Volume 45 part 2 (2000)
Continents and Countries
Canada | United States of America
China | India | Israel
Austria | Denmark | Eire - Ireland | France | Germany | Great Britain | Italy | The Netherlands | Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics | Spain | Yugoslavia
Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.
SOCIAL THEORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE
Alexander Bogdanov and the Origins of Systems Thinking in Russia. Ed. by John Biggart, Peter Dudley [and] Francis King. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 1998. xi, 362 pp. £42.50.
The twenty-six contributions to this volume are the proceedings of a conference organized in Norwich in January 1995 on the pioneering contribution to the development of system thinking made by the Russian revolutionary, founding member of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Party, philosopher and social scientist Alexander A. Bogdanov-Malinovsky (1873-1928). The contributors deal with the origins and philosophical foundations of Bogdanov's Tektology or "universal organization science", its application in economics and the place and significance of Tektology in modern system theory. Simultaneously, a guide to the published and unpublished works of Bogdanov was issued (see below).
Anderson, Perry. The Origins of Postmodernity. Verso, London 1998. vii, 143 pp. £11.00.
See Alun Munslow's review in this volume, pp. 320-322.
Baumann, Fred E. Fraternity and Politics. Choosing One's Brothers. Praeger, Westport (Conn.) [etc.] 1998. ix, 150 pp. £43.95.
"This book seeks to explore the project of fraternity, how it has been and can be pursued and with what results." Aiming to distinguish fraternity from the ideals of "community" and "solidarity", the author starts by examining a recent experience of a political movement driven by the project of fraternity, the American New Left. He then explores the fraternal element in the French Revolution, as personalized in the sans-culotte sections during the Terror and concludes with an exploration of Sartre's development of the theory of fraternity and terror in his Critique of Dialectical Reason.
Böckelmann, Frank. Über Marx und Adorno. Schwierigkeiten der spätmarxistischen Theorie. Ça ira-Verlag, Freiburg 1998. 239 pp. DM 24.00.
This is the second, revised edition of an analysis of the silent historic assumptions and implications in Marx's theory of political economy. Originally written in the aftermath of the student revolt of 1968 and published in 1972, the author aims to assess the value of Marx's practical theory for contemporary social criticism and revolutionary political action. In the second part he critiques Adorno's attempt, in his version of the critical theory, to emancipate Marxist theory from its connection to political practice. In his preface to this new edition Dr Böckelmann re-evaluates his arguments.
Böhm, Andreas. Kritik der Autonomie. Freiheits- und Moralbegriffe im Frühwerk von Karl Marx. Syndikat, Bodenheim 1998. viii, 193 pp. DM 44.00.
This study of the concepts of freedom and autonomy in Marx's early works and his critique on morality aims to reconstruct Marx's grounds for criticizing the normative social philosophy and rejecting the incorporation of morality and ethics in his own theoretical work. In his concluding chapter, Dr Böhm comments on the critique on morality and the concept of autonomy by Theodor Adorno in his "negative dialectics".
Fraser, Ian. Hegel and Marx. The Concept of Need. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 1998. xi, 207 pp. £16.00.
This book introduces the concept of need as viewed by Hegel and Marx, relating it to modern need theories and theorists. According to Dr Fraser, rereading Hegel and Marx and tracing the connections between their analyses of need offers a solution to the problems encountered by modern need theorists. In his concluding chapter, the author considers the political implications for modern need theory within the context of e.g. Soviet communism, the liberal-communitarian debate and social democracy.
Marx's Theories Today. Ed. by Ryszard Panasiuk and Leszek Nowak. [Pozna Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities, vol. 60.] Rodopi, Amsterdam [etc.] 1998. 457 pp. D.fl. 200.00.
Based on the premise that "Marx's thought is still worth being considered", the editors of this collection have gathered twenty-two essays critiquing various aspects of the ideas of Marx and Engels. The topics cover a broad range and include "Engels and the Laws of Dialectics" (Sven-Eric Liedman), Polish analytical Marxism (Leszek Nowak), the empirical assessment of Marx's economic theory (Fred Moseley), Marx's vision of social justice (Paul Kamolnick) and Marxism's "Bankruptcy" (Werner Becker).
Social Class and Stratification. Classic Statements and Theoretical Debates. Ed. by Rhonda F. Levine. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., Lanham [etc.] 1998. x, 269 pp. $62.50.
This reader brings together sixteen classical and more recent essays on social class and stratification. The essays are divided into four groups: the first covering classical perspectives on social class, including Marx's and Engels's Communist Manifesto and Max Weber's "Class, Status, Party"; the second focusing on American stratification theory; the third on Neo-Marxian and Neo-Weberian perspectives; and the fourth on gender and racial stratification, ranging from Friedrich Engels, "The Patriarchal Family", via Gunnar Myrdal, "Facets of the Negro Problem", to Patricia Hill Collins, "Toward a New Vision: Race, Class and Gender as Categories of Analysis and Connection".
Tilly, Charles. Durable Inequality. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1998. xi, 299 pp. $29.95.
In this thoroughly revised and expanded version of a series of lectures delivered in October and November 1995, Professor Tilly deals with the theoretical questions of how long-lasting, systematic inequalities in life opportunities arise and come to distinguish members of different socially defined categories of persons. Exploring the nature, forms and functioning of representative paired and unequal categories, such as male/female, black/white and citizen/noncitizen, the author argues that these and similar inequalities arise because they enable people who control access to value-producing resources to solve pressing organizational problems.
Australian Labour & Regional Change. Essays in Honour of R.A. Gollan. Ed. by Jim Hagan and Andrew Wells. The University of Wollongong, in assoc. with Halstead Press, Rushcutters Bay (NSW) 1998. 145 pp. $19.50.
The ten contributions to this volume are based on papers presented at a conference organized in October 1996 in honour of the work of Robin Gollan, one of the founders and first President of the Australian Society for the Study of Labour History. The contributions aim to assess both recent and long-term trends in the writing of Australian labour history and suggest ways in which it may or should develop. Contributors include Raelene Frances, Eric Fry, Jim Hagan, Michael Hess, Helen Jarvis, Stuart Macintyre, Andrew Markus, Marcel van der Linden, Nico Warouw and Andrew Wells. A bibliography of comparative labour history compiled by Marcel van der Linden is appended.
The Encyclopedia of Political Revolutions. Ed. by Jack A. Goldstone. Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Chicago [etc.] 1998. xlii, 580 pp. Ill. Maps. £85.00.
This large-size encyclopaedia features almost three hundred entries describing and explaining revolutionary activity since 1500. Revolutionary is defined as irregular procedures aimed at forcing political change within a society, and achieving a lasting effect on the political system involved. The entries, ranging from five hundred to several thousand words, cover revolutionary events, revolutionary leaders and key concepts. The entries on key concepts include essays on subjects such as democracy, socialism, gender, Islamic fundamentalism, inequality, and injustice. A short bibliography is appended to each entry.
Fisher, Harry. Comrades. Tales of a Brigadista in the Spanish Civil War. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln [etc.] 1998. xx, 197 pp. Ill. $35.00; £33.50.
Harry Fisher was one of the earliest American volunteers in the Spanish Civil War, and one of the few to participate in all the major battles. In this autobiographical book he describes his own background, his path to volunteering for the Lincoln Brigade, and his experiences during the eighteen months he fought as a brigadista on the Republican side.
Forman, Michael. Nationalism and the International Labor Movement. The Idea of the Nation in Socialist and Anarchist Theory. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park 1998. xi, 212 pp.
Considering the works of leading socialist theorists from the generation of the First, Second and Third International, this study examines the concept of nationhood among internationalist thinkers. Focusing on the visions of Bakunin, Marx and Engels, Lenin, Luxemburg, Bauer, Stalin and Gramsci, Mr Forman examines the concept of nationhood in relation to ideas about democratic republicanism, sovereignty and the nature of the internationalist labour movement. The author argues that as theories and theorists moved away from notions of democratic accountability informed by the broad ideals of a cosmopolitan intent, they also progressed toward nationalist commitments.
Frank, Andre Gunder. ReOrient: Global Economy in the Asian Age. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1998. xxix, 416 pp. $55.00; £42.00. (Paper: $19.95; £14.95.)
See Fred Spier's review in this volume, pp. 309-311.
Geschlechtergeschichte und Allgemeine Geschichte. Herausforderungen und Perspektiven. Mit Beiträgen von Karin Hausen, Lynn Hunt, Thomas Kühne [u.a.] Hrsg. von Hans Medick und Anne-Charlott Trepp. [Göttinger Gespräche zur Geschichtswissenschaft, Band 5.] Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen 1998. 239 pp. DM 28.00; S.fr. 26.70; S 204.00.
The five essays in this collection, based on a colloquium held in Göttingen in July 1996, discuss the challenges that gender history offers for general history and the chances and opportunities for incorporating the gender perspective in general historiography. Contributors are Karin Hausen (on the historical relevance of gender history), Lynn Hunt (on the deconstruction of categories), Gianna Pomata (on combining the specific and the general in gender history), Helmut Puff (on the relevance of the history of homosexuality for gender history) and Thomas Kühne (on political history as gender history).
Handwerk, Hausindustrie und die historische Schule der Nationalökonomie. Wissenschafts- und gewerbegeschichtliche Perspektiven. Hrsg. von Friedrich Lenger. Verlag für Regionalgeschichte, Bielefeld 1998. 144 pp. DM 28.00.
The five essays in this volume, based on papers presented at a colloquium in Munich in September 1996, aim to assess the usefulness and applicability of the conceptual framework derived from the German historical school of national economics (represented chiefly by Gustav Schmoller and Werner Sombart) for contemporary research in industrial history and the history of artisanal production. Contributors are Friedrich Lenger, Josef Ehmer, Reinhold Reith, Peter Kriedte and Heinz-Gerhard Haupt.
International communism and the Communist International 1919-43. Ed. by Tim Rees and Andrew Thorpe. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1998; distr. excl. in the USA by St. Martin's Press, New York. x, 323 pp. £45.00. (Paper: £15.95.)
Based on a symposium organized in Exeter in July 1995, the eighteen contributions in this volume address the history of the Comintern and its relationship with its member parties. The first three essays (by David Kirby, Kevin McDermott and Peter Huber) cover the Comintern's emergence as an institution. Ten contributions deal with the Comintern's relations with European parties (Great Britain, France, Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, Greece and Yugoslavia), and the last five discuss the relationship with American and Asian member parties (United States, Cuba, China, India and Japan).
Rodgers, Daniel T. Atlantic Crossings. Social Politics in a Progressive Age. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1998. ix, 634 pp. Ill. £21.95.
See Peter Baldwin's review in this volume, pp. 315-318.
Student Protest. The Sixties and After. Ed. by Gerard J. DeGroot. Longman, London [etc.] 1998. xii, 296 pp. £73.50.
The nineteen essays in this collection examine the causes, course and consequences of student protest movements of the 1960s in the United States, France, Germany, Great Britain and Mexico and more recent cases of student activism in China, Korea and Iran. Transcending the romantic myths commonly associated with student protests, the general aim of the contributors is to study the protests in terms of the response they elicited and the legacy they left behind and to reveal a distinct culture of student protest from the 1960s onward.
Women and Revolution: Global Expressions. Ed. by M.J. Diamond. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht [etc.] 1998. xxv, 434 pp. D.fl. 280.00; $150.00; £95.00.
See Sheila Rowbotham's review in this volume, pp. 322-326.
Liu, Tien-Lung. The Chameleon State. Global Culture and Policy Shifts in Britain and Germany, 1914-1933. Berghahn Books, New York [etc.] 1999. xv, 171 pp. $39.95; £25.00.
See Charles Tilly's review in this volume, pp. 318-320.
Postfordistische Guerrilla. Vom Mythos nationaler Befreiung. [Von] Gruppe demontage. UNRAST, Münster 1998. 280 pp. DM 29.80.
How will the collapse of the Soviet Union and the recent global restructuring of the capitalist economic system - defined as "postfordismus" - affect the prospects and opportunities for national liberation movements? This study by a radical left writers' collective from Hamburg examines this question based on the examples of liberation movements in Mexico, Algeria, Corsica, the Basque Country, Kurdistan and Northern Ireland.
Bauer, Gretchen. Labor and Democracy in Namibia, 1971-1996. Ohio University Press, Athens; James Currey Publishers, London 1998. x, 229 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £14.95.)
This study examines the relation between the nationalist movement in Namibia and the labour movement in the period 1971-1996. Dr Bauer argues that a vibrant and autonomous trade union movement is crucial to the consolidation of new democracies, such as Namibia. In Namibia, however, the liberation struggle and the first years of independence have weakened the trade unions. The author attributes this condition in part to the reluctance of the nationalist movement, which is now in power in Namibia, to have a strong trade-union movement emerge as a political rival.
Identity and Struggle at the Margins of the Nation-State. The Laboring Peoples of Central America and the Hispanic Caribbean. Ed. by Aviva Chomsky and Aldo Lauria-Santiago. [Comparative and International Working-Class History.] Duke University Press, Durham [etc.] 1998.
This collection comprises eleven contributions on the social history of Central America and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Central issues addressed in the essays are the role of gender, race, ethnicity, popular consciousness and identity in the growth of the export economies of the era and in the shaping of the national histories. Contributions deal with subjects including plantation justice in Guatemala, agrarian reform in the Dominican Republic, and sexuality and working-class feminism in Puerto Rico. In a concluding essay Lowell Gudmundson and Francisco A. Scarano sketch potential directions for future research and historiography on Central America and the Caribbean.
Fetherling, Douglas. The gentle anarchist. A life of George Woodcock. Douglas & McIntyre, Vancouver [etc.]; University of Washington Press, Seattle 1998. xix, 244 pp. Ill. $27.50.
This is a biography of the Canadian writer and anarchist George Woodcock (1912-1995). Woodcock became famous with Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements (1962), an influential book, especially for the 1960s generation, and with The Crystal Spirit (1966), a pioneering study of George Orwell, with whom Woodcock became friends when he still lived in England. Having emigrated to Canada only in his late thirties, he became a grand old man of anarchism there but was all but forgotten in Britain. Mr Fetherling aims to balance both the English and Canadian sides, as well as the literary and the political aspects of Woodcock's life.
United States of America
Berlin, Ira. Many Thousands Gone. The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1998. xii, 497 pp. Ill. Maps. £18.50.
This history of the first two centuries of African-American slavery in mainland North America traces the early evolution of black society from the first arrivals in the early seventeenth century through the American Revolution. Professor Berlin characterizes the evolution as a transition from a society with slaves into a slave society, which then underwent a metamorphosis during the Age of Revolution. He captures these transition processes in three distinctive experiences: that of the charter generations, the first arrivals and their children and grandchildren; the plantation generations, mostly identified as the typical form of American slavery; and the revolutionary generation, which grasped the Revolution's promise of freedom and faced a resurgent slave regime.
Billingsley, Kenneth Lloyd. Hollywood Party. How Communism Seduced the American Film Industry in the 1930s and 1940s. FORUM, Rocklin (Cal.) 1998. xvii, 365 pp. Ill. $25.00; C$36.50.
This book explores the influence of the Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA) on the Hollywood movie industry during the 1930s and 1940s. Using sources such as recent revelations from Soviet archives, Mr Billingsley aims to show that the CPUSA had a strategic plan for taking control of the movie industry and dominated the politics of the industry in the 1930s and 1940s. The author argues that, although the CPUSA's plan finally proved illusory in the 1950s, the communists succeeded in shaping the popular memories of this period, dominated by the negative image of the witch-hunt of the McCarthy era and Hollywood's blacklist.
Boggs, Grace Lee. Living for Change. An Autobiography. Foreword by Ossie Davis. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis [etc.] 1998. xvi, 301 pp. Ill. $18.95.
This is the autobiography of Grace Lee Boggs (1915), a first-generation Chinese American of middle-class origins, who became involved in the radical movement as a philosophy student at the end of the 1930s. Active in the Trotskyist Workers Party from the 1930s onward and a close collaborator of C.L.R. James until 1962, she married Jimmy Boggs in 1952. They became prominent members of the civil rights movement and the African-American urban community movement.
Brown, Cliff. Racial Conflict and Violence in the Labor Market. Roots in the 1919 Steel Strike. Garland Publishing, Inc., New York [etc.] 1998. xii, 225 pp. $60.00.
The steel strike of 1919 was a turning point both in American labour relations and in working-class race relations. The common practice of recruiting African-American workers, who had entered the northern labour market during the Great Migration as strikebreakers in the preceding decade, heightened racial tensions and conflict among the working class considerably. Using a split-labour-market perspective, Professor Brown analyses the course of the strike and the role of the trade unions in interracial relations at the community level. He concludes that the trade-union movement failed to establish interracial coalitions.
Collomp, Catherine. Entre classe et nation. Mouvement ouvrier et immigration aux États-Unis 1880-1920. [Histoire et Société.] Belin, Paris 1998. 352 pp. F.fr. 120.00.
This study analyses the influence of the massive immigration on the working-class and the labour movement in the United States between 1880 and 1920. Professor Collomp examines the extent that the arrival of immigrants, who were often already politically involved, strengthened or weakened the American labour movement, and how the relation between profession, class and ethnicity sometimes favoured and sometimes impaired working-class solidarity. She also considers the role of federal American organizations in this process through their selection and subsequent limitation of immigration.
Connolly, James J. The Triumph of Ethnic Progressivism. Urban Political Culture in Boston, 1900-1925. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1998. xi, 260 pp. £27.95.
In this study of progressivism and ethnic politics in the city of Boston in the first decades of the twentieth century, Professor Connolly depicts American progressivism as a style of politics instead of as a political ideology. According to the author, ethnic, and especially Irish, political leaders used progressivism as a formula to dismantle the traditional political party system dominated by the Protestant upper class to expand their own influence, thus redefining and intensifying ethnic identification and antagonism.
Couch, Jim F. [and] William F. Shughart II. The Political Economy of the New Deal. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham [etc.] 1998. xvi, 247 pp. Ill. £55.00.
This study explores the political and economic forces that shaped the distribution of federal emergency relief spending in the United States during the Great Depression. Applying public choice theory to date from the Roosevelt administration to produce an empirical model of the New Deal spending decisions, Professors Couch and Shughart present new econometric evidence supporting the idea that President Roosevelt used the New Deal to buy electoral votes. The results of their analysis suggest that while economic need was certainly not ignored, political considerations dominated the distribution of New Deal dollars.
Ferriss, Susan and Ricardo Sandoval. The Fight in the Fields. Cesar Chavez and the Farmworkers Movement. Ed. by Diana Hembree. Photographs ed. by Michele McKenzie. Harcourt Brace & Company, New York [etc.] 1997. xviii, 333 pp. $25.00; C$35.00.
This volume, edited in conjunction with the television documentary "The Fight in the Fields", is a general overview of the life and career of Cesar Chavez (1927-1993) and the origins and rise of the United Farm Workers union (UFW). In this richly illustrated edition, the journalists Mrs Ferris and Mr Sandoval chronicle Chavez's life dedicated to the struggles of the migrant farmworkers and the emergence of the UFW. In addition, short essays, letters, poems and archival materials related to migrant life and Chavez are included throughout the main text.
Foley, Neil. The White Scourge. Mexicans, Blacks, and Poor Whites in Texas Cotton Culture. [American Crossroads, 2.] University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1997 [recte 1998]. xv, 326 pp. Ill. $29.95.
Focusing on the cotton culture in central Texas from the end of the Civil War through the collapse of tenant farming in the 1940s, this study explores how Mexicans, African Americans and poor whites negotiated and manipulated the racial space. Challenging the standard binary opposition between "black" and "white", Professor Foley analyses the process of identity formation to show how many different ethnic groups were defined and redefined in relation to "whiteness" during agrarian society's transformation into corporate agribusiness.
Greene, Julie. Pure and Simple Politics. The American Federation of Labor and Political Activism, 1881-1917. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1998. xi, 293 pp. £35.00; $54.95.
Examining the American Federation of Labor's (AFL) activities from the origins of its predecessor, the Federation of Trades and Labor Unions in 1881, through the election of 1916, Professor Greene explores the AFL's attitude towards politics and the development of its strategy to obtain political influence. She disputes the standard view of the AFL as an archetypal apolitical or antipolitical labour institution and aims to show that the AFL was indeed a political organization but was quite distinctive, resorting to lobbying to gain political influence under Gompers's leadership.
Gronowicz, Anthony. Race and Class Politics in New York City Before the Civil War. Northeastern University Press, Boston 1998. xix, 277 pp. £42.75. (Paper: £15.95.)
In this study of the grass-roots political development in New York City in the decades before the Civil War, Professor Gronowicz explores how the antebellum Democratic Party employed a racist ideology of what the author defines as democratic republicanism to shape the political values of the majority of New York City's working class. Examining the interaction between local political rhetoric and the social composition and infrastructure of the Democratic Party amid the emerging social formation, he finds that this ideology, based on the acceptance of slavery, enabled the Democratic Party to retain control of the white male working-class population.
Hahamovitch, Cindy. The Fruits of Their Labor. Atlantic Coast Farmworkers and the Making of Migrant Poverty, 1870-1945. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 1997. xiii, 287 pp. Ill. $45.00. (Paper: $17.95.)
This study examines the labour relations and labour conditions of migrant farmworkers along the Atlantic Coast from 1870 through the New Deal era to 1950 and beyond, as well as the role of the state in this context. Professor Hahamovitch shows how the federal government's intervention on behalf of the farmers deprived the farm workers of the right to collective bargaining. She points out how the use of labour contracting schemes and forced-labour campaigns, sanctioned and at some points even implemented by federal officials, has kept farm labour very cheap and living conditions among farmworkers desperate up to the present day.
Heale, M.J. McCarthy's Americans. Red Scare Politics in State and Nation, 1935-1965. [American History in Depth.] Macmillan Press Ltd, Basingstoke [etc.] 1998. xvii, 370 pp. £45.00.
This study of McCarthyism, or "red scare politics", in the United States traces its origins back to the 1930s. Comparing the nationwide conservative pressures (which arose partly in response to the New Deal political order) to those in three exemplary states, Professor Heale argues that what is usually labelled as McCarthyism was actually part of a political cycle that emerged in the 1930s and took two decades to run its course. According to the author, much of the red scare dynamic came from the big cities and the white South.
Johnson, Robert David. Ernest Gruening and the American Dissenting Tradition. [Harvard Historical Studies, vol. 132.] Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1998. ix, 375 pp. Ill. £27.95.
This is a biographical study of Ernest Gruening (1887-1974), reformist and dissenting American journalist and politician, known for his vehement struggle against United States military involvement in Vietnam. Shaped in the intellectual milieu of Progressive-era Boston, he became a reformist newspaper editor in the late 1920s and a reputed expert on Latin-American affairs in the 1930s under Roosevelt. As senator for Alaska in the 1960s, he was one of the few consistent oppositional voices against the American interventionist policy in Vietnam. Professor Johnson focuses on Gruening's lifelong struggle to reconcile his dissenting ideas with a desire for political effectiveness.
Katz, Philip M. From Appomattox to Montmartre. Americans and the Paris Commune. [Harvard Historical Studies, vol. 131.] Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1998. xi, 274 pp. £27.95.
This study examines "how Americans learned about the Commune in 1871, how they interpreted the events in Paris, how their interpretations were shaped by the recent Civil War at home, and how the Paris Commune in turn shaped American political culture in the 1870s and beyond". Basing himself on the extensive American media coverage of the revolutionary events in Paris, Dr Katz concludes that the Commune could be interpreted in two ways: descriptive, that is recasting events in American terms in to understand them better; and predictive, that is preoccupied with whether Parisian unrest might carry over to the United States.
Red Diapers. Growing Up in the Communist Left. Ed. by Judy Kaplan and Linn Shapiro. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1998. xi, 321 pp. Ill. $19.95.
This anthology comprises forty-eight autobiographical contributions from children of former and current members of the Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) and children whose parents never became members but were involved in activities led or supported by the CPUSA. Included are generations from the beginning of the twentieth century to the children of 1960s activists who joined the CPUSA. Organized in three thematic sections, the contributions highlight daily lives, the impact of political persecution and the varied ways in which the "red diaper babies" have come to terms with their left-wing political legacy.
Simon, Bryant. A Fabric of Defeat. The Politics of South Carolina Millhands, 1910-1948. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 1998. xvi, 345 pp. Ill. $49.95. (Paper: $19.95.)
This study examines the political identity of white South Carolina millhands during the first half of the twentieth century. Professor Simon explores political involvement at the local, state, and national levels of these textile workers, who at the height of the textile industry accounted for one-quarter of all voters. Rejecting the stereotypes of simple racists or "rednecks", he argues that these millhands' politics reflected their private and public thoughts about class and race relations, democracy and justice, and that they understood the political and social forces that shaped their lives well and devised complex political strategies to deal with those forces.
Stockwell, Foster. Encyclopedia of American Communes, 1663-1963. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, Jefferson (NC) [etc.] 1998. v, 262 pp. Ill. $55.00.
This encyclopaedia lists a total of 516 different communal experiments, starting from 1663 with Swanendael, America's first commune, and ending in 1963 with the founding of the anarchist Tolstoy Farm. Excluded, therefore, are the many hundreds of attempts at communal living undertaken from the mid-1960s onward. Communal settlements are defined as founded by groups of people who withdraw from existing society to establish a new social pattern based on a vision of an ideal society. Lists of the communes by year of establishment and of the 145 US government projects during the New Deal to set up cooperative farms and communities are appended.
Krebs, Edward S. Shifu, Soul of Chinese Anarchism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., Lanham [etc.] 1998. xv, 291 pp. $65.00. (Paper: $24.95.)
This is a biographical study of the life and thought of Shifu (1884-1915), one of the leading activists and ideologists of early Chinese anarchism. Born as Liu Shaobin, he came from an upper-class family. Active in the student movement against the imperial regime, he was imprisoned several times. During his imprisonment he evolved from an adherent of the "nationalist essence" ideology into one of the major ideologists of Chinese anarchism.
Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar. Caste, Protest and Identity in Colonial India. The Namasudras of Bengal, 1872-1947. [London Studies on South Asia, 15.] Curzon, Richmond 1997. xii, 324 pp. £40.00.
See Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri's review in this volume, pp. 332-334.
Nair, Janaki. Miners and Millhands. Work, Culture and Politics in Princely Mysore. Sage Publications, New Delhi [etc.] 1998. 325 pp. £30.00.
In this study Dr Nair aims to provide a comparative analysis of premier centres of industrial production in the Indian princely state Mysore, the Kolar Gold Field and the city of Bangalore in the first half of the twentieth century. Adopting a thematic perspec-.tive and basing herself on a variety of government, company and private sources, as well as on recent interviews and songs, the author deals with negotiations about working conditions, the specificities of working-class neighbourhoods and cultural life, the rise of political awareness among workers, and the ideologies of caste, class and nation.
Halpern, Ben and Jehuda Reinharz. Zionism and the Creation of a New Society. [Studies in Jewish History.] Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 1998. vii, 293 pp. £30.00.
Tracing the development of the Zionist idea from its earliest expressions up to the eve of World War II, this book studies the birth of the state of Israel and analyses the ideological principles underlying the origins of the Zionist movement. The late Professor Halpern and Professor Reinharz examine the conflicting prestate ideals and the social structure that emerged in Palestine's Jewish community during the Mandate period, and reflect upon Israel's existence both as a state and as a place conceived before its birth as a means of resolving the social issue of the modern Jewish Problem.
Botzenhart, Manfred. 1848/49: Europa im Umbruch. [UTB für Wissenschaft: Uni-Taschenbücher, 2061.] Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn [etc.] 1998. 285 pp. Maps. DM 36.80.
In this textbook, Professor Botzenhart gives a comprehensive overview of the revolutionary events in Germany in 1848/1849 in the context of the revolutionary changes in the rest of Europe in the period 1845-1850. The author concludes that the social foundations of the revolutionary movements and the revolutionary actions in the various parts of Europe were too different to be labelled as a "revolution of the bourgeoisie". The Revolution of 1848/1849 did, however, manifest the desire of the bourgeoisie for new forms of self-determination in a vast range of areas.
Canovi, Antonio. Cavriago ad Argenteuil. Migrazioni Comunità Memorie. [RS Europa Libri.] Comune di Cavriago, Istituto per la Storia della Resistenza e della Società Contemporanea in provincia di Reggio Emilia, Cavriago 1999. 365 pp. L. 25.000.
This book relates the history of emigration from the Italian town of Cavriago to the Parisian suburb of Argenteuil from the end of the nineteenth century onward. The emigrants were mostly socialists and communists and, later, following Mussolini's rise, simply antifascists. The links with Cavriago persisted. Personal memories and documents reconstruct the history of this cohesive community. The book concludes with a chart of residents of Italian extraction in Argenteuil based on the censuses of 1877-1931.
Collette, Christine. The International Faith. Labour's Attitudes to European Socialism, 1918-39. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 1998. xii, 211 pp. Ill. £32.50.
This study examines the international practices of the British Labour Party, trades unions and the broad labour movement, focusing on relationships between social democratic and communist organizations in interwar Europe. Dr Collette considers contacts made with the Labour and Socialist International and the International Federation of Trade Unions and focuses on the distinctive approaches of women and young people. The wide-ranging contacts of the broad labour movement in fields such as sport, education, Esperanto, music and art are covered as well.
Communism National & International. Ed. by Tauno Saarela and Kimmo Rentola. [Studia Historica 58.] SHS, Helsinki 1998. 348 pp. Ill. FIM 140.
The fifteen contributions to this volume, based on a conference organized in Helsinki in March 1997, consider the relation between the international communist movement and several European national communist parties, with respect both to organization and politics and ideological, cultural and social aspects. The focus is on the perspective of the individual parties and persons involved rather than on the International, and on the differences in national contexts rather than on the similarities. Included are contributions on France, Great Britain, Italy, Norway, Denmark and Sweden, as well as five contributions devoted to different aspects of Finnish communism.
Europa 1848. Revolution und Reform. Hrsg. von Dieter Dowe, Heinz-Gerhard Haupt [und] Dieter Langewiesche. [Politik- und Gesellschaftsgeschichte, Band 48.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 1998. 1295 pp. Ill. Maps. DM 124.00; S.fr. 115.00; S 905.00.
One hundred and fifty years after the European year of revolution in 1848, thirty-eight historians from nine countries analyse the changes in west, north, south, and central Europe in this vast collection of essays. In addition to covering the classical economic and political aspects, they address subjects such as "Women's Spaces in the Men's Revolution of 1848" (Gabriella Hauch), myth formation (Robert Gildea), linguistic changes (Willibald Steinmetz), and the role of rumours (John Merriman). The work also features comparative contributions dealing with the role of capital cities (Rüdiger Hachtmann), agrarian movements (Christof Dipper, Wolfgang Höpken), and the role of the press (Ursula E. Koch).
European Social Democracy. Transformation in Progress. Ed. by René Cuperus and Johannes Kandel. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, n.p. [Bonn]/ Wiardi Beckman Stichting, Amsterdam 1998. 302 pp. Maps. D.fl. 37.50.
In October 1997 the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung and the Wiardi Beckman Stichting, the think-tank of the Dutch Labour Party, organized a conference on contemporary policies and ideological developments within European social democracy in the context of the recent upswing of social democratic parties in several European countries. The twenty contributions to this volume are based on the papers presented at this conference and encompass, apart from reports about the strengths and weaknesses of social democracy in seven European countries, essays on topics such as Europe, internationalism and the problem of the nation state; globalization and the future of welfare socialism and labour; and postmodernism, individualism and multiculturalism as challenges for social democracy.
Frankreich 1848-1870. Die Französische Revolution in der Erinnerungskultur des Zweiten Kaiserreiches. Hrsg. von Gudrun Gersmann [und] Hubertus Kohle. Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 1998. 192 pp. Ill. DM 78.00; S.fr. 78.00; S 569.00.
This collection is the third in a series of four on the French Revolution's effect on the collective memory in France and in Europe (see also IRSH, 40 (1995), p. 164). The nine contributions focus on the period between 1848 and the beginning of the Third Republic in 1870. The issues dealt with include the role of traditional revolutionary symbols from 1789 in the events of 1848 in France (Klaus Deinet), the French policy in naming streets (Gudrun Gersmann), the Revolution's reverberations in French political iconography of this period (Uwe Fleckner) and the image of the Revolution among German liberals in the 1850s and 1860s (Christian Jansen).
Grenzgänger. Persönlichkeiten des deutsch-niederländischen Verhältnisses. Horst Lademacher zum 65. Geburtstag. Hrsg. von Walter Mühlhausen, Bert Altena, Friedhelm Boll [u.a.] Waxmann, Münster [etc.] 1998. 314 pp. DM 68.00.
In this Festschrift for Professor Lademacher, director of the Centre for Dutch Studies at the Westfälische Wilhems University in Münster, in honour of his sixty-fifth birthday, the thirteen contributions offer mostly biographical studies of persons who have served as role models for twentieth-century German-Dutch relations in various respects. The contributions address subjects including the friendship between Luise Kautsky and Henriëtte Roland-Holst (Ursula Langkau-Alex), Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis's relations with German social democracy (Bert Altena) and Alfred Mozer and German-Dutch relations (Friso Wielenga).
Haupt, Heinz-Gerhard [und] Geoffrey Crossick. Die Kleinbürger. Eine europäische Sozialgeschichte des 19. Jahrhunderts. Verlag C.H. Beck, München 1998. 366 pp. DM 78.00.
This is a revised German edition of The Petite Bourgeoisie in Europe 1780-1914. Enterprise, Family and Independence (London, 1995), which was reviewed in IRSH, 43 (1998), pp. 139-142.
Hopkins, James K. Into the Heart of the Fire. The British in the Spanish Civil War. Stanford University Press, Stanford 1998. xxiv, 475 pp. Ill. £35.00.
Based in part on the recently opened archives of the International Brigades in Moscow, this study offers an account of British involvement in the Spanish Civil War, examining the experiences of the British volunteers in the International Brigades. Placing the volunteers in a broader intellectual, political, social and cultural framework, Professor Hopkins analyses how British men and women conceptualized their engagement with the political issues of their time.
Die nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslager - Entwicklung und Struktur. Hrsg. von Ulrich Herbert, Karin Orth und Christoph Dieckmann. Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen 1998. 1192 pp. (in 2 vols). DM 84.00; S.fr. 76.00; S 613.00.
On the fiftieth anniversary of the liberation of the Buchenwald concentration camp a conference was organized in November 1995 in Weimar, where seventy scholars of ten different nationalities specializing in the history of the Nazi extermination policy discussed the latest historiographical trends and remaining gaps within the research field. This two-volume collection comprises forty contributions based on the papers delivered at that conference. The essays are organized in seven thematic sections: conception and praxis of the National-Socialist concentration camps, 1933-1938; development and changing function of the camps between 1937/1938 and 1945; the camps in eastern Europe; labour in the concentration camps; the perpetrators; the prisoners and prisoner groups; and the last phase in the War.
The Prague Spring 1968. A National Security Archive DOCUMENTS Reader. Compiled and ed. by Jaromír Navrátil, Antonín Ben ík, Václav Kural, Marie Michálková, [and] Jitka Vondrová. Transl. by Mark Kramer, Joy Moss, [and] Ruth Tosek. Headnotes and add. documents provided by Mark Kramer. Ed. coord. by Malcolm Byrne, [and] Peter Kornbluh. Central European University Press, Budapest 1998. xxxix, 596 pp. Ill. £38.00.
This annotated documentation offers information about the political backgrounds to the invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968. The book covers both sides of the "Iron Curtain". It features 140 annotated documents from Kremlin Politburo meetings, multilateral sessions of the Warsaw Pact leading to the decision to invade and transcripts of KGB-recorded telephone conversations between Leonid Brezhnev and Alexandr Dub ek.
Rapone, Leonardo. La socialdemocrazia europea tra le due guerre. Dall'organizzazione della pace alla resistenza al fascismo (1923-1936). Carocci editore, Roma 1999. 431 pp. L. 54.000.
This is a comparative study of the European socialist parties, united in the Labour and Socialist International (LSI) (1923-1940), concerning the issue of war and peace. The International was an institution coordinating the positions on international politics that the parties adopted. Most social-democratic parties had abandoned the theory that war was inevitable in capitalism and sincerely believed that avoiding conflicts was a realistic objective. The rise of fascism undermined this pacifism. This study focuses on the LSI and the largest individual parties.
Terror. Stalinistische Parteisäuberungen 1936-1953. Hrsg. von Hermann Weber [und] Ulrich Mählert. Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn [etc.] 1998. x, 618 pp. DM 98.00.
Following an international conference in Mannheim in 1992 on Stalinist terror and "purges" in the communist parties in Europe since the 1930s, of which the proceedings were published in Kommunisten verfolgen Kommunisten (Berlin, 1993) (see IRSH, 39 (1994), p. 303), a comparative research project was launched to examine the purges in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Comintern, the East German SED and the Czechoslovakian Communist Party. This collection, with nine contributions, presents the results of this project. Selected documents are appended to most of the essays.
Thion Soriano-Mollá, Dolores. Ernesto Bark. Un propagandista de la Modernidad 1858-1924. [Textos Universitaris.] Generalitat Valenciana/Instituto de Cultura "Juan Gil-Albert," Alicante 1998. 346 pp. Ptas. 2.200.
This is the biography of Ernesto Bark (1858-1924), a German-speaking inhabitant of the Baltic area, who, after extensive travels through Europe, settled permanently in Spain in 1884. Following his studies in Germany, he associated with various emigrant circles, e.g. in Geneva. He struggled for the independence of the Baltic countries and for Russia's liberation from Czarist oppression. Though influenced by Bakunin's ideas, he defined himself as a republican socialist on the Spanish political spectrum. The present biography deals both with his literary and journalistic endeavours and his social-philosophical ideas and reform plans to modernize Spain.
Women and Socialism, Socialism and Women. Europe Between the Two World Wars. Ed. by Helmut Gruber and Pamela Graves. Berghahn Books, New York [etc.] 1998. xvi, 591 pp. Ill. £42.00.
See Sheila Rowbotham's review in this volume, 322-326.
Hänisch, Dirk. Die österreichischen NSDAP-Wähler. Eine empirische Analyse ihrer politischen Herkunft und ihres Sozialprofils. [Böhlaus Zeitgeschichtliche Bibliothek, Band 35.] Böhlau Verlag, Wien [etc.] 1998. 492 pp. Maps. S 696.00; DM 98.00; S.fr. 89.00.
See Michael H. Kater's review in this volume, pp. 328-329.
Karl Marx - Friedrich Engels. Tekster på dansk 1848-1996. En bibliografi over artikler, breve, bøger. Udarbejdet af Louise Fluger Callesen. [ABA's bibliografiske serie 10.] Arbejderbevægelsens Bibliotek og Arkiv, København 1997. 141 pp. D.kr. 200.00.
This bibliography gives a comprehensive overview of all Danish translations of texts by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in the period 1848-1996. It covers all complete works and excerpts, although it omits quotations in works by other authors. In addition to bibliographical information, such as the original title and the name of the translator, data are provided on each text's location in the Marx-Engels Werke (MEW), the Marx-Engels Gesamtausgabe (MEGA) and the Marx-Engels Collected Works (MECW). The texts are arranged chronologically according to the Danish translation's year of publication.
Eire - Ireland
Curtin, Nancy J. The United Irishmen. Popular Politics in Ulster and Dublin, 1791-1798. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1998. ix, 317 pp. £17.99.
This book examines the origin, context, nature and practices of the United Irish Movement, the republican nationalist movement, from its inception in 1791 to its defeat in the Great Rebellion of 1798. Exploring the movement's ideology, propaganda, social composition and mobilization in the context of revolution and counterrevolution in late eighteenth-century Ireland, Professor Curtin highlights an emerging liberalism within this nationalist movement. She argues that class and religious tensions contributed to the United Irish failure.
Boswell, Laird. Rural Communism in France, 1920-1939. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1998. xii, 266 pp. Ill. Maps. $47.50; £35.50.
Questioning standard interpretations of the strong rural support for communism in France in the interwar period that attribute this position to a long-standing tradition of "red republicanism" and "red cultures" in the French countryside, Professor Boswell argues in this study that the Communist Party's strength in parts of the countryside was crucial to its success. Drawing on interviews with surviving militants and an analysis of voter behaviour, the author aims to show how communism introduced modern politics in isolated rural communities, revived networks of village sociability and culture and responded to the state's inability to cope with the massive upheaval brought about by the gradual disappearance of peasant society.
Bourseiller, Christophe. Vie et mort de Guy Debord 1931-1994. Plon, n.p. [Paris] 1999. 461 pp. Ill. F.fr. 149.00; ??22.71.
This expansive biography offers a detailed description of the life of Guy Debord, who became known mainly as the author of a fundamental critique of the established order entitled La Société du Spectacle (1967). The author describes Debord's development from his youth, when he was active in the avant-gardist group of artists Internationale Lettriste (IL) (1952-1957). He helped found the successor to the IL, the Internationale Situationniste (1957-1972). Thanks to his contacts with Henri Lefebvre, whose Critique de la vie quotidienne had a major impact on the situationists, and in part to the influence of his interactions with the group Socialisme ou Barbarie, the IS turned into a radical political organization and reached the peak of its influence after May 1968.
Derfler, Leslie. Paul Lafargue and the Flowering of French Socialism 1882-1911. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1998. xv, 369 pp. Ill. £27.95.
See Fritz Keller's review in this volume, pp. 326-328.
Godineau, Dominique. The Women of Paris and Their French Revolution. Transl. by Katherine Streip. [Studies on the History of Society and Culture, vol. 26.] University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1998. xxii, 415 pp. $60.00; £45.00. (Paper: $24.95; £19.95.)
This is the English translation of Citoyennes tricoteuses: Les femmes du peuple à Paris pendant la Révolution française (Aix-en-Provence, 1988), a study of ordinary women's lives during the French Revolution. Professor Godineau uses sources including police reports and demographic resources to describe the private and public lives of these women who have remained anonymous in the accounts of the Revolution. Placing them within their political, social and gender-specific contexts, she aims to restore these women to their rightful historical place as instigators, activists, militants and decisive revolutionary individuals.
Gueslin, André. Gens pauvres, pauvres gens. Dans la France du XIXe siècle. [Collection historique.] Aubier, Paris 1998. 314 pp. F.fr. 150.00.
This study offers a comprehensive overview of poverty in France in the nineteenth century. With industrialization and the emergence of an industrial working class, the definition of poverty changed, and an underclass of the poor became visible. Professor Gueslin examines the extent of the poverty, the conditions among the poor, causes of the problem of poverty, the social behaviour of the poor and their relation to the wealthy, various contemporary theories on the social question of poverty, as well as private and public initiatives to address the poverty problem.
Inspecteurs et inspection du travail sous la IIIe et la IVe République. Sous la dir. de Jean-Louis Robert. Ministère de l'emploi et de la solidarité, Paris; La documentation française, Paris 1998. 262 pp. Ill. F.fr. 240.00.
The eighteen contributions in this volume offer a comprehensive overview of the history of the labour inspectorate in France from its inception at the end of the ancien regime through to the middle of the twentieth century. The first seven essays deal with discourse and debates concerning the labour inspectorate throughout the period; in the second part the chronological focus is on the period of the Third Republic, with contributions on subjects such as social recruitment and career paths; the last part considers the development of the labour inspectorate's social role.
Riot-Sarcey, Michèle. Le réel de l'utopie. Essai sur le politique au XIXe siècle. Albin Michel, Paris 1998. 309 pp. F.fr. 140.00.
See Michael Löwy's review in this volume, pp. 313-315.
Anatomie der Parteizentrale. Die KPD/SED auf dem Weg zur Macht. Hrsg. von Manfred Wilke. [Studien des Forschungsverbundes SED-Staat an der Freien Universität Berlin.] Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1998. 584 pp. DM 78.00.
In the years following World War II the restoration of the central apparatus of the German Communist Party (KPD) established the organizational foundations for the subsequent German Democratic Republic. The present collection of ten essays reconstructs this process. The authors cover the origins of the party bureaucracy (Michael Kunina), the relationship to social democracy (Manfred Wilke), the role of the communist executives returning from Moscow (Peter Erler) and the operations of the NKVD (Vladimir Sacharov et al.).
Boldorf, Marcel. Sozialfürsorge in der SBZ/DDR 1945-1953. Ursachen, Ausmass und Bewältigung der Nachkriegsarmut. [Vierteljahrschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte: Beihefte; Nr. 138.] Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 1998. 254 pp. DM 88.00; S.fr. 88.00; S 642.00.
See Beatrix Bouvier's review in this volume, pp. 329-332.
Deutschland im ersten Nachkriegsjahr. Berichte von Mitgliedern des Internationalen Sozialistischen Kampfbundes (ISK) aus dem besetzten Deutschland 1945/46. Hrsg. und bearb. von Martin Rüther, Uwe Schütz und Otto Dann. [Texte und Materialien zur Zeitgeschichte, Band 10.] K.G. Saur, München 1998. ix, 648 pp. DM 198.00; S.fr. 176.00; S 1445.00.
This source edition brings together the reports from members of the Internationaler Sozialistischer Kampfbund (ISK) on the situation in Germany at the end of World War II and in the Western occupation zones in 1945/1946. The ISK was a small socialist party, which went into exile in 1933. Though small, the ISK was, thanks especially to its leader Willi Eichler, relatively influential in the socialist exile organization Union deutscher sozialistischer Organisationen in Großbritannien. Appended are a questionnaire by Eichler on the political, economic and social situation, and short biographies of the reporters and contacts mentioned in the reports.
Echternkamp, Jörg. Der Aufstieg des deutschen Nationalismus (1770-1840). Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1998. 675 pp. DM 118.00; S.fr. 110.00; S 861.00.
This voluminous doctoral thesis (Bielefeld, 1996) aims to reconstruct the rise and origins of German nationalism, highlighting social aspects and mentalities. The author begins his research in the 1770s to trace the diffuse "Germanic-German" legacy subsequently adopted by nationalism. He then describes the nationalist perceptions from the early decades of the nineteenth century, in which liberalism figured prominently. He concludes with an analysis of nationalism's social embedding in the 1820s and 1830s.
Eiber, Ludwig. Die Sozialdemokratie in der Emigration. Die "Union deutscher sozialistischer Organisationen in Großbritannien" 1941-1946 und ihre Mitglieder. Protokolle, Erklärungen, Materialien. Projektleitung: Herbert Obenaus [und] Hans-Dieter Schmid. [Archiv für Sozialgeschichte, Beiheft 19.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 1998. clxxvi, 911 pp. DM 168.00; S.fr. 151.00; S 1226.00.
In the spring of 1941 the London members of German social democracy (Sopade) merged with several leftist socialist groups to form the Union of German Socialist Organisations in Great Britain. This extensive study documents the Union's programmatic views and its role in reestablishing the SPD after World War II. The book comprises a thorough introduction by the editor, Dr Ludwig Eiber, plus 331 carefully edited documents.
Fels, Gerhard. Der Aufruhr der 68er. Zu den geistigen Grundlagen der Studentenbewegung und der RAF. Bouvier Verlag, Bonn 1998. 286 pp. DM 45.00; S.fr. 41.50; S 329.00.
This study examines the intellectual and ideological foundations of the revolutionary student movement of 1968 in Germany and the resulting terrorist group the Rote Armee Fraktion (RAF). In the complex of social revolutionary ideas Dr Fels identifies three main common features: antifascism, anti-authoritarianism and anti-imperialism. He explores both the intellectual fatherhood of the Frankfurter Schule and social philosophers such as Herbert Marcuse, Ernst Bloch, Georg Lukács and Jürgen Habermas, as well as the ideological and political course of the student revolution and the RAF.
"Gemeinschaftsfremde". Quellen zur Verfolgung von "Asozialen" 1933-1945. Bearb. von Wolfgang Ayaß. [Materialien aus dem Bundesarchiv, Heft 5.] Bundesarchiv, Koblenz 1998. xxv, 400 pp. DM 35.00.
Following their seizure of power in 1933 the Nazis implemented a policy of persecuting "antisocial elements" or Gemeinschaftsfremden. Such individuals were primarily male beggars and vagrants. Over time the definition of antisocial was broadened to include socially maladjusted women and families, and the measures became increasingly aggressive. While far less centrally coordinated than the racial policy against Jews and gypsies, the Nazi policy towards and persecution of Gemeinschaftsfremden depended strongly on individual, local or regional initiatives. This source publication offers a selection of some 160 documents relating to this policy and the resulting persecution practices.
Hahn, Hans-Werner. Die industrielle Revolution in Deutschland. [Enzyklopädie deutscher Geschichte, Band 49.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 1998. x, 164 pp. DM 29.80.
This concise textbook overview of the history of the Industrial Revolution in Germany is Volume 49 in the ambitious series Encyclopaedia of German History. In addition to providing a chronological overview of the economic developments from the end of the eighteenth century onward, Professor Hahn sketches the basic debates and new currents of research in the field. An overview of available printed source materials and secondary literature on the subject is appended.
Land, Rainer [und] Ralf Possekel. Fremde Welten. Die gegensätzliche Deutung der DDR durch SED-Reformer und Bürgerbewegung in den 80er Jahren. Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin 1998. 310 pp. DM 38.00; S.fr. 38.00; S 278.00.
Based on extensive interviews with participants, this study explores the differing social background, collective identities, discursive codes and motivations of the two different oppositional groups in the GDR in the 1980s: the reform generation within the SED and the civil reform movement. While the SED reformers aimed to change state socialism from within, the civil reform movement declined to pursue political power within the current system and established its own civil community. Lack of substantial dialogue between the two groups prevented either of the two from becoming political leaders after reunification.
Bailey, Brian. The Luddite Rebellion. Sutton Publishing, Stroud 1998. xvii, 182 pp. Ill. Maps. £18.99.
This book aims to provide a new narrative history of one of the best-known incidents in the industrial history of Britain, the early nineteenth-century Luddite Rebellion. Mr Bailey offers a detailed description of the events leading up to machine-breaking, the spread of unrest through the Midland textile industries into Lancashire and Yorkshire and the course of the riots. He examines how the Luddites organized themselves, the savage response by the government and the rebellion's industrial and political consequences.
Bayley, Stephen. Labour Camp. The failure of style over substance. B.T. Batsford, London 1998. 144 pp. £16.99.
The author of this ironic critique of the culture and style of New Labour and the Blair government is a well-known design specialist who, before resigning in frustration, worked as a creative consultant to the Millennium Dome project, Tony Blair's cultural showpiece. Examining the Blair government's addiction to presentation, public relations and celebrity cults, Mr Bayley argues that New Labour is more obsessed with image, style, and novelty than actually interested in implementing authentic, substantial change.
D'Cruze, Shani. Crimes of outrage. Sex, violence and Victorian working women. [Women's History.] UCL Press, London 1998. viii, 263 pp. £11.95.
Based on judicial sources, in this study Dr D'Cruze examines sexual and physical violence against working-class women in Victorian Britain. Sketching how the neighbourhood, along with home and work, provided the spatial and social context of reported violence, the author then explores how the legal system filtered, defined, and classified violence. She notes how in some cases the women's interests in being protected against violent crimes coincided with the courts' agenda to discipline the unruly behaviour of working men, but how more often the women's reputations and personal integrity were on trial more than those of their attackers.
Herzog, Don. Poisoning the Minds of the Lower Orders. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1998. xvi, 559 pp. £19.95.
See Gregory Claeys's review in this volume, pp. 311-313.
Kirk, Neville. Change, continuity and class. Labour in British society 1850-1920. [New Frontiers in History.] Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1998; distrib. excl. in the USA by St. Martin's Press, New York. vi, 312 pp. £45.00. (Paper: £13.99.)
This book aims to critique old and new approaches and debates within British social and labour history from the mid-Victorian period to the immediate post-World-War-I years. Assuming a general malaise in British labour history, which, in contrast to social history, has failed to engage with new trends and forces, Dr Kirk argues that British labour history can regenerate itself by means of a synthesis and further development of the best elements in both traditional and new approaches. A selection of documents reflecting the dominant concerns and themes in the book is appended.
Radical femininity. Women's self-representation in the public sphere. Ed. by Eileen Janes Yeo. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1998; distrib. excl. in the USA by St. Martin's Press, New York. ix, 229 pp. £45.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
The eight essays in this volume explore how, between 1790 and 1914, women in Britain attempted to represent themselves in the public sphere and to establish empowering identities. The contributions address class, ethnicity and motherhood in the works of the Quaker educationalist writer Hannah Kilham (Alison Twells), the political rhetoric of Chartist women (Michelle de Larrabeiti), the image of married working women in the Industrial Women's Movement (Gerry Holloway) and representations of working-class femininity in the Women's Co-operative Guild (Gillian Scott).
Thom, Deborah. Nice Girls and Rude Girls. Women Workers in World War I. I.B. Tauris Publishers, London [etc.] 1998. xvi, 224 pp. Ill. £39.50.
In this study of the myths and realities of women workers' experience in Great Britain in World War I, Dr Thom examines the effect of "dilution and substitution" in compensating for the loss of industrial workers, the role of "patriotic fervour", the industrial roles of women, wages, the function of trade unions, the impact on health and family life, and demobilization in 1918-1919. She concludes that the circumstances of war work were so circumscribed that any change in the position of women as workers was not enduring and was not regarded as affecting women's nature as workers or as citizens.
Wilkinson, Alan. Christian Socialism: Scott Holland to Tony Blair. The 1998 Scott Holland Lectures. SCM Press, London 1998. xviii, 302 pp. £14.95.
With the rise of Tony Blair, who derives his political beliefs from his Christian faith, the Christian socialist tradition is resurrecting within the Labour Party. In this book, Dr Wilkinson sketches the nineteenth-century background to the Christian socialism of F.D. Maurice, the contributions to the Christian socialist ideas by Henry Scott Holland and Charles Gore, the influence of Christian socialism on R.H. Tawney and William Temple, the relation with Roman Catholic social teaching and the more radical, dissenting current within British Christian socialism, represented by Alan Ecclestone, Donald Soper and Kenneth Leech. A survey of British Christian socialist politicians concludes this book.
Bosworth, R.J.B. The Italian Dictatorship. Problems and perspectives in the interpretation of Mussolini and Fascism. Arnold, London [etc.] 1998. x, 269 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
This study aims to offer both a comprehensive overview and a critique of the development of the historiography and interpretations of Italian fascism. Starting with the transformations in the interpretations of fascism brought about by fundamental changes in Italian politics in the 1990s, Professor Bosworth examines both the earlier interpretations of fascism and a selection of central topics in the historiography of the area, including debates about the role of Mussolini, fascist politics and economics, ethnicity and gender, fascist cultural legacy and the role and assessment of resistance.
Colajanni, Napoleone. L'Italia nel 1898. Tumulti e reazione. [Atti e memorie del popolo.] Galzerano Editore, Casalvelino Scalo (SA) 1998. 275 pp. L. 25.000.
In 1898 a famine in Italy gave rise to protests against the rise in food prices. In Milan the army fired at the demonstrators, killing hundreds. Military tribunals imposed horrendous sentences. In response to these actions the republican delegate Napoleone Colajanni wrote a fierce protest, which has been reprinted in this publication a century later. Colajanni, an adherent of Garibaldi in his youth, studied medicine and wrote countless works about the contemporary social conditions and social movements in his country, and about political subjects, socialism and the Mafia.
Fouskas, Vassilis. Italy, Europe, the Left. The transformation of Italian communism and the European imperative. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 1998. xvi, 253 pp. £40.00.
In this study of the Italian Communist Party (PCI) and its successor, the Party of the Democratic Left (PDS), Dr Fouskas presents the history of the PCI/PDS and the First Republic through two historical periods. In the first period, from 1943 to 1980, the PCI's postwar strategy involved pursuing political and social compromises. The second period, from 1980 to 1992, was an underlying process of European integration along neoliberal lines that underpinned, according to the author, the shaping of a new revisionist identity, even before the crisis and subsequent demise of Soviet communism.
Guilds, Markets and Work Regulations in Italy, 16th-19th Centuries. Ed. by Alberto Guenzi, Paola Massa and Fausto Piola Caselli. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 1998. vii, 520 pp. £55.00.
This volume with twenty-six contributions, based on a conference in Rome in September 1997, aims to provide a summary of current research on the history of guilds and corporations in Italy from the Renaissance to the end of the nineteenth century. Grouped in three sections, dealing respectively with the guild system in urban areas, case studies of individual guilds and conflicts and their role in mutual aid and assistance, the essays focus on the relationship between guilds, manufacturing, entrepreneurship and economic development, and their impact on urban society and social welfare.
Maurandi, Pietro. Il caso Graziadei. Vita politica e teoria economica di un intellettuale scomodo. Carocci editore, Roma 1999. 174 pp. L. 28.000.
This book covers the political career and the economic theories of the Italian socialist politician and theorist Antonio Graziadei (1873-1953). He started as a leader in the Socialist Party and a delegate in Parliament until 1910. In 1921 he helped found the Communist Party; in 1928 he was expelled for his "revisionist" views. The first part of the book contains a biographical sketch of the politician and analyses his parliamentary speeches. The second part is an analysis of his economic-theoretical views. He criticized Marx's value and profit theory and believed that radical improvement in the position of workers was possible under capitalism.
Valiani, Leo [e] Franco Venturi. Lettere 1943-1979. A cura di Edoardo Tortarolo. Introd. di Giorgio Vaccarino. [Biblioteca di storia, 76. Dall'azionismo agli azionisti, 4.] La Nuova Italia, Scandicci (FI) 1999. xxxix, 380 pp. L. 36.000.
Franco Venturi (1914-1994) and Leo Valiani (1909) met during their exile in Paris. Both were part of the Italian resistance and were prominent members of the Partito d'Azione. While Venturi became a scholar, Valiani became a member of the House of Delegates and later a senator; he also remained active as a journalist. Over the years they corresponded, both about political affairs and cultural issues.
Bornebroek, Arno. Gids van de archieven van de christelijke vakbeweging in Nederland. Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1998. 162 pp. D.fl. 39.50.
This guide contains an overview of available archival materials on the Protestant trade union movement in the Netherlands from 1900 until the 1990s. The descriptions include a brief account of the organizational history of the various Protestant trade unions. This guide is based on a comprehensive database of archival materials on the Protestant trade union movement in the Netherlands, which may be consulted online at the website of the International Institute of Social History, at http://www.iisg.nl/databases/cnv.php.
Grever, Maria en Berteke Waaldijk. Feministische Openbaarheid. De Nationale Tentoonstelling van Vrouwenarbeid in 1898. Stichting beheer IISG/IIAV, Amsterdam 1998. 352 pp. Ill. D.fl. 39.00.
In the summer of 1898 a national exhibition of women's labour was organized in The Hague, the Netherlands, in honour of Queen Wilhelmina's coronation. This richly-illustrated study describes the exhibition's structure and the aspects of women's labour that were featured. Dr Grever and Dr Waaldijk explore the backgrounds and motives of the organizing committee and assess the exhibition's impact on the gender relations discourse in the Netherlands at the turn of the century.
Henkes, Barbara. Heimat in Holland. Deutsche Dienstmädchen 1920-1950. Aus dem Niederlänidschen von Maria Csollány. Mit einem Vorwort von Gerhard Hirschfeld. Straelener Manuskripte, Straelen 1998. 319 pp. Ill. DM 54.00; S.fr. 42.50; S 328.00.
Between 1920 and 1933 tens of thousands of young German women migrated to the Netherlands to enter domestic service. This study, the German translation of a Dutch dissertation (University of Amsterdam, 1995), explores the women's motives for migrating, their experiences, and the Dutch reactions to these migrant workers, whose presence remains firmly established in Dutch collective memory. Based on archival sources and on many interviews with those concerned, Dr Henkes shows how after 1933 both economic and political pressures led most of the migrants to return to Germany.
Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Bogdanov and His Work. A guide to the published and unpublished works of Alexander A. Bogdanov (Malinovsky) 1873-1928. Ed. by John Biggart, Georgii Gloveli [and] Avraham Yasssour. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 1998. vii, 495 pp. £50.00.
Alexander A. Bogdanov-Malinovsky (1873-1928) was a founding member of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Party and one of the main leftist critics of Lenin. Because of his fundamentally different political and ideological opinions, Bogdanov's substantial contributions to system theory and cultural theory remained anathema in the Soviet Union until the period of glasnost under Gorbachev. This guide offers a comprehensive listing of Bogdanov's published work and archival holdings in the Central Party Archive. In two introductory essays, the first two editors sketch Bogdanov's significance for a broad range of subjects in science and culture.
Bukharin, Nikolai. How it all began. Transl. from the Russian by George Shriver. Introd. by Stephen F. Cohen. Columbia University Press, New York 1998. xxxi, 345 pp. Ill. $32.00; £21.95.
This is the first English translation of Nikolai Bukharin's autobiographical novel and final work. During his year in prison before his show trial and execution in 1938, Bukharin (1888-1938) wrote four books, of which this unfinished novel about his childhood in prerevolutionary Russia was the last. After his execution the manuscripts were kept in Stalin's personal archive, where they were found in 1992. The Russian version of the novel appeared in 1994. In his introduction, Professor Cohen articulates Bukharin's significance. The only surviving letter from Bukharin to his wife during his time in prison is appended.
Fic, Victor M. The Rise of the Constitutional Alternative to Soviet Rule in 1918. Provisional Governments of Siberia and All-Russia: Their Quest for Allied Intervention. Part I. Part II. [East European Monographs, No. DV.]. Distr. by Columbia University Press, New York 1998. xxvii, 514 pp. Ill. $67.50; £39.95.
After Lenin's dissolution of the All Russia Constituent Assembly in January 1918, the majority of the Assembly, consisting of the Party of Socialist Revolutionaries and the Constitutional Democrats, together with the constitutional Provisional Government of Siberia, invited the Allied forces to intervene militarily. This study, based on secondary sources, traces the political and military developments in Russia between January and August 1918 from the perspective of the constitutional alternative to the Bolshevik regime. Professor Fic argues that President Wilson's refusal to support a full-scale intervention in favour of the constitutionalists enabled the Bolsheviks to retain power in Russia.
Die großen Streiks. Neue Arbeiterbewegung, Systemwechsel und Gewerkschaften in Rußland. Berichte - Analysen - Dokumente. Hrsg. von Melanie Tatur. [Dokumentationen zur Kultur und Gesellschaft im östlichen Europa, Band 4.] Edition Temmen, Bremen 1998. 187 pp. DM 39.90.
This volume features documents, reports and analyses from the wave of labour unrest and strikes that shook the already disintegrating Soviet Union from 1989 to 1991. Included are translations of two contemporary reports by Nina Maksimowa on the mineworker strikes in the Kuzbass region in 1989 and 1991; sixteen related documents, ranging from the demands of strikers, articles of association and programmes of the newly formed workers' unions to government decrees; and three analyses. Melanie Tatur aims to explain the lack of societal structuring to counter the overwhelming state power, and Stephanie Hensche and Frank Hoffer analyse the industrial relations and changes in the labour movement since the transformation of 1991.
Museums in Revolution. Four historical museums in Moscow. Ed. by Marien van der Heijden. Museum of the Revolution, Central Museum of V.I. Lenin, The Museum of K. Marx and F. Engels [and] Gorki Leninskiye. Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1998. 64 pp. Ill. D.fl. 39.50.
This richly-illustrated, large-size booklet, with texts in English and Russian, deals with the history, collections and complicated present situation at four historical museums in Moscow: the Central Lenin Museum, the Museum of the Revolution, the Marx-Engels Museum and the State Historical reserve "Gorki Leninskiye". Of these four museums, only the Museum of the Revolution is operating normally, while the others have closed down, merged with other museums, or are experiencing serious operational difficulties. In his introduction the editor sketches the general background of these museums and their fates after the demise of the Soviet Union.
Pilkington, Hilary. Migration, Displacement and Identity in Post-Soviet Russia. Routledge, London [etc.] 1998. xi, 252 pp. £16.99.
Upon the collapse of the Soviet Union, around twenty-five million ethnic Russians living in the newly independent states turned into a "Russian minority", and found themselves politically and culturally displaced. Since then, around three million have either chosen or been forced to return to Russia. In this study Dr Pilkington explores the reintegration experience of these ethnic Russians and investigates how it informs an understanding of contemporary Russian society and the reconstruction of a post-Soviet Russian identity.
Babiano Mora, José. Paternalismo Industrial y Disciplina Fabril en España (1938-1958). [Colección Estudios, No 59.] Consejo Económico y Social, Madrid 1998. 199 pp. Ptas. 1.500.
This book addresses the labour market policy and the policy on working conditions in Francoist Spain from the proclamation of the Fuero del Trabajo in 1938 to the Ley de Convenios Colectivos Sindicales in 1958. The author aims to analyse Spain's progression toward Fordism, which entailed forceful state intervention. He begins with a study of the policies of the government and the national trade union with respect to corporate personnel and continues with a study of such policy among the employers.
Bengoechea, Soledad [i] Mercè Renom i Pulit. Memòria i compromís. Classes treballadores, sindicalisme i política al Prat de Llobregat (1917-1979). Ajuntament del Prat de Llobregat; Columna Edicions, Barcelona 1999. 341 pp. Ill. Ptas 1.500.
This is the history of the industrial and agrarian labour movement in the Catalan town of Prat de Llobregat, which is near Barcelona. The study begins with the year that two major industries opened in Prat and ends in 1979, when the first democratic city council elections were held. At many points the perspective is expanded to address the general political context and the political organizations affiliated with the labour movement, while the social and cultural movements that opposed Franco during the postwar period are covered as well. The authors make extensive use of oral sources.
Cobo Romero, Francisco. Conflicto rural y violencia política. El largo camino hacia la dictadura. Jaén, 1917-1950. Universidad de Jaén, Jaén 1998. 381 pp. Ptas 3.640.
This book analyses the contrast between poor farmers and casual labourers versus medium and large landowners in the Andalusian province of Jaén. The author's thesis is that the radicalization of the socialists, and the intense political violence in the spring of 1936 were less decisive for the outbreak of the Civil War than the ongoing social conflict between these two groups. Basing himself on a wealth of sources, Cobo Romero asserts that this led to a fundamentally antidemocratic stance among the landed classes. He identifies three chronological periods, each with distinctive traits: the social conflict before and during the Republic, the political violence during the Civil War (when Jaén was held by the republicans) and the revenge of the nationalists, who turned the social conflict into a bloodbath and achieved economic recovery by keeping wages extremely low.
Les Espagnols et la guerre civile. Textes rassemblés et prés. par Michel Papy. Atlantica, Biarritz 1999. 441 pp. F.fr. 149.00; ?19.66.
This work comprises the contributions from French and Spanish historians to a colloquium held in Pau in 1996. The contributions are the fruits of recent archival research on the Spanish Civil War and Francoism. The book is divided into four sections: the first one deals with, for example, ideological and propaganda-related aspects of Francoism, the second with the Civil War and its consequences in the north, from the Basque Country to Catalonia, including the social revolution in Aragon and Catalonia. The third section addresses the international issues concerning the Civil War and the fourth the war's aftermath, along with exile, resistance and deportation.
La Guerra Civil: ¿dos o tres Españas? [Por] Paul Preston, Sergio Romano, Nino Isaia [y] Edgardo Sogno. Edición a cargo de Javier Ruiz Portella. Trad. del italiano de Juan Trejo Álvarez. Trad. del inglés de Marcelo Covián. [Actual.] Ediciones Áltera, Barcelona 1999. 185 pp. Ptas. 2.250.
This book is the Spanish translation of the Italian publication Due fronti, which raised a lot of controversy in Italy in 1998. It contains the memoirs of two Italians who fought in the Spanish Civil War, one for the Republic and the other as a volunteer with Mussolini's auxiliary troops for Franco. The polemic resulted from the foreword by the Italian diplomat and historian Sergio Romano, a man "of impeccable liberal standing", according to Paul Preston in his introduction to this Spanish publication. Romano had asserted that if, instead of Franco, the republic had won the Civil War, a kind of people's republic would have been established like the ones founded in eastern Europe after 1945. In his introduction Preston disputes this thesis.
Jarne, Antonieta. L'oposició al franquisme a Lleida. Pròleg: Conxita Mir Curcó. Pagès editors, Lleida 1998. 364 pp. Ptas. 1.800.
The author of this study divides the history of anti-Francoism in the Catalan city of Lérida into three periods, each with a different nature. The first period spanned the years following the fall of the republic until 1953, when the remnants of the old leftist movements from the republic launched a resistance effort. In subsequent years the opposition was more cultural and civilian and was channelled via sports associations and other organizations. The third period began after 1960 with political and labour opposition from a new generation. In this historical study the author aims to identify the different social groups that participated in the assorted anti-Francoist strategies.
Ruzafa Ortega, Rafael. Antes de la Clase. Los trabajadores en Bilbao y la margen izquierda del Nervión, 1841-1891. [Historia Contemporánea, 16.] Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Bilbao 1998. 264 pp. Ptas. 2.200.
This social-historical study addresses the period in which the steel industry originated in and around Bilbao, while the working class emerged and consolidated. The author emphasizes the importance of this stage preceding the period reviewed in the major historical studies by Juan Pablo Fusi and Ignacio Olábarri on the Basque working class. He also broadens the perspective by covering the working and living conditions among the working classes, which he divides into three categories: urban artisans, unskilled workers and factory workers.
Bokovoy, Melissa K. Peasants and Communists. Politics and Ideology in the Yugoslav Countryside, 1941-1953. [Pitt Series in Russian and East European Studies.] University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh 1998. xvii, 211 pp. $40.00.
This study explores the dynamic relationship between the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPJ) and Yugoslavia's peasant majority from 1941 to 1953 in the question of the collectivization of agriculture. Professor Bokovoy examines both the different positions within the KPJ on this issue and the reactions of the peasantry to these aspirations of the KPJ and argues that the everyday acts of resistance against the collectivization ultimately forced the KPJ to withdraw its plans for a collective model of agriculture.