).
Henig, Ruth. The Weimar Republic 1919-1933. [Lancaster Pamphlets.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1998. xix, 87 pp. £6.99.
This textbook aims to offer a concise overview of the history of the Weimar Republic. Dr Henig sketches the political, social and economic aims and development of the republic and analyzes how the failing democracy led to the rise of Nazism. An outline of the historiography of the Weimar Republic is included.
Herf, Jeffrey. Divided Memory. The Nazi Past in the Two Germanys. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1997. ix, 527 pp. Ill. $29.95; £19.95.
"This is a study of how anti-Nazi German leaders interpreted the Nazi past during the Nazi era, and then remembered it as they emerged as national political leaders in the postwar occupation, in the two successor German states, and in unified Germany." The German national figures examined by Dr Herf include Konrad Adenauer, Theodor Heuss, Kurt Schumacher, Willy Brandt, Richard von Weizsäcker and Helmut Kohl in the West and Walter Ulbricht, Wilhelm Pieck, Otto Grotewohl, Paul Merker and Erich Honnecker in the East.
Kassel, Brigitte. Frauen in einer Männerwelt, Frauenerwerbsarbeit in der Metallindustrie und ihre Interessenvertretung durch den Deutschen Metallarbeiter-Verband (1891-1933). [Schriftenreihe der Otto Brenner Stiftung, Band 66.] Bund-Verlag, Köln 1997. 725 pp. DM 139.00.
This dissertation (Technische Universität Berlin, 1994) is a comprehensive study of women's wage labour and trade-union policies in the German metal industry in the period 1891-1933. Using gender as the central category in her analysis, Dr Kassel begins by examining the labour market relationships in the metal industry and the position of women's labour in this context. Next, she reviews the organizational emergence of the Deutsche Metallarbeiter-Verband (DMV) - the German metalworkers union - and the role of women in this process. She concludes with an analysis of the changes in practical trade-union policy with respect to women's labour.
Koop, Volker. Armee oder Freizeitclub? Die Kampfgruppen der Arbeiterklasse in der DDR. Bouvier Verlag, Bonn 1997. 358 pp. Ill. DM 48.00; S.fr. 44.50; S 350.40.
After the insurgency of 17 June 1953, the SED formed a party volunteer army in the GDR, known as the Kampfgruppen der Arbeiterklasse and officially responsible for protecting the socialist acquisitions from hostile outsiders. Mr Koop aims to offer a comprehensive impression in this study of the structure, tasks and force, as well as of the dedication of this party's army. According to the author, the true purpose of the Kampfgruppen was to provide the dictatorial SED regime with military protection from insurgencies and demonstrations by its own population and was thus comparable to Hitler's SA.
Krämer, Gerd. "Bollwerk der Sozialisten des Nordens". Die Anfänge der Altonaer Arbeiterbewegung bis 1875. Dölling und Galitz Verlag, Hamburg 1997. 302 pp. Ill. DM 58.00.
In Imperial Germany the town of Altona in Schleswig-Holstein was considered a bastion of social democracy. This dissertation (Hamburg, 1996) examines the social-historical factors underlying this major local social-democratic support in the early years 1848-1875. Relating data on the local labour movement (election results, occupational breakdown of members and party officials) to the economic and social structure and the demographic trends, Dr Krämer focuses on the policy and development of the local chapter of the Allgemeine Deutsche Arbeiterverein (ADAV).
Mutert, Susanne. Die bayerischen Gewerkschaften im 19. Jahrhundert. Von den Anfängen bis zum Ende des Sozialistengesetzes (1868/69-1890). [Veröffentlichungen des Instituts zur Erforschung der europäischen Arbeiterbewegung, Schriftenreihe A: Darstellungen, Band 7.] Klartext, Essen 1997. 295 pp. DM 58.00.
This dissertation (Munich, 1996) explores the organizational history of the social-democratic trade union movement in Bavaria in the period of the Sozialistengesetze, 1868-1890. Dr Mutert explores the similarities and differences between the emergence of trade unions in the German Empire as a whole and in Bavaria in particular. She concludes, among others, that the rise of the trade-union movement in Bavaria was more independent from the incipient social-democratic political organization than in the more industrialized North.
Die Vertriebenen in der SBZ/DDR Dokumente. Hrsg. und eingel. von Manfred Wille, unter Mitarb. von Steffi Kaltenborn, Gerald Christopeit, [und] Manfred Jahn. Band I. Ankunft und Aufnahme 1945. [Studien der Forschungsstelle Ostmitteleuropa an der Universität Dortmund, Band 19,1.] Harrasowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden 1996. 468 pp. DM 68.00; S.fr. 62.00; S 496.00.
Between 1944 and 1949 over four million refugees from Eastern Europe came to the Russian zone of occupation (SBZ), which later became the German Democratic Republic. The Forschungsstelle Ostmitteleuropa at the University of Dortmund is preparing a three-volume source publication about these people. This first volume contains 266 documents concerning the arrival and shelter of refugees in 1945.
Vincent, C. Paul. A Historical Dictionary of Germany's Weimar Republic, 1918-1933. Greenwood Press, Westport (Conn.) [etc.] 1997. xi, 635 pp. £91.95.
This historical dictionary comprises about six hundred entries on the Weimar Republic, ranging from "Prussia" and "Aldolf Hitler" to "The Threepenny Opera" and "Ludwig Mies van der Rohe".
Zwischen Verweigerung und Opposition. Politischer Protest in der DDR 1970-1989. Hrsg. von Detlef Pollack [und] Dieter Rink. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt/M. [etc.] 1997. 366 pp. DM 68.00; S.fr. 64.00; S 496.00.
In the 1970s and 1980s various oppositional movements arose in the former German Democratic Republic. This collection of fifteen essays comprises several historical explorations of these oppositional currents within the Protestant churches, the world of literature and art and the Communist SED. The work also includes more analytical reflections, including the question as to whether these oppositions may be regarded as "new social movements."
Civardi, Christian. Le mouvement ouvrier écossais (1900-1931). Travail, culture, politique. Presses Universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg 1997. 464 pp. Ill. F.fr. 150.00.
This study of the Scottish labour movement between 1900 and 1932 sketches the demographic, economic and cultural backgrounds of the Scottish working class (focusing on subjects such as the Scottish educational system's influence on the emergence of working-class intellectuals) and examines the role of Scottish militants in the British political labour movement, notably in the Independent Labour Party and the Communist Party of Great Britain. According to the author, the influence of Scottish labour militancy and militants on the development of the British labour movement as a whole has thus far been dealt with insufficiently in historiography.
Gould, Philip. The Unfinished Revolution. How the Modernisers Saved the Labour Party. Little, Brown and Company, London 1998. xiii, 434 pp. Ill. £16.99.
In this book, one of the key architects of Britain's "New Labour," senior adviser to Tony Blair and central strategist in the 1997 election campaign leading to Labour's landslide victory, provides an inside account of the Labour Party's transformation in the 1990s and the new election strategy. Mr Gould also deals with the conceptions and ideals of New Labour and the "New Middle" and shares his vision on Labour's future.
Hivet, Christine. Voix de femmes. Roman féminin et condition féminine de Mary Wollstonecraft à Mary Shelley. Presses de l'École normale supérieure, Paris 1997. 500 pp. F.fr. 170.00.
During the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, England had many relatively well-known women writers, including Jane Austen (1775-1817), Ann Radcliffe (1764-1823), Mary Shelley (1797-1851) and her mother Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797). Dr Hivet discusses the literary oeuvre of these authors as an indication of the female condition and women's aspirations in the period 1790-1820.
Hunter, Bill. Lifelong Apprenticeship. The Life and Times of a Revolutionary. Vol. I: 1920-1958. Index Books, London; Porcupine Press, London 1997. Ill. £20.00.
This is the first volume of the political autobiography of Bill Hunter (1920), Trotskyist activist, shop steward and borough councillor and editor of the left-wing journal Socialist Outlook from 1948 to 1954. In this volume, Mr Hunter sketches the Trotskyist movement in the periods preceding, during and after World War II, gives an inside account of the Trotskyists' response to the crisis in the Communist Party of Great Britain in 1956-1957 and deals with the launching of the Socialist Labour League in 1959.
Marshall, Gordon, Adam Swift and Stephen Roberts. Against the Odds? Social Class and Social Justice in Industrial Societies. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1997. xiii, 265 pp. £40.00.
Drawing on political theory and sociological analysis, the authors of this study explore the implications of social class for social justice by studying patterns of social mobility in contemporary Britain. Using statistical data sets from large-scale social surveys, Dr Marshall, Swift and Roberts focus on the role of education in generating equal opportunities for social mobility. They conclude that, even when educational attainment remains constant, social origins continue to exert considerable influence on class destinations.
Pope, Robert. Building Jerusalem. Nonconformity, Labour and the Social Question in Wales, 1906-1939 [Studies in Welsh History, vol. 13.] University of Wales Press, Cardiff 1998. xiv, 269 pp. £25.00.
See Malcolm Chase's review in this volume, pp. 495-497.
Scott, Gillian. Feminism and the politics of working women. The Women's Co-operative Guild, 1880s to the Second World War. Women's History.] UCL Press, London [etc.] 1998. xii, 297 pp. £40.00.
See Sheila Lewenhak's review in this volume, pp. 487-490.
Mazsu, János. The Social History of the Hungarian Intelligentsia, 1825-1914. Transl. from the Hungarian by Mario D. Fenyo. [Atlantic Studies on Society in Change, No. 89.] [East European Monographs, No. CDLXV.] Social Science Monographs, Boulder (Col.); Atlantic Research and Publications, Inc., Highland Lakes (NJ); distr. by Columbia University Press, New York 1997. xxiv, 291 pp. $42.00.
This study of the development of the Hungarian intelligentsia in the century prior to World War I examines the emergence of intellectual professions as a distinct social group in the context of the changing social stratification of Hungarian society. The author concludes that due to the society's dramatic growth in this period the intelligentsia necessarily became open, as the lower ranks of the petty bourgeoisie and even members of the working class entered the intelligentsia.
Pállinger, Zoltán Tibor. Die politische Elite Ungarns im Systemwechsel 1985-1995. [St. Galler Studien zur Politikwissenschaft, Band 20.] Verlag Paul Haupt, Bern [etc.] 1997. xii, 368 pp. S.fr. 68.00; DM 76.00; S 555.00.
The central research question in this doctoral thesis (St Gallen, 1997) is: why was Hungary's transition from "socialism" to capitalism from the 1980s peaceful? In his answer the author describes the changes in the period 1956-1995 (especially during the years 1985-1995) in the theoretical context he constructs. According to his analysis, the change was peaceful only because a new political elite had already replaced the old one before the transition.
Eugenio Reale l'uomo che sfidò Togliatti. A cura di Antonio Carioti. Liberal Libri, Firenze 1998. vii, 301 pp. L. 18.000.
Eugenio Reale (1905-1986) was a leading person in the Italian Communist Party, which he had joined under the fascist dictatorship. As a delegate of the PCI, he helped found the Cominform in 1947. Totalitarianism in Eastern Europe and the occupation of Hungary in 1956, however, led him to resign from the party that year. This book begins with an introductory essay by Antonio Carioti about Reale. The rest of the book consists of documents: articles from the press, interviews, the account of the Cominform's establishment and partially unpublished correspondence (e.g. with Togliatti) subdivided into chapters according to major stages in Reale's political career.
Guerra civile e stato. Per una revisione da sinistra. [Per] Cesare Bermani, Silverio Corvisieri, Claudio Del Bello [e] Sandro Portelli. Con una mappa bibliografica dei revisionismi storici. [IDEK, 1.] ODRADEK, Roma 1998. iii, 101 pp. L. 12.000.
This booklet contains the texts of three speeches delivered in 1998 at the University La Sapienza in Rome in honour of Italy's Liberation Day (25 April). The objective of the gathering was to critique post-war Italian historiography of institutionalized anti-fascism. In a bibliographical essay, which has been added as an appendix, Cesare Bermani offers a critical reflection of the historical revisionism of left and right, including the historical revisionism concerning the Holocaust or negationism. An extensive bibliography on the different types of revisionism, highlighting the negationism debate in Italy, concludes the booklet.
Labriola, Antonio. La politica italiana nel 1871-1872. Corrispondenze alle "Basler Nachrichten". A cura e con introd. di Stefano Miccolis. Bibliopolis, Napoli 1998. 197 pp. L. 40.000.
Between 26 August 1871 and 27 November 1872 Antonio Labriola wrote 57 letters in German for the Swiss daily Basler Nachrichten. This book contains the Italian translation of those articles and is a type of "public diary" of the young philosopher. In the introduction the editor Stefano Miccolis describes this publication's twofold importance: it offers insight into the political courses of both Labriola and unified Italy during the first year that Rome was the capital city. The topics addressed include domestic and foreign policy, the relationship between church and state, educational reform, emigration and the justice system.
Lombardi, Riccardo. Lettere e documenti (1943-47). Dalle carte della Fondazione di Studi Storici "Filippo Turati". A cura di Andrea Ragusa. [Strumenti e fonti, 10.] Piero Lacaita Editore, Manduria [etc.] 1998. xxviii, 193 pp. L. 20.000.
The present book comprises two parts. The first contains a selection from the correspondence of Lombardi, the second several documents. Both parts concern the period of the liberation and the transition to democracy in Italy. Lombardi, who was a member of the resistance, joined the Partito d'Azione (which is addressed in many documents from the second part) and later the Partito Socialista. These largely unpublished materials are located in the archives of the Fondazione Turati and the Istituto Nazionale per la Storia del movimento di Liberazione in Italia.
Persichetti, Paolo [e] Oreste Scalzone. Il nemico inconfessabile. Sovversione sociale, lotta armata e stato di emergenza in Italia dagli anni Settanta a oggi. [IDEK, 2.] Pref. di Erri De Luca. ODRADEK, Roma 1999. xix, 229 pp. L. 20.000.
This book is an Italian translation of L'ennemi inavouable (Paris, 1999), published simultaneously in France. The authors aim to give readers an explanation of the "Italian May," which lasted ten years, and to describe the circumstances that led the extreme left to take up arms. The authors are both political refugees who were granted asylum in France. A list of legal and illegal organizations and an annotated bibliography are appended to the book.
Biografisch woordenboek van het socialisme en de arbeidersbeweging in Nederland. Deel. 6. Onder red. van P.J. Meertens (), Mies Campfens, Jan Gielkens, Ger Harmsen, Jannes Houkes [e.a.] Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1995. x, 284 pp. Ill. D.fl. 44.00.
Biografisch woordenboek van het socialisme en de arbeidersbeweging in Nederland. Deel. 7. Onder red. van P.J. Meertens (), Mies Campfens, Ger Harmsen, Jannes Houkes [e.a.] Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1998. x, 308 pp. Ill. D.fl. 44.00.
These are the sixth and seventh volumes of a biographical dictionary of Dutch socialists and labour movement activists from the period 1848-1940 (see IRSH, 32 (1987), p. 300, 33 (1988), p. 242, 36 (1991), p. 148), and 38 (1993), p. 441) that was originally intended to consist of six volumes. The entries in these volumes cover individuals including Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis, Herman Gorter, Henri van Kol and Sam de Wolff. Two more volumes are planned: one regular volume and a final one containing a cumulative index and additions.
Brinkman, Maarten. Willem Drees, de SDAP en de PvdA. Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1998. 359 pp. Ill. D.fl. 19.50; B.fr. 390.00.
This dissertation (Leiden, 1998) examines the role of one of the most important Dutch politicians, Willem Drees (1886-1988), during his very long political career in the Dutch social-democratic party, known as the Sociaal-Democratische Arbeiderspartij (SDAP) until 1946 and as the Partij van de Arbeid thereafter. The central theme in Dr Brinkman's study of Drees's political life is the politician's remarkable duality: his strong socialist convictions on the one hand and his pragmatism in matters of administration and interparty cooperation on the other.
Klein, Marian van der. Kranig en dwars. De Vrouwenbond NVV/FNV 1948-1998. Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1998. 159 pp. Ill. D.fl. 39.50.
This book offers an overview of the history of the Vrouwenbond FNV (the largest women's trade union in the Netherlands) in honour of its fiftieth anniversary. Mrs van der Klein sketches how the Vrouwenbond evolved from an organization supporting the "real" trade union into an independent operation that protected the interests of women doing both paid and unpaid labour and established a link between traditional women's organizations and new, autonomous feminist initiatives in the 1970s.
Buhler, Pierre. Histoire de la Pologne communiste. Autopsie d'une imposture. [Hommes et Sociétés.] Éditions KARTHALA, Paris 1997. 808 pp. F.fr. 195.00.
In this comprehensive study the French career diplomat Pierre Buhler relates the history of Poland from the Nazi occupation in 1939 to the fall of General Jaruzelski in 1989. The author provides a chronological reconstruction and focuses on the political aspects, including the relationship between the state and the Catholic Church. The chief emphasis is on the disintegration of the communist regime.
Gill, Arnon. Freiheitskämpfe der Polen im 19. Jahrhundert. Erhebungen - Aufstände - Revolutionen. Peter Lang, Frankfurt/M. [etc.] 1997. 481 pp. Ill. Maps. S.fr. 79.00.
This study deals with the history of the Polish struggles for national freedom and sovereignty during the nineteenth century. Professor Gill focuses on the various insurgencies (1830/1831, 1846, 1863/1864) prepared by the émigrés in France and directed mainly against the Russians.
Snyder, Timothy. Nationalism, Marxism, and Modern Central Europe. A Biography of Kazimierz Kelles-Krauz (1872-1905). [Harvard Papers in Ukrainian Studies.] Distr. by Harvard University Press for the Ukrainian Research Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge (Mass.) 1997. xxv, 321 pp. Ill. Maps. $18.00.
Kazimierz Kelles-Krauz (1872-1905), by now all but forgotten, was the leading theorist of the main current of Polish socialism, the Polish Socialist Party (PPS). He believed that socialism could be built only within a democratic nation-state and was very much in favour of Polish-Jewish reconciliation. The present book is his narrative and chronological biography.
Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Burds, Jeffrey. Peasant Dreams & Market Politics. Labor Migration and the Russian Village, 1861-1905. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh 1998. xiv, 314 pp. Ill. $50.00. (Paper: $22.95.)
See Gijs Kessler's review in this volume, pp. 490-493.
Gill, Graeme and Roderic Pitty. Power in the Party. The Organization of Power and Central-Republican Relations in the CPSU. Macmillan Press Ltd, Basingstoke [etc.]; St. Martin's Press, Inc., New York 1997. ix, 222 pp. $65.00.
Despite its extensive centralistic power, the leadership of the Soviet Union's Communist Party was unable to prevent wide-scale abuse of position throughout the ruling circles of the party and, particularly in the republics, the emergence of local leadership cliques handling local rule. Based upon surveys of newspaper sources in five Soviet republics from 1953 to 1990, this study analyzes the nature of these cliques and their implications for both effective party functioning and the reform of the Soviet political and economic system.
Gnauck, Gerhard. Parteien und Nationalismus in Rußland. Demokratische versus nationalistische Integration nach dem Ende des kommunistischen Systems. Peter Lang, Frankfurt/M. [etc.] 1997. 255 pp. S.fr. 64.00.
Using case studies of three political parties in Russia after 1990 - the Social Democratic Party of the Russian Federation, the Democratic Party of Russia and the Constitutional-Democratic Party/Party of the People's Freedom - the author sketches the rise of nationalism in contemporary Russia. Dr Gnauck, the foreign politics editor for the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, examines the threat that nationalism poses to the survival of a multiform parliamentary democracy.
Liebich, André. From the Other Shore. Russian Social Democracy after 1921. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1997. xii, 476 pp. Ill. £31.95.
See Marc Jansen's review in this volume, pp. 501-503.
Obscestvo i vlast' 1930-e gody. Povestvovanie v dokumentach. Red.: A.K. Sokolov. [Sociol'naja istorija Rossii XX veka.] ROSSPEN, Moskva 1998. 351 pp. Ill.
This is the second volume in the series "The Social History of Russia in the Twentieth Century" (for the first volume, see IRSH, this volume, p. 145). Like the preceding volume, it features previously unpublished documents that illustrate the daily life of the common man during the hectic 1930s in the Soviet Union. The assorted chapters highlight the "socialist offensive", the shock workers' and Stakhanov movement, life at the kolkhoz, social climbing, the promotion of the Stalin constitution, the Great Terror, the efforts to make the children happy and other themes.
Shlapentokh, Dmitry. The French Revolution & the Russian Anti-Democratic Tradition. A Case of False Consciousness. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick [etc.] 1997. xviii, 324 pp. $32.95.
From the early nineteenth century to the beginning of the twentieth century, the influence of "Occidentophilist" ideology in Russia gradually increased according to this book's author. A growing number of intellectuals regarded Russia as part of Europe. Concurrently, the French Revolution came to epitomize the Western popular model of development. Professor Shlapentokh submits that these trends led to the acceptance of terror and dictatorship, thus paving the way for Stalin's "revolution from above" in the late 1920s.
Stadelmann, Matthias. Das revolutionäre Rußland in der Neuen Kulturgeschichte. Diskursive Formationen und soziale Identitäten. [Erlanger Studien zur Geschichte, Band 4.] Palm & Enke, Erlangen [etc.] 1997. 136 pp. DM 34.00.
This "meta-historical" study investigates the consequences of historiography's "linguistic turn" for our understanding of the Russian Revolution. The author analyzes four books - Laura Engelstein's The Keys to Happiness (1992), Joan Neuberger's Hooliganismus (1993), Mark D. Steinberg's Moral Communities (1992) and James von Geldern's Bolshevik Festivals (1993) - and concludes in part that while these works are major scholarly contributions, the discipline has definitely not undergone "revolutionary upheaval."
Candela Soto, Paloma. Cigarreras madrileñas: trabajo y vida (1888-1927). Editorial Tecnos, Madrid 1997. 234 pp. Ill. Maps. Ptas.
This is a history of women working in Madrid's tobacco industry between 1888 and 1927. After reviewing the industry's history, the author discusses the organization of work within the tobacco factory and the problems with the mechanization of the labour process. Next, she deals with the position of the women workers as well as their working conditions. She also considers the living conditions of these women outside the factories, their social-demographic origins and their methods of organization. Various statistical overviews conclude this book, which is a commercial edition of a thesis defended at Madrid's Universidad Complutense in 1996.
Falguera i Baró, Miquel [y] José Luis López Bulla. El sindicalismo en la encrucijada. Reflexiones y propuestas en el actual debate sobre el mercado de trabajo. [Col lecció Sociologia de Treball, Núm. 5.] Columna, Barcelona 1997. 211 pp. Ptas.
The two authors of this study on labour law are members of the Catalan "Centre for Study and Research" of the union federation Comisiones Obreras. The principle underlying the study is that the 1994 reform in labour legislation instigated changes in the organization of labour in Spain that were advantageous to employers. The authors suggest various ways for resolving the confusion in the union movement and alleviating the harmful effects of working for temporary employment agencies.
Gil Bracero, Rafael. Revolucionarios sin revolución. Marxistas y anarcosindicalistas en guerra: Granada-Baza, 1936-1939. Editorial Universidad de Granada, Granada 1998. 353 pp. Ptas. 2.500.
This book is an abridged version of a thesis defended at the University of Granada. The author aims to assess the Civil War's political consequences in the area of the province of Granada that remained under the Republic's control and the impact of these political changes on the countryside. After a preliminary revolutionary period, which in the author's view lasted from July through December 1936, came the consolidation of government power, which forced both socialists and anarchists to abandon their revolutionary aspirations.
Mainar Cabanes, Eladi. De milicians a soldats. Les columnes valencianes en la Guerra Civil espanyola (1936-1937). [Collecció Oberta, Sèrie Història, 3.] Universitat de València, València 1998. 222 pp. Ptas. 2.251.
Following the insurgence of the nationalists against the government of the Spanish Republic in 1936, the assorted labour organizations in the area where the insurgence had failed formed volunteer militias. The present book deals with the establishment and organization of these units in the region of Valencia. Subsequent topics include the struggle along the front and the activities in the hinterland, as well as issues concerning the absorption of the militias into the Republic's regular army. The columna de Hierro of the anarcho-syndicalists is the subject of a separate chapter. The book concludes with a fairly extensive appendix with documents.
Suter, Andreas. Der Schweizerische Bauernkrieg von 1653. Politische sozialgeschichte - Sozialgeschichte eines politischen Ereignisses. [Frühzeit-Forschungen, Band 3.] bibliotheca academica Verlag, Tübingen 1997. 687 pp. Ill. DM 98.00.
Together with the Fronde in France, the English Revolution of 1688 and the civil uprising in Naples and Palermo, the Swiss Farmers' War of 1653 is among the wave of conflicts that shook seventeenth-century Europe. This dissertation (Zurich, 1995) is a detailed examination of the social and political origins and development of the Swiss conflict and a comparison of its outcome with that of other contemporary European ones. Dr Suter concludes that the Swiss farmers formed a distinct political culture of public protest and resistance in which the collective memory of the Wilhelm Tell's struggle for freedom played an important formative role.