Volume 45 part 3 (2000)
Continents and Countries
Canada | Peru | United States of America
China | Japan
Austria | Czechoslovakia | Denmark | France | Germany | Great Britain | Italy | Latvia | The Netherlands | Poland | Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics | Spain
Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.
SOCIAL THEORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE
Little, Adrian. Post-industrial Socialism. Towards a new politics of welfare. Routledge, London [etc.] 1998. viii, 190 pp. £50.00.
Basing himself on the theoretical work of, among others, the Austrian-French radical philosopher André Gorz (on whose ideas he recently wrote a study, see IRSH 43 (1998), p. 162), Dr Little analyses in this study recent developments in leftist political thought known as postindustrial socialism. He aims to present a renewal of the socialist welfare theory by blending traditional socialist concepts, such as universalism, solidarity and social justice, with elements of ecological, antiracist and feminist politics.
Nagle, John D. Confessions from the Left. On the Pain, Necessity, and Joys of Political Renewal. [Major Concepts in Politics and Political Theory, vol. 15.] Peter Lang, New York [etc.] 1998. xi, 319 pp. S.fr. 41.00.
An American political scientist specialized in areas such as right-radicalism and neofascism in Europe and active on the political left in the antiwar movement of the 1960s, Professor Nagle sets out in this book to analyse the crisis in leftist political thought and to sketch ways out of the impasse of the left. He takes a stand against both left-wing "endism" - the vision of an instantaneous, total social transformation - and ideas of an end of history after the demise of state socialism, and argues that renewal of leftist politics is essential to achieve a progressive counterbalance to dominant global liberalism.
Die ökonomische Theorie von Marx - was bleibt? Reflexionen nach dem Ende des europäischen Kommunismus. Hrsg. von Camilla Warnke und Gerhard Huber. Metropolis-Verlag, Marburg 1998. 240 pp. DM 44.00; S.fr. 40.00; S 321.00.
The seven contributions in this volume, based on papers presented at a colloquium of economists and philosophers from the former GDR and West Germany organized in Bad Homburg in November 1995, examine which elements of Marx's economic theory remain valid, following the demise of state socialism. The contributors aim to address both the analytical-scientific and the moral-utopian elements in Marx's economic thought.
Ritsert, Jürgen. Soziale Klassen. [Einstiege, Band 8.] Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster 1998. 171 pp. DM 29.80.
This textbook features a concise general survey of the origins and development of the concept of class and class analysis. Tracing the roots back to Roman antiquity, Professor Ritsert offers interpretations of the class concepts of Marx and Weber, shows how in postwar German sociology the class concept has been pronounced dead at regular intervals, and names both supporters and opponents of the death-of-class argument from the contemporary international debate.
The Social Movement Society. Contentious Politics for a New Century. Ed. by David S. Meyer and Sidney Tarrow. Rowan & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., Lanham [etc.] 1998. ix, 282 pp. $48.50. (Paper: $24.95.)
Based on the hypotheses, advanced in Sidney Tarrow's Power in Movement: Social Movements, Collective Action and Politics (1994) (see IRSH, 41 (1996), pp. 108f.), the ten essays in this volume explore how on various occasions in the postwar social movement, modes of action have become part of the conventional repertoire of participation. Included are, among others, contributions on collective protest in Germany in the 1950s (Dieter Rucht), social movements in South Africa (Bert Klandermans, Marlene Roefs and Johan Olivier), feminist movement activism (Mary Fainsod Katzenstein) and international social movements and nongovernmental organizations (Margaret E. Keck and Kathryn Sikkink).
Waterman, Peter. Globalization, Social Movements and the New Internationalisms. [Employment and Work Relations in Context.] Mansell, London [etc.] 1998. xvii, 302 pp. £55.00.
"The purpose of this book is to provide a general introduction to, and understanding of, the wave of international solidarity activity associated with the new alternative social movements (ASMs)." Following a concise review of the history of the original nineteenth-century socialist internationalism, Dr Waterman sketches the possibilities for a new labour internationalism, defined as a "global social movement on labour", and contrasts this with the internationalism of feminism and the women's movement. Theoretically, he attempts to synthesize elements from Marxist "alternative social movement" and "critical globalization" theories to obtain a complete idea of a "global civil society".
The Webbs, Fabianism and Feminism. Fabianism and the Political Economy of Everyday Life. Ed. by Peter Beilharz [and] Chris Nyland. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 1998. vi, 176 pp. £32.50.
The six essays in this collection, all but one published before, aim to offer a re-evaluation of Fabianism and its contributions to political economy and the development of what the first editor labels "ordinary feminism". The essays include a general overview of Fabian ideology and its principal thinkers and an essay on Fabianism as a sociology, both by Peter Beilharz; analyses of the Webbs' position on women's rights (Chris Nyland and Gaby Ramia) and of the Webbs' feminism (Chris Nyland).
1968 - Vom Ereignis zum Gegenstand der Geschichtswissenschaft. Hrsg. von Ingrid Gilcher-Holtey. [Geschichte und Gesellschaft: Sonderheft 17.] Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1998. 307 pp. DM 68.00.
The nineteen contributions to this volume, all based on papers presented at a colloquium in Bielefeld addressing this theme in November 1997, examine student and other protest movements in France, the United States and Germany in 1968 from a more detached perspective than has been common practice in the historiography on 1968, which has been dominated by contemporaries involved in the events. Three main themes are covered: the structural and situational factors determining the protest movements in the various countries; the ideological, political and cultural origins and background; and the influence and consequences of 1968.
Elliott, Paul. Brotherhoods of Fear. A History of Violent Organizations. Blandford (A Cassell Imprint), London 1998. 255 pp. Ill. £18.99.
Covering the extended period from the Middle Ages through the Industrial Revolution into the late twentieth century, this book, written for general readers, aims to present a comprehensive history of the secretive organizations that merge violence, magic, revolution, religion and tradition in a dangerous, terroristic way. Explicitly excluding violent organizations with either clear economic motives (drug profits, illegal gambling etc.) or an easily identifiable political cause, Dr Elliott explores a large variety of groups and organizations and their underlying motives and ideologies, from witches and satanic cults in the late Middle Ages, to Nazism, and the Waco cult in the United States in the 1990s.
Eyerman, Ron and Andrew Jamison. Music and social movements. Mobilizing traditions in the twentieth century. [Cambridge Cultural Social Studies.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1998. xi, 191 pp. £40.00; $54.95. (Paper: £14.95; $18.95.)
Focusing on the interrelations between music and social movements in the United States and the transfer of these experiences to Europe, this study examines the mobilization of cultural traditions and the formulation of new collective identities through the music of activism. The authors combine their theoretical argument, which links the political sociology of social movements to cultural theory, with historical-empirical studies of nineteenth-century populist and twentieth-century labour and ethnic movements and their relationship with music. Specific chapters examine folk and country music, black music, music of the 1960s movements and of the Swedish progressive movements.
The Locus of Care. Families, communities, institutions, and the provision of welfare since antiquity. Ed. by Peregrine Horden and Richard Smith. [Studies in the social history of medicine.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1998. x, 287 pp. £50.00.
Contesting the common assumption that the quite recent past has seen an evolutionary shift from the family to the state as the chief provider of health care, the eleven contributions to this volume aim to show major changes in where health care has been delivered and by whom over time and space. After a general overview by the first editor of developments in household care and informal networks of care from antiquity to the present, the following themes are dealt with: networks of care and institutions in early modern western Europe; mental health care in Britain, 1700-1939; and care for children and the elderly in twentieth-century Britain, South Africa and China.
Das Manifest - heute. 150 Jahre Kapitalismuskritik. [Von] Eric Hobsbawm u.a. VSA-Verlag, Hamburg 1998. 300 pp. DM 39.80.
The twenty essays in this collection aim to analyse what remains current, what has become obsolete, what merits reassessment, and what is missing from the Communist Manifesto 150 years after its publication. Half the contributions are papers or revised versions of papers presented at the international conference, Manifeste du parti communiste: 150 ans après - "... un monde à gagner", organized in Paris by Espaces Marx in May 1998. The contributors include Samir Amin, Eric Hobsbawm, Frigga Haug, Wolfgang Fritz Haug, Michael Krätke, Michael Löwy, Leo Panitsch, Wolfgang Ruge, Paul M. Sweezy and Ellen Meiksins Wood.
Mikrogeschichte - Makrogeschichte: komplementär oder inkommensurabel? Mit Beiträgen von Maurizio Gribaudi, Giovanni Levi und Charles Tilly. Hrsg. und eingel. von Jürgen Schlumbohm. [Göttinger Gespräche zur Geschichtswissenschaft, Band 7.] Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen 1998. 131 pp. DM 24.00; S.fr. 23.00; S 175.00.
In October 1997 a colloquium was organized at the Max-Planck-Institut for History in Göttingen on the relationship between major currents in modern social historiography, Microhistory - Macrohistory: complementary or incommensurable? This volume comprises the revised versions of the introduction and the three contributions to this colloquium. The contributors are: Jürgen Schlumbohn, "Mikrogeschichte - Makrogeschichte: Zur Eröffnung einer Debatte"; Charles Tilly, "Micro, Macro, or Megrim"; Giovanni Levi, "The Origins of the Modern State and the Microhistorical Perspective"; and Maurizio Gribaudi, "Des micro-mécanismes aux configurations globales: Causalité et temporalité historiques dans les formes d'évolution et de l'administration française au XIX siècle".
Consumers against Capitalism? Consumer Cooperation in Europe, North America, and Japan, 1840-1990. Ed. by Ellen Furlough and Carl Strikwerda. Rowan & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., Lanham [etc.] 1999. ix, 377 pp. $63.00; £50.00. (Paper: $23.95; £19.95.)
See Hendrik Defoort's review in this volume, pp. 487-488.
Social Justice Feminists in the United States and Germany. A Dialogue in DOCUMENTS, 1885-1933. Ed. by Kathryn Kish Sklar, Anja Schüler, and Susan Strasser. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1998. xiii, 381 pp. Ill. $19.95.
Women reformers between 1885 and 1933, in various organizations in the United States and Germany, engaged in a dialogue covering a wide array of social injustices caused by the rise of industrial capitalism, such as child labour and the exploitation of women in the workplace. This book presents and interprets documents from that exchange, which show how these interactions reflected the political cultures of the two nations. The documents shed light on the influence of German factory legislation on debates in the United States, the differing contexts of the suffrage movements and the shifts in the feminist movements of both countries after World War I.
Wie aus Bauern Arbeiter wurden. Wiederkehrende Prozesse des gesellschaftlichen Wandels im Norden und im Süden einer Welt. Hrsg. von Olaf Bockhorn, Ingeborg Grau [und] Walter Schicho. Mit Beiträgen von Volkmar Blum, Olaf Bockhorn, Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch [u.a.] [Historische Sozialkunde, Band 13.] Brandes & Apsel, Frankfurt/M.; Südwind, [Wien] 1998. 189 pp. DM 39.80; S.fr. 38.80; S 295.00.
The ten contributions to this volume use comparative case studies and surveys on Asia, Africa, Latin America and Europe to analyse how people who, in a purely agrarian society, control their own labour power and means of production become dependent on wage labour. The subjects addressed by the contributions include early forms of wage labour in European agrarian societies (Michael Mitterauer), the transformation of the Chinese countryside in the second half of the twentieth century (Monika Schädler), colonialism, labour and gender in south Nigeria (Ingeborg Grau) and transformations and amalgams of farmers and workers in Latin America (Volkmar Blum).
Wirsching, Andreas. Vom Weltkrieg zum Bürgerkrieg? Politischer Extremismus in Deutschland und Frankreich 1918-1933/39. Berlin und Paris im Vergleich. [Quellen und Darstellungen zur Zeitgeschichte, Band 40.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 1999. x, 702 pp. DM 148.00.
See Eberhard Kolb's review in this volume, 495-497.
Land Reform in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Ed. by Stephen K. Wegren. [Routledge Studies of Societies in Transition.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1998. xxiii, 268 pp. £50.00.
Starting from the premise that land reform is a key factor in determining the political, economic and social future of the transitional states of the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe, the ten contributions to this volume explore the historical issues that affect land reform, the conduct of contemporary land reform, the impact of land reform, the land market and the problems and obstacles it faces, and the future trends. The states covered are: Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic states, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Albania, Bulgaria and Hungary.
Rising from the Ashes? Labor in the Age of "Global" Capitalism. Ed. by Ellen Meiksins Wood, Peter Meiksins, and Michael Yates. Monthly Review Press, New York 1998. iv, 217 pp. $
The fifteen essays in this collection offer an assessment of the present situation of labour movements in the United States and worldwide. Written from a variety of socialist perspectives, the contributions cover a broad range of issues, including the changing composition of the international working class, the relationship of race and gender to class, and the evaluations of recent eruptions of labour militancy. The contributors include scholars, as well as activists and labour union leaders.
Simon, Jacques. Messali Hadj (1898-1974). La passion de l'Algérie Libre. Préface de Guy Le Néouannic. Editions Tirésias, Paris 1998. 250 pp. Ill. F.fr. 120.00.
This is a biography of Ahmed Messali Hadj (1898-1974), a revolutionary Algerian nationalist leader who devoted most of his life to forming pro-independence organizations, agitating both in France and Algeria and taking part in underground activities. Messali became the leader of the Algerian workers' association in Paris in 1927 and founded the Étoile Nord-Africaine, the Parti Populaire Algérien and the postwar Mouvement pour le Triomphe des Libertés Démocratiques, which played a major part in the struggle for Algerian independence.
Kealey, Linda. Enlisting Women for the Cause: Women, Labour, and the Left in Canada, 1890-1920. [Studies in Gender and History.] University of Toronto Press, Toronto [etc.] 1998. x, 335 pp. C$60.00; £40.00. (Paper: C$24.95; £16.50.)
See Val Marie Johnson's review in this volume, pp. 497-499.
Peloso, Vincent C. Peasants on Plantations. Subaltern Strategies of Labor and Resistance in the Pisco Valley, Peru. [Latin America Otherwise: Languages, Empires, Nations.] Duke University Press, Durham [etc.] 1999. xxi, 252 pp. Ill. Maps. £34.00. (Paper: £11.95.)
See Michiel Baud's review in this volume, pp. 509-512.
United States of America
Crane, Elaine Forman. Ebb Tide in New England. Women, Seaports, and Social Change 1630-1800. Northeastern University Press, Boston 1998. x, 333 pp. £47.00. (Paper: £16.95.)
Focusing on the New England seaports of Boston, Salem, Newport and Portsmouth in the colonial period, this study analyses the social development and changing position of women in these colonial urban communities, where women greatly outnumbered men. Professor Crane explores familial, religious, economic, legal and intellectual issues to find that, consistent with the European heritage, the earliest Euro-American women had considerable opportunities and power, but that European precedents and American institutional developments combined to thwart any sustained efforts to achieve female independence and to secure a matriarchal society.
James, Winston. Holding Aloft the Banner of Ethiopia. Caribbean Radicalism in Early Twentieth-Century America. Verso, London [etc.] 1998. x, 406 pp. Ill. £25.00.
See Jason McDonald's review in this volume, pp. 500-502.
Kornweibel, Theodore, Jr. "Seeing Red". Federal Campaigns Against Black Militancy, 1919-1925. [Blacks in the Diaspora.] Indiana University Press, Bloomington [etc.] 1998. xv, 225 pp. $29.95.
From 1918 into the 1920s, the Bureau of Investigation in the United States (the predecessor of the FBI) consistently investigated any African-American active in whatever form of black militancy, including the demand for civil rights. In this study Professor Kornweibel, Jr explores how the federal government's political intelligence network, led by the young [J.?] Edgar [B.?] Hoover, instigated a nationwide antiradical panic, which the author labels as the first "Red Scare".
Letwin, Daniel. The Challenge of Interracial Unionism. Alabama Coal Miners, 1878-1921. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 1998. xii, 289 pp. $49.95. (Paper: $19.95.)
Focusing on the miners in the coalfields of Alabama between 1878 and 1921, this study explores interracial unionism in a racially segregated society. Examining a series of labour campaigns - notably under the banner of the United Mine Workers - Professor Letwin aims to assess to what extent the unifying potential of class could withstand the growing divisive pressure of the southern racial order. The author argues that interracial unionism in the American south in this period was much more complex and ambiguous than is generally acknowledged.
Levy, Peter B. The Civil Rights Movement. [Greenwood Press Guides to Historic Events of the Twentieth Century.] Greenwood Press, Westport (Conn.) [etc.] 1998. xxiv, 226 pp. Ill. £31.95.
Combining a textbook overview with a selection of primary documents and biographical sketches, this book offers an introduction to the history of the civil rights movement in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s. The subjects covered include the origins of the movement, the fight for legal equality, the role of women and the lasting effects of the movement. Included are biographical profiles of twenty activists, a chronology, a bibliography and fifteen documents, including presidential addresses, as well as speeches by Martin Luther King, Jr, Stokely Carmichael, Malcolm X and George Wallace.
Miller, Timothy. The Quest for Utopia in Twentieth-Century America. Vol. I: 1900-1960. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse 1998. xxv, 254 pp. £27.95.
This first volume of a two-volume study is the second recent overview of communes in the United States, after Foster Stockwell's Encyclopaedia of American Communes, 1663-1963 (1998), which was annotated in this volume, p. 346. After a brief overview of the communes before 1900, Professor Miller gives a chronological discussion of the many dozens of new groups formed until 1960. According to the author, the generally accepted belief that virtually no intentional communities existed in the twentieth century up to the 1960s is refuted by the close scrutiny offered in this book.
Not Your Father's Union Movement. Inside the AFL-CIO. Ed. by Jo-Ann Mort. Verso, London [etc.] 1998. xii, 237 pp. Ill. £13.00.
The eighteen contributions in this volume aim to document the reorganization and reconstruction that has taken place from 1995 onward within the AFL-CIO, the major American trade-union organization. Contributors include both AFL-CIO officials and involved activists, as well as labour journalists commenting on what is described as a revival. The role of women and immigrants in the trade union movement is highlighted. The volume concludes with an interview with John Sweeney, the president of the AFL-CIO.
Schneirov, Richard. Labor and Urban Politics. Class Conflict and the Origins of Modern Liberalism in Chicago, 1864-97. [The Working Class in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1998. viii, 391 pp. Ill. $49.95. (Paper: $21.95.)
"This book chronicles the growing self-awareness of workers in Chicago as a class from the formation of the city's first Trades Assembly in 1864 to the founding of the Chicago Federation of Labor in 1896." Professor Schneirov examines class formation in three dimensions: horizontal (i.e. the way workers transcended their political, ethnic, gender, religious and other identities) to constitute a new identity as the working class; vertical (i.e. in relation to other classes); and longitudinal. He contends that class formation among late nineteenth-century workers made its most profound impact on the Democratic Party and the policies of local authorities rather than on the emergence of labour or socialist parties.
Schrank, Robert. Wasn't That a Time? Growing up Radical and Red in America. The MIT Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1998. xvi, 452 pp. Ill. £23.95.
Born into an immigrant family that was part of New York's large German socialist community, Robert Schrank (1917) became an active member of the Communist Party of America and an activist in the industrial unions in the 1930s and 1940s and broke with the Party in the 1950s. In this autobiography, he recounts his experiences within the subculture of the anarchist, syndicalist and communist New York community of his youth, his activities in the Communist Party and the radical branches of industrial unionism, his parting with communism and the Party and the diverse multitude of jobs he held throughout his working life.
Shapiro, Karin A. A New South Rebellion. The Battle against Convict Labor in the Tennessee Coalfields, 1871-1896. [The Fred W. Morrison Series in Southern Studies.] The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 1998. $55.00. (Paper: $22.50.)
In the 1890s, the coal-mining region in Tennessee experienced the so-called convict wars. Predominantly white Tennessee miners rose up against the use of predominantly black convict labour by the state's coal companies, enabling the employers to curb labour militancy. Dr Shapiro describes how the miners, guided by the political ideology of populism and Guilded Age unionism, first sought to abolish the convict system through legal action but, when nonviolent tactics failed, rebelled against government authority and repeatedly expelled black convict labour from the mining districts. The insurrection, though it hastened the demise of convict lease, severely weakened organized labour in the region.
Sloman, Larry. Steal this Dream. Abbie Hoffman and the Countercultural Revolution in America. Doubleday, New York [etc.] 1998. xxiii, 437 pp. Ill. $27.50; C$38.95.
After the biography by Jonah Raskin, For the Hell of It: The Life and Times of Abbie Hoffman (see IRSH, 43 (1998), p. 323), this is another biographical book on Abbie Hoffman (1936-1989), the famous American counterculture activist of the 1960s. An "oral biography", this book constructs a kaleidoscope of fragments of interviews with a multitude of people, involved with or related to the protagonist in a broad variety of ways, along with extracts from interviews with Hoffman himself, and fragments of FBI files, contemporary press accounts and court transcripts. The fragments are arranged in chronological chapters, dealing with the main phases in Hoffman's turbulent life.
Socialism and Christianity in Early 20th Century America. Ed. by Jacob H. Dorn. [Contributions in American History, vol. 181.] Greenwood Press, Westport (Conn.) [etc.] 1998. xiv, 252 pp. £43.95.
Seven of the eight contributions to this volume feature biographical sketches of major figures in Christian socialism in the early twentieth-century United States. The criteria for selecting the subjects dealt with are the significance of Christianity in the individual's decision to become a socialist and the individual's active support for the Socialist Party of America in the period 1900-1920. The volume includes contributions on the African-American socialist preacher George Washington Woodbey (Philip S. Foner), Kate Richards O'Hare (Sally M. Miller), and the millionaire socialist J.G. Phelps Stokes (Robert D. Reynolds, Jr). The editor has contributed an introductory essay on the encounters between Christianity and American socialism.
Waterfront Workers. New Perspectives on Race and Class. Ed. by Calvin Winslow. [The Working Class in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1998. viii, 204 pp. $49.95. (Paper: $17.95.)
The seaports of the United States have traditionally been sites of extensive multi-ethnic and multiracial interaction. The five essays in this collection explore the complex relationships involved in the intersection of race, class and ethnicity that figures prominently among workers on the waterfront. The contributors are Eric Arnesen, Calvin Winslow, Howard Kimeldorf, Colin Davis and Bruce Nelson.
Women's Voices, Women's Lives. DOCUMENTS in Early American History. Ed. by Carol Berkin and Leslie Horowitz. Northeastern University Press, Boston 1998. xii, 203 pp. £40.50. (Paper: £14.95.)
Drawing on diaries, letters, essays, court documents, sermons, plantation records, newspapers, fiction, and advice manuals, this collection of source documents depicts a cross section of women's experiences in seventeenth and eighteenth-century North America. Included are texts by African-American, European and Native-American women, as well as prescriptive and proscriptive materials - written by men - to elaborate on women's behaviour and attitudes. The themes covered by the selection are sex and reproduction, marriage and family, women's work, religion, politics and the law, and changing gender ideologies.
Lee, Ching Kwan. Gender and the South China Miracle. Two Worlds of Factory Women. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1998. xiii, 210 pp. $45.00.
This study compares and contrasts the contemporary labour conditions of women workers and the mechanisms of labour control they are subjected to at two plants of the same electronics company, one in Hong Kong and the other just across the border in Shenzhen. In her study Dr Lee applies the analytical strategy of the "extended case method", determining how the situations in the two plants are embedded in the respective larger political economy. The main argument is that, while the colonial state of Hong Kong and the clientelist state of Shenzen both pursue noninterventionist policies, the labour conditions and the gendered production regimes vary according the differences in the social organization of the two labour markets.
Sheehan, Jackie. Chinese Workers. A new history. [Routledge Studies in the Modern History of Asia.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1998. x, 269 pp. £55.00.
This study traces the background and development of clashes of workers and independent workers' organizations with the Chinese Communist Party through mass campaigns such as the 1956/1957 Hundred Flowers movement, the Cultural Revolution, the April Fifth Movement of 1976, Democracy Wall and the 1989 Democracy Movement. Aiming to provide a comprehensive and detailed picture of workers' protest in China to date, Dr Sheehan argues that the image of Chinese workers as politically conformist and reliable supporters of the Communist Party does not match the realities of industrial life in China.
Stranahan, Patricia. Underground. The Shanghai Communist Party and the Politics of Survival, 1927-1937. [State and Society in East Asia.] Rowan & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., Lanham [etc.] 1998. xiii, 289 pp. $65.00.
After Chiang Kai-shek crushed the Shanghai Special Provisional City Government with the 12 April Coup in 1927, the remaining Chinese Communist Party (CCP) organization in Shanghai broke away from the national CCP Central Committee and went underground. Professor Strahanan explores in this study the history of the Shanghai Communist Party in the Nanjing Decade (1927-1937) and analyses, by considering its organization and the alliances it entered, how it established itself as an important political player.
Kume, Ikuo. Disparaged Success. Labor Politics in Postwar Japan. [Cornell Studies in Political Economy.] Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1998. xii, 242 pp. £33.50. (Paper: £13.50.)
This study on postwar industrial relations in Japan challenges the conventional wisdom that Japan's unions have been much weaker and less effective in improving conditions for their members than their Western counterparts. Professor Kume sketches the rise of the private sector unions and their successful intervention in the political process, which brought substantial improvements in the 1970s and 1980s, especially in employment. He emphasizes the benefits of labour-management collaboration, as opposed to the politics of class cooperation.
Ralf, Silke. Die Rolle Kagawa Toyohikos (1888-1960) in der Japanischen Arbeiter- und Gewerkschaftsbewegung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung seiner religiösen Haltung als Christ. Iudicium, München 1998. 168 pp. DM 58.00; S.fr. 58.00; S 453.00.
This dissertation (Hamburg, 1996) deals with the role of the writer, theologian, and social reformist, Kagawa Toyohiko (1888-1960), in the Japanese labour and trade union movement. Dr Ralf stresses the central influence of Toyohiko's Christian convictions on his views on the position of the working class and the labour movement, and characterizes him ideologically as a Christian socialist.
Robertson, James E. Japanese Working Class Lives. An Ethnographic Study of Factory Workers. Routledge, London [etc.] 1998. xi, 227 pp. £50.00.
In this ethnographic study of the lives of the contemporary Japanese working class, Dr Robertson focuses on the large majority of individuals employed in firms with a staff of one hundred or less. In a case study of a small metals company just outside Tokyo, the author examines the ways in which workers' lives extend beyond their work. He thus aims to demonstrate that the Japanese working class is more diverse than Western stereotypes would suggest.
Caprara, Massimo. Togliatti, il Komintern e il gatto selvatico. [Documenti Bietti per la Storia, 1.] Bietti, Milano 1999. 221 pp. L. 30.000; i 15.49.
Palmiro Togliatti held an important office in the Comintern from 1926 onward. During the Spanish Civil War he was in Spain, where he rendered account of the prominence of the Catholic Church, both in Spain and in Italy. This book is about Togliatti and the events that preceded his secret meeting with the Pope in 1945. The appendices feature reports that Togliatti sent from Spain and his account of this meeting. In this historical context the author relates the story of Italian antifascists who sought refuge in the Soviet Union, where they became victims of the Stalinist Terror. The author, who was Togliatti's secretary for years, has also written Quando le botteghe erano oscure (1997), noted in IRSH, 44 (1999), pp. 141f.
Deutschland und die Russische Revolution 1917-1924. Hrsg. von Gerd Koenen und Lew Kopelew. [West-östliche Spiegelungen, Reihe A, Band 5.] Wilhelm Fink Verlag, München 1998. 952 pp. Ill. DM 98.00.
Examining a broad spectrum of press and artistic utterances in the period 1917-1924, this voluminous and richly illustrated collection of twenty-five essays aims to offer a comprehensive overview of the German political and cultural perception of the Russian Revolution in this period. The political reactions covered include contributions on the reaction of the German social democracy (Jürgen Zarusky), Rosa Luxemburg's views on the Revolution (Helmut Fleischer), and perceptions of Russia in the early NSDAP (Johannes Baur). Among the additional themes are the Russian Revolution in the critique of contemporary German sociology and historiography (Dittmar Dahlmann) and the controversies between Georg Lukács and Ernst Bloch on revolutionary Russia (Karol Sauerland).
Mommsen, Wolfgang J. 1848. Die ungewollte Revolution. Die revolutionären Bewegungen in Europa 1830-1849. S. Fischer, Frankfurt/M. 1998. 333 pp. DM 39.80; S.fr. 37.00; S 291.00.
This book aims to give a comprehensive overview of the revolutionary developments in Europe from France's July Revolution of 1830 through the Revolution of 1848/1849. Focusing on the events in the German states, Professor Mommsen illustrates the general revolutionary trends throughout Europe, including farmer uprisings, bourgeois-liberal constitutional movements, protests of the lower classes and national emancipation movements. The constitutional liberal programme must be interpreted, according to the author, as a rational solution to the crisis in the European societal and state system.
Perspectives on Feminist Political Thought in European History. From the Middle Ages to the Present. Ed. by Tjitske Akkerman and Siep Stuurman. Routledge, London [etc.] 1998. 246 pp. Ill. £50.00.
The twelve essays in this volume, originally delivered at the conference Six Feminist Waves: Languages of Feminism in Modern History, organized by the Belle van Zuylen Research Institute at the University of Amsterdam in June 1994, deal with feminist political thought from the late medieval period to the present day. The contributions aim to show that feminism is not a variant of modern radical discourse but a mode of analysing the issues of authority, power, and virtue that have been at the heart of European political thought throughout this period.
Praxis der Arbeit. Probleme und Perspektiven der handwerksgeschichtlichen Forschung. [Studien zur Historischen Sozialwissenschaft, Band 23.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1998. 356 pp. Ill. DM 78.00; S.fr. 73.00; S 569.00.
This collection of twelve contributions, which are mostly from an international workshop on problems and perspectives of historical research on artisanal labour, organized in Vienna in September 1991, features an overview of new approaches in this field. Covering an extended period from the late Middle Ages to well into the twentieth century, the contributors use a broad definition of artisanal labour and production, including the relation with agrarian and industrial labour and production, to examine the artisanal labour practice in various European regions.
La révolution de 1848 en France et en Europe. [Par] Sylvie Aprile, Raymond Huard, Pierre Lévêque [et] Jean-Yves Mollier. Éditions sociales, Paris 1998. 255 pp. Maps. F.fr. 110.00.
In this textbook, the authors aim to give a general overview of the main events and issues concerning the French Revolution of 1848 and to relate them to developments in neighbouring countries. Professor Huard focuses on the re-establishment and subsequent demise of the French Republic; Professor Lévêque addresses the social origins and consequences of the Revolution; Professor Mollier deals with the cultural aspects; and Madame Aprile compares the French revolutionary developments with the changes in Germany, Austria and Italy.
Ein sehr trübes Kapitel? Hitlerflüchtlinge im nordeuropäischen Exil 1933 bis 1950. Hrsg. von Einhart Lorenz, Klaus Misgeld, Helmut Müssener [und] Hans Uwe Petersen. [IZRG-Schriftenreihe, Band 2.] Ergebnisse Verlag, Hamburg 1998. 534 pp. Ill. DM 48.00.
Resulting from a research project of Scandinavian, Finnish and German historians, literary scholars and political scientists, the sixteen contributions in this volume aim to offer a comprehensive overview of German political exiles in Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland in the period 1993-1946, the refugee policy of the Nordic countries, and aid offered to and solidarity with the German refugees. The topics covered include: aliens' and asylum policies and the corresponding Nordic cooperation and coordination; the living conditions of the refugees; and the consequences of the exile for Scandinavian-German relations.
Strong, George V. Seedtime for Fascism. The Disintegration of Austrian Political Culture, 1867-1918. M.E. Sharpe, Armonk [etc.] 1998. vii, 214 pp. $64.95. (Paper: $23.95.)
Based on secondary sources, this study deals with the general problem of the role of the political culture in the construction of states by examining the issue of state against nation in the Austrian-Hungarian state in the period 1867-1918. Reviewing aspects such as the position of Austrian socialism between Austrian national identity and internationalism, the author reaches the surprising conclusion that socialism, at least in the form it took in Austria, was antimodern and hence a natural bedfellow for nationalism, thus leading to national socialism.
Surviving post-socialism. Local strategies and regional responses in eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Ed. by Sue Bridger and Frances Pine. [Routledge studies of societies in transition, vol. 4.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1998. xvi, 224 pp. £45.00.
The eleven contributions to this volume feature case studies drawn from the former Soviet Union and eastern European socialist countries, and revolving around survival strategies developed in response to changing cultural, political, and economic structures. Considering problems ranging from household strategies to state and policy formation, the contributors explore a complex set of themes, including gender, ethnicity, migration, employment and labour patterns, changing family structures, and nationalism. The editors argue that the locally-based research presented here is essential to understand the transformation process at its national level.
Working-Class Internationalism and the Appeal of National Identity: Historical Debates and Current Perspectives. Ed. by Patrick Pasture and Johan Verberckmoes. Berg, Oxford [etc.] 1998. vii, 263 pp. £44.99.
"Despite its internationalist rhetoric, the trade union movement has aligned itself virtually completely with the nation-state from the beginning." Based on this revisionist premise, the nine essays in this volume focus on the significance of nationalism and national identity for the postwar European trade-union movement, and on the question of how the trade-union movement relates to the nationalist movement and reacts to possibly exclusionist tendencies. Studies on the trade unions in the Basque country (Ludger Mees), Catalonia (Jacint Jordana and Klaus-Jürgen Nagel), Northern Ireland (Christopher Norton, Andreas Helle), and northern Italy (Michael Braun) are included.
Ludescher, Marcus. Büromenschen. Angestellte und Dienstleistungsarbeit in Österreich. Eine sozialgeschichtliche Untersuchung. [Bildung - Arbeit - Gesellschaft, Band 23.] Profil, München [etc.] 1997 [recte 1998]. 301 pp. DM 58.00; S.fr. 58.00; S 442.00.
This study explores the development of office work and the office worker as an autonomous professional category in Austria from the end of the nineteenth century to the end of the 1930s. Using a sample drawn from the archives of two large industrial companies, Dr Ludescher examines both the basic social conditions of this group (income, education, labour market and labour conditions), their everyday experiences on the shop floor, and the changing position within the labour hierarchy from the perspective of the ongoing rationalization of work and production in large companies.
Emtmann, Anette. Zivilgesellschaft zwischen Revolution und Demokratie. Die "samtene Revolution" im Licht von Antonio Gramscis Kategorien der "società civile". [Edition Philosophie und Sozialwissenschaften, Band 47.] Argument Verlag, Hamburg 1998. 301 pp. DM 39.80.
This dissertation (Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main, 1997) assesses contemporary German debates around the concept of the "civil society", explores the origins of the concept in the work of Antonio Gramsci and his società civile, and examines to what extent the concept applies in an analysis of the "Velvet Revolution" in Czechoslovakia in 1989 and the chances for a re-emergence of critical democratic tradition.
The People's Century. Ed. by Peter Ludvigsen and Lone Palm Larsen. Arbejdermuseet/ABA, n.p. [København] 1998. 103 pp. Ill. D.kr. 100.00.
This booklet serves both as a catalogue of the exhibition The People's Century, organized by the Danish Workers' Museum and the Labour Movement Library and Archive, and as a concise overview of twentieth-century Danish social and labour history. The publication includes articles on the welfare state as a project of the Danish labour movement (Claus Bryld), the Danish model of industrial relations (Jesper Due and Jørgen Steen Madsen), the roots of equal opportunity for women and men (Inger Koch-Nielsen), and the expansion and subsequent crisis of the postwar welfare state (Klaus Petersen).
Les engagements d'Aragon. [Sous la dir. de Jacques Girault et Bernard Lecherbonnier.] [Itinéraires & Contacts de Cultures, vol. 24.] L'Harmattan, Paris [etc.] 1997. 165 pp. F.fr. 90.00.
In April 1997 a colloquium was organized in honour of the hundredth anniversary of the birth of Louis Aragon (1897-1982), French poet, novelist and essayist, and a prominent political activist for the French Communist Party, who was the editor of the communist weekly of arts and literature, Les Lettres Françaises, from 1953 to 1972. The twenty-one contributions in this volume by both historians and literary scholars are the proceedings of this colloquium, which covered, in chronological sequence, both Aragon's considerable literary achievement and his political involvement and activities.
Feld, Raimund. Linksunion und Kommunisten in Frankreich 1972 bis 1977. [Hochschulschriften, Band 22.] PapyRossa Verlag, Köln 1998. 124 pp. DM 20.00.
This thesis examines the ideological development and political strategies of the Parti Communiste Français (PCF), the French Communist Party, during the period of cooperation with the social democrats in a joint government programme from 1972 to 1977. Mr Feld analyses the ideological basis of the PCF, which was heavily influenced by the theory of state-monopolistic capitalism, and the party's political strategy and internal organization, in order to determine the main causes of the failure of the collaboration in 1977.
Lasne, Laurent. Une épopée coopérative dans le siècle. Histoire de la Société des ouvriers plombiers couvreurs zingueurs de Limoges. Scopedit, n.p. [Paris] 1998. 351 pp. Ill. F.fr. 140.00.
This is a history of the Société des ouvriers plombiers couvreurs zingueurs de Limoges (SOPCZ), the trade union of plumbers, roofers and zinc workers in the region of Limoges. Mr Lasne sketches the origins of the cooperation between workers in these trades from the middle of the nineteenth century onward, the society's foundation in 1905, and its development during the twentieth century.
Léo-Lagrange, Madeleine. Le présent indéfini. Mémoires d'une vie. Éd. établie et présenté par Robert Bernard et Albert Ronsin. Corsaire Éditions, Orléans 1998. 279 pp. Ill. F.fr. 95.00; i 14.60.
This is an edited version of the autobiography of Madeleine Lagrange (1900-1992), wife of Léo Lagrange, French Secretary of State for Sports and Leisure in the Popular Front government of Léon Blum, who died in action in June 1940. Madeleine Langrange continued the project, started by her husband, of building a movement for popular education and youth recreation. In 1950, this objective was realized through the foundation of the Fédération Nationale Léo-Lagrange.
Le Musée social en son temps. [Sous la dir. de Colette Chambelland.] Préface : Pierre Rosanvallon. Avant-propos: Colette Chambelland. Presses de l'École normale supérieure, Paris 1998. 402 pp. F.fr. 190.00.
Founded in 1894, Le Musée Social in Paris is one of the enduring monuments of the late nineteenth-century social reform movement in France. Following its merger, in 1963, with the Office Central des uvres de Bienfaisance to form the Centre d'Études, de Documentation, d'Information et d'Action Sociales, CEDIAS-Musée Social, it has become a major library, documentation centre and research institute for social sciences. The twenty contributions to this volume deal with its origins, its inspirers and founders (e.g. Le comte de Chambrun, Dick May, Léopold Mabilleau), its networks, and its various fields of activity.
Skoutelsky, Rémi. L'Espoir guidait leurs pas. Les volontaires français dans les Brigades internationales, 1936-1939. Préface d'Antoine Prost. Bernard Grasset, Paris 1998. 411 pp. F.fr. 157.00.
This study aims to offer a comprehensive history of the French contribution to the International Brigades in the Spanish Civil War. Basing his work both on documents and interviews with persons involved, Dr Skoutelsky deals with the origins of French participation; the social, political and ideological backgrounds of the French Brigadistas; political controversies within the Brigades; everyday life of the Brigadistas; their political and military effectiveness, and their fate after their return to France.
Sociabilité et culture ouvrières. Sous la dir. d'Alain Lemenorel. [Les Cahiers du GRHIS, No 8.] Publications de l'Université de Rouen, Mont-Saint-Aignan 1997. 102 pp. F.fr. 95.00.
The eight contributions in this small volume, based on papers presented at a colloquium organized by the Groupe de Recherche d'Histoire at the University of Rouen in February 1995, reflect the common premise that concepts and methods from sociology and ethnography may be used to expand the scope of labour history beyond the political history of the labour movement, and to broaden the field to include the sociability and cultural realm of the working class. Two theoretical contributions and six regional case studies from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries analyse the epistemological barriers involved.
Vivier, Nadine. Propriété collective et identité communale. Les biens communaux en France 1750-1914. Préface d'Alain Corbin. [Histoire de la France aux XIXe et XXe siècles - 46.] Publications de la Sorbonne, Paris 1998. 352 pp. Maps. F.fr. 150.00.
In this history of communal goods and land in France from 1750-1914, Professor Vivier examines the changes in the economic, social and cultural connotation and significance of communal property during this period. She stresses regional and social differences in the assessment of the benefits of communal property and analyses its expanding role in the political debate during the course of the nineteenth century. Throughout the nineteenth century, communal property, according to the author, remained important in the preservation of the local community's social and cultural autonomy towards the central state power.
Wanquet, Claude. La France et la première abolition de l'esclavage 1794-1802. Le cas des colonies orientales: Ile de France (Maurice) et La Réunion. [Hommes et Sociétés.] Éditions Karthala, Paris 1998. 724 pp. Ill. Maps. F.fr. 220.00.
On 4 February 1794 the French National Convention proclaimed the general and immediate abolition of slavery in all French colonies. This study examines the French debates around this abolition, and the opposition that arose, especially from the slave owners on the French colonial islands in the Indian Ocean, Mauritius (Ile de France) and La Réunion.
Frege, Carola M. Social Partnership at Work. Workplace relations in post-unification Germany. [Routledge Studies in Employment Relations, vol. 2.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1999. xiv, 256 pp. £55.00.
See Ray Markey's review in this volume, pp. 507-509.
Handbuch der deutschen Reformbewegungen 1880-1933. Hrsg. von Diethart Kerbs [und] Jürgen Reulecke. Peter Hammer Verlag, Wuppertal 1998. 624 pp. Ill. DM 88.00.
This compendium offers a comprehensive survey of the German reform movements in all their diversity between 1880 and 1933. The forty-two contributions are subdivided into seven main themes, each accompanied by a short general introduction: environment and Heimat: personal reform movements (including the Freikörper movement, vegetarianism and teetotalism); community and society (including the women's, youth and commune movements, eugenics and sexual reform); living and working (including the cooperative movements, the garden cities movement and alternative/biological agriculture); child-rearing and education (including reform pedagogy, and popular education); art and culture; and religiosity and spirituality. Each contribution offers suggestions for additional reading; name and geographical indexes are appended.
Hessisches Staatsarchiv Darmstadt. Überlieferung aus dem ehemaligen Großherzogtum und dem Volksstaat Hessen. Bearb. von Martin Kukowski. [Inventar zur Geschichte der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung in den staatlichen Archiven der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Reihe B. Überlieferungen der Flächenstaaten. Band 3.] K.G. Saur, München 1998. xxviii, 175 pp. DM 178.00; S.fr. 158.00; S 1299.00.
Landeshauptarchiv Koblenz. Bearb. von Marli Beck, Irma Löffler, Bernhard Simon und Manfred Simons; Nordrhein-Westfälisches Hauptstaatsarchiv Düsseldorf. Bearb. von Dieter Lück. Überlieferung aus der ehemaligen preußischen Rheinprovinz. [Inventar zur Geschichte der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung in den staatlichen Archiven der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Reihe B: Überlieferungen der Flächenstaaten, Band 2.] K.G. Saur, München 1998. xix, 254 pp. DM 198.00; S.fr. 176.00; S 1445.00.
These are the second and third volumes in the second series of surveys of archives concerning the German labour movement in the period until 1945 (for previous volumes of these surveys, see IRSH, 37 (1992), p. 437, 38 (1993), p. 433, and 43 (1998), p. 180), concerning the regional archives of the Länder and other territorial units. It features information on materials in two archives in the former Prussian Rhine Province (the Landeshauptarchiv in Koblenz, and the Nordrhein-Westfälisches Hauptstaatsarchiv in Düsseldorf) and materials from the former grand duchy of Hesse and the former Volksstaat of Hesse in the Hessisches Staatsarchiv in Darmstadt.
Opposition als Triebkraft der Demokratie. Bilanz und Perspektiven der zweiten Republik. Jürgen Seifert zum 70. Geburtstag. Hrsg. von Michael Buckmiller und Joachim Perels. Offizin, Hannover 1998. DM
This voluminous Festschrift, presented to the German political scientist Jürgen Seifert on his seventieth birthday, comprises forty contributions reflecting the main themes of his work and thought: the constitutional and political embedding of democracy and democratic rights in the emergence of the Federal Republic of Germany and the role and importance of political and social opposition and oppositional movements in this process.
The Party of Democratic Socialism in Germany. Modern Post-Communism or Nostalgic Populism? Ed. by Peter Barker. [German Monitor No. 42.] Rodopi, Amsterdam [etc.] 1998. vii, 222 pp. D.fl. 35.00.
Ten of the twelve contributions in this volume were presented as papers at a conference, organized at the University of Reading, United Kingdom, in September 1997. The conference aimed to examine the changes in the Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS) in Germany since 1990 and its present position in the German political landscape. The PDS is the successor of the Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschland (SED), which was reformed and renamed after the reunification of East and West Germany in 1989. Two additional contributions focus on the relationship between the PDS and other leftist regional political parties in the new federal states.
Radkau, Joachim. Das Zeitalter der Nervosität. Deutschland zwischen Bismarck und Hitler. Carl Hanser Verlag, München [etc.] 1998. 551 pp. DM 68.00.
See Dick van Lente's review in this volume, pp. 492-495.
Schmidt, Herbert. "Beabsichtige ich die Todesstrafe zu beantragen". Die nationalsozialistische Sondergerichtsbarkeit im Oberlandesgerichtsbezirk Düsseldorf 1933-1945. [Düsseldorfer Schriften zur Neueren Landesgeschichte und zur Geschichte Nordrhein-Westfalens, Band 49.] Klartext, Essen 1998. DM 78.00.
This dissertation (Düsseldorf, 1998) examines the origins and activities of the special judiciary and courts of law in Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945, based on an exploration of the special law courts in three districts in the Ruhr region. Dr Schmidt reviews the legal cases where death sentences were pronounced and the conduct of the judges and attorneys concerned. A biographical appendix brings together data on the personnel involved, showing how the majority reintegrated without a murmur into the postwar judicial apparatus and the judiciary.
Schmiechen-Ackermann, Detlef. Nationalsozialismus und Arbeitermilieus. Der nationalsozialistische Angriff auf die proletarischen Wohnquartiere und die Reaktion in den sozialistischen Vereinen. [Politik- und Gesellschaftsgeschichte, Band 47.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 1998. 819 pp. Ill. DM 128.00; S.fr. 119.00; S 934.00.
Focusing on the cities of Berlin and Hannover, this Habilitationsschrift (Hannover, 1995) explores the national socialist penetration into the working-class districts and milieus in the years around Hitler's Machtergreifung, and the resistance potential of local socialist and Catholic organizations and societies. Dr Schmiechen-Ackermann concludes that in general there was neither a solid working-class opposition, nor a voluntary and deliberate integration in the Nazi dictatorship. Withdrawal into the working-class societal milieu, however, averted the total takeover of the districts for a while after 1933.
Schneider, Bernhard. Katholiken auf die Barrikaden? Europäische Revolutionen und deutsche katholische Presse 1815-1848. [Veröffentlichungen der Kommission für Zeitgeschichte, Reihe B: Forschungen, Band 84.] Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn [etc.] 1998. 413 pp. DM 108.00.
Following an inventory of the emerging German Catholic press in the early nineteenth century, this Habilitationsschrift (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1996/1997) examines the reaction of the various Catholic mainstreams, in their respective press media, to the revolutionary events and changes in Europe between 1815 and 1848, and the interpretations by the Catholic commentators and opinion leaders, from these various mainstreams, of the events, and the ways they used them to serve their own religious-political and theological purposes.
Schneider, Michael. Unterm Hakenkreuz. Arbeiter und Arbeiterbewegung 1933 bis 1939. [Geschichte der Arbeiter und der Arbeiterbewegung in Deutschland seit dem Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts, Band 12.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachf., Bonn 1999. xiii, 1184 pp. Ill. DM 98.00; S.fr. 91.00; S 715.00.
See Tobias Mulot's review in this volume, pp. 502-506.
Sellier, Ulrich. Die Arbeiterschutzgesetzgebung im 19. Jahrhundert. Das Ringen zwischen christlich-sozialer Ursprungsidee, politischen Widerständen und kaiserlicher Gesetzgebung. [Rechts- und Staatswissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der Görres-Gesellschaft; Neue Folge, Band 82.] Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn [etc.] 1998. 167 pp. DM 28.00.
This dissertation (Trier, 1995) examines the emergence of the German labour protection legislature from the 1860s into the 1890s, emphasizing the role of Catholic social ideology and Catholic politicians. Dr Sellier devotes separate chapters to the proposals and parliamentary strategies of German social democracy and the papal Encyclical, Rerum Novarum, and its influence on German social policy.
Sowjetische Dokumente zur Lagerpolitik. Eingel. und bearb. von Ralf Possekel. [Sowjetische Speziallager in Deutschland 1945 bis 1950, Band 2.] Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1998. 424 pp. DM 98.00.
Studien und Berichte. Hrsg. und eingel. von Alexander von Plato. [Sowjetische Speziallager in Deutschland 1945 bis 1950, Band 1.] Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1998. 595 pp. DM 78.00.
These are the first two volumes of a projected series of three on the Soviet special camps in Germany between 1945 and 1950, the results of a large German-Russian research project. The first volume features thirty-one contributions covering the origins, organization and quantitative dimensions of the ten special camps set up by the military administration in the Soviet occupation zone, and the deplorable predicament of the inmates. According to general estimates, the 154,000 interned by the Soviet Union considerably exceeded the number interned by the military administrations in the Western occupation zones, and although no evidence exists of a deliberate policy of genocide, almost one-third of the inmates died during detention. The second volume comprises 123 documents from Soviet archives on the special camps. The editor concludes, in his elaborate introduction, that the sources reveal disconcerting forms of administrative violence and a total absence of rights for the detainees.
Sozialgeschichte und Landesgeschichte. Hartmut Zwahr zum 60. Geburtstag. Kleine Festschrift. Hrsg. von Susanne Schötz. Sax-Verlag, Beucha 1998. 96 pp. DM 24.80.
This Festschrift contains six papers that were presented at a colloquium, organized by the Historical Seminar of the University of Leipzig, on Hartmut Zwahr's sixtieth birthday. Jürgen Kocka contributed a lecture about labour history: why and how? Five students of Professor Zwahr delivered presentations about various themes within the social and economic history of Leipzig and the GDR: Volker Titel and Thomas Keiderling on the history of Leipzig's book trade, Birgit Kasten and Susanne Schötz on biographical sources on the history of working women, and Jochen Geyer on the history of the Leipziger Messe. A bibliography of Hartmut Zwahr's work is appended.
Zeit für neue Ideen. Flugschriften, Flugblätter, Bilder und Karikaturen - Propaganda im Spiegel der Revolution von 1848/49. [Ausstellungskataloge/Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, Neue Folge, Band 32; Veröffentlichungen der Niedersächsischen Landesbibliothek Hannover, Band 18.] Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden; C.W. Niemeyer Buchverlage, Hameln 1998. 249 pp. Ill. DM
This is a catalogue accompanying an exhibition on pamphlets, images and cartoon propaganda reflecting the Revolution of 1848/1849 in Germany, held in the State Library in Berlin in December 1998/January 1999. Essays on the function of pamphlet literature and cartoons in public communication during the revolutionary period by Horst Denkler and Anne-Katrin Henkel introduce this chronological and richly illustrated catalogue.
Zwangsarbeit in der Provinz Brandenburg 1939-1945. Spezialinventar der Quellen im Brandenburgischen Landeshauptarchiv. Bearb. von Frank Schmidt. [Quellen, Findbücher und Inventare des Brandenburgischen Landeshauptarchivs, Band 6.] Peter Lang, Frankfurt/M. [etc.] 1998. 235 pp. S.fr. 56.00.
This inventory offers a comprehensive overview of the available source materials in the Brandenburgisches Landeshauptarchiv on the use of forced labour in the province of Brandenburg during World War II. A concise introduction to the theme precedes the inventory; geographical and subject indexes are appended.
Manning, Paul. Spinning for Labour: Trade Unions and the New Media Environment. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 1998. x, 401 pp. £45.00.
This is a study of the relationship between British trade unions and the mass media in connection with the recent processes of change, both in terms of new technological and organizational advances in the gathering of news, and in the political and economic position of trade unions. Using a media sociology perspective, the author concludes that the most effective media strategy for trade unions would be to achieve an intelligent, strategic understanding of the needs of journalists and the control of contextual information.
Mortimer, J.E. (Jim). A Life on the Left. The Book Guild Ltd, Lewes (Sussex) 1998. x, 533 pp. Ill. £16.95.
This is a political autobiography by Jim Mortimer (1921), an active trade unionist from his early working life onward and, among many other functions in the trade union movement and the British Labour Party, general secretary of the Labour Party in the early 1980s, under the leadership of Michael Foot. Mr Mortimer gives a chronological overview of his commitment to the British labour union, including his conclusions drawn from the 1983 General Election, the 1984/1985 miners' strike and the rise of New Labour, of which he is highly critical.
Nünning, Vera. A Revolution in Sentiments, Manners, and Moral Opinions. Catharine Macaulay und die politische Kultur des englischen Radikalismus, 1760-1790. Universitätsverlag C. Winter, Heidelberg 1998. xv, 448 pp. DM 98.00; S.fr. 89.00; S 715.00.
Based on sources including an exploration of the thought and works of the British historian and radical political writer Catharine Macaulay (1731-1791), this Habilitationsschrift (Cologne, 1995) aims to interpret English eighteenth-century radicalism from a cultural-historical perspective. Dr Nünning uses Edmund Burke's concept of the French Revolution as a "revolution in sentiments, manners, and moral opinions" to reconstruct the political culture and the defining shifts in attitude in late eighteenth-century England.
Paduano, Nello. Analyse der Verstaatlichung von Unternehmen in Großbritannien 1945-1995. Die Entstehung der Clause IV der Parteiverfassung der britischen Labour Party und die Bedeutung der Verstaatlichung im wirtschaftspolitischen Konzept der britischen Sozialisten. [Theorie und Forschung, Band 514; Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Band 49.] Roderer Verlag, Regensburg 1998. xviii, 379 pp. DM 68.00.
In 1995, nationalization of industries ceased to figure as an official objective in the British Labour Party statutes. In this dissertation (Erlangen/Düsseldorf, 1995), Dr Paduano examines the ideological origins of nationalization efforts within the Labour Party before 1945, analyses the programmatic and practical foundations of the nationalization of industries conducted by Labour governments between 1945 and 1995, and considers their economic results.
Reay, Barry. Popular Cultures in England 1550-1750. [Themes in British Social History.] Longman, London [etc.] 1998. ix, 235 pp. £11.99.
This textbook offers an introduction to early-modern English popular culture, defined as the domains of belief and behaviour in the everyday lives of the rural and urban communities in England. Professor Reay deals with the following facets: sexuality and gender; orality, literacy and print; popular religion; witchcraft; festive drama and its multiple meanings; and riot, order and the law.
Rhodes, Rita. An Arsenal for Labour. The Royal Arsenal Co-operative Society and Politics 1896-1996. Holyoake Books, Manchester 1998. viii, 288 pp. £10.00.
This is a history of the Royal Arsenal Co-operative Society (RACS), one of the biggest retail businesses of the British cooperative movement, based in southeast London. In contrast to other societies, the RACS opted for direct affiliation with the Labour Party. Dr Rhodes examines how this political tradition distinguished it from other cooperative societies, and explores the influence of historical and geographic factors on this tradition.
Romano, Mary Ann. Beatrice Webb (1858-1943). The Socialist with a Sociological Imagination. [Mellen Studies in Sociology, vol. 17.] The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston [etc.] 1998. xviii, 131 pp. $69.95.
Although Beatrice Webb (1858-1943) is known mainly as an influential socialist thinker, Dr Romano aims, in this biographical study, to emphasize her achievements and importance as a sociologist. In addition to exploring her early life, which was the foundation for her interest in sociology, the author examines her formative years and partnership with Sidney Webb, and focuses on her scientific approach to studying social issues.
Smith, Harold L. The British Women's Suffrage Campaign, 1866-1928. [Seminar Studies in History.] Longman, London [etc.] 1998. x, 122 pp. £6.99.
This textbook traces the history of the British women's suffrage campaign, from its origins in the 1860s through the achievement of equal suffrage in 1928. Professor Smith considers both the periods before and after 1914, offering new material on the 1920s suffrage campaign. Covering the campaigns in England, as well as those in Scotland and Wales, the author examines the suffrage campaign in the broader contexts of emerging gender conflicts and the general political situation of the period. Included are a selection of primary documents, a chronology of events, as well as a comprehensive bibliography.
Struggle or Starve. Ed. by Carol White and Sian Rhiannon Williams. Honno, Dinas Powys 1998. vii, 275 pp. Ill. £9.95.
Combining fragments of recollections by previously unpublished writers with extracts from published autobiographies, the fifty-five short essays in this collection aim to convey the lives of working-class women in the south Wales valleys in the interwar period. The texts are arranged thematically on topics including childhood, school, work, strikes and poverty, and women and politics. The introduction aims to situate the individual experiences within a wider social and political context of a period of mass unemployment and labour unrest.
Wadsworth, Marc. Comrade Sak. A Political Biography. Peepal Tree, Leeds 1998. 202 pp. Ill. £9.99.
This is a biography of Shapurji Saklatvala (1874-1936), Indian nationalist and British Member of Parliament for the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) for four years. Saklatvala, related to a wealthy Indian family of merchants, came to England in 1905, married an Englishwoman and became interested in left-wing politics, first in the Independent Labour Party, later in the CPGB. His contribution to the cause of Indian emancipation, as an MP and as an activist in the British labour movement, were, according to Mr Wadsworth, central in his political career.
Ward, Paul. Red Flag and Union Jack. Englishness, Patriotism and the British Left, 1881-1924. [Studies in History New Series.] The Royal Historical Society, Woodbridge; The Boydell Press, Woodbridge [etc.] 1998. viii, 232 pp. £35.00.
See Stefan Berger's review in this volume, pp. 488-492.
Webster, Wendy. Imagining home. Gender, 'race' and national identity, 1945-64. [Women's History.] UCL Press, London 1998. xxiv, 240 pp. £12.95.
Questioning the popular view that the 1950s were a nadir for women, this study examines the ideas and images of "home" during a period of national decline in Great Britain and loss of imperial power. Basing herself on sources such as oral narratives and autobiographical writings of women, Dr Webster analyses the ways in which women negotiated, appropriated or opposed the different roles assigned to them within discourses of race, class, health and nation, and explores the multiple meanings of "home" for women. The experience of migrant women is highlighted.
Williams, Chris. Capitalism, Community and Conflict. The South Wales Coalfield, 1898-1947. [The Past in Perspective.] University of Wales Press, Cardiff 1998. xvi, 146 pp. Maps. £7.99.
This concise textbook explores the history of the south Wales coalfield from the foundation of the South Wales Miners' Federation in 1898 to the nationalization of the coal industry in 1947. Dr Williams deals with the economic development of the coal industry, labour relations and conflicts, and the evolution of a militant labour movement and a distinctive popular culture in the region. A historiographical survey of the theme, a selection of documents, and an extensive bibliography are included.
Baravelli, Andrea. Le Case del popolo a Fusignano e nella Bassa Romagna. Associazionismo popolare e forme di socialità in un secolo di storia. Con un saggio di Alfredo Belletti. Longo Editore, Ravenna 1999. 198 pp. Ill. L. 22.000.
The Case del popolo are a relatively new theme for historical research in Italy, unlike Belgian and Spanish research on the subject, according to the author in his introduction. The fiftieth anniversary of Fusignano's Casa del popolo gave rise to this study of all aspects of sociability during the previous century in the area around Ravenna, where societies were particularly active due to the early politicization of the populace. The book concludes with an historical essay by A. Belletti about the communist buildings between 1943 and 1950.
Coen, Federico [e] Paolo Borioni. Le Cassandre di Mondoperaio. Una stagione creativa della cultura socialista. Pref. di Luciano Cafagna. Marsilio, Venezia 1999. xix, 188 pp. L. 25.000; i 12.91.
During the twelve years from 1973 until 1984, when Federico Coen was in charge of the Italian Socialist Party monthly Mondoperaio, Italian socialism became more European, as he writes in the introduction to this book. The work aims to convey the efforts of the journal during these years to establish a cultural foundation for modernizing Italian politics according to European practices. The failure to accomplish this objective was attributable in part, according to the authors, to the Communist Party's inertia.
Galzerano, Giuseppe. Vincenzo Perrone. Vita e lotte, esilio e morte dell'anarchico salernitano volontario della libertà in Spagna. [Atti e memorie del popolo.] Galzerano Editore, Salerno 1999. 332 pp. Ill. L. 40.000. (Paper: L. 30.000.)
This book is devoted to the biography of the anarchist Vincenzo Perrone (1899-1936) and was published in honour of the hundredth anniversary of his birth. The author has had to work with very one-sided and biased source material (the archive of the Casellario Politico Centrale in Rome), which he complements, wherever possible, with press contributions - some by Camillo Berneri and Carlo Rosselli - reflecting on Perrone's death as a volunteer in the Spanish Civil War. Much of the book consists of appendices, with biographical data about political prisoners from his native region of Salerno during the fascist era and about his Italian fellow combatants in Spain.
Pollard, John. The Fascist Experience in Italy. [Routledge Sources in History.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1998. xiii, 158 pp. Ill. Maps. £40.00.
This documentary textbook brings together main sources on the rise of Italian fascism, from sources on the emergence of the united Italian state, through the themes and issues of the movement, the period of the fascist regime, and ending with the postwar aftermath of fascism. In his integrated analysis of the materials presented, Professor Pollard aims to reassess the status of the fascist movement as a coalition rather than a monolith.
Scavino, Marco. Con la penna e con la lima. Operai e intellettuali nella nascita del socialismo torinese (1889-1893). [Scriptorium.] Paravia, Torino 1999. 307 pp. L. 48.000.
This study, based on a dissertation (University of Turin, 1996), aims to fill a vacuum in historiography for the period preceding the establishment of the Partito dei lavoratori in Turin. The author examines the socialist groups concerned, their political and ideological characteristics, the rise of Turin's proletariat and the role of the major strikes of 1889 in the formation of the movement and the party. The book concludes with a historiographical and bibliographical chapter on the relation between the workers' struggle, the rise of capitalism and the formation of the Italian labour movement.
Turati, Filippo. Lo Stato delinquente. Delitto, questione sociale, corruzione politica. Scritti di sociologia radicale (1882-1884). A cura di Mario Proto. [Strumenti e fonti, 14.] Piero Lacaita Editore, Manduria [etc.] 1999. L. 20.000.
This booklet comprises five articles on crime and social issues that Turati published in the socialist journal La Plebe in 1882, in response to the book L'uomo delinquente, published by C. Lombroso in 1878. Turati obviously did not attribute crime to a biological predisposition like Lombroso, but blamed prevailing social conditions. He criticized the government on this issue in "Lo Stato delinquente", which is also published here. Mario Proto, who teaches the history of political theory at the University of Lecce, has written a scholarly introduction to the texts.
Skultans, Vieda. The testimony of lives. Narrative and memory in post-Soviet Latvia. Routledge, London [etc.] 1998. xxi, 217 pp. Ill. £14.99.
Based on more than a hundred interviews conducted between 1992 and 1993 in the wake of the declaration of Latvia's independence, this book offers an oral history of the fifty years of Soviet occupation of this Baltic state. The issues covered by the respondents' narratives include the appropriation of land and houses, deportation and imprisonment, the violence and chaos of the postwar years, the brutal process of collectivization, and the problems of the return from exile. Drawing on narrative theory within recent anthropological research, the author aims to show how oral testimonies may provide both a social and a cultural history of Latvia, while shedding light on the nature of memory, identity and narrative.
Hunink, Maria. Le carte della rivoluzione. L'Istituto Internazionale di Storia Sociale di Amsterdam, nascita e sviluppo dal 1935 al 1947. Edizioni Pantarei, Milano 1998. xxi, 215 pp. 215 pp. Ill. L. 20.000.
This is the Italian translation of De papieren van de revolutie. Het Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis 1935-1947 (1986), which was noted in IRSH, 21 (1986), p. 329. This translation offers an update on recent developments at the International Institute of Social History, such as computerization of the catalogue and recent acquisitions. Only eleven of the fifty-seven documents appended in the Dutch original are included in this Italian translation.
Kaluza, Andrzej. Der polnische Parteistaat und seine politischen Gegner, 1944-1956. [Studien zur Europäischen Rechtsgeschichte, Band 110.] Vittorio Klostermann, Frankfurt/M. 1998. xvi, 353 pp. DM 118.00.
See Vojtech Mastny's review in this volume, pp. 506-507.
Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Archives of Russia. A Directory and Bibliographic Guide to Holdings in Moscow and St. Petersburg. English-language Edition. Ed. by Patricia Kennedy Grimsted. Comp. by Patricia Kennedy Grimsted, Lada Vladimirovna Repulo, and Irina Vladimirovna Tunkina. With an introd. by Vladimir Petrovich Kozlov. M.E. Sharpe, Armonk (New York) [etc.] 2000. cx, 1491 pp. (in 2 vols). $275.00.
A thoroughly updated and greatly expanded edition of Arkhivy Rossii (Moscow 1997), these volumes present the holdings of all federal archives under Rosarkhiv, the archives under other major federal agencies, the local state archives in Moscow and St Petersburg, and a generous selection of academies, research institutes, universities, libraries, museums, independent trade unions, and social and religious organizations in those cities. As a rule, entries include information on access, working conditions, finding aids, the institution's history and previous names, etc. In addition, there is a 150-page bibliography on Russian and Soviet archives and an overview of current archival legislation in the Russian Federation. Extensive indexes are appended. The book is introduced by V.P. Kozlov, Chairman of Rosarkhiv, who writes on "Contemporary Reality in Russian Archival Affairs - A Russian View".
Lustiger, Arno. Rotbuch: Stalin und die Juden. Die tragische Geschichte des Jüdischen Antifaschistischen Komitees und der sowjetischen Juden. Aufbau-Verlag, Berlin 1998. Ill. DM 49.90; S.fr. 47.80; S 364.00.
Focusing on the history of the Jewish Antifascist Committee (1941-1948) and its role in the Leningrad Affair (1948-1950), this book deals with the history of Jews and Jewish organizations in the context of the Russian Revolution and the Soviet Union until the death of Stalin in 1953. Mr Lustiger chronicles the early phase of the Revolution, when anti-Semitism was hardly present, through the fickle early attitude of Stalin towards the Jewish Bolsheviks, the period of the Great Purges, and postwar anti-Semitism, culmina-.ting in the purges following the alleged conspiracy of the Jewish Kremlin physicians. A large section with short biographies of the people involved is included.
McDermid, Jane and Anna Hillyar. Women and Work in Russia 1880-1930. A Study in Continuity through Change. [Women and Men in History.] Longman, London [etc.] 1998. ix, 236 pp. $70.00.
This study aims to give a comprehensive picture of the variety of female work in Russia and of working women themselves from 1881 to 1930. Throughout this period of political and economic upheaval, Russia remained a patriarchal society dominated by a peasant economy. Yet the stereotype of women as passive, subordinate beasts of burden during the immense changes in this period, needs, according to the authors, to be differentiated: working women of all social classes were manoeuvring within, and not simply submitting to, a patriarchal system, and seeming continuity in women's work should not obscure change.
Mawdsley, Evan. The Stalin years. The Soviet Union 1929-1953. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1998; distrib. excl. in the USA by St. Martin's Press, New York. v, 162 pp. £45.00. (Paper: £11.95.)
This is a concise textbook overview of the Stalinist period in the history of the Soviet Union. Choosing 1929 as the starting point of Stalin's political dominance, the author deals with his biographical and ideological background in the introduction and subsequently addresses the political, economic, social and cultural aspects of Stalinism and issues of the nationalities problem, international relations and the Stalinist Terror. A selection of nineteen related documents and a bibliographical essay are appended.
Politics, Society and Stalinism in the USSR. Ed. by John Channon. [Studies in Russia and East Europe.] Macmillan Press Ltd, Basingstoke [etc.] 1998, in assoc. with School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University of London; St. Martin's Press, Inc., New York. viii, 220 pp. £42.50.
Reflecting in part the new approaches to the study of the Stalin Era, the eight contributions to this collection cover a broad range of issues in both the political and social history of Stalinism. Included are, among others, an essay by Robert Service on Stalin's personal role in the origins of Stalinism; an examination of the cult of the leader in both official and popular discourse in the period 1934-1941 by Sarah Davies; an essay by Donald Filtzer on the situation of urban workers in the 1930s; and a contribution on the peasantry in the postwar period by the editor.
Rustemeyer, Angela und Diana Siebert. Alltagsgeschichte der unteren schichten im russischen Reich (1861-1914). Kommentierte Bibliographie zeitgenössischer Titel und Bericht über die Forschung. [Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte des östlichen Europas, Band 46.] Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 1997. 280 pp. DM 86.00; S.fr. 86.00; S 628.00. (floppy disk encl.).
This research report and annotated bibliography of the history of everyday life among the working classes in the European part of the Russian Empire between 1861-1914 features an overview of contemporary Russian ethnographic research, ethnographic and historical research in the Soviet Union and post-Soviet Russia, and modern Western historical research in this field. The bibliography contains 532 items (and 500 more on an enclosed floppy disk) of contemporary - mainly Russian - literature on the subject. Author and subject indexes are appended.
Siebert, Diana. Bäuerliche Alltagsstrategien in der Belarussischen SSR (1921-1941). Die Zerstörung patriarchalischer Familienwirtschaft. [Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte des östlichen Europa, Band 52.] Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 1998. 416 pp. Maps. DM 124.00; S.fr. 124.00; S 905.00.
This dissertation (University of Cologne, 1997) examines the living and survival strategies of farmers' households in the Byelorussian Soviet Republic between 1921 and 1941, and the effects of the Stalinist collectivization on the traditional family economy. One of the central questions Dr Siebert seeks to answer is whether farmers' households preserved their autonomy in their pursuit of subsistence. The main strategies of resistance against collectivization were, according to the author, characterized by their underground, covert nature.
Stalinismus. Neue Forschungen und Konzepte. Hrsg. von Stefan Plaggenborg. Berlin Verlag Arno Spitz GmbH, Berlin 1998. 452 pp. DM 98.00; S.fr. 89.00; S715.00.
In June 1996 a research group was formed of German historians specializing in Stalinism. The fifteen contributions to this volume reflect the group's initial output and offer an overview of recent German research in the field. The themes covered are Western, Soviet and post-Soviet Russian historiography; the concepts used; the role and position of various social groups under Stalin's reign; the Terror; and perspectives of research on Stalinism.
Stalinismus vor dem Zweiten Weltkrieg. Neue Wege der Forschung/Stalinism before the Second World War. New Avenues of Research. Hrsg. von Manfred Hildermeier unter Mitarb. von Elisabeth Müller-Luckner. [Schriften des Historischen Kollegs, Kolloquien, Band 43.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 1998. xv, 345 pp. DM 118.00.
Based on a colloquium organized in Munich in June 1996 by the Historische Kolleg, the sixteen papers in this bilingual volume offer an overview of directions in research on Stalinism before World War II. The essays reflect both new information from the Soviet archives opened after 1991, and new subject fields and research methods introduced by the recent cultural change in the historiography. The contributors are Jörg Baberowski, Dietrich Beyrau, Sheila Fitzpatrick, Gregory L. Freeze, J. Arch Getty, Jochen Hellbeck, Manfred Hildermeier, Hiroaki Kuromiya, Stephan Merl, Dietmar Neutatz, Stefan Plaggenborg, Gábor T. Rittersporn, Juri Shapoval, Karl Schlögel and Robert C. Tucker.
Voronsky, Aleksandr Konstantinovich. Art as the Cognition of Life. Selected Writings 1911-1936. Transl. and ed. by Frederick S. Choate. Mehring Books, Inc., Oak Park (Mich.) 1998. xxvi, 526 pp. Ill. $29.95.
This anthology brings together twenty-six essays written between 1911 and 1936 by Aleksandr K. Voronsky (1884-1937), an influential intellectual in the early Soviet Union and editor of Krasnaia nov' [Red Virgin Soil], the leading literary journal, which became the mouthpiece of writers known as "fellow-travellers". Voronsky fell in the Stalinist purges of 1937 against the "Old Bolsheviks". Included are Voronsky's major literary critical essays, as well as writings on Tolstoy and Freud, and newspaper articles and documents illustrating the important cultural debates of the 1920s. In the foreword, the editor gives a biographical sketch; biographical notes on the main persons involved are appended.
Weinberg, Robert. Stalin's Forgotten Zion. Birobidzhan and the Making of a Soviet Jewish Homeland. An Illustrated History, 1928-1996. With an Introd. by Zvi Gitelman. Photographs ed. by Bradley Berman. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1998. ix, 105 pp. $55.00. (Paper: $24.95.)
In 1934 the Soviet government established the Jewish Autonomous Region (JAR), popularly known as Birobidzhan, in a desolate area far east of Moscow. The JAR still exists today. The project was part of the Kremlin's effort to establish a Jewish homeland as an alternative to Palestine. This richly illustrated book, accompanying the first exhibition on the JAR outside Russia, explores the efforts to establish a socialist Jewish homeland and the reasons for the failure of this experiment.
Forment, Albert. José Martínez: la epopeya de Ruedo ibérico. [Colección Argumentos 247.] Editorial Anagrama, Barcelona 2000. 691 pp. Ill. Ptas
This is the biography of the founder of the publishing company for Spanish exiles in Paris, Ruedo ibérico. From 1961 onward, this company published works by Spanish authors, often under pseudonyms, and translations of works by foreign authors, from The Spanish Civil War by Hugh Thomas in 1961 to The Spanish Revolution of Burnett Bolloten in 1977. Afterwards the publishing company continued its operations in Spain. The author has made extensive use of the personal papers of Martínez that are kept at the International Institute of Social History. The book is also based on several interviews with family members and friends, and concludes with a list of the company's publications, a bibliography about Ruedo ibérico and a list of the pseudonyms used by the authors.
Masjuan, Eduard. La ecología humana en anarquismo ibérico. Urbanismo "orgánico" o ecológico, neomalthusianismo y naturismo social. Prólogo de Joan Martínez Alier. [Antrazyt, 155.] Icaria, Barcelona 2000. 504 pp. Ill. Ptas.
This dissertation (Universidad Autónoma, Barcelona, 1998) covers the ideas about population growth and urban expansion that emerged in Spanish anarchism from the end of the nineteenth century until 1937. In two sections the author deals with the support from the anarchists for the movement supporting an independent garden city - not to be confused with a suburb - and the Spanish neo-Malthusianist movement, which was very popular among anarchists. This anarchist neo-Malthusianist movement, which obviously attributed poverty to social inequality rather than overpopulation, highlighted a new sexual ethic that revolved around women's right to self-determination.
Ramon i Muñoz, Josep Maria. El sindicalisme agrari a la Segarra (1890-1936). Pròleg: Josep Fontana. Pagès editors, Lleida 1999. 355 pp. Ptas.
At the end of the nineteenth century the agrarian crisis in Spain was a driving force behind the establishment of farmers' cooperatives, which operated under the Church's supervision in most of the country, but not in Catalonia. The cooperative movement of the Catalonian winegrowers has been studied extensively. This book is one of the first studies of the farmers' movement among the wheat farmers in the west of the region from 1900 to 1936. The first part offers a historical account of the rise of the different farmers' movements, especially during World War I. In the second part the author analyses the causes of the movement's development and its influence on economic change in the region.