Volume 45 part 1 (2000)


General Issues
Continents and Countries

Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.

General Issues


Abellán, José Luis. El exilio filosófico en América. Los transterrados de 1939. Fondo de Cultura Económica de España, Madrid [etc.] 1998. 461 pp. Ptas.
During the Second Republic, Spanish philosophy reached a higher level than ever since the Golden Age. This was attributable to a development that began with the generation of 1898, first through Miguel de Unamuno, later through Ortega y Gasset. Spanish philosophy was influenced by Husserl, Scheler, Heidegger and Dilthey. In 1939 many philosophers fled after the fall of the Republic and settled in Latin America. This book features a detailed description of the emergence of Spanish philosophy in exile. Each chapter addresses a specific movement, including Socialism and Marxism.

Achterhuis, Hans. De erfenis van de utopie. Ambo, Amsterdam 1998. 444 pp. D.fl. 49.50.
In this philosophical and historical exploration of the evolution of utopian ideas, ranging from its early modern roots in More's Utopia to contemporary feminist science fiction, Professor Achterhuis distinguishes between utopias with social origins and those arising through technology. Unequivocally rejecting the social utopias, he argues that our contemporary technological culture may be viewed largely as a materialized utopia, without the negative consequences that were often foreseen. Finally, the author explores the lessons to be derived and the aspects worth preserving from the utopian heritage.

Brudney, Daniel. Marx's Attempt to Leave Philosophy. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1998. xviii, 425 pp. £27.95.
This study traces the development of post-Hegelian thought from Ludwig Feuerbach through Bruno Bauer to Karl Marx's work of 1844 and his Theses on Feuerbach and concludes with an examination of The German Ideology. Aiming to show that Marx, in keeping with Feuerbach, attempted to avoid philosophy - defined as any concern with metaphysics and epistemology - as early as 1844, Professor Brudney argues that no rift exists between Marx's early work and his later writings, and, moreover, that there is no Marx who subscribes to a materialist metaphysics, even in The German Ideology, the text generally taken as the origin of Marxist materialism.

Challenging Authority. The Historical Study of Contentious Politics. Ed. by Michael P. Hanagan, Leslie Page Moch, and Wayne te Brake. [Social Movements, Protest, and Contention, vol. 7.] University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis [etc.] 1998. xxix, 284 pp. $54.95. (Paper: $21.95.)
Based on a conference on the past and future of collective action, organized in Amsterdam in honour of Charles Tilly in June 1985, the fifteen contributions to this volume deal with the relationship between mobilization of collective action and identity formation in various societies and political systems from the late Middle Ages to the present. The first five contributions focus on the relationship between social networks and the identities and claim making by political actors. The other contributors explore the themes of repertoires of political contention and constellations of political opportunity. The contributors include R. Bin Wong, Anton Blok, Marjolein 't Hart, Carl Strikwerda, Sidney Tarrow, Charles Tilly, Kim Voss and Andrew G. Walder.

Fowler, Bridget. Pierre Bourdieu and Cultural Theory. Critical Investigations. [Theory, Culture & Society.] Sage Publications, London [etc.] 1997. vi, 200 pp. £37.50. (Paper: £12.95.)
In this book Dr Fowler aims to give a comprehensive description of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of culture and habitus, providing a systematic reading of his assessment of the role of "cultural capital" in the production and consumption of cultural goods. After situating Bourdieu's cultural theory in the context of structuralist and post-structuralist theory, she focuses on Bourdieu's account of the nature of capitalist modernity, on the emergence of bohemia and, with the growth of the market, the invention of the artist as the main historical response to the changed role of art.

Lichtblau, Klaus. Georg Simmel. [Reihe Campus, Band 1091: Einführungen.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt/M. [etc.] 1997. 182 pp. DM 24.80.
This small textbook offers an introduction to the work and philosophy of Georg Simmel (1858-1918), who together with Max Weber and Emile Durkheim is viewed as one of the European founders of modern sociology. Professor Lichtblau assesses Simmel's cultural theory as a major influence on the development of Western Marxism and Critical Theory and considers his work relevant for the contemporary discussions about modernity and post-modernity as well.

Martin, James. Gramsci's Political Analysis. A Critical Introduction. Macmillan Press Ltd, Basingstoke [etc.]; St. Martin's Press New York 1998. x, 209 pp. £42.50.
In this new introduction to the ideas of Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937), Dr Martin critically examines Gramsci's contributions to the analysis of power and ideology, as contained in his concepts and categories in his celebrated Prison Notebooks written during his incarceration by the Fascists in the 1930s. The author places Gramsci in the context of Italy's social and political crises in the first decades of the twentieth century and interprets the Notebooks as theoretical responses to these crises. In his conclusion he assesses the uses and limitations of Gramsci's concepts for theorizing about state legitimacy and class politics.

Weinstein, D. Equal freedom and utility. Herbert Spencer's Liberal Utilitarianism. [Ideas in context, vol. 49.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1998. xii, 235 pp. £40.00; $64.95.
In this study Professor Weinstein aims to assess the contribution of the British sociologist and philosopher Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) to the emergence of liberal utilitarianism, as well as the logical integrity of his version of this movement. The author concludes that although, like John Stuart Mill, Spencer tried to reconcile a principle of liberty and strong moral rights with a utilitarian theory of good, his liberal utilitarian amalgam was less stable than Mill's philosophical standpoint, which highlights the philosophical stakes at issue in trying to systemize liberalism by liberalizing utilitarianism.


The French Revolution. Recent debates and new controversies. Ed. by Gary Kates. [Rewriting Histories.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1998. xii, 364 pp. £45.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
This collection of eleven previously published essays aims to chart the historiographical developments and debates around the French Revolution, especially those closely preceding and following the bicentennial of the Revolution. After the Marxist paradigm and the first attacks on it, illustrated in essays by Albert Soboul and Colin Lucas, the revisionist orthodoxy is represented by its chief representative François Furet and its American follower Keith Michael Baker. The Neo-Liberal and feminist responses to Furet's revisionism are expressed here by William Sewell Jr, John Markoff, Lynn Hunt and Olwen Hufton.

Gervasoni, Marco. Antonio Gramsci e la Francia. Dal mito della modernità alla "scienza della politica". Edizioni Unicopli, Milano 1998. 193 pp. L. 25.000.
Since his early years as a journalist, Gramsci studied France in the Modern Era, from the Revolution of 1789 to the 1930s. He was interested primarily in French intellectual circles and the Jacobine myth. The legacy of the French Revolution stimulated his ideas about what he called "the science of politics". This book covers his journalistic writings for the Grido del Popolo and Ordine Nuovo and his texts in the Quaderni del Carcere.

Haines, Robin F. Emigration and the Labouring Poor. Australian Recruitment in Britain and Ireland, 1831-60. Macmillan Press Ltd, Basingstoke [etc.] 1997; St. Martin's Press, Inc., New York. xvi, 397 pp. Maps. £47.50.
In this study Dr Haines examines in detail recruitment in Britain and Ireland for state-subsidized emigration to Australia between 1831 and 1860. Following extensive research in Australian, British and Irish archives, the author concludes that contrary to the popular myth that Australia received the cast-offs, selection procedures were very strict. Though predominantly rural and poor, the assisted emigrants were enterprising, literate individuals.

Historical controversies and historians. Ed. by William Lamont. UCL Press, London [etc.] 1998. xxiii, 242 pp. £40.00.
The eighteen contributions to this historiographical collection derive from an undergraduate course at the University of Sussex, intended to communicate the open-ended nature of the historical debate. The first part deals with famous contemporary and longer-existing historical controversies, such as the Goldhagen controversy (John C.G. Röhl), the use and abuse of oral history (Alistair Thomson), the reputation of Oliver Cromwell (Blair Worden) and race in South African history (Saul Dubow). The second part on historians features essays on R.H. Tawney (the editor), on E.P. Thompson (Eileen Janes Yeo) and on feminist approaches to women's history (Gerry Holloway).

The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery. Vol. I. A-K. Vol. II. L-Z. Gen. Ed.: Junius P. Rodriguez. ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara (Cal.) [etc.] 1997. xxxi, 394 pp. Ill. Maps. £89.95.
This two-volume encyclopaedia aims to document all aspects of the institution of slavery on a global scale. In more than 650 entries by over 200 experts from around the world, it explores the institution of slavery worldwide from ancient times to the present day. The topics examined include arguments supporting both slavery and abolition; slavery systems in different societies; laws and legal cases; slave rebellions; slave narratives and autobiographies; well-known slaves, abolitionists, and proponents of slavery; the African slave trade and the resulting 400-year diaspora; the views of leading thinkers on the institution of slavery; slavery in the various religious traditions.

Hobsbawm, Eric. Uncommon People. Resistance, Rebellion and Jazz. The New Press, New York 1998. viii, 360 pp. £27.50.
This collection brings together 26 essays by Professor Hobsbawm, written and in most cases previously published between the 1950s and the early 1990s. Displaying the broad range of Hobsbawm's work in the field of labour history, including varied topics such as the formation of the British working class, revolution and sex, socialism and the avant garde and banditism, the collection is subdivided into a section on the working class and the associated ideologies; a section on traditional peasantries; a section on jazz music as one of the few developments in the major arts rooted in the lives of poor people; and a section on contemporary historical topics.

International Fascism. Theories, Causes and the New Consensus. Ed. by Roger Griffin. [Arnold Readers in History.] Arnold, London [etc.], co-publ. in the USA by Oxford University Press, Inc., New York 1998. xv, 334 pp. £45.00. (Paper: £15.99.)
Starting out with conflicting definitions of fascism and progressing through a number of classic Marxist and non-Marxist interpretations, this secondary source reader brings together twenty-five texts, published between 1932 and 1996, which may be regarded as central to the subject or as historiographical benchmarks. With this selection, which includes classical essays by Benito Mussolini, Leon Trotsky, Nicos Poulantzas, Zeev Sternhell, Seymour Martin Lipset, Ernst Nolte, George L. Mosse and Stanley G. Payne, the editor aims not only to provide insight into the central issues in comparative fascist studies but also to present an argument supporting the existence of a new consensus on the fascist phenomenon.

Martino, Giulio de. La prospettiva del ‘68. Una forma di vita e di coscienza politica. Con un bibliografia sistematica. [Percorsi, 5.] Liguori Editore, Napoli 1998. viii, 331 pp. L. 28.000.
This essay reconstructs the historical genesis of the ideas and values championed by the 1968 movement and its emergence during and after that year. The author's research starts with the 1950s. Rather than covering only the doctrines of political factions, he addresses latent sentiments and diffuse theoretical movements. Changes abroad are included in the discourse as well. The author bases his reconstruction on extensive literature reflecting the movement's perspective. A bibliography of - rather than about - the movement and organized by general theme and subject concludes the book.

Marwick, Arthur. The Sixties. Cultural Revolution in Britain, France, Italy, and the United States, c.1958 - c.1974. Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 1998. xix, 903 pp. Ill. £25.00.
In this sizeable study Professor Marwick attempts to give a comprehensive overview of the cultural, social and political change in Britain, France, Italy and the United States between 1958 and 1974, which together make the cultural revolution known as the mythical sixties. Analyzing diverse phenomena such as sexual permissiveness, innovations in art, structuralism, the civil rights movement, feminism, improvements in material conditions, the rise of youth culture and trends towards individualism and self-expression, he argues that the sixties was no short-term era of ecstasy and excess but set the cultural and social agenda for the rest of the twentieth century.

Tilly, Chris [and] Charles Tilly. Work Under Capitalism. [New Perspectives in Sociology.] Westview Press, Boulder 1998. x, 326 pp. Ill. £53.00. (Paper: £16.50.)
See Jan Luiten van Zanden's review in this volume, pp. 111-112.

Toledano, Ehud R. Slavery and Abolition in the Ottoman Middle East. [Publications on the Near East.] University of Washington Press, Seattle [etc.] 1998. xii, 185 pp. $18.00.
This study of slavery in the Ottoman Empire aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the social, legal and economic status of the diverse types of slaves in the Ottoman Middle East in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, as well as a comparison with slavery systems in other societies. Professor Toledano explores the situations of the individuals representing the principal realms of Ottoman slavery: female harem slaves, the kuls (military and civilian officeholders of slave origin), court and elite eunuchs, domestic slaves, Circassian agricultural slaves, slave dealers and slave owners.

Trotsky BIBLIOGRAPHY. An International Classified List of Publications about Leon Trotsky and Trotskyism 1905-1998. Third, completely rev. and enl. ed. Comp. and ed. by Wolfgang and Petra Lubitz. K.G. Saur, München 1999. xxvii, 840 pp. (In 2 vols.) DM 368.00; S.fr. 328.00; S 2686.00.
This is a substantially enlarged and revised third edition of the bibliography on Leon Trotsky and Trotskyism, the first having been noticed in IRSH, 28 (1983), pp. 346f., the second in 34 (1989), p. 141. In this third edition the number of entries is almost three times the number in the first edition: around 9,500 entries, written in some 25 languages and published in ca. 50 countries.


Giddens, Anthony. The Third Way. The Renewal of Social Democracy. Polity Press, Oxford; Blackwell Publishers Inc., Malden (MA) 1998. x, 166 pp. £7.99.
Dr Giddens, who is generally considered one of Britain's New Labour ideologists, presents in this book a concise overview of an ideological framework for the renewal of the present-day British social democracy, which has become known as "the Third Way". According to Dr Giddens, contemporary social democracy faces five major dilemmas: globalization, and its implications for national politics; individualism; the different meaning of the political division between left and right; political agency; and integration of ecological issues into social-democratic politics. He then sketches the solutions that Third Way politics and ideas may bring to these dilemmas. CONTINENTS AND COUNTRIES



Bourouiba, Boualem. Les syndicalistes algériens. Leur combat. De l'éveil à la libération. [Histoire et Perspectives Méditerranéennes.] L'Harmattan, Paris; L'Harmattan Inc., Montréal 1998. 454 pp. F.fr. 240.00.
The first signs of incipient Algerian nationalism appeared after World War I among the Algerian workers residing in the suburbs of Paris. They derived their lessons from French syndicalism. This book about the history of Algerian syndicalism also deals with Algerian nationalism, as the syndicalists who were members of the nationalist movements waged the lion's share of the struggle for trade unions. The Union Générale des Travailleurs Algériens was established during the War of Independence in 1956. The author bases his work in part on several interviews with activists.

South Africa

Scully, Pamela. Liberating the Family? Gender and British Slave Emancipation in the Rural Western Cape, South Africa, 1823-1853. [Social History of Africa Series.] Heinemann, Portsmouth (NH); James Currey, Oxford; David Philip, Cape Town 1997. xiv, 210 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £15.95.)
The emancipation of slaves in the British Cape Colony in 1838, as Professor Scully argues in this study, initiated an era of exceptional contestation about cultural categories and sensibilities: both gender relations and the relation between the individual and society were reshaped dramatically. Covering the period from the start of the amelioration in 1823 to 1853, when the Cape Colony received a form of self-rule, the author analyzes Cape slavery and emancipation primarily through the views and action of the (former) slaves themselves, paying particular attention to the social and economic position of black women.


Border Crossings. Mexican and Mexican-American Workers. Ed. by John Mason Hart. SR Books, Wilmington (DE) 1998. xii, 246 pp. [Latin American silhouettes.] $55.00. (Paper: $18.95.)
The ten essays in this volume examine the historical process of the formation of the Mexican and Mexican-American working classes, the experiences of Mexican workers from their cultural beginnings and the rise of industrialism in Mexico to the late twentieth century in the United States. Themes dealt with include the similar social experiences and strategies of Mexican workers in both countries, the formation of communities and community organizations, mutual aid efforts, migration, the roles of women and the formation of political groups and labour organizations.


Patrick Lenihan: From Irish Rebel to Founder of Canadian Public Sector Unionism. Ed. by Gilbert Levine, with an Introd. by Lorne Brown. Canadian Committee on Labour History, St. John's 1998. 203 pp. Ill. C$19.95.
Patrick Lenihan (1903-1981) was a prominent labour activist and leading figure in the Communist Party of Canada who stood at the cradle of the Canadian Union of Public Employees (CUPE), the first national union of public employees in Canada. Based on extensive interviews conducted in 1977 by the editor, formerly Research Director of the CUPE, this book chronicles Lenihan's lifetime. Dr Brown places Lenihan's life and work in the historical context of the Canadian labour movement and Canadian communism from the 1930s to the 1960s.


Casanovas, Joan. Bread, or Bullets! Urban Labor and Spanish Colonialism in Cuba, 1850-1898. [Pitt Latin American Series.] University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh 1998. xiii, 320 pp. Ill. $45.00. (Paper: $19.95.)
This study examines the evolution of the urban popular classes in Cuba during the last five decades of Spanish rule of the island (1850-1898) and the ways in which working-class Cubans tried to better their lives in the context of the transition from slave to free labour and the fluctuations of Spanish colonial rule. Considering all the urban popular classes, both free and unfree, as interconnected and in constant evolution, Professor Casanovas aims to show that Cuban labour organizations in this period embraced several ideologies and tactics of class struggle to improve working conditions and influence socio-political change.


Harvey, Neil. The Chiapas Rebellion. The Struggle for Land and Democracy. Duke University Press, Durham [etc.] 1998. xviii, 293 pp. Ill. Maps. £34.00. (Paper: £11.95.)
See Raymond Buve's review in this volume, pp. 128-130.

Henderson, Timothy J. The Worm in the Wheat. Rosalie Evans and Agrarian Struggle in the Puebla-Tlaxcala Valley of Mexico, 1906-1927. Duke University Press, Durham [etc.] 1998. ix, 288 pp. Ill. £37.00. (Paper: £12.95.)
Rosalie Evans (1875-1924), an American landowner in the south of Mexico, was killed in the course of a violent conflict over agrarian reform in the Mexican Revolution. The publication of her correspondence, which revealed her side of the story, aroused much international public attention. In this detailed exploration of the circumstances surrounding this dramatic event, Professor Henderson aims to shed light on the revolutionary process in Mexico in the first decades of the twentieth century and the complexity of international, national, state and local politics involved.

United States of America

Atleson, James B. Labor and the Wartime State. Labor Relations and Law During World War II. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1998. x, 308 pp. $49.95. (Paper: $21.95.)
This study examines the development of labour relations, labour regulations and labour law in the United States during the 1940s and, specifically, during the wartime period as a critical time in the formation of legal ideas and labour relations policies and institutions. Focusing on the National War Labor Board (established in January 1942), Professor Atleson explores the Board's treatment of arbitration, strikes, the scope of bargaining and the issue of union security. He argues that wartime necessities considerably changed relations not only with management but also between rank-and-file union members and their leaders.

Boylan, James. Revolutionary Lives. Anna Strunsky and William English Walling. University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst 1998. iv, 334 pp. Ill. £27.95.This is a biographical study of the American journalist-activist and socialist William English Walling (1877-1936) and his wife, the novelist and journalist Anna Strunsky (1877-1964). Both celebrities in their time, who interacted with an elite circle of writers, journalists and reformers, they shared a common socialist political commitment. Walling was pivotal in establishing the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, while Strunsky collaborated intensively with the socialist author Jack London. Their political and personal lives eventually split over their diverging ideas on America's participation in World War I.

Chateauvert, Melinda. Marching Together. Women of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. [Women in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1998. xiv, 267 pp. Ill. $17.95.
This study examines the history of the Ladies' Auxiliary of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (BSCP). The Auxiliary, formed in the 1930s, and made up of the wives, daughters and sisters of Pullman porters, gave critical political and financial support to the first national trade union for African Americans, thereby shaping public debates on black manhood and unionization. Based on extensive archival research, Dr Chateauvert aims to show that through the auxiliary, women became labour-conscious activists who played a crucial role in organizing civil rights campaigns, as well as in consumer and workers' protests.

A Circle of Trust. Remembering SNCC. Ed. by Cheryl Lynn Greenberg. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick (NJ) [etc.] 1998. xvii, 275 pp. $50.00. (Paper: $20.00.)
In 1988, a conference was held in Connecticut in honour of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Some five hundred former activists and historians attended to commemorate and critique SNCC's accomplishments in the civil rights movement. Professor Greenberg gives an overview of the history of the SNCC and, based on the transcripts of that gathering, brings together the reflections of the participants on the SNCC's origins, its early adoption of non-violent protest, its ultimate renunciation of liberal integration and embrace of militant black radicalism, its refusal to repudiate extreme-left organizations and controversies over the roles of women in the SNCC and society at large.

Cook, Robert. Sweet Land of Liberty? The African-American Struggle for Civil Rights in the Twentieth Century. [Studies in Modern History.] Longman, London [etc.] 1998. xii, 324 pp. $73.75.This textbook aims to give a comprehensive overview of the American civil rights movement in the twentieth century. Beginning with the rise of segregation in the late nineteenth century, Dr Cook chronicles the emergence and growth of the civil rights movement, which began to gain ground in the mid-twentieth century, with a dramatic shift in the pace of reform in the 1960s. The study's main emphasis is on the efforts of African Americans to liberate themselves with the aid of resources grounded firmly in the black community.

Dublin, Thomas. When the Mines Closed. Stories of Struggles in Hard Times. Photographs by George Harvan. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1998. xiv, 257 pp. Ill. £40.95. (Paper: £12.50.)
This documentary history of anthracite mining in northeastern Pennsylvania and its decline after World War II is based on extensive interviews with people who experienced the dramatic changes in employment opportunities as workers in the mines or in garment factories. Illustrated with a large selection of photographs by George Harvan, a local photographer who spent a lifetime working in this region, Professor Dublin sketches how the people in the region drew on their ethnic and working-class values and tradition to cope with these changes. In his introduction, the author offers a brief history of anthracite mining and the region.

Encyclopedia of the American Left. Second Ed. Ed. by Mari Jo Buhle, Paul Buhle, and Dan Georgakas. Oxford University Press, New York [etc.] 1998. £75.00.
This is the second revised and considerably enlarged edition of this encyclopaedia on the history of the American left, the first edition of which was published in 1990. With some 350 contributors, over 600 entries and more than seventy new articles, now including pre-Civil War movements and important reformers and reform groups from the late nineteenth century, as well as more contemporary figures, this richly illustrated encyclopaedia aims to offer the first comprehensive reference work on the subject. As in the first edition, the primary focus is on the radical rather than on the reformist tradition. In addition to a general bibliography and an extensive index, a glossary of common terms in the American left is appended.

Freedom's Soldiers. The Black Military Experience in the Civil War. Ed. by Ira Berlin, Joseph P. Reidy, [and] Leslie S. Rowland. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1998. xvi, 192 pp. Ill. £35.00; $49.95. (Paper: £12.95; $14.95.)
In 1976 historians of the Freedmen and Southern Society Project began the multi-volume documentary history Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861-1867. The first volume, The Black Military Experience (1982) provided evidence of the role of black soldiers presented in several hundred letters, affidavits and memorials, written by soldiers, their families, their officers and other eyewitnesses. This volume is a shortened and more accessible version of the soldiers' stories, selected from materials initially published in The Black Military Experience and other volumes of the Freedom project.

Hamilton, Neil A. The ABC-CLIO Companion to The 1960s Counterculture in America. ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara 1997. xv, 386 pp. Ill. $60.00.
This encyclopaedia presents more than 400 alphabetically arranged and cross-referenced entries covering the people, groups, organizations, art, music, ideas, locations, events and authors related to the 1960s counterculture in the United States. Professor Hamilton broadly defines counterculture as any cultural or political challenge to mainstream values and practices of the day and includes the antiwar movement against the Vietnam War and the emerging multicultural civil rights, women's and minority rights movement. In his introduction he aims to place the counterculture movements in the perspective of their successive stages of development.

Messer-Kruse, Timothy. The Yankee International. Marxism and the American Reform Tradition, 1848-1876. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 1998. xiii, 319 pp. Ill. $41.95. (Paper: $14.50.)
In this history of the first international socialist organization in the United States, the International Workingman's Association (IWA), Professor Messer-Kruse focuses on the clash between the American reform tradition and immigrant Marxism during the Reconstruction Era (1864-1876). Exploring the ideology and activities of the Yankee Internationalists, he argues that the Yankee reformers' priority of racial and sexual equality proved incompatible with the German immigrants' Marxist strategy of infiltrating trade unions and demands for ideological unity and party discipline and led to a rift between American Marxism and the American reform tradition.

The Samuel Gompers Papers. Vol. 6. The American Federation of Labor and the Rise of Progressivism 1902-6. Eds: Stuart B. Kaufman, Peter J. Albert, [and] Grace Palladino. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1997. xxvi, 629 pp. $85.00.
This is the sixth volume of a projected twelve volume series, offering a rich selection of documents by and about Samuel Gompers (1850-1924), co-founder and president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) for almost four decades. During the period covered in this volume (1902-1906), the AFL began to participate more actively in the electoral process. Building its own non-partisan political tradition, the AFL embraced progressive political reforms that promised to increase the direct influence of workers on labour legislation.

Schofield, Ann. "To do & to be": Portraits of Four Women Activists, 1893-1986. Gertrude Barnum 1866-1948, Mary Dreier 1876-1963, Pauline Newman c. 1888-1986, [and] Rose Pesotta 1896-1965. Northeastern University Press, Boston 1997. xi, 183 pp. Ill. £40.00. (Paper: £14.95.)
In this study Professor Schofield interweaves the public and private lives of four women activists who deeply affected the status of women wage workers in the American garment trade: Gertrude Barnum (1866-1948), organizer and writer for the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU); Mary Dreier (1876-1963), suffragist and co-founder of the New York Women's Trade Union League (NYWTUL); Pauline Newman (c. 1888-1986), socialist organizer and union official; and Rose Pesotta (1896-1965), highest ranking woman unionist in the ILGWU. The author highlights various common themes in the lives of the four women, such as the controversies over women's wage labour, alternative lifestyles and the struggle to improve the brutal conditions in the sweatshops.

Scott, Ivan. Upton Sinclair, the Forgotten Socialist. [Studies in American Literature, vol. 23.] The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston [etc.] 1997. xv, 397 pp. $109.95.This is a biographical study of the American novelist, journalist and socialist Upton Sinclair (1878-1968), author of the famous naturalistic, proletarian novel The Jungle (1906), depicting the exploitation and poor working conditions in the meat-packing industry. Mr Scott gives a chronological overview of Sinclair's life and his literary and political career. The author argues that Sinclair is remembered only for his literary work and not for his socialism, because at the end of his life many of his socialist ideals were in fact realized in the American liberal democracy of the 1960s.

W.E.B. DuBois, Race, and the City. The Philadelphia Negro and Its Legacy. Ed. by Michael B. Katz and Thomas J. Sugrue. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 1998. xii, 288 pp. Ill. $37.95; £36.95. (Paper: $18.50; £17.50.)
In 1896, W.E.B. DuBois began his research that after three years culminated in the publication of his classic of urban sociology and history The Philadelphia Negro. Celebrating the centenary of DuBois's project, the nine contributions to this volume situate his work in the intellectual milieu of the late nineteenth century, consider his contributions to the subsequent social scientific and historical studies of the city and to the study of race and assess the meaning of his work for contemporary urban sociology.

Wells, David R. Consumerism and the Movement of Housewives into Wage Work. The interaction of patriarchy, class and capitalism in twentieth century America. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 1998. x, 188 pp. £25.00.
Connecting the class nature and the gender nature with the rise of consumerism in twentieth-century United States, Dr Wells argues in this study that consumerism, though a key element in the successful establishment of the homemaker ideal, has ultimately undermined it and has become an important motivating factor for women to move into wage work. Investigating trends in women's wage work in different social classes in relation to both consumerism and the social and gender dynamics within the household, he concludes that particularly for middle and upper-class women, wage work has become a means toward the twofold objective of a higher standard living and greater marital power.



The Jews of China. Vol. One. Historical and Comparative Perspectives. Ed. and with an Introd. by Jonathan Goldstein. Concluding Essay by Benjamin I. Schwartz. [An East Gate Book.] M.E. Sharpe, Armonk (NY) [etc.] 1999. xxiv, 308 pp. Ill. $69.95. (Paper: $29.95.)
The twenty essays in this volume, written by an interdisciplinary group of Chinese, Japanese, Middle Eastern and Western sinologists and Judaic studies specialists, deal with the patterns of migration, acculturation, assimilation and economic activity among successive waves of Jewish arrivals in China from the twelfth century to 1949. Both the editor in his introduction and Professor Schwartz in a concluding essay aim to compare the experiences of Jews in China with other Jewish Diaspora communities. A second volume offers a source book and a research guide on the subject.

Lawrance, Alan. China under Communism. [The Making of the Contemporary World.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1998. xiv, 158 pp. Ill. £30.00.
This introductory textbook offers a concise history of the Chinese Communists since their accession to power in 1949. Included are discussions of the changing relationship with Russia and the United States; the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution; the rise of market forces under Deng Xiaoping, leading to impressive economic growth; and problems of modernization and repression of demands for democratic reforms in June 1989.


Chandavarkar, Rajnarayan. Imperial power and popular politics. Class, resistance and the state in India, c. 1850-1950. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1998. xii, 388 pp. £50.00; $64.95. (Paper: £16.95; $24.95.)
In the nine essays in this collection, three of which were previously published, Dr Chandavakar investigates the interplay between class relations and political discourse in late nineteenth and early twentieth-century India. Rejecting the Orientalist view of Indian social and economic development as unique and exceptional and aiming to demonstrate the inadequacy of culture as the dominant tool of historical analysis, he reasserts the critical role of the working class in shaping the pattern of Indian capitalist development. Emphasizing the fluidity and flexibility of the relationships between discourse and power, language and political practice, he aims to offer an alternative schematic view of the process of class formation in India.


Sternhell, Zeev. The Founding Myths of Israel. Nationalism, Socialism, and the Making of the Jewish State. Transl. by David Maisel. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1998. xv, 419 pp. £25.00.
See David De Vries's review in this volume, pp. 123-128.


Mackie, Vera. Creating Socialist Women in Japan. Gender, Labour and Activism, 1900-1937. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1997. ix, 252 pp. Ill. £37.50; $54.95.
From the 1900s onward, women in Japan became active in socialist groups, and in the 1920s socialist women tried to reach working women through the women's departments in unions and left-wing political parties. Outlining the major socialist women's organizations, surveying the debates among feminists and analysing socialist women's writings, Dr Mackie explores in this study the speaking positions available to socialist women in Japan in this period, the strategies they employed in their writings and the political strategies they envisaged for changing their societies.


Scates, Bruce. A New Australia. Citizenship, Radicalism and the First Republic. [Studies in Australian History.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1997. vii, 261 pp. Ill. £45.00; $64.95. (Paper: £16.95; $22.95.)
Whereas the study of nineteenth-century Australian radicalism has hitherto focused mainly on labour politics, this study by Dr Scates addresses the broader cultural, political and gender background of late nineteenth-century radicals. Covering divergent groups such as the single tax movement, anarchists, feminists, republicans and socialists, he examines both the utopian projects of the 1890s and the influence of the radicals on the culture and institutions of organized labour.


Howell, Martha C. The Marriage Exchange. Property, Social Place, and Gender in Cities of the Low Countries, 1300-1550. [Women in Culture and Society.] The University of Chicago Press, Chicago [etc.] 1998. xv, 278 pp. $52.00; £41.50. (Paper: $19.00; £15.25.)
Based on extensive materials from the late medieval period in the archives of Douai, then one of the wealthiest cloth towns in Flanders, this study examines the regulation and redefinition of property and gender relations. Professor Howell aims to show that in this period a transformation occurred from a marital property regime based on custom to one based on contract. Although this legal reform had profound implications for both the social and the gender order, she argues that the reform was less the outcome of a contest between men and women or the triumph of one social group's interests than a more complex historical process in which the meaning of property, social status and gender were transformed.

Leboutte, René. Vie et mort des bassins industriels en Europe 1750-2000. Éditions L'Harmattan, Paris; L'Harmattan Inc., Montréal 1997. 591 pp. Maps. F.fr.
Europe's large industrial basins were formed between 1750 and 1850 depending on the region and began to decline in the 1960s. Extensive heavy industry, infrastructure and densely-populated working-class towns arose around the mining areas. In the European Union 10 to 15% of the population resides in these former industrial basins. The present study, which covers social and economic history, reflects a regional perspective and aims to compensate for the lack of comparative historiography on the industrial basins. The author formulates his research question in terms of a society's ability to adapt to economic changes.

Lewald, Fanny. A Year of Revolutions. Fanny Lewald's Recollections of 1848. Transl., ed., and ann. by Hanna Ballin Lewis. Berghahn Books, Providence [etc.] 1997. viii, 164 pp. $42.00.
Fanny Lewald (1811-1889) was a well-known journalist, novelist and travel writer in Germany and befriended with leading liberal and Jewish intellectuals, artists and writers, such as Heinrich Heine, Johann Jacoby, Arnold Ruge and Georg Herwergh. The reports of her travels to Paris, Berlin and Frankfurt am Main during the revolutionary period 1848/1849 were first published in 1850 and have been translated here into English for the first time. In her introduction, Professor Lewis gives a biographical sketch of Lewald, as well as a short overview of the revolutionary events of the period.

Simonton, Deborah. A history of European women's work. 1700 to the present. Routledge, London [etc.] 1998. xii, 337 pp. £16.99.
See Jane Humphries's review in this volume, pp. 112-114.

Te Brake, Wayne. Shaping History. Ordinary People in European Politics 1500-1700. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1998. xiii, 221 pp. $40.00; £30.00. (Paper: $15.95; £11.95.)
Building on studies of popular collective action of the last two decades, this study attempts to synthesize what Professor Te Brake labels as the social history of European politics during the tumultuous era beginning with the Protestant Reformation and ending with the so-called Crisis of the Seventeenth Century. The author aims to show how ordinary people in this period broke down the institutional and cultural barriers that separated elite from popular politics and began to participate fully in the historical process of European state formation.

Eire - Ireland

Golway, Terry. Irish Rebel. John Devoy and America's Fight for Ireland's Freedom. St. Martin's Press, New York 1998. xi, 371 pp. Ill. $26.95.This is a biography of the Irish rebel and Fenian activist John Devoy (1842-1928). Arrested in 1866 for his involvement in the preparation of a Fenian rising, he was expelled to the United States in 1871. There, during the following decades, he gained great financial and moral support for the cause of Irish independence and became instrumental in both the Easter Rising of 1916 and the establishment of the Irish Free State.

Litton, Helen. Irish Rebellions 1798-1916. An Illustrated History. Picture Research: Peter Costello. Wolfhound Press, Dublin; The Irish American Book Company, Niwot (Col.) [etc.] 1998. 128 pp. Ill. £6.99.
This richly illustrated short introductory text offers a concise survey of the most known rebellions of Irish history, from the United Irishmen in 1798 to the Irish Volunteers and the Easter Rising of 1916. Highlighting the lives and deeds of famous rebels such as Wolfe Tone, Robert Emmet, Patrick Pearse and James Connolly, the author questions in her epilogue whether, in the long run, Ireland might have been better off without these rebellions.


Chambelland, Colette. Pierre Monatte, une autre voix syndicaliste. [La Part des Hommes.] Les Éditions de l'Atelier/Les Éditions Ouvrières, Paris 1999. 192 pp. Ill. F.fr. 125.00; i 19.06.
"Our circles no longer experience the delight of serious reading material or the power of determined and sincere reflection." Pierre Monatte (1881-1960) wrote these words during World War I, when he wondered which weaknesses of the CGT had enabled the demise of internationalism in the labour movement along with the catastrophe of the war. Monatte was a proof-reader by trade and a publicist by calling. He helped found several periodicals that played a major role in French revolutionary syndicalism, such as La Vie Ouvrière (1909) and La Bataille Syndicaliste (1911). Colette Chambelland, a former curator of the Musée Social in Paris, based this biography of a good friend of her parents on sources such as his many years of entries in his diary and his correspondence.

Craipeau, Yvan. Mémoires d'un dinosaure trotskyste. Secrétaire de Trotsky en 1933. L'Harmattan, Paris; L'Harmattan Inc., Montréal 1999. 363 pp. F.fr. 180.00.
In his autobiography Yvan Craipeau (1911), who previously published his war memoirs and various works on Trotskyism and socialism, relates his personal and political recollections. When he was eighteen, he joined the Ligue Communiste of Pierre Franck, Pierre Naville and Raymond Molinier. In 1933, he and Jean van Heijenoort became Trotsky's secretaries during Trotsky's stay in Saint-Palais. From that point until 1947, when he left the Trotskyist movement, his personal life coincided with that of the organization. After teaching philosophy on Guadeloupe for a while, he returned to Paris in 1954 and joined the new-left movements being established at the time and, finally, the Parti Socialiste Unifié. He participated in the May movement of 1968 but left the PSU in 1978, when he became disillusioned with politics.

Duboin, Jacques. Le socialisme distributiste. Jacques Duboin 1878-1976. Présentation de l'œuvre et choix de textes par Jean-Paul Lambert. Préface d'Alain Caillé. L'Harmattan, Paris; L'Harmattan Inc., Montréal 1998. 191 pp. F.fr. Between 1923 and 1961 Jacques Duboin (1878-1976) published twenty works detailing his economic ideas, which he ultimately combined into a cohesive theory known as distributive socialism, or abondancisme in French. He acquired a following, and the movement exists in France to this day. To end unemployment and social inequality, he proposed that everyone receive an identical lump sum that would equal production by unit of time; that the work be divided equally among everybody; and that technology and science minimize work and maximize production. This book is an anthology of Duboin's texts and features extensive commentaries by the editor.

Hyman, Paula E. The Jews of Modern France. [Jewish Communities in the Modern World, vol. 1.] University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1998. xii, 283 pp. Ill. $45.00; £30.00. (Paper: $16.95; £10.95.)
This study gives a chronological overview of the complex relationship between France and its Jews from the years just before the French Revolution to the present day. Professor Hyman focuses, among others, on the opportunities for integration and acculturation, which began when French Jews were offered citizenship during the Revolution, on the secular political anti-Semitism during the Dreyfus Affair and the Holocaust, and on the way French Jews have asserted the compatibility of their French identity with various versions of Jewish particularity, including Zionism.

Martin, Jacques. Élie Gounelle. Apôtre et inspirateur du christianisme social. [Religion & Sciences Humaines.] Éditions L'Harmattan, Paris; L'Harmattan Inc., Montréal 1999. Ill. F.fr.
The author of this biography of Élie Gounelle (1865-1950) was, like Gounelle, a member of the Protestant branch of the social-Christian movement. As a preacher, Gounelle became acquainted with the working class and learned of the social and economic problems of the workers and became aware of the church's responsibilities. Gounelle became one of the movement's leaders and figured prominently in its journal Christianisme Social. This book is both a biography of Gounelle and a history of the movement.

Nézosi, Gilles. La fin de l'homme du fer. Syndicalisme et crise de la sidérurgie. [Logiques Politiques.] L'Harmattan, Paris; L'Harmattan Inc., Montréal 1999. 303 pp. F.fr.
The metal workers of Longwy staged two uprisings against the plans to restructure their industry: in 1978 and in 1984. Although this mobilization of the "men of iron" was always represented as a sign of their strength, this workers' bastion disappeared surprisingly quickly. The book's author questions whether the first restructuring plan of 1978 marked the start of the decline, or whether the process had begun far sooner. A long-term study covering the local union chapters of CGT and CFDT from 1963 until the late 1980s based on archival material and interviews with union members reveals that the CGT had already lost half its membership following an unsuccessful strike in 1967, and that it managed to conceal this weakened position through its ideology of glorifying the "man of iron".

Rogard, Vincent. Les catholiques et la question sociale Morlaix 1840-1914. L'avènement des militants. Préface de Jean-Marie Mayeur. [Histoire.] Presses Universitaire de Rennes, Rennes 1997. 488 pp. Ill. DM 190.00.
In this revised edition of a dissertation (Sorbonne, 1991) Dr Rogard examines the emergence of the Catholic social movement in and around the Morlaix, a town in the western part of Brittany, between 1840 and 1914. After dealing with the Catholic charity efforts, directed primarily at alleviating poverty, he subsequently explores the emerging Catholic youth movement at the end of the nineteenth century and its rivalry with the socialist movement to incorporate the growing workers' movement.

Serna, Pierre. Antonelle. Aristocrate révolutionnaire 1747-1817. Éditions du Félin, Paris 1997. 499 pp. F.fr. 169.00.
This is a comprehensive biography of Pierre Antonelle (1747-1817), revolutionary aristocrat and democrat, first mayor of Arles, deputy in the National Constituent Assembly, member of the revolutionary tribunal that condemned Marie-Antionette, Babeuf's ally and fellow organizer in the conspiration des Égaux and contributor to the Journal des Hommes libres. Dr Serna aims to restore Antonelle to his due place among the most influential French revolutionaries, alongside individuals such as Condorcet, Danton and Robespierre, among the fathers of representative democracy.

Turpin, Pierre. Les révolutionnaires dans la France social-démocrate 1981-1995. L'Harmattan, Paris 1997. 475 pp. F.fr.
This book analyses the changes in the revolutionary organizations in France during the two terms of President Mitterrand (1981-1995). Such organizations were to the left of the social democrats and the communists. The focus is on the three main Trotskyist movements, which proved more stable than the maoists and the new-leftist groups. The author submits that the Trotskyists derived their basis for existence from their unveiling of the "betrayal" of marxism by socialists and communists. The author bases his analysis on the many press publications by the concerned organizations and on his own testimony. The study is highly comparative and highlights differences and similarities between the organizations.


Bernstein, Eduard. Die deutsche Revolution von 1918/19. Geschichte der Entstehung und ersten Arbeitsperiode der deutschen Republik. Hrsg. und eingel. von Heinrich August Winkler und annotiert von Teresa Löwe. Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 1998. 352 pp. DM 32.00; S.fr. 31.00; S 234.00.
This is a new annotated edition of Eduard Bernstein's history of the German Revolution of 1918/1919, which was first published in 1921. Bernstein, the founding father of the social-democratic revisionism who had joined forces during World War I with the independent social democrats of the USPD, argued in this study that the advanced state of industrialization and democratization accounted for the relative moderation of the German Revolution. In his introduction, Professor Winkler sketches Bernstein's political and ideological position in German social democracy during the Weimar era.

Between Reform and Revolution. German Socialism and Communism from 1840 to 1990. Ed. by David E. Barclay and Eric D. Weitz. Berghahn Books, New York [etc.] 1998. xi, 580 pp. £55.00.
The twenty-three contributions to this volume explore the impact of socialism and communism on modern German history in general and on the history of the German working class and labour movement in particular from 1830 to the 1990s. Covering social history generally, labour and women's history, gender studies and the history of everyday life, as well as topical historiography, and including both German and American scholars, the editors have aimed to capture with these original contributions the methodological and thematic diversity of current historical research.

Franz Mehring (1846-1919). Beiträge der Tagung vom 8. bis 9. November 1996 in Hamburg anläßlich seines 150. Geburtstags. Hrsg. von Wolfgang Beutin [und] Wilfried Hoppe. [Bremer Beiträge zur Literatur- und Ideengeschichte, Band 20.] Peter Lang, Frankfurt/M. [etc.] 1997. 157 pp. S.fr. 44.00.
These are the proceedings of a colloquium organized in honour of the 150th birthday of Franz Mehring (1846-1919), the first historian of German social democracy. The contributions cover subjects including Mehring's call for attention to art and culture within the German socialist movement, his views on democracy, his philosophical writings and his correspondence. An essay on war and peace in Mehring's work is appended.

Frauen arbeiten. Weibliche Erwerbstätigkeit in Ost- und Westdeutschland nach 1945. Hrsg. von Gunilla-Friederike Budde. [Sammlung Vandenhoeck.] Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1997. 301 pp. DM 39.00.
The eleven contributions to this volume explore and compare women's wage labour in East and West Germany from 1945 to 1989. Women's participation in wage labour has traditionally been viewed as a barometer of their emancipation. The contributors examine this relationship for both Germanies in various sectors of the economy and conclude that although a larger share of women in East Germany was involved in wage labour, the professional and social status of East-German women was not necessarily better than that of their West-German counterparts.

Goerner, Martin Georg. Die Kirche als Problem der SED. Strukturen kommunistischer Herrschaftsausübung gegenüber der evangelischen Kirche 1945 bis 1958. [Studien des Forschungsverbundes SED-Staat an der Freien Universität Berlin.] Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1997. xii, 433 pp. DM 98.00.
The Protestant churches in East Germany can be considered the only democratic societal organization in the one-party system of the Communist SED. This dissertation (Potsdam, 1995) examines the changes in the SED policy regarding the churches, which continued to work with West-German churches in the "Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland" (EKD). Dr Goerner finds that whereas in the period 1945-1953, SED policy towards the churches was very incoherent, alternating between fierce oppression and tactical offers to cooperate, from the middle of 1953 onward a more strategic, long-term policy was devised at the instigation of the Soviet Union.

Graf, Angela. J.H.W. Dietz 1843-1922. Verleger der Sozialdemokratie. Mit einem Nachwort von Horst Heidermann "Zur Nachkriegsgeschichte des Verlags J.H.W. Dietz Nachf.". [Politik- und Gesellschaftsgeschichte, Band 50.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 1998. 357 pp. Ill. DM 48.00; S.fr. 46.00; S 350.00.
See Jan Gielkens's review in this volume, pp. 116-119.

Haag, Jaap. Inventar des Nachlasses Wolfgang Abendroth (1906-1985). 1923-1985 (-1995). [IISG Werkuitgave/Working Paper, 36.] Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1997. xii, 60 pp. D.fl. 19.00.
This is the inventory of the papers at the International Institute of Social History (IISH), Amsterdam left by the German legal scholar and political scientist and socialist Wolfgang Abendroth (1906-1985). Abendroth, author of works such as Die deutsche Gewerkschaften (1954), Aufstieg und Krise der deutsche Sozialdemokratie (1964) and Sozialgeschichte der europäischen Arbeiterbewegung (1965), is considered one of the major proponents of the student revolts in the 1960s, although he was never personally in favour of revolutionary pursuit by a small (intellectual) minority.

Hippel, Wolfgang von. Revolution im deutschen Südwesten. Das Großherzogtum Baden 1848/49. [Schriften zur politischen Landeskunde Baden-Württembergs, Band 26.] Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart [etc.] 1998. 408 pp. Maps. DM 78.00; S.fr. 71.00; S 569.00.
In this history of the Revolution of 1848/1849 in the grand duchy Baden, Professor von Hippel sketches how the revolutionary events were intertwined with the general developments in Germany at the time. He emphasizes the complexity of the revolutionary process, which, in his opinion, cannot be viewed merely in terms of the aspirations for democratic reform only but involved an intricate ensemble of political, social and economic developments and conflicts.

Integration in Dispute 1871-1918. [By] Steven M. Lowenstein, Paul Mendes-Flohr, Peter Pulzer [and] Monika Richarz. [German-Jewish History in Modern Times, vol. 3.] Columbia University Press, New York [1998]. viii, 466 pp. Ill. $50.00.
This is the English version of the third volume in a series of four on German-Jewish history from the early modern period to 1945 (see IRSH, 43 (1998), pp. 179f., and 44, pp. 133, 137).

Kraushaar, Wolfgang (Hg.). Frankfurter Schule und Studentenbewegung. Von der Flaschenpost zum Molotowcocktail 1946-1995. Band 1: Chronik. Band 2: Dokumente. Band 3: Aufsätze und Kommentare, Register. Rogner & Bernhard bei Zweitausendeins, Frankfurt/M. 1998. 607 pp.; 859 pp.; 348 pp. Ill. DM 75.00.
This three-volume edition offers an extensive overview of the complex relationship between the scholars of the Institut für Sozialforschung in Frankfurt am Main, better known as the Frankfurter Schule, and the radical German students' movement of the 1960s, which had its headquarters in Frankfurt. The social philosophers Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer and their younger colleague Jürgen Habermas are often considered the theorists of the radical leftist protest movement of the 1960s. At the same time, the relationship between professors and students deteriorated rapidly from the mid-1960s onward and even led to open conflict when the scholars denounced student political actions, such as demonstrations, sit-ins and blockades against the established capitalist system. Volume 1 offers a comprehensive and detailed chronicle of all events related to the subject between 1 February 1946, when the Frankfurter University reopened its doors, and 1995, when editorial work on the project was concluded. A selection of relevant documents, including correspondence, pamphlets and press statements, appears in volume 2. In volume 3, seventeen essays by concerned contemporaries and others, some published previously, relate various aspects of the student protest movement and its relation to the Frankfurter Schule. Included are contributions by Frank Böckelmann, Detlev Claussen, Rudolf zur Lippe, Oskar Negt, Reimut Reiche and Mona Steffen. Indices on persons and political organizations, as well as extensive bibliographies, are appended.

Landesarchiv Berlin. Bearb. von Eckhardt Fuchs und Rosemarie Lewin. [Inventar zur Geschichte der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung in den staatlichen Archiven der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Reihe C, Überlieferungen der Stadtstaaten, Band 3.] K.G. Saur, München 1997. xxxvi, 173 pp. DM 178.00; S.fr. 158.00; S 1299.00.
This is the third volume of the third series of surveys of archives on the German labour movement, containing the archives of the city-states (see IRSH, 37 (1992), p. 437, and 38 (1993), p. 433 for the previous volumes in these series). This volume contains a detailed systematic overview of materials in the Landesarchiv Berlin, encompassing materials from the municipal administration until 1945 and from various governmental, administrative and other bodies and organizations after 1945.

Planert, Ute. Antifeminismus im Kaiserreich. Diskurs, soziale Formation und politische Mentalität. [Kritische Studien zur Geschichtswissenschaft, Band 124.] Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1998. 447 pp. DM 84.00.
The central theme in this revised and abridged dissertation (Tübingen, 1996) is the origin and growth of institutionalized opposition to the feminist demands for emancipation in Imperial Germany since the 1890s. Dr Planert aims to show that in response to the emerging women's movement, with its political and social demands for more influence, a widespread anti-feminist network arose that was closely connected to anti-semitic, nationalist and anti-parliamentary movements.

Rossade, Werner. Gesellschaft und Kultur in der Endzeit des Realsozialismus.[Beiträge zur Politischen Wissenschaft, Band 98.] Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1997. 635 pp. Ill. DM 128.00; S.fr. 114.00; S 934.00.
Adopting an ethno-sociological perspective and focusing on the relevant political domains, on popular culture and on intellectual life, this study examines the societal changes and ultimate demise of the Realsozialismus in East Germany and the Soviet Union from the mid-1950s to its end in 1989. Starting from the premise of a rift in Soviet socialism in the mid-1950s, when the system progressively lost its innovative potency, the author argues that from then on the growth of Realsozialismus stagnated as a consequence of the inherent internal contradictions.

Rückkehr und Aufbau nach 1945. Deutsche Remigranten im öffentlichen Leben Nachkriegsdeutschlands. Hrsg. von Claus-Dieter Krohn und Patrik von zur Mühlen. [Schriften der Herbert und Elsbeth Weichmann Stiftung.] Metropolis-Verlag, Marburg 1997. 360 pp. DM 58.00; S.fr. 52.50; S 423.00.
The fifteen contributions to this volume examine the experiences of German exiles after their return to the country of their origins in 1945 and explore their influence on the material, political and cultural reconstruction of West Germany. Despite the veiled and open rancour against exiles, the influence of remigrants was, according to the authors, considerable, especially as they contributed, through their experiences in American, British and Scandinavian exile, to West Germany's more westernized orientation. Included are, among others, contributions on the role of social-democratic remigrants in modernizing the SPD and their influence in the trade unions and on innovations in social sciences.

Schmolling, Petra. Armut in Deutschland. Sozialräumliche Analyse und Entwicklung seit 1945. [Soziologische Studien.] Shaker Verlag, Aachen 1997. vi, 314 pp. DM 89.00.
This dissertation (Hamburg, 1994) aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of poverty as a societal phenomenon in the Federal Republic of Germany from 1945 to the present day. Dr Schmolling begins by examining regional trends in poverty - measured as the number of people depending on social welfare - and then analyzes changes in social policy, especially the measures oriented toward eradicating poverty from 1945 onward. His aim is to evaluate the influence of social policies on the poverty rate with respect to other factors that co-determine the occurrence of poverty in the modern welfare state of West Germany.

Schroeder, Klaus, unter Mitarb. von Steffen Alisch. Der SED-Staat. Partei, Staat und Gesellschaft 1949-1990. Carl Hanser Verlag, München [etc.] 1998. xvi, 782 pp. Ill. DM 78.00; S.fr. 71.00; S 569.00.
See Beatrix Bouvier's review in this volume, pp. 121-123.

Die SED. Geschichte - Organisation - Politik. Ein Handbuch. Hrsg. von Andreas Herbst, Gerd-Rüdiger Stephan [und] Jürgen Winkler. In Zusammenarb. mit Christine Krauss und Detlef Nakath (Gesamtred.) Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1997. xix, 1227 pp. DM 128.00.
The Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands (SED) was the decisive political power in East Germany. A team of 26 authors from different generations, originating from both East and West Germany, have brought together a wealth of data and factual information on the SED in this compendium. The work is intended as a handbook, offering a collection of texts, statistics, surveys and documents on the party's history; analyses of the organization and structure; assessments of the policy pursued in the main political domains; the hierarchical and managerial structure and personnel, including biographies of the party elite; a glossary; and a selected bibliography and inventory of the SED archives.

Great Britain

Bewley, Christina and David Bewley. Gentleman Radical. A Life of John Horne Tooke 1736-1812. [The International Library of Historical Studies, vol. 17.] Tauris Academic Studies, London [etc.] 1998; distr. in the US and Canada by St. Martin's Press, New York. xiv, 297 pp. Ill. £42.00.
This is a biography of the radical writer, journalist, and reformer John Horne Tooke (1736-1812), close associate of well-known radicals such as Paine, Burdett, and Godwin. The authors aim to establish Tooke as a central figure in ministerial, extra-parliamentary and journalistic politics for a half century. A reluctant clergyman and leading agitator for Parliamentary reform, he was elected in 1801 for a notorious rotten borough, but a special act which prevented Anglican clergymen from sitting in Parliament was passed on this account. The late Dr Christina Bewley was unable to complete the biography before her death, and her husband finished the book.

Briggs, Jacqueline E. Strikes in Politicisation. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 1998. vi, 273 pp. £40.00.
Based upon an examination of the experiences of the 1984-1985 Miners' Strike in Great Britain and using sixty in-depth interviews with participants, this study aims to assess the extent to which strikes have an impact upon the level of politicisation. According to the author, strikes affect levels of political participation and political awareness and can induce behavioural changes among participants. The explanations offered include: raising class consciousness and the new opportunities a strike may provide for women to participate in politics in ways they may have not considered before.

Brooks, Ron. King Alfred School and the Progressive Movement, 1898-1998. University of Wales Press, Cardiff 1998. xii, 375 pp. Ill. £35.00.
In 1898, in the era of the Progressive movement and the accompanying educational experimentation and innovation, a group of north London radicals founded the King Alfred School. On the occasion of its centenary, this book reviews this independent school's history, tracing the evolution of its educational theories and classroom practices against the background of changes in state education and redefinitions of progressive theory and practice.

Cannadine, David. Class In Britain. Yale University Press, New Haven [etc.] 1998. xiii, 242 pp. £19.95.
See Richard Price's review in this volume, pp. 114-116.

Cradden, Terry. The Making of NIPSA. A History of the Northern Ireland Public Service Alliance: 1919-1974. December Publications, Belfast 1998. xiv, 215 pp. Ill. £9.99.
This study traces the development of the Northern Ireland Public Service Alliance (NIPSA) - the largest trade union originating from Northern Ireland - from its origins in 1919 until the mid-1970s, situating its rise in Northern Ireland's broader social, economic and political context.

Francis, Martin. Ideas and policies under Labour, 1945-1951. Building a new Britain. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1997; distr. excl. in the USA by St. Martin's Press, New York. x, 269 pp. £40.00.
Countering the often heard argument that the Labour government of Attlee in 1945-1951 was essentially opportunist, or at best embraced a cross-party consensus, Professor Francis argues in this study that Labour ministers applied specifically socialist precepts to the exercise of power. Focusing on the ideas of young intellectuals such as Anthony Crosland, Roy Jenkins, Evan Durbin and Michael Young, the author aims to show how particularly in the areas of economic planning, public ownership, social services, taxation and the family, government policies were directly and profoundly influenced by socialist ideas.

Green, Jonathon. All Dressed Up. The Sixties and the Counter-culture. Jonathan Cape, London 1998. xiv, 482 pp. £17.99.
Elaborating on his oral history of the sixties underground in Britain, Days in the Life (1988), Mr Green aims to provide in this book a new comprehensive chronicle of the cultural and political events of this famous and notorious decade. He covers a broad gamut of phenomena and developments, starting with the emergence of the teenager, through the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND), the rise of the drug scene, hippies, the students' protest and anti-Vietnam War demonstrations, sexual liberation, the underground press, to gay and women's liberation movements.

150 Years in Struggle. The Liverpool Labour Movement 1848-1998. Ed. by Jim Dye. Liverpool Trades Union Council, Liverpool 1998. ii, 78 pp. Ill. £3.50.
The main body of this booklet, which is published to mark the 150th anniversary of the Liverpool Trades Union Council, contains a mechanical reprint from A Short History of Liverpool Trades Council by William Hamling, originally published in 1948. Additional texts include a follow-up of the history of the Council for the period 1948-1998 by Sam Davies and recollections of Pam Thorbinson, Liverpool TUC office worker, and John D. Hamilton, Treasurer for the Council 1949-1968.

McWilliam, Rohan. Popular politics in nineteenth-century England. [Historical Connections.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1998. x, 129 pp. £11.99.
This textbook aims to provide an accessible introduction to the culture of English popular politics between 1815 and 1900 (i.e. the period from Luddism to the New Liberalism) and includes a discussion of the recent historiographical debates about the subject. Dr McWilliam defines the term "popular", as opposed to "working-class", as encompassing a broader scope than class identity alone, including other social identities as well. He focuses on aspects of popular politics that are characterized by a continuity of language and ideas.

Morris, Marilyn. The British Monarchy and the French Revolution. Yale University Press, New Haven [etc.] 1998. viii, 229 pp. Ill. £20.00.
In this study of the British monarchy during the contentious and revolutionary 1790s, Professor Morris explores how Britain withstood republican challenges under the reign of George III. Focusing on the values, beliefs and images attached to the monarchy, she contends that the monarchy, by continually reinventing itself, emerged in the later years of George's reign with a style stressing personality, empathy and domesticity and a legitimacy based on the monarchy's embodiment of the nation's history. Thus, the political exigencies and public discourse generated by the French Revolution helped lay the foundations for the modern British monarchy's character and ideology of justification.

Royle, Edward. Robert Owen and the commencement of the millennium. A study of the Harmony community. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1998; distrib. excl. in the USA by St. Martin's Press, New York. xi, 274 pp. £45.00.
This is a study of the Harmony community in Hampshire, England (1839-1845), one of the two Communities of United Interest in which Robert Owen (1771-1858) was personally involved. Placing the history of Harmony in the broader context of the Owenite movement, Dr Royle assesses Owen's contribution to the development community and concludes that his inability to understand the democratic aspirations of the workers involved, as well as unsound finance, ultimately destroyed the Harmony community.

Thompson, Noel. The Real Rights of Man. Political Economies for the Working Class 1775-1850. [Pluto Critical History.] Pluto Press, London [etc.] 1998. viii, 168 pp. £35.00. (Paper: £12.99.)
This study "discusses the work of the agrarian radical, anti-capitalist and socialist writers who in late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century Britain sought to formulate political economies for the working class which would both analyse the causes of their powerlessness and destitution and point to the manner and the means by which they might secure their real, economic rights". Examining the writings of individuals such as Thomas Spence, William Ogilvie, Robert Owen and George Harney, Dr Thompson challenges the notion of ideological continuity between the work of these writers and the doctrines of political radicalism advanced by Gareth Stedman Jones and others.

The Women's Suffrage Movement. New Feminist Perspectives. Ed. by Maroula Joannou and June Purvis. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1998; distr. excl. in the USA by St. Martin's Press, New York. xii, 227 pp. Ill. £45.00.
The editors of this collection of fourteen new essays present new trends in feminist historiography of the women's suffrage movement in Britain. Attention is paid to hitherto neglected groups that participated in the campaign: the Women's Franchise League, the Women's Freedom League, the Women's Tax Resistance League and the United Suffragists. The other topics include the poetry, fiction and drama that emerged from the women's struggle for the vote, a reappraisal of the rank and file activist Mary Leigh and the suffragist movement outside London.


O'Neil, Patrick H. Revolution from Within. The Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party and the Collapse of Communism. [Studies of Communism in Transition.] Edward Elgar, Cheltenham [etc.] 1998. xviii, 257 pp. £55.00.
See Mark Pittaway's review in this volume, pp. 119-120.


L'anticomunismo democratico in Italia. Liberali e socialisti che non tacquero su Stalin e Togliatti. A cura di Massimo Teodori. Liberal Libri, Firenze 1998. xxix, 224 pp. L. 24.000.
This is an anthology of articles by Italian democratic anti-communists from the period between the Russian Revolution and the Hungarian Uprising. The perspectives expressed in these articles obviously differ radically from reactionary and fascist anti-communism in Italy. The articles are arranged by theme and are by authors ranging from the liberal Norberto Bobbio to the socialist Filippo Turati and from the socialist Ignazio Silone to the anarchist Armando Borghi.

Concetto Marchesi (1878-1957).Un umanista comunista. Atti del convegno nazionale di studi, Gallarate, 25 ottobre 1997. A cura di Claude Pottier. [Engelsiana, 2.] Centro Italiano di Studi Engelsiani, Gallarate 1998. xiii, 236 pp. Ill. L.
This collection comprises ten papers presented at a conference on Concetto Marchesi (1878-1957), organized by the Centro Italiano di Studi Engelsiani and held in Gallarate in 1997. Marchesi was a professor of medieval and humanist Latin at the University of Padua. In 1895 he became a socialist and joined the PCI upon its establishment in 1921. He participated in the resistance and was elected to represent the PCI in the Constituent Assembly, where he drafted most of the constitution's articles on education. The contributions address the main aspects of his person. The book also contains the unpublished text of his thesis on Tacitus and a bibliography of his philological and political writings and of publications about him.

Il contributo del mondo del lavoro e del sindacato alla repubblica e alla costituzione. [Di] Enzo Bartocci, Sergio Cofferati, Sergio D'Antoni [e a.] [Quaderni della Fondazione Giacomo Brodolini.] Edizioni Lavoro, Roma 1998. 163 pp. L. 25.000.
This anthology comprises the contributions to a colloquium held in 1997 at the initiative of the Fondazione Giacomo Brodolini in honour of the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the First Republic and the Constitution. The gathering focused on the role of labour and the union movement in drafting the Constitution. Two factors motivated this initiative: first the dwindling interest among intellectuals in the union movement's history and the tendency to label the field as minor history; second the desire to determine the extent of the specific participation by workers and the union movement in the four crucial years of transition from 1944 to 1948.

Donno, Gianni C. Il Mezzogiorno nel socialismo italiano 1892-1902. [Collana della Fondazione di studi storici Filippo Turati, 15.] FrancoAngeli, Milano 1998. 219 pp. L. 34.000.
In this study on the Socialist Party's view on the question of Southern Italy during the first decade of the party's existence, the author uses sources such as articles in the party press, debates in congress and the party's parliamentary activity. He thus reconstructs the party's progression toward an original view of all aspects of the problems concerning the South. According to this vision, these problems are not only related to land ownership but also involve economic and social backwardness and poor political administration. The author further submits that this awareness also reflected the party's maturation. The book concludes with an appendix featuring several of the original texts.

Dundovich, Elena. Tra esilio a castigo. Il Komintern, il PCI e la repressione degli antifascisti italiani in URSS (1936-38). Carocci editore, Roma 1998. 239 pp. L. 35.000.
Based on the newly opened archives of the former Soviet Union, the author of this book has reconstructed the history of relations between the Communist International and its Italian section, the PCI, in the years 1936-1938. The author clears up previously unresolved incidents, such as the forced closure of the foreign centre of the PCI in Paris, the role of the Italian leaders active in Comintern organs in Moscow in the years of Stalinist terror and the unknown fate of hundreds of Italian anti-fascist and communist emigrants who disappeared without a trace during that period. She also provides an appendix consisting of biographical data found in the archives on a great many of these individuals.

È una lunga storia. Alle origini del mutualismo italiano: la Società Generale fra gli Operai di Pinerolo (1848-1998). A cura di Bianca Gera e Diego Robotti. Centro Studi Piemontesi/Ca dë Studi Piemontèis, Torino 1998. 206 pp. Ill. L. 30.000.
This richly illustrated Festschrift has been published in honour of the hundred-fiftieth anniversary of the establishment in 1848 of the mutual aid society Società Generale fra gli Operai di Pinerolo. The first part of the book is about the association's emergence and heyday in the nineteenth century. The second section addresses the rise of social security during the twentieth century, when the association had to redefine its tasks. The introduction is followed by twelve contributions about the history and aspects of the association's operations, other types of mutualism in Pinerolo and related subjects.

Flores, Marcello [e] Alberto De Bernardi. Il Sessantotto. [Collana di Storia Contemporanea.] il Mulino, Bologna 1998. 261 pp. L. 25.000.
The authors of this history of the year 1968 in the world and in Italy are both professors of contemporary history. They view 1968 as a watershed between two periods (economic growth and social and cultural innovation on the one hand, global awareness and radicalization of the new ideas arising at the time on the other hand) and take an "isolated" look at the year's events without adopting an ideological or a political perspective, placing them in the context of that era and within an interpretative framework. In their preface they submit that youth was the protagonist of 1968 and was the subject of the historical process for the first time.

The Netherlands

Haan, Francisca de. Gender and the Politics of Office Work, the Netherlands 1860-1940. Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam 1998. 243 pp. Ill. D.fl. 79.50; $47.50.
This is a comprehensive study of gender contestation over office work in the Netherlands between 1860 and 1940. According to Dr de Haan, reactions to women entering office work were exceedingly protracted and intense in the Netherlands, because the debate on female office workers extended to the foundations of Dutch society, in particular to the tradition of social compartmentalization (by political ideology and religious denomination). The author argues that compartmentalization can be seen as a successful patriarchal campaign against the feminist conception of society; the broad resistance to women's entry into the workforce is to be understood in this context.

Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Hildermeier, Manfred. Geschichte der Sowjetunion 1917-1991. Entstehung und Niedergang des ersten sozialistischen Staates. Verlag C.H. Beck, München 1998. 1206 pp. DM 98.00; S.fr. 89.00; S 715.00.
In this first comprehensive history of the Soviet Union to appear in German since the end of the Soviet state in 1991, Professor Hildermeier offers a very extensive overview from the downfall of the Tsarist regime to Gorbachev's Perestroika and the eventual demise of the Soviet system and the Eastern bloc. His main focus is on the joint socialist principals in the political, social, economic and cultural changes. In his conclusion, the author identifies three categories of causes of Soviet socialism's ultimate downfall: system-specific factors of state socialism; factors related to the Russian tradition; and external, global factors.

Kondrat'ev, Nikolai D. The Works of Nikolai Kondratiev. Ed. by Natalia Makasheva, Warren J. Samuels and Vincent Barnett. Ass. by Jan Reijnders, Solomos Solomou and Andrew Tylecote. Transl. by Stephen S. Wilson. Vol. 1. Economic Statics, Dynamics and Conjuncture. Vol. 2. Basic Problems of Economic Statics and Dynamics. Vol. 3. Writings on Agriculture. Vol. 4. Further Writings on Agriculture, Speeches, Letters. Pickering & Chatto, London 1998. lxxxiii, 258 pp.; v, 297 pp.; v, 376 pp.; v, 379 pp. £350.00.
This four-volume edition is the first major collection of Kondratiev's work to appear in English. Nikolai Dmitrievich Kondratiev (1892-1938) is among the most famous figures in the history of economic thought. A leading agricultural economist and statistician in the Soviet Union during the 1920s, he became known worldwide for his hypotheses of long cycles (or waves, as he called them) of economic activity of 50-60 years duration. After already spending time in a concentration camp in the early 1920s, he received an eight-year sentence for criticizing Stalin's policies in 1930. During his imprisonment he was kept in solitary confinement but was allowed to read and write. At the end of this term he was sentenced to death and was executed in 1938.
The collection includes Kondratiev's writings on economic methodology and statistics; the original version of his article on the long cycles from 1926, with a critique by D.I. Oparin, and the subsequent discussion; his unpublished model of the economic dynamics of a capitalist economy from 1934; his extensive work on agricultural economy; and his letters from 1922 and from his years of imprisonment 1932-1938.
Apart from a general introduction to the collection by Warren J. Samuels, the edition features a biographical introduction placing him in the history of the Soviet Union in these years (Natalia Makasheva), an introduction to the reception of the long cycles theory and its development after Kondratiev (Vincent Barnett), an introduction on his agricultural economy (Vincent Barnett) and two contemporary evaluations of his cycles theory (Solomos Solomou and Andrew Tylecote). A glossary of Russian terms and a list of key figures are appended.

Wehner, Markus. Bauernpolitik im proletarischen Staat. Die Bauernfrage als zentrales Problem der sowjetischen Innenpolitik 1921-1928. [Beiträge zur Geschichte Osteuropas, Band 23.] Böhlau Verlag, Köln [etc.] 1998. x, 436 pp. Ill. DM 128.00.
This dissertation (Free University, Berlin, 1996) explores the way the main central party and government agencies in the Soviet Union have dealt with the agrarian issue - defined as the question of the role and position of the farmers in the realization of socialist revolution in a preponderantly agrarian society - between 1921, when with the New Economic Policy (NEP) a more evolutionary policy towards the agrarian issue became predominant, and 1928, the beginning of Stalin's forced collectivization. Dr Wehner deals with the different role of various party and government agencies involved, focusing on the relation between the Central Committee and the Narkomzem, the commissariat for agriculture.

Voss, Stefan. Stalins Kriegsvorbereitungen 1941: erforscht, gedeutet und instrumentalisiert. Eine Analyse postsowjetischer Geschichtsschreibung. [Hamburger Beiträge zur Geschichte des östlichen Europa, Band 3.] Verlag Dr. Kova , Hamburg 1998. 150 pp. DM 110.00.
Based on the historiographical discussion about Stalin's preparations for war in 1941, this concise study analyzes the method, style of argumentation and scholarship of post-Soviet historiography. After sketching the standard Soviet historiographical position that Stalin was preparing only for a defensive war and subsequently dealing with the changes during Perestroika, the author examines the methods and arguments used in contemporary historical research based on newly opened archival materials and aims to assess the persistence of old Soviet historical myths, as well as the uses and political purposes of newly acquired historical insights.


Ballester, David. Marginalitats i hegemonies: L'UGT de Catalunya (1888-1936). De la fundació a la II República. Columna, Barcelona; Fundació Comaposada, Barcelona 1996. 264 pp. Ill. Ptas.
Ballester, David. Els anys de la guerra. La UGT de Catalunya (1936-1939). Columna Edicions, Barcelona; Fundació Josep Comaposada, Barcelona 1998. 382 pp. Ill. Maps. Ptas.

This is a two-volume history of the socialist trade union federation Unión General de Trabajadores in the Spanish region of Catalonia. The first volume, which is a revised version of a thesis defended at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona in 1995, covers the period from the establishment of the UGT to the Civil War. The second volume (i.e. the second part of the thesis) reveals an innovated organization in an entirely different situation. Shortly before the outbreak of the Civil War the UGT became subject to communist influence. It grew from a minuscule organization into an alternative to the powerful CNT, and its membership expanded to half a million. The war and social revolution entailed political, economic and military responsibilities.
The study analyzes the organization's spectacular growth, the organizational changes and relations with other political and syndicalist organizations in Catalonia.
Little had been published about the UGT in Catalonia prior to this study. The author has tried to compensate for this deficiency through a thorough investigation of sources.

Women at Work in Spain. From the Middle Ages to Early Modern Times. Ed. by Marilyn Stone and Carmen Benito-Vessels. Peter Lang, New York [etc.] 1998. viii, 197 pp. S.fr. 42.00.
Based on extensive archival research, the seven essays in this volume aim to document the contribution of women to economic and cultural change on the Iberian Peninsula from the Middle Ages to the early modern period by their "public" work (i.e. production of goods and rendering of services in return for which compensation). The contributions included cover the role of peasant and aristocratic women in the rural economy, the work of women in monasteries and women in the printing industry.

Ximenis i Carulla, Vicenç. Demòcrata i socialista. Memòries de setanta anys de lluita política apassionada. Edició de Paquita Sanvicén. Pròleg d'Antoni Siurana. [Guimet, 29.] Pagès editors, Lleida 1998. 249 pp. Ill. Ptas. 2.400.
This book contains the memoirs of a former member of the Partit Obrer d'Unificació Marxista (POUM). Ximenis (1918) originally belonged to the youth movement of Joaquín Maurín's Bloc Obrer i Camperol. He spent part of the Civil War at the front and experienced the repression of the POUM after the May days of 1937. Following the Civil War he spent five years in prison camps and subsequently joined the underground in socialist circles under Franco's regime. After the dictatorship he was elected to represent the Catalan Socialist Party in Lérida's city council.