Volume 46 part 2 (2001)


General Issues
Continents and Countries

Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.

General Issues


Borghi, Lamberto. La città e la scuola. A cura di Goffredo Fofi. Elèuthera, Milano 2000. 207 pp. L. 25.000; € 13.00.
Lamberto Borghi (1907) read philosophy in Italy and spent World War II in the United States, where he was among the followers of Gaetano Salvemini and Armando Borghi. He also contributed to Dwight Macdonald's journal Politics and, as a Fellow in Philosophy at Yale University, worked with Ernst Cassirer and John Dewey, who deeply influenced his ideas. After the war he taught education in Italy and published a few widely read pedagogical studies. This book comprises twelve essays about educationalists and pedagogical issues that were previously published between 1951 and 1994 in various journals, including Scuola e città, of which he was the executive editor.

Buechler, Steven M. Social Movements in Advanced Capitalism. The Political Economy and Cultural Construction of Social Activism. Oxford University Press, New York [etc.] 2000. xiii, 240 pp. £22.99.
The author attributes great importance to social movements at the end of the twentieth century. Social movements are focused, collective efforts to change the social order. They are an explicitly modern phenomenon, based on the sociological insight that society is a social bulwark subject to change through collective action. In his study Buechler identifies six partially overlapping themes. The main issues are the role of social movements in achieving social change and a critique of the current, largely ahistorical, theory used in analysing social movements. The author proposes an alternative consisting of a more structural and historical approach to social movements, and attempts to situate social theory in the more general theoretical traditions of the discipline. The chapters, classified according to three main themes, may virtually all be read as separate essays.

Kulla, Ralf. Revolutionärer Geist und republikanische Freiheit. Über die verdrängte Nähe von Hannah Arendt zu Rosa Luxemburg. [Diskussionsbeiträge des Instituts für Politische Wissenschaft der Universität Hannover, Band 25.] Mit einem Vorwort von Gert Schäfer. Offizin, Hannover 1999. 125 pp. DM 16.80.
This study aims to compare the ideas of Hannah Arendt (1906-1975) and Rosa Luxemburg (1871-1919) and to examine the similarities and differences in the central questions they posed in their political theories. Dr Kulla submits that Arendt and Luxemburg dealt with the same kinds of questions concerning the relation between public freedom and public power, between political organizations and extraparliamentary movements, and between theory and practice. He concludes that the various elements in their political theories complement and offset each other.

Linden, Marcel van der. Het naderende einde van de vaderlandse geschiedenis en de toekomstige studie der sociale bewegingen. Rede uitgesproken bij de aanvaarding van het ambt van bijzonder hooglereaar in de Geschiedenis der Sociale Bewegingen aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam op vrijdag 7 mei 1999. Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1999. 79 pp. D.fl. 24.90; € 11.30.
In this essay - an extended version of his inaugural lecture delivered in May 1999 as Professor of History of Social Movements at the University of Amsterdam - Professor van der Linden argues that useful study of the history of social movements requires comparing various national developments, and examining transnational interactions. This view ties in with the definition of social movements formulated by Charles Tilly. In a large methodological appendix, he offers a concise overview of the methodological foundations of comparative research in historical social sciences. A bibliographical appendix features over 300 titles of international comparative historical studies of social movements, published in Dutch, English, French and German, until the end of 1998.

McLaren, Peter. Che Guevara, Paolo Freire, and the Pedagogy of Revolution. Foreword by Ana Maria Araújo Freire. [Culture and Education Series.] Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., Lanham [etc.] 2000. xxx, 221 pp. Ill. $22.95.
In the three essays in this publication Professor McLaren examines the life and ideas of the two Latin-American revolutionaries, Ernesto "Che" Guevara (1928-1967), and the Brazilian educationalist and theorist, Paulo Freire (1921-1998), to explore the possibilities of a revolutionary pedagogy. The author is quite open about his political views: "Young people searching for ‘a new way of humanity' have the examples of Freire and Che to ponder, to inspire and to emulate". McLaren is interested in the educational value of the revolutionary ideas of Che Guevara and Freire in the postmodern world dominated by neoliberalism. In the chapter about Che, the author deals with differences and similarities between Che's views and the Zapatismo in Chiapas.

Social Movements in a Globalizing World. Ed. by Donatella della Porta, Hanspeter Kriesi and Dieter Rucht. Macmillan, Basingstoke [etc.]; St. Martin's Press, Inc., New York 1999. xiv, 256 pp. £45.00.
This collection, in two volumes, covers one of the chief problems that has faced social movements at the end of the twentieth century. In a relatively brief period of time, movements that usually have a national orientation increasingly face a globalizing political context. The twelve contributions, based on a conference held in Mont-Pélerin (Switzerland) in June 1995, address the implications of this change for the mobilization toward collective action within a national framework and the emergence of transnational strategies among social movements. Five essays focus on the theme "National Mobilization Within a Globalizing World", and seven on "Mobilization Beyond the Nation-State". The contributors include Bert Klandermans, Hanspeter Kriesi, Clark McPhail, Dieter Rucht, David A. Snow, and Sidney Tarrow. The combined bibliographies enhance the collection.

Tacussel, Patrick. Charles Fourier. Le jeu des passions. Actualité d'une pensée utopique. [Sociologie du quotidien.] Desclée de Brouwer, Paris 2000. 252 pp. F.fr. 150.00.
In this study, Professor Tacussel analyses the range of ideas of the French social theorist Charles Fourier (1772-1837), from his mathematical and cosmogonic reflections to his sociology of human behaviour. Through this analysis, the author aims to demonstrate the relevance of Fourier's social philosophy to the present time, considering his early interest in the balance between economic and social development, and in the preservation of an ecological balance.


Gielkens, Jan. Karl Marx und seine niederländischen Verwandten. Eine kommentierte Quellenedition. [Schriften aus dem Karl-Marx-Haus, Nr. 50.] Karl-Marx-Haus, Trier 1999. 442 pp. Ill. DM 59.00; S 442.00.
This dissertation (Bremen, 1998) is the extended, and more elaborately annotated, German version of the source edition of all known correspondence between Karl Marx and his family and his Dutch relatives. The Dutch edition was published in 1997 as "Was ik maar weer in Bommel". Karl Marx en zijn Nederlandse verwanten. Een familiegeschiedenis in documenten, annotated in IRSH, 44 (1999), pp. 328-329.

The Gramsci Reader. Selected Writings 1916-1935. Ed. by David Forgacs. New York University Press, New York 2000. 447 pp. $22.50.
This is the second, revised edition of an anthology of Antonio Gramsci's writings, which first appeared in 1988. Encompassing his work both before and after his imprisonment by the fascists in 1926, the selections are grouped according to fourteen main themes in his work. This second edition features a short introduction by Eric Hobsbawm, who concludes that "[t]he international fortunes of Gramsci's work have fluctuated with the changes of fashion on the intellectual left". A chronological outline of Gramsci's life and work, introductions to the various themes, and a glossary of key terms are included.

Halliday, Fred. Revolution and World Politics. The Rise and Fall of the Sixth Great Power. Macmillan, Basingstoke [etc.] 1999. xix, 402 pp. £47.50.
In this analysis of the role of revolution in the modern world from the French Revolution to the Iranian Revolution and the collapse of Soviet communism, Professor Halliday traces the origins of the modern concept of "revolution", and examines both the internationalist ideology of revolutionaries and their commitment to promoting change elsewhere. The author sees revolutions both as part of an internationalized social conflict and as challenges to the system of nation-states. He concludes with a reassessment of the place of revolution within international relations theory and in modern history.

Hareven, Tamara K. Familiengeschichte, Lebenslauf und sozialer Wandel. [Campus Historische Studien, Band 26.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1999. 246 pp. DM 78.00; S.fr. 73.00; S 569.00.
In this collection, Professor Hareven has brought together, in German translation, seven essays in a field in which she is one of the pioneer scholars: history of the family and life course. All essays were previously published between 1978 and 1996. They include "Family Time and Historical Time" (1977); "The History of the Family and the Complexity of Social Change" (1991); "Changing Images of Ageing and the Social Construction of the Life Course" (1995); and "What Difference Does it Make?" (presidential address for the Social Science History Association, 1995).

Hareven, Tamara K. Families, History, and Social Change. Life-Course and Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Westview Press, Boulder [etc.] 2000. xxvi, 374 pp. £57.95. (Paper: £19.50.)
This collection comprises fourteen previously published essays by Professor Hareven, one of the founders of the field of history of the family and life course. Encompassing her major contributions to the field, the collection is subdivided into four parts, focusing on continuity and change in the history of the family; life-course analysis, generational relations and family networks; comparative perspectives on the history of the family; and the relationship between family history and social history in general. Six of the essays were recently published in German translation in a collection annotated above.

Hodges, Donald Clark. The Literate Communist. 150 Years of the Communist Manifesto. [Major Concepts in Politics and Political Theory, vol. 16.] Peter Lang, New York [etc.] 1999. vi, 217 pp. S.fr. 41.00.
Ranking it among the modern world's most influential political tracts, Professor Hodges argues in this analysis of the background, origins and deeper meanings of the Communist Manifesto that it is not what is supposed to be - a forthright expression of communist beliefs in 1848. In the first part of the book, the author explores the Manifesto's ambiguities: the conspiratorial legacy stemming from the French Revolution, and Marx's and Engels's unofficial amendments to it. In the second part he examines the 150 years of history of the Manifesto and the key ideological role it played, according to Professor Hodges, in both the rise and the demise of Soviet communism.

Kaelble, Hartmut. Der historische Vergleich. Eine Einführung zum 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt/M. [etc.] 1999. 179 pp. DM 34.00; S.fr. 33.00; S 248.00.
See Chris Lorenz's review in this volume, pp. 257-259.

Kessler, Mario. Heroische Illusion und Stalin-Terror. Beiträge zur Kommunismus-Forschung. VSA-Verlag, Hamburg, 1999. 237 pp. DM 32.80.
Dr Kessler brings together in this collection twelve essays, all previously published between 1994 and 1998, which represent three main themes in his research: the Comintern in historical perspective (including essays on the popular-front politics of the Comintern and on the communist Left and the Weimar Republic); a Marxist critique of communism (including essays on Trotsky, Mandel, and Djilas); and Marxism and anti-Semitism (including essays on Marx's ambivalence towards the Jewish Question, Engels's attitude towards anti-Semitism, and the Jewish labour movement and the Russian Revolution).

Koch-Baumgarten, Sigrid. Gewerkschaftsinternationalismus und die Herausforderung der Globalisierung. Das Beispiel der Internationalen Transportarbeiterföderation (ITF). [Quellen und Studien zur Sozialgeschichte, Band 17.] Herausgegeben vom Internationalen Institut für Sozialgeschichte, Amsterdam; Campus Verlag, Frankfurt and New York 1999. 578 pp.
See Willy Buschak's review in this volume, pp. 269-271.

Marx, Karl [et] Friedrich Engels. Manifeste du Parti Communiste. En appendice notes sur les premières éditions du Manifeste et sur sa diffusion. Éditions Science Marxiste, Paris 1999. xxii, 550 pp. Ill. F.fr. 100.00; € 15.24.
This is the French version of a new, originally Italian, edition that appeared in 1998 and was annotated in IRSH, 44 (1999), p. 511. As in the Italian edition, the French translation, which is a revised edition of the original translation by Laura Lafargue (1885), is printed on the pages facing the German original. A French translation of the prefaces by Marx and Engels to seven editions in various languages, a chronology of first editions up to 1918, and an appendix accounting for most of the book (with remarks about the first editions and the distribution of the Manifesto all over the world from 1848 to 1918) are included.

Moulier-Boutang, Yann. De l'esclavage au salariat. Économie historique du salariat bridé. [Actuel Marx Confrontation.] Presses Universitaires de France, Paris 1998. 768 pp. F.fr. 168.00.
See Jan Lucassen's review in this volume, pp. 261-263.

Parker, Noel. Revolutions and History. An Essay in Interpretation. Polity Press, Cambridge; Blackwell Publishers Inc., Malden (MA) 1999. vii, 232 pp. £49.50. (Paper: £14.95.)
Dr Parker aims to offer a new interpretation of the historical role and significance of revolutions in this study from the early modern period to the present. In the first part of the book, he elaborates a new definition of revolution in relation to the primarily European concepts of modernity, state formation, power and change, and historical development. According to the author, revolutions are more than just the historical events; there is also what he calls the "revolutionary narrative", containing the force of the idea of revolution. In the second part, Dr Parker analyses the impact of this "revolutionary narrative" on the modern world.

Racializing Class, Classifying Race. Labour and Difference in Britain, the USA and Africa. Ed. by Peter Alexander and Rick Halpern. [St Antony's Series.] Macmillan Press, Basingstoke [etc.]; St Anthony's College, Oxford 2000. xi, 250 pp. £47.50.
The ten essays in this volume, originating from a conference on labour and difference held in Oxford in the summer of 1997, explore the interplay of race and class in the construction of working-class identities across three continents (Europe, North America and Africa). Included are a meditation on the international dimension of working-class mobilization by David Montgomery, three essays on the functioning of racial difference in American settings (Yvette Huginnie, Venus Green and Colin Davis), an overview of British historiography on race by Kenneth Lunn, and a concluding essay by Frederick Cooper, who reviews different interpretations of the relationship between race and class.

Women's Suffrage in the British Empire. Citizenship, nation, and race. Ed. by Ian Christopher Fletcher, Laura E. Nym Mayhall, and Philippa Levine. [Routledge Research in Gender and History.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2000. xxii, 252 pp. £55.00.
Analysing suffrage movements in Palestine under the British Mandate, in Southern Africa, in New Zealand and Australia, in India and Iran, in Canada and the United States, as well as in Great Britain, the fourteen essays in this collection explore the politics of women's suffrage from the age of empire to the eve of decolonization. The essays highlight both the transnational connections between suffrage campaigns around the British Empire and the complex interactions with other social movements in the metropolis and colonies. The general conclusion of the volume is that women's suffrage has engaged and reshaped important issues in modern politics, such as nation-building and democratic citizenship.

Wood, Ellen Meiksins. The Origin of Capitalism. Monthly Review Press, New York 1999. vii, 138 pp. $30.00. (Paper: $13.00.)
In this concise analysis of the origins of capitalism, of which large sections were published previously in various articles between 1994 and 1998 (see e.g. IRSH, 41 (1996), pp. 209-232), Dr Wood first examines the main historiography, of both classical and Marxist origin, and assesses the famous Marxist debates among writers such as Paul Sweezy, Maurice Dobb, Robert Brenner, Perry Anderson and E.P. Thompson. In her own analysis, she refutes these existing accounts and concludes that the origins lie in English agrarian capitalism, challenging the association of capitalism with cities and bourgeois values.


Laslett, John H.M. Colliers Across the Sea. A Comparative Study of Class Formation in Scotland and the American Midwest, 1830-1924. [The Working Class in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2000. xv, 314 pp. Maps. $49.95. (Paper: $18.95.)
Between 1865 and 1868 several hundred mine workers from the Clyde Valley in southwest Scotland migrated to the recently opened coalfields in northern Illinois. In this comparative study, Professor Laslett charts the similarities and differences in the development of these two coal-mining communities in the period between 1830 and 1925. Challenging the exceptionalist paradigm of American labour history, the author analyses the divergent American and Scottish approaches to collectivist solutions and traces the heightened militancy and rise of industrial unionism on both sides of the Atlantic. He argues that, with the exception of electoral politics, the process of class formation in Scotland and northern Illinois was surprisingly similar. CONTINENTS AND COUNTRIES


Émeutes et mouvements sociaux au Maghreb. Perspective comparée. Sous la dir. de Didier Le Saout et Marguerite Rollinde. [Hommes et Sociétés.] Karthala, Paris 1999; Institut Maghreb-Europe, Saint-Denis. 381 pp. F.fr. 160.00.
The sixteen contributions to this volume analyse the causes and backgrounds to the riots that took place in the Maghreb in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. Comparing them to the existing historiography on riots, and to incidents of rioting in Iran, France, Great Britain, and the Basque region, the contributors focus on explanations with economic, social, and political origins, and examine the backgrounds of the people involved in the riots. Seven eye-witness accounts of riots and social unrest in Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia in the 1980s are included as well.


Donham, Donald L. Marxist Modern. An Ethnographic History of the Ethiopian Revolution. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.]; James Currey, Oxford 1999. xxvi, 236 pp. Ill. £40.00. (Paper: £14.95.)
As an anthropologist conducting field research in the south Ethiopian Maale region in 1974/75, Professor Donham directly experienced the Ethiopian Marxist revolution. This monograph reports the extremely complicated situation, involving ethnic (Amhaars vs. Maale), religious (Orthodox vs. Evangelical Christians vs. heathens) and kinship factors. In Maale "traditional" forces struggle against "modern" ones, despite the changing meanings of these terms over the period covered. As a result of the revolution, the Ethiopian government acquired extensive influence even in a peripheral region such as Maale. Donham's other work about Maale was annotated in IRSH, 36 (1991), pp.119-120.


Allman, Jean and Victoria Tashjian. "I Will Not Eat Stone". A Women's History of Colonial Asante. [Social History of Africa.] Heinemann, Portsmouth (NH); James Currey, Oxford; David Philip, Cape Town 2000. xlvi, 255 pp. Ill. £40.00. (Paper: £15.95.)
Professor Allman, one of the editors of the series "Social History of Africa" (to which this volume pertains), and Professor Tashjian analyse domestic struggle in Asante in the first half of the twentieth century in this book. They adopt a women's perspective on the changes in the lives of women and men during this period of monetarization, cash cropping (cocoa), direct British rule (1900), and restoration of the Asantehene in a system of indirect rule (1935). The study is based on 186 interviews and extensive archival research in Ghana and England.

Sierra Leone

Falconbridge, Anna Maria. Narrative of Two Voyages to the River Sierra Leone During the Years 1791-1792-1793 and the Journal of Isaac Dubois, with Alexander Falconbridge. An Account of the Slave Trade on the Coast of Africa. Ed. by Christopher Fyfe. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool 2000. viii, 236 pp. Ill. £14.95.
The Sierra Leone Company was the commercial sequel to an initiative from 1787 to settle loyalist blacks as free men and women in Africa after they were stranded in London following the American War of Independence. The ship's doctor Falconbridge, a dedicated abolitionist, and his wife Anna Maria were sent to Sierra Leone to help settlers in trouble. Her vivid letters to a friend in Bristol about these journeys in 1791-1793 were published after her falling out with the Company in 1794. Falconbridge's An Account of the Slave Trade on the Coast of Africa from 1788 is appended. The texts are edited by Christopher Fyfe, a longstanding expert on African history.

South Africa

Newton-King, Susan. Masters and Servants on the Cape Eastern Frontier 1760-1803. [African Studies Series.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1999. xi, 335 pp. Ill. £45.00; $69.95.
This study explores the relationship between the indigenous Khoisan people, of the eastern Cape in South Africa, and the European settlers in the eighteenth century. Dr Newton-King explores the causes of the pervasive violence that marked relations between European masters and indigenous servants. Focusing on the fate of the many women and children captured by the Boer commandos, she aims to show how they were assimilated to the condition of captive labour to accommodate the needs of the frontier economy, indicating the overriding importance of the commercial policies of the Dutch East India Company.


González, Gilbert G. Mexican Consuls and Labor Organizing. Imperial Politics in the American Southwest. University of Texas Press, Austin 1999. xii, 277 pp. Ill. $40.00 (Paper: $19.95.)
This study of the role and influence of the Mexican consulate in the Mexican immigrant communities in the United states centres around four major agricultural workers' strikes in Depression-era California. Professor González aims to show how Mexican consuls worked with United States growers to break the strikes, undermining militants within union ranks and, in one case, even setting up a grower-approved union. The author argues that the Mexican government's intervention in the Chicano community continued after the New-Deal period in several forms into the 1990s.


Bergad, Laird W. Slavery and the Demographic and Economic History of Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1720-1888. [Cambridge Latin American Studies, vol. 85.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1999. xxix, 298 pp. Ill. £35.00; $54.95.
Following monographs on Puerto Rico and Cuba (see IRSH, 42 (1997), pp. 465-468), in this book Professor Bergad presents an economic and demographic study of slavery in the Brazilian region of Minas Gerais. The author's search of inventories for the presence of slaves has yielded a database with data on almost 112,000 slaves, based on which he has attempted to reconstruct the slave population of Minas Gerais in the period from 1713 to abolition in 1888. Professor Bergad concludes that slavery in Minas Gervais functioned in a diversified economy in the long run, and that the slave population expanded through demographic growth rather than through trade.


Making History. Interviews with four generals of Cuba's Revolutionary Armed Forces. Pref. by Juan Almeida Bosque. Introd. by Mary-Alice Waters. Pathfinder, New York [etc.] 2000. 193 pp. Ill. £10.45.
This book comprises interviews with four Cuban generals: Néstor López Cuba, Enrique Carreras, José Ramón Fernández and Harry Villegas. These veterans talk about the revolution, the Bay of Pigs, the Cuba Crisis, the interventions in Africa, and the roles of Che Guevara and of Raúl Castro (Fidel's brother and Minister of the Armed Forces). Mary-Alice Waters, one of the three interviewers, concludes the introduction on the following note: "We dedicate this volume to the young people of Cuba and worldwide, for whom the men and women of the Rebel Army still point the way." These texts leave little room for doubt.


Henderson, Peter V.N. In the Absence of Don Porfirio. Francisco León de la Barra and the Mexican Revolution. [Latin American Silhouettes.] SR Books, Wilmington 2000. xiv, 338 pp. Ill. $55.00.
The acting presidency of Francisco León de la Barra (1863-1939) lasted only from 25 May until 4 November 1911. Because this term was so short, and because the changes in Mexico dragged on for eight years after his resignation, de la Barra lapsed into oblivion. Professor Henderson recalls his life in this detailed biography. De la Barra served consecutively in the regime of Porfirio Díaz, as acting president, and as a minister under Huerta, which was a major reason for the negative views about him. Henderson regards de la Barra as a transitional figure in the broad spectrum of moderate Mexican reformers. This political biography is based on original archival research and a wealth of printed materials.

Purnell, Jennie. Popular Movements and State Formation in Revolutionary Mexico. The Agraristas and Cristeros of Michoacán. Duke University Press, Durham [etc.] 1999. x, 271 pp. £34.00. (Paper: £11.95.)
See Norman Caulfield's review in this volume, pp. 277-280.

United States of America

Argersinger, Jo Ann E. Making the Amalgamated. Gender, Ethnicity, and Class in the Baltimore Clothing Industry, 1899-1939. [Studies in Industry and Society.] The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 1999. x, 229 pp. Ill. $48.00.
In this study of the Baltimore clothing industry from the end of the nineteenth century to 1939, Dr Argersinger focuses on the role of the national organization of Amalgamated Clothing Workers (ACW), which was founded in 1914. Examining the institutional growth of the union movement, the complex nature of union building, the seasonal cycles of the clothing industry, and the collision of local trends with national union politics, the author also aims to incorporate insights into labour's social contexts and the shifting influences of ethnicity, gender, and culture.

Barrett, James R. William Z. Foster and the Tragedy of American Radicalism. [The Working Class in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1999. xiii, 352 pp. Ill. $34.95.
In this biographical study of William Z. Foster (1881-1961), American militant labour organizer and Communist Party leader, Professor Barrett sketches how Foster evolved from a militant labour organizer, who consecutively embraced socialism, syndicalism and, after 1917, communism, into a major director of Communist Party industrial policy. The author aims to show that Foster's life and career as a communist leader exemplifies the constant tension between two dimensions of American communism: communism as a genuine effort to redress social inequalities, and communism as the product of Comintern directives, Soviet policy initiatives and Soviet party politics.

Duus, Masayo Umezawa. The Japanese Conspiracy. The Oahu Sugar Strike of 1920. Transl. by Beth Cary and adapted by Peter Duus. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1999. xiii, 375 pp. Ill. $55.00. (Paper: $18.95.)
In early 1920, Japanese sugar cane workers on the Hawaiian island of Oahu went on strike for a wage increase. In this study of the Oahu sugar strike and its context of Japanese immigrant labour on the Hawaiian islands, Ms Duus argues that the plantation owners, in close cooperation with the territorial government, not only cracked down on the strike leaders but also lobbied successfully in Washington DC to lift restrictions on the immigration of Chinese labourers, and contributed strongly to the passage of the so-called Japanese Exclusion Act in 1924.

Halpern, Rick and Roger Horowitz. Meatpackers. An Oral History of Black Packinghouse Workers and Their Struggle for Racial and Economic Equality. Monthly Review Press, New York 1999. xi, 166 pp. Ill. $19.00.
Following their studies of trade unionism and racism in the Midwest meatpacking industry, both published in 1997 (see IRSH, 44 (1999), pp. 332f.), Dr Halpern and Dr Horowitz sketch, in this oral history, the struggle of the largely African-American workers for racial equality and economic advancement in the meatpacking industry between the 1930s and 1960s. Based on the extensive set of interviews conducted in the mid-1980s in the United Packinghouse Workers of America Oral History Project, the authors focus on the role of the union, the United Packinghouse Workers of America, and relations between black and white workers in Chicago, Kansas City, Forth Worth, and Waterloo (Iowa), and on black women's activism in Omaha.

Historical Dictionary of the 1960s. Ed. by James S. Olson. Assoc. Ed.: Samuel Freeman. Greenwood Press, Westport [etc.] 1999. viii, 548 pp. £71.50.
This historical dictionary aims to offer an encyclopaedic look at American life in the 1960s. In addition to biographies of many prominent individuals, the editor has included a variety of political, military, social, cultural, religious, economic, and diplomatic topics that were characteristic of the 1960s in the United States. Following every entry are references to sources; a chronology, selected bibliography and index are appended.

Honey, Michael Keith. Black Workers Remember. An Oral History of Segregation, Unionism, and the Freedom Struggle. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1999. xxi, 402 pp. Ill. $29.95; £18.50.
In this collection Professor Honey brings together twenty-eight first-hand accounts of black southerners from Memphis, Tennessee and their stories about their experiences as African-American workers. Included are eye-witness accounts of the racial violence and deprivation of rights that underlay segregation in the South; memories of the daily working conditions in factories in the 1930s; black women's experiences in their struggle to join the industrial labour force during and after World War II; recollections of the parallel civil rights and union rights struggles in the 1960s; and the course of events during the 1968 strike of Memphis sanitation workers.

Jones, Jacqueline. A Social History of the Laboring Classes. From Colonial Times to the Present. [Problems in American History.] Blackwell Publishers, Oxford [etc.] 1999. vi, 250 pp. £45.00; $52.95. (Paper: £15.00; $22.95.)
Exploring major themes such as the transition from slavery to free labour, the denigration of women's housework, and technological advances and the rise of the assembly line, this textbook aims to give a comprehensive overview of the history of work and workers in the United States from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries. Looking at various forms of work - waged and unwaged, urban and countryside - and placing work in a framework of economic transformations, Professor Jones also sketches the history of the labour-union movement from the antebellum trade shops to developments in modern trade unions.

Kimeldorf, Howard. Battling for American Labor. Wobblies, Craft Workers, and the Making of the Union Movement. University of California Press, Berkely [etc.] 1999. x, 244 pp. $45.00. (Paper: $17.95.)
See David Brody's review in this volume, pp. 275-277.

Waves of Protest. Social Movements Since the Sixties. Ed. by Jo Freeman and Victoria Johnson. [People, Passions, and Power: Social Movements, Interest Organizations, and the Political Process.] Rowman & Littlefield, Inc., Lanham 1999. xi, 381 pp. Ill. $65.00. (Paper: $19.95.)
This collection features various perspectives on all manifestations of protest movements in the United States in the 1960s and 70s, including the contra movements. The movements of this period are situated in a historical context of several waves of protest, starting in the nineteenth century. The collection consists of seventeen contributions about five different themes in a more or less chronological sequence. Most contributions were published previously between 1979 and 1999. Accordingly, the collection also reflects changes in the examination of protest movements. The contributors include David G. Bromley, Luther P. Gerlach, John C. Green, James M. Jasper, and David S. Meyer.



Levine, Marilyn A. and Chen San-ching. The Guomindang in Europe. A Sourcebook of DOCUMENTS. [China Research Monograph, vol. 52.] Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley 2000. xv, 303 pp. $20.00.
This sourcebook is composed of seventy-two documents, in three units, on the formation, activities and ideology of the European branch of the Chinese Nationalist Party, Guomindang (EGMD). The EGMD, dominated by the communists and leftists, was established officially in Lyon, France in November 1923. Most of the documents used in the sourcebook come from materials in Chinese and French archival collections. The largest portion has been translated from the original Chinese; the rest are in the original French and English, with a smattering of Vietnamese.

MacFarquhar, Roderick. The Origins of the Cultural Revolution. Vol. 3. The Coming of the Cataclysm 1961-1966. Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.]; Columbia University Press, New York 1997. xvi, 733 pp. Ill. $47.50.
This is the final volume of a trilogy that examines the decade preceding the Cultural Revolution, which began in 1966 and plunged China into chaos until 1976 (see IRSH, 19 (1974), pp. 460f., and 28 (1983), p. 355, for the previous two volumes). Starting with the great famine of the early 1960s and the divided reactions to it within the Communist Party leadership, Professor MacFarquhar aims to show that the origins of the Cultural Revolution lie in Mao's belief that the Soviet Union had actually gone capitalist, and in his urge to prevent a similar revolutionary degeneration in China.

Sargeson, Sally. Reworking China's Proletariat. [Studies on the Chinese Economy.] Macmillan, Basingstoke; St. Martin's Press, Inc., New York 1999. xviii, 278 pp. £50.00.
The author presents the first major study of the impact of market reforms on the recruitment and working conditions, relationships, identities, and attitudes of China's new proletariat. She has utilized ethnographic methodology and cross-disciplinary theories to examine the ideas and actions of the proletariat that have been reworked by the economic reforms undertaken in China since 1978. The book concentrates on that unnamed segment of the proletariat comprising contract and temporary workers, and analyses working conditions and relationships within enterprise workshops.


Ahuja, Ravi. Die Erzeugung kolonialer Staatlichkeit und das Problem der Arbeit. Eine Studie zur Sozialgeschichte der Stadt Madras und ihres Hinterlandes zwischen 1750 und 1800. [Beiträge zur Südostasienforschung, Band 183.] Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 1999. x, 389 pp. DM 130.00; S.fr. 130.00; S 949.00.
See D.H.A. Kolff's review in this volume, pp. 280-281.

Sen, Samita. Women and Labour in Late Colonial India. The Bengal Jute Industry. [Cambridge Studies in Indian History and Society, vol. 3.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1999. xx, 265 pp. £35.00; $59.95.
See Ulbe Bosma's review in this volume, pp. 282-284.


Ngo Van. Au pays de la Cloche fêlée. Tribulations d'un Cochinchinois à l'époque coloniale. L'insomniaque, Montreuil 2000. 239 pp. Ill. F.fr.
This autobiography by the Vietnamese revolutionary Ngo Van covers the period from 1913 until about 1950. He reflects on his childhood, his school years and his first encounter with the Trotskyist movement, his imprisonment, his experiences with torture, and his conversations with fellow prison inmates. The author found himself caught between two fires: the French security service on one side and the Vietnamese Stalinists on the other. In 1948 he fled to France. The book concludes with a series of brief biographical sketches of friends and comrades of the author, and is an important complement to the history of the leftist revolutionary movement in Vietnam and one of the few autobiographies from this period in a Western language.



Australian Labour History Reconsidered. Ed. by David Palmer, Ross Shanahan [and] Martin Shanahan. Australian Humanities Press, Adelaide 1999. xii, 244 pp. A$29.95.
In their introduction the editors suggest that this collection "reflects the wide diversity of ‘labour' scholarship that has emerged in the 1990s". The seventeen contributions are divided among six parts: (1) Culture, Gender and the Australian Worker; (2) Organised Labour and Political Culture; (3) Working-Class Communities and Political Identity; (4) Australian Egalitarianism; (5) Alternative Identities; and (6) Intellectuals and the Working Class: Australian Labour History Reconsidered. The collection is the outcome of the Fourth National Australian Labour History Conference in Adelaide in 1995. All articles emphasize the unique and central role of labour in Australian society.


Dan, Fedor I. und Otto Bauer. Briefwechsel (1934-1938). Hg.: Harmut Rüdiger Peter. [Quellen und Studien zur Sozialgeschichte, Band 18.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt/M. [etc.] 1999. 189 pp.
This source edition contains a major part of the correspondence between the Russian Menshevik socialist Fedor I. Dan (1871-1947) and the leading Austro-Marxist Otto Bauer (1881-1938) from the period 1934 to 1938. According to the editor, the correspondence offers insights both into the discussion within the left wing of the Socialist International on the rise of the Soviet Union, the strategic course of the Menshevik Party and the tasks of the Socialist International, and into the search of Russian exiles for a political and national identity.

The emancipation of Catholics, Jews and Protestants. Minorities and the nation state in nineteenth-century Europe. Ed. by Rainer Liedtke and Stephan Wendehorst. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1999; distrib. excl. in the USA by St. Martin's Press, New York. x, 223 pp. £45.00.
The ten essays in this collection compare and contrast the emancipation of Catholics, Jew,s and Protestants in four core European nation states (Britain, France, Germany and Italy) during the nineteenth century. Sketching the changing attitudes of nineteenth-century states and societies towards nondominant religious groups, and addressing the fragmented nature of the emancipation experience within the minorities, the collection aims to depict the struggle for political, civic, and social equality in an integrated framework. The editors suggest that the treatment of religiously defined minorities was symptomatic of changing notions of citizenship and national identity, as well as of shifting balances in the relation between the public and religious spheres.

Handwerk in Europa. Vom Spätmittelalter bis zur Frühen Neuzeit. Hrsg. von Knut Schulz unter Mitarb. von Elisabeth Müller-Luckner. [Schriften des Historischen Kollegs, Kolloquien, Band 41.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 1999. xix, 313 pp. Maps. DM 108.00.
Based on papers presented at a colloquium on the interconnection of European crafts from the fourteenth to the sixteenth centuries, organized by the Historisches Kolleg in Munich in April 1996, the fourteen contributions in this volume explore the effects of the large-scale migration of artisans throughout Europe in this period. Included are three contributions on the city of Rome as a central meeting place, three contributions on guilds and migration in Northwest Europe (Wim Blockmans, Piet Lourens and Jan Lucassen, and Jens Röhrkasten), four contributions on appreciation of foreign elements and self-awareness, and four contributions on migration and technology transfer.

Ideologie del 1848 e mutamento sociale. V giornata Luigi Firpo. Atti del convegno internazionale 20 marzo 1998. A cura di Mirella Larizza Lolli. [Studi e testi, 12.] Leo S. Olschki Editore, Firenze 1999. 214 pp. L. 42.000.
This collection comprises eighteen papers, commentaries, and essays for discussion from the International Colloquium held for the fifth Luigi Firpo Day in Turin on 20 March 1998 and organized by the late Mirella Larizza, who also wrote the introduction. She argues that the impression of the contemporary ideologies of 1848 that emerges from the texts reflects their nature as ideologies of transition. These doctrines attest to the ongoing innovations in the world but do not always articulate this perception in a coherent development theory. The participants included Maurice Agulhon, Franco Della Peruta and Jacques Grandjonc.

Lourens, Piet und Jan Lucassen. Arbeitswanderung und berufliche Spezialisierung. Der lippischen Ziegler im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert. Aus dem Niederländischen von Klaus Mellenthin. [Studien zur historischen Migrationsforschung, Band. 6.] Universitätsverlag Rasch, Osnabrück 1999. 206 pp. Ill. Maps. DM 36.00; € 18.00.
Almost forty per cent of the male population of the northwest-German principality of Lippe engaged in seasonal labour migration in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; most travelled long distances in groups across northwest Europe to work as contract labour for manufacturing bricks and tiles. This study examines the complex emergence and progressive dominance of this geographically-defined migratory group in a specific trade and segment of the labour market over this extended period. Based on the history of the Lipper brickmakers, the authors aim to develop a theoretical model to explain the success of migrants in specific trades.

Lutz, Annabelle. Dissidenten und Bürgerbewegung. Ein Vergleich zwischen DDR. und Tschechoslowakei. [Campus Forschung, Band 795.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1999. 182 pp. DM 48.00; S.fr 46.00; S 350.00.
This dissertation (Potsdam, 1998) compares the dissident and civic movements in East Germany and Czechoslovakia that played a major role in each of the countries at the end of the communist regimes in 1989/1990. Dr Lutz examines the biographical backgrounds of leading members of these movements, and analyses the origins of their commitment. She concludes that, while participation in the resistance in Czechoslovakia was largely stratified according to a generational segmentation, this factor was virtually insignificant in the East German movement.

Offen, Karen. European Feminisms 1700-1950. A Political History. Stanford University Press, Stanford (Cal.) 2000. xxviii, 554 pp. £37.50; $60.00. (Paper: £12.95; $19.95.)
This broad-ranging study aims to provide a comprehensive, comparative account of feminist developments in European societies from 1700 to 1950, focusing especially on France, but also offering comparative material on developments in German-speaking and other countries, and on the rise of international feminist organizations. By rereading European history from a feminist perspective, Dr Offen also addresses issues discussed among contemporary feminist theorists. These subjects include the Enlightenment, reason and nature, public vs. private and equality vs. difference. She concludes that gender is both a useful category of analysis and central to human thought and politics.

Panaccione, Andrea. Socialisti europei. Tra guerre, fascismi e altre catastrofi (1912-1946). [Studi e ricerche storiche, 264.] FrancoAngeli, Milano 2000. 275 pp. L. 40.000; € 20.66.
The author of this work has gathered eight essays and two short articles previously published in various journals and anthologies between 1985 and 1988 but revised, or in some cases largely rewritten, here. They cover the lives and ideas of several socialists, including Fedor Dan, Karl Kautsky, and Pietro Nenni. The words ‘e altri catastrofi' in the subtitle refer mainly to the history of the Russian Revolution and the Soviet Union, which figured prominently in the debates among interbellum European socialists. An declaration from the Russian group Novyj Put' from 1946 is included as an appendix.

Reith, Reinhold. Lohn und Leistung. Lohnformen im Gewerbe 1450-1900. [Vierteljahrschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte, Beihefte, Nr. 151.] Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 1999. 476 pp. DM 180.00; S.fr. 180.00; S 1314.00.
This Habilitationsschrift (Technical University Berlin, 1996) examines wage labour practices in crafts and industry in the German speaking parts of Central Europe from 1450 to 1900 in relation to the development of labour processes, organization of labour, labour market, and migration and economic trends. Contrasting his findings with the common opinion that piecework rates and merit pay were introduced only with the rise of modern industry, Dr Reith aims to show that piecework rates and merit pay already existed in various degrees in the early-modern economy.

Van agrarische samenleving naar verzorgingsstaat. Demografie, economie, maatschappij en cultuur in West-Europa, 1450-2000. Red.: B.M.A. de Vries, L. Heerma van Voss, J.Th. Lindblad [e.a.] Martinus Nijhoff uitgevers, Groningen 2000. 436 pp. Ill. Maps. D.fl. 79.50.
This is a thoroughly revised third edition of a manual on the demographic, economic, social, and cultural history of four West-European countries: England, the Netherlands, Germany and France from the mid-fifteenth through the twentieth centuries, which was originally published in 1987. The first part contrasts the more advanced development of England and the Netherlands with the situations in Germany and France until the end of the eighteenth century. The divergences in the nineteenth century as a result of different paces of industrialization and the convergence of these trends from the end of the nineteenth century onward - culminating in the similarities in the emergence of the modern welfare states in the four countries - are dealt with in the second part.


Deruette, Serge [en] Kris Merckx. De socialistische partij. Geschiedenis, mythen en feiten. EPO, Berchem 1999. 127 pp. D.fl. 24.50.
This study aims to offer a concise general history of the Belgian Socialist Party (SP) from its foundation in 1885 as Belgische Werkliedenpartij (Belgian Workingmen's Party) to its dissolution in 1940. Adopting a very critical perspective, the authors focus on the predominance of liberal, bourgeois attitudes among the party leadership from its origins until 1940. They conclude that, contrary to the popular myth, the Belgian SP has never been a socialist party in the true sense of the word.

Eire - Ireland

Dowling, Martin W. Tenant Right and Agrarian Society in Ulster 1600-1870. Irish Academic Press, Dublin [etc.] 1999. xi, 388 pp. IR£42.50.
Whereas much recent research has addressed the "land question" in the history of Irish society in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, this study examines the prehistory of the land question from its seventeenth-century origins to the dawn of legislative reform. Focusing on the development of persistent contradictions in the Irish property system that later erupted in the land war of the 1880s, Dr Dowling integrates the development of historical relationships between landlords, tenants and cottiers with transformations in the rural economy, colonial reorganization of the landscape, the advance of estate management, and debates about the nature of Irish political economy.

The Irish Diaspora. Ed. by Andy Bielenberg. Longman, Harlow [etc.] 2000. vii, 368 pp. £73.99. (Paper: £24.99.)
The seventeen essays in this collection, all originating from a conference on the Irish diaspora, held in Cork in the autumn of 1997, aim to provide an overview of the Irish diaspora in the major migration destinations of North America, Britain, and the British colonies. The contributors, including historians, demographers, economists, sociologists, and geographers, question myths associated with the religious character, identity, and relations between the host community and Irish migrants and re-evaluate the economic and social success and failure of Irish immigrants in different contexts, also addressing gender differences. The three concluding general contributions deal with contemporary Irish migration patterns.


Baker, Alan R.H. Fraternity Among the French Peasantry. Sociability and Voluntary Associations in the Loire Valley, 1815-1914. [Cambridge Studies in Historical Geography, vol. 28.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1999. xviii, 373 pp. Ill. Maps. £45.00; $74.95.
Although nineteenth-century French peasantry has often been characterized as typically individualistic, Dr Baker aims to demonstrate in this study that, in fact, French peasants in this period both continued traditional and developed new forms of collective action. After examining representations of the peasantry and discussing the discourse of fraternity in general, he explores the historical development, geographical diffusion, and changing functions of fraternal voluntary associations in the region of Loir-et-Cher in the middle of the Loire valley between 1815 and 1914, focusing primarily upon associations aimed at reducing risks (insurance associations, mutual aid societies), and upon syndicates and cooperatives intended to provide agricultural protection.

Belloin, Gérard. Mémoires d'un fils de paysans tourangeaux entré en communisme. L'enfance dure longtemps. Les Éditions de l'Atelier/Les Éditions Ouvrières, Paris 2000. 377 pp. F.fr. 150.00; € 22.87.
Mr. Belloin (1929) was an active member of the French Communist Party from 1944 to 1979 and advanced to the Party's higher ranks in the region of Touraine. In these memoirs, he describes his experiences in the Party and its closed subculture, showing how the party organization functioned both as a sort of family and as a means for rural working-class youth to realize their ambitions while remaining loyal to their roots.

Clark, Linda L. The Rise of Professional Women in France. Gender and Public Administration since 1830. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2000. xiv, 324 pp. Ill. £40.00; $64.95.
In this study of professional women in France in positions of administrative responsibility, Professor Clark traces several generations of women working in public administration from 1830 onward to analyse women's changing positions within the public sector. Examining public policy and politics, attitudes towards gender, women's work and education, as well as women's own perceptions and assessments of their positions, the author compares the situation of French women administrators with that of their counterparts in Great Britain and the United States.

Fernandez, Alexandre. Histoire du Comité bordelais d'action sociale (1928-1998). 70 ans au carrefour des activités sociales. Éditions confluences, Bordeaux 1999. 143 pp. Ill. F.fr. 150.00.
In this commemorative volume, Mr. Fernandez reviews the history of the Comité Bordelais d'Action Sociale (CBAS), an association of employers in the region of Bordeaux aimed at advising and supporting employers in implementing and improving social security legislation and regulations, from its establishment in 1928, through its reorganization in 1945 to its operation today.

Icher, François. Les compagnonnages en France au XXe siècle. Histoire, mémoire, représentations. [La Mémoire des bâtisseurs.] Jacques Grancher, Paris 1999. 682 pp. Ill. F.fr. 199.00; € 30.00.
This is a comprehensive study of the history, historiography, popular image, and changing role of the compagnonnages, the secret associations of French journeymen, in the twentieth century. Following an extensive overview of the historiography, Professor Icher sketches their reappearance in a modern form under the aegis of the Vichy regime, following their virtual disappearance at the beginning of the twentieth century, and the various mergers and subsequent rifts that led to the present-day landscape of organizations from 1946 onward. A separate section covers the current social and symbolic functions of the compagnonnages.

McMillan, James F. France and Women 1789-1914. Gender, Society and Politics. Routledge, London [etc.] 2000. xiv, 286 pp. £17.99.
In this study, Professor McMillan considers the role played by women in French politics, culture, and society throughout the nineteenth century. Portraying French women both as individuals and as members of different social classes and regional and cultural communities, the author explores the redefinition of the role and sphere of women that arose from the French Revolution, the resulting dichotomy between a male, public, domain and a female, private, domain in the first half of the nineteenth century, the subsequent emergence of a discourse on womanhood in the third quarter of the nineteenth century, and the crisis in French gender relations in the period 1880-1914.

Namer, Gérard. Le système social de Rousseau. De l'inégalité économique à l'inégalité politique. [Logiques Sociales.] Éditions L'Harmattan, Paris; L'Harmattan Inc., Montréal 1999. xxii, 212 pp. F.fr.
See Peter Friedemann's review in this volume, pp. 260-261.

Paris le peuple. XVIIIe-XXe siècle. Sous la dir. de Jean-Louis Robert et Danielle Tartakowsky. [Série histoire de la France aux XIXe-XXe siècles - 51.] Publications de la Sorbonne, Paris 1999. 233 pp. Ill. Maps. F.fr. 140.00; € 21.34.
The twelve essays in this volume, all based on a seminar organized at the Sorbonne in three consecutive years, cover the social, political, and cultural history of the people of Paris from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries. The contributions deal with the relationship between two poles: the people who actually lived in Paris and made its history, and images of the "people of Paris". Included are contributions on the issue of integration at the end of the nineteenth century (Alain Faure), the role of the people during the Commune (Jacques Rougerie), and representations of the people of Paris in chansons (Jean-Louis Robert).

Tombs, Robert. The Paris Commune 1871. [Turning Points.] Longman, London [etc.] 1999. vii, 244 pp. £24.99.
In this textbook Dr Tombs sketches the events during the Paris Commune, places them in their historical, political, and social contexts, considers the Commune's long-term significance for both France and Europe, and explores the historiography it has generated. The author gives due consideration to recent perspectives in Commune research, such as gender, culture and community.


Becker, Ernst Wolfgang. Zeit der Revolution! - Revolution der Zeit? Zeiterfahrungen in Deutschland in der Ära der Revolutionen 1789-1848/49. [Kritische Studien zur Geschichtswissenschaft, Band 129.] Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1999. 396 pp. DM 78.00.
In this revised dissertation (Tübingen, 1997), Dr Becker examines to what extent the experience of time in Germany changed during the era of revolutions between 1789 and 1849. Focusing on three phases (1789-1815, the period of the Vormärz, and 1848/1849), and using the conceptual history perspective elaborated by Reinhart Koselleck, the author concludes, contrary to prevailing views, that the revolutions in this period were experienced not at all as historical caesuras or epochal shifts, but rather as a new opportunity to enter and influence an evolutionary process of historical progress.

Brandenburgisches Landeshauptarchiv. Überlieferung aus der preußischen Provinz Brandenburg. Bearb. von Lorenz Friedrich Beck in Verbindung mit dem Brandenburgischen Landeshauptarchiv. [Inventar zur Geschichte der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung in den staatlichen Archiven der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Reihe B, Überlieferungen der Flächenstaaten, Band 4.] K.G. Saur, München 1999. xix, 372 pp. DM 228.00; S.fr. 203.00; S 1664.00.
This volume is the fourth in the series of surveys of archives concerning the German labour movement at the regional level of the Länder (for the previous volumes in this series, see IRSH, 43 (1998), p. 180, and 45 (2000), p. 531) and deals with materials from the Prussian province of Brandenburg from the 1820s until 1945, as located in the Brandenburgisches Landeshauptarchiv in Berlin. More than one-third of the materials covered in this survey originated from the archives of the Berlin police headquarters.

Geschichte und Emanzipation. Festschrift für Reinhard Rürup. Hrsg. von Michael Grüttner, Rüdiger Hachtmann [und] Heinz-Gerhard Haupt. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 1999. 754 pp. DM 148.00; S.fr. 137.00; S 1080.00.
The thirty-two contributions to this Festschrift for the German social historian Reinhard Rürup address the central themes in his work: emancipation and emancipatory movements in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The essays, many written by leading German social historians, are subdivided into five general themes reflecting Rürup's fields of interest: the emergence of bourgeois society, history of revolution, the history of German Jewry and anti-Semitism, history of the Nazi dictatorship, and history of the public sphere.

Gewerbliche Unterstützungskassen. Die Krankenversicherung für gewerbliche Arbeitnehmer zwischen Selbsthilfe und Staatshilfe. Bearb. von Florian Tennstedt und Heidi Winter unter Mitarb. von Elmar Roeder und Christian Schmitz. [Quellensammlung zur Geschichte der deutschen Politik 1867 bis 1914. I. Abt. Von der Reichsgründungszeit bis zur kaiserlichen Sozialbotschaft (1867-1881), Band 5.] Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1999. liv, 798 pp. DM 258.00; S.fr. 229.00; S 1883.00.
This is the fifth volume of the first part of a series of source editions, which started in 1966 (see IRSH, 40 (1995), p. 172, for volume 4 of this part). This volume in the first part, which covers the period between 1867 and 1881, focuses on the emergence of health insurance for industrial workers and the promulgation of corresponding national legislation; this process involves the evolution from primarily independent mutual arrangements, originating from local authorities, workers' associations, and trade unions to growing state interference, thanks in part to the introduction of the Hilfskassengesetz (the law on relief funds) of 1876.

Gray, Marion W. Productive Men, Reproductive Women. The Agrarian Household and the Emergence of Separate Spheres during the German Enlightenment. Berghahn Books, New York [etc.] 2000. xiii, 370 pp. £45.00; $69.95. (Paper: £16.00; $24.00.)
Joining with the discussion on the origins of modern gender norms, Professor Gray argues in this study of the agrarian household in Germany during the Enlightenment that the modern ideal of separate spheres originated in this era. According to the author, Enlightenment economists transformed the traditional gender paradigms, which prescribed active interdependent economic roles for both men and women by postulating a market exchange system directed exclusively by men. The emerging bourgeois value system subsequently affirmed the new civil society and the marketplace as exclusively male realms, largely defining women's options as marriage and motherhood.

Knoblich, Susanne. "Mit Frauenbewegung hat das nichts zu tun". Gewerkschafterinnen in Niedersachsen 1945 bis 1960. [Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Sozialgeschichte e.V. Braunschweig, Bonn.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 1999. 319 pp. DM 48.00; S.fr. 46.00; S 350.00; €24,54.
Based on the example of the regional branch of the postwar German trade union, the Deutsche Gewerkschaftsbund (DGB), in Niedersachsen and the local branch in Braunschweig, Dr Knoblich examines the demands that female trade-union members formulated especially for women in the 1950s, and their efforts to achieve and publicize these goals within the male-dominated DGB. The author concludes that when the women's objectives conflicted with the trade union's general interest, the female trade unionists willingly submitted.

Kocka, Jürgen. Industrial Culture and Bourgeois Society. Business, Labor, and Bureaucracy in Modern Germany. Berghahn Books, New York [etc.] 1999. xviii, 325 pp. $59.95; £40.00. (Paper: $19.95; £13.50.)
This collection brings together thirteen essays (for the most part English translations), which Professor Kocka published between 1971 and 1997 on industrial culture and bourgeois society in Germany between 1850 and 1918. Included are several essays from his seminal work on the history of the electrical engineering firm Siemens, and contributions on the development of the modern class society in wartime Germany, the position of the Angestellte (as the typical white-collar worker was known in German), and the emerging bourgeois and civil society in Germany in the second half of the nineteenth century.

Lischke, Ute. Lily Braun: 1865-1916. German Writer, Feminist, Socialist. [Studies in German Literature, Linguistics, and Culture.] Camden House, Rochester [etc.] 2000. xix, 144 pp. Ill. $55.00.
This is a biographical study of Lily Braun (1865-1916), a leading German feminist of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and an acclaimed author of novels and feminist political tracts. Active in both groups, such as the Verein Frauenwohl and the Social Democratic Party, she lobbied for causes ranging from maternity benefits to better education and housing for women. Professor Lischke sketches her increasing conflicts with other leading socialist women, who were suspicious of Braun's aristocratic origins, and her retreat from politics to pursue a literary career. By 1914, Braun was defending extreme nationalistic and racial hygiene ideas and had repudiated many of her earlier feminist stances.

Parteien im Wandel. Vom Kaiserreich zur Weimarer Republik. Rekrutierung - Qualifizierung - Karrieren. Hrsg. von Dieter Dowe, Jürgen Kocka und Heinrich August Winkler. [Schriftenreihe der Stiftung Reichspräsident-Friedrich-Ebert-Gedenkstätte, Band 7.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 1999. 410 pp. DM 68.00.
The thirteen contributions to this collection, all based on papers presented at a symposium organized in Heidelberg in October 1997, assess rifts and continuities in the history and development of the organization and policies of political parties and administrative bodies in Germany that resulted from World War I and the German Revolution of 1918/1919. Focusing on elites in the parties, the state administration, and management in corporate industry, some of the contributors compare the periods before and after 1914-1918/1919, while others consider the various political parties and movements, and the third group contrasts political and administrative elites in Germany with those in other countries.

Great Britain

Beddoe, Deirdre. Out of the Shadows. A History of Women in Twentieth-Century Wales. University of Wales Press, Cardiff 2000. xiv, 201 pp. Ill. £10.99.
This is a comprehensive overview of the everyday experience of ordinary women in Wales during the twentieth century. Considering both regional variations and differing linguistic and cultural traditions, the author examines key areas of women's lives: education, health, home life, leisure, politics and waged work. She also assesses the contributions of a number of hitherto neglected female pioneers in various social and political movements.

Caine, Barbara. English Feminism 1780-1980. Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 1997. xvii, 336 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
In this chronological analysis of feminism in England from the late eighteenth to the end of the twentieth centuries, Professor Caine examines the relationship between feminist thought and actions, placing the development of feminism in its broader social and cultural context. Taking the life and thought of Mary Wollstonecraft as the starting point of English feminist tradition, the author addresses issues such as the introduction and changing meanings of the term "feminist", the importance of literary representations of women and the boundaries between feminism and the "woman question". In her concluding chapter on modern feminism, she emphasizes the need to recognize a multitude of "feminisms", rather than any single kind of feminism.

Crosland and New Labour. Ed. by Dick Leonard. Postscript by Susan Crosland. Macmillan, in assoc. with Fabian Society, Basingstoke [etc.] 1999. xii, 207 pp. £40.00.
The fourteen essays in this collection explore to what extent Tony Blair's New Labour is influenced by Anthony Crosland (1918-1977), who, as the author of The Future of Socialism (1956), became a major philosophical inspiration and source of reference for the moderate wing of the Labour Party. Contributors include both close associates of Crosland, younger academic writers, and practising Labour politicians. Examining both Crosland's writings and his work as Foreign Secretary, most authors agree that his most influential contributions lie in his efforts to reconcile equality and liberty, and his sharp distinction between enduring values and ephemeral means.

Douglas, R.M. Feminist Freikorps. The British Voluntary Women Police, 1914-1940. Praeger, Westport (Conn.) [etc.] 1999. xv, 171 pp. Ill. $55.00; £46.50.
See Clive Emsley's review in this volume, pp. 271-273.

Fischer, Gero. United We Stand - Divided We Fall. Der britische Bergarbeiterstreik 1984/85. [Studien zur Historischen Sozialwissenschaft, Band 26.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt/M. [etc.] 1999. 337 pp. Ill. DM 68.00; S.fr. 34.00; S 496.00.
This is a general, comprehensive history of the British miners' strike of 1984/1985 and its historical backgrounds of class formation, trade-union development, the British mining industry and labour-state relations from the mid-nineteenth century to the strike, which became the most extended industrial conflict in British history. Focusing on the perspective of the strikers, the author - a professional linguist - largely completed the manuscript for this book in 1988 and made minor additions in 1991. The foreword by Tony Benn is from 1990.

Fraser, Kay M. Same or Different: Gender Politics in the Workplace. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 1999. vii, 250 pp. £37.50.
Basing herself on poststructuralist feminist theory, the author of this study explores the competing debates about women workers as they were constructed by organizations, institutions, and individuals interested and involved in the employment of women in Great Britain during the 1960s. By examining interpretations of the views of government officials, industrial employers, and trade-union leaders on the issue of sameness and difference for workplace and government policies, Dr Fraser aims to analyse how the notion of women workers as subordinate and inferior to men was - and according to the author continues to be - perpetually repeated and reinforced.

Frost, Diane. Work and Community among West African Migrant Workers since the Nineteenth Century. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool 1999. ix, 278 pp. Ill. £32.00. (Paper: £15.95.)
The Kru, a group of West Africans who worked as ship's labourers and seafarers in the British colonial trade, were among the earliest black people to settle in Britain in the nineteenth century. This book deals with the social history of this group both in West Africa and in Britain. Especially in Liverpool, they formed a black community long before the arrival of black British subjects after World War II. Drawing on oral accounts of the Kru themselves, both in Liverpool and as return migrants in West Africa, Dr Frost focuses on the group's experiences, their perception of their own history, and their beliefs and values.

History of Work and Labour Relations in the Royal Dockyards. Ed. by Kenneth Lunn and Ann Day. [Employment and Work Relations in Context Series.] Mansell, London [etc.] 1999. xxi, 200 pp. £85.00.
This collection of nine essays focuses on the history of work and organized labour in the British Royal Dockyards from the seventeenth century to the 1990s. The topics reviewed by the contributors include: forms of employment, the changing nature of industrial relations over the centuries and trends in mediation between naval authorities and their employees, the impact of the decline of the dockyards after World War II, as well as broader issues such as the nature of state employment, the rise of trade unionism, and the institutionalized patterns of employment negotiations.

Howell, David. Respectable Radicals. Studies in the politics of railway trade unionism. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 1999. viii, 446 pp. £55.00.
In these nine chronologically ordered essays, Professor Howell examines the central role of railway workers in the rise of the British trade-union movement, and in the construction of effective politics in the period from the 1890s to the 1950s. Especially on the local level of small towns and country districts, railway workers were, according to the author, important in the formation of political groups. The complex relationship between changing experiences of work, shifting trade-union strategies, and political identities are a central theme in these essays.

Jordan, Ellen. The Women's Movement and Women's Employment in Nineteenth Century Britain. [Routledge Research in Gender and History, vol. 1.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1999. xiv, 261 pp. £50.00.
This study examines the expansion of middle-class women's work in nineteenth-century Britain, the reasons for this expansion, and the influence of the early women's movement on this process. After 1850, young women entered previously all-male occupations, such as medicine, pharmacy, librarianship, the civil service, clerical work, and hairdressing. The author aims to show how the women's movement, by redefining femininity and promoting academic education for girls, targeted employers to show the advantages of employing young women and persuaded young women that working outside the home would not compromise their femininity.

Joyce, Peter. Realignment of the Left? A History of the Relationship between the Liberal Democrat and Labour Parties. Macmillan Press, Basingstoke [etc.] 1999. viii, 346 pp. £42.50.
This study analyses the realignment of progressive, Centre-Left political forces in Britain from the rise of Labour to the changes within the Labour Party at the end of the twentieth century, viewed from the perspective of the Liberal Party/Liberal Democrats. Dr Joyce focuses on a number of key periods in the emergence of the Centre-Left, including the Liberal reaction to the rise of the Labour Party, the post-1918 decline of the Liberal Party, the politics of the popular front in the 1930s, Labour's pursuit of the liberal vote after 1945, the formation of the Social Democratic Party in 1981, and its subsequent relationships with the Liberal Party.

Kent, Susan Kingsley. Gender and power in Britain, 1640-1990. Routledge, London [etc.] 1999. xii, 364 pp. Ill. £14.99.
This textbook survey aims to offer a synthesizing history of the interaction of gender and power in political, social, cultural, and economic life in Britain from the mid-seventeenth through the twentieth centuries. Arranged chronologically, the book examines a wide range of issues and topics, including the Civil War, industrialization, Victorian morality, the role of the empire in the development of British institutions and identities, twentieth-century suffrage, the World Wars, second-wave feminism, the establishment of power relationships within the various gender systems that emerged over the centuries, and class, racial, and ethnic considerations.

Laybourn, Keith and Dylan Murphy. Under the Red Flag. A History of Communism in Britain, c. 1849-1991. Sutton Publishing, Stroud 1999. xix, 233 pp. Ill. £25.00; $34.95.
See John Callaghan's review in this volume, pp. 273-275.

Long, Jane. Conversations in Cold Rooms. Women, Work and Poverty in Nineteenth-Century Northumberland. [Studies in History New Series.] The Royal Historical Society/The Boydell Press, Woodbridge [etc.] 1999. xii, 241 pp. Ill. £40.00; $75.00.
This book explores the relations between gender, poverty, and women's work in the context of nineteenth-century Northumberland. Dr Long examines urban and rural conditions for women, poor-relief debates and practices, philanthropic activity, working-class cultures, and "protective" intervention in women's employment. She also considers cultural codes around women and womanhood and the role of representations of women's bodies, the contemporary discourse of domestic life, respectability, and Victorian "progress" in the significance of poverty in nineteenth-century Northumberland, arguing that poverty was far more gendered than is often acknowledged.

O'Leary, Paul. Immigration and Integration. The Irish in Wales, 1798-1922. [Studies in Welsh History, vol. 16.] University of Wales Press, Cardiff 2000. xv, 340 pp. £25.00.
In this study, Dr O'Leary examines Irish emigration to Wales in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and sketches the experience of Irish immigrants there. Although they initially met with the same violent hostility as in other parts of Britain, the integration appeared to be relatively trouble-free by the late nineteenth century. The author considers key aspects of immigrant life, such as the role of the Irish in the labour force, criminality and alcoholism, the establishment of community organization (including friendly societies and political organizations), the mobilization of support for the Irish nationalist organization, and Irish participation in the Welsh labour movement.

Pollard, Sidney. Labour History and the Labour Movement in Britain. [Variorum Collected Studies Series, CS652.] Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 1999. xx, 313 pp. £55.00.
This volume brings together fifteen reprints of essays on the history of labour and the labour movement in Britain in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, written between 1954 and 1993 by the late Professor Pollard. Sidney Pollard (1925-1998) became well-known both as an economic historian and as a labour historian; in 1960 he co-founded the Society for the Study of Labour History. The essays are grouped under the categories "Wages and Working Conditions", "Robert Owen and the Co-operative Movement" and "Modern Trade Unions and the Labour Party".

Sharpe, J.A. Crime in Early Modern England 1550-1750. Sec. ed. [Themes in British Social History.] Longman, London [etc.] 1999. ix, 281 pp. £13.99.
This is the second, revised edition of a comprehensive overview of the incidence, causes and control of crime in early modern England and its impact on society. Preserving the structure of the first edition from 1984, Professor Sharpe looks, in this second edition, at the institutions and personnel enforcing social order, the use of criminal statistics from court archives, the social backgrounds of criminals, and the relation between changes in crime and its treatment and the broader socioeconomic changes between 1550 and 1750. The new issues dealt with in the second edition are gender and crime, changes in punishment and attitudes toward criminals, and literary perspectives on crime.

Slack, Paul. From Reformation to Improvement. Public Welfare in Early Modern England. The Ford Lectures Delivered in the University of Oxford 1994-1995. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1999. viii, 179 pp. £25.00.
Based upon a series of lectures delivered in 1995, Dr Slack analyses the fundamental shifts in the concepts of social welfare and social policy that took place in England between the early sixteenth and early eighteenth centuries. Exploring both the policies and the rhetoric of people involved in social welfare, such as the commonwealthsmen, godly magistrates, and early Hanoverian philanthropists and the institutions they created, the author aims to show how aspirations towards wholesale reformation were replaced, in this period, by specific schemes for improvement of social welfare, and to demonstrate how this trend related to the gradual emergence of civic consciousness and civil society.

Votes for Women. Ed. by June Purvis and Sandra Stanley Holton. [Women's and Gender History.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2000. xiii, 297 pp. Ill. £16.99.
The twelve contributions to this volume aim to provide an innovative re-examination of the British women's suffrage movement from its origins in the nineteenth century to the post-World-War-I period. The opening chapter, by Sandra Stanley Holton, deals with the historiography of the movement. Other contributions include reassessments of the roles of leading figures, such as Lily Maxwell (Jane Rendall), Mrs Henry Fawcett (Janet Howarth), Emmeline Pankhurst (June Purvis) and Constance Lytton (Marie Mulvey-Roberts), and essays on the Women's Social and Political Union (June Purvis), the Women's Freedom League (Hilary Frances), and the suffrage movement in the regions (June Hannam).

Women and Gender in Early Modern Wales. Ed. by Michael Roberts and Simone Clarke. University of Wales Press, Cardiff 2000. xiv, 320 pp. Ill. £35.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
The eleven contributions to this volume examine the material, social, and cultural experiences of women in Wales from the late Middle Ages to the eve of the Industrial Revolution and explore how those experiences were defined alongside or against those of men. The issues addressed in the essays include female contributions to the poetic tradition, attitudes towards witchcraft and female abduction, the role of women in the emerging nonconformist movements, changing political and social responsibilities following the Acts of Union, and an exploration of women's experiences as presented in various sources, such as records from the law courts, and the work of the embroiderer.


Astarita, Tommaso. Village Justice. Community, Family, and Popular Culture in Early Modern Italy. [The Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science, 117th Series, vol. 3.] The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 1999. xxiv, 305 pp. $54.00.
Focusing on the trial of a peasant woman for the murder by poison of her husband in a small village at the southernmost point of the Italian peninsula in 1710, this study analyses the efforts of the state and the Church to regulate popular behaviour and local practices and ideas of morality. In this period of the early eighteenth century the European judicial system underwent significant changes. This case shows, according to Professor Astarita, how justice operated at local level, and how difficult it was to bring order and morality to rural communities.

Bagnoli, Paolo. The Liberal Socialism. Four essays on the political thought of Carlo Rosselli. S.F. Vanni, New York 1999. 124 pp. $10.00; L. 15.000; € 7.75.
This small booklet comprises four essays on the theoretical-political thought of Carlo Rosselli (1899-1937), an antifascist activist and thinker, who was murdered in exile in France in 1937. In the 1920s and 1930s, Rosselli elaborated a political theory of liberal socialism, in which he emphasized the democratic, pluralistic, and voluntary nature of socialism. The first three essays were previously published in Italian in Rosselli, Gobetti e la rivoluzione democratica. Uomini e idee tra liberalismo e socialismo (1996).

Bianco, Gino. Nicola Chiaromonte e il tempo della malafede. [Società e Cultura, 19.] Piero Lacaita Editore, Manduria [etc.] 1999. xi, 175 pp. Ill. L. 25.000.
This intellectual portrait of Nicola Chiaromonte (1905-1972) depicts the life and works of this independent leftist intellectual. A critic and essayist in Italy, subsequently an exile in Paris (where he joined the Giustizia e Libertà movement) and a volunteer for the squadron of André Malraux (in whose novel L'espoir he figures as Scali), he eventually moved to the United States in 1940, where he contributed to Dwight Macdonald's Politics and, together with Gaetano Salvemini, to L'Italia libera. After the war he published the journal Tempo presente with Ignazio Silone.

Carlo Rosselli e il socialismo liberale. A cura di Maurizio Degl'Innocenti. [Società e Cultura, 20.] Piero Lacaita Editore, Manduria [etc.] 1999. xiii, 187 pp. L. 20.000.
This collection comprises ten contributions to a colloquium organized by the Fondazione di studi storici "Filippo Turati", with the Società Umanitaria and the Fondazione "Ricardo Bauer", on 22 March 1999. This colloquium was the outcome of the resurgence of interest, following the 1960s, in the history of the Giustizia e Libertà movement focused on Carlo Rosselli. This second wave is attributable in part to trends in the analysis of fascism and the power elites. The contributions address the themes party/movement, elites/democracy and state/autonomy.

I carteggi Turati - Ghisleri (1876-1926). A cura di Maurizio Punzo. [Strumenti e Fonti, 15.] Piero Lacaita Editore, Manduria [etc.] 2000. 803 pp. L. 50.000.
This edition of the complete correspondence between Turati and Ghisleri is part of a project of the Fondazione di Studi Storici "Filippo Turati" to publish Turati's correspondence. The volumes published previously contain letters to and from foreign correspondents (see IRSH, 42 (1997), p. 114) and with Italians in exile (see IRSH, 44 (1999), p. 347). Ghisleri kept all the letters he received and asked Turati to return the letters he sent him. The publication containing all these letters - over 600 altogether - offers a fairly comprehensive impression of their relations between 1876 and 1901, when political differences of opinion caused a rift between them.

Levy, Carl. Gramsci and the Anarchists. Berg, Oxford [etc.] 1999. xii, 272 pp. Maps. £44.99.
This study analyses the influence of the Italian anarchists on Gramsci. It is also, according to the publisher, the first extensive study in English on Italian anarchism from the beginning of the twentieth century until the rise of fascism. The analysis of anarchist politics includes a detailed reconstruction of the social foundation of Italian anarchism. Following a historical introduction to Italian anarchism, specifically in Turin in the period 1870-1914, the author focuses on Gramsci's years of study during World War I, his interactions and experiences with anarchists during the biennio rosso, and the lessons he learned there.

Mastellone, Salvo. Carlo Rosselli e "La rivoluzione liberale del socialismo". Con scritti e documenti inediti. [Il Pensiero Politico, 24.] Leo S. Olschki, n.p. [Firenze] 1999. 263 pp. L. 35.000.
This study is an analysis of the origins of Carlo Rosselli's book, Socialismo liberale, which appeared in Paris in 1930. An Italian translation followed in 1945. The Italian manuscript was published only in Carlo Rosselli's Opere Scelti (Turin, 1973). It was originally written during his years of exile on Lipari from 1928 to 1929. The author substantiates his view of the history of the book's emergence with a few articles published in journals such as Critica sociale, Libertà, La Giustizia and Il Quarto Stato between 1922-1926 but not included in Opere Scelti, as well as the texts from several of Rosselli's manuscripts.

Matteotti, Velia Titta. Lettere a Giacomo. A cura di Stefano Caretti. Nistri-Lischi, Pisa 2000. 324 pp. L. 40.000; € 20.66.
This collection encompasses all 214 letters and cards that Velia Titta sent her fiancé and husband Giacomo Matteotti between 1912, when they first met, and 1924, the year he was murdered. This publication fulfils the aim that Stefano Caretti expressed, on publishing the letters from Matteo to Velia in 1986 (see IRSH, 31 (1986), p. 360), of also issuing those from her to him. In the introduction, Caretti has included a biographical sketch of Velia Titta and has added two appendices with letters from her to Filippo Turati and Gaetano Salvemini. An index of persons is appended.

Renzo De Felice. Il lavoro dello storico tra ricerca e didattica. A cura di Giovanni Aliberti e Giuseppe Parlato. Contrib. di Giovanni Aliberti, Emilio Falco, Valdo Ferretti [e a.] [Colloquium.] Edizioni Universitarie di Lettere Economia Diritto, Milano 1999. 210 pp. L. 30.000.
This work comprises nine articles by students of Renzo De Felice and the text from a round-table discussion. The articles deal with various aspects of the history of fascism. They are the papers from a seminar on contemporary history at the faculty of political science of the University "La Sapienza" in 1996/1997. Giovanni Aliberti has contributed two introductory essays: "La storiografia di Renzo De Felice", and "Renzo De Felice e la storia sociopolitica dell'Italia contemporanea". Jacobian Italy, De Felice's second major historical focus, is not covered in this collection.

The Netherlands

Boer, Tiny de en Wim Berkelaar. Inventaris van de archieven van de Industriebond CNV en voorlopers 1890-1983 (-1996). [IISG Werkuitgave/Working Paper, 44.] Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 2000. 120 pp. D.fl. 19.00; € 8.62.
Boer, Tiny de en Wim Berkelaar. Inventaris van de archieven van de Voedingsbond CNV en voorlopers (1894-) 1898-1983 (-1996). [IISG Werkuitgave/Working Paper, 43.] Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 2000. 65 pp. D.fl. 19.00; € 8.62.

Following the research on the history of the Industrie- en Voedingsbond CNV (the Dutch Protestant trade union for industrial workers), which resulted in Arno Bornebroek's De Strijd voor Harmonie. De geschiedenis van de Industrie- en Voedingsbond CNV, 1896-1996 (1996) (see IRSH, 42 (1997), p. 515), the archives of these unions and their various predecessors were transferred to the International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam. These inventories are the result of the rearrangement and processing of the archival material.

Een Vaderland voor Vrouwen/A Fatherland for Women. The 1898 "Nationale Tentoonstelling van Vrouwenarbeid" in retrospect. Ed. by Maria Grever and Fia Dieteren. Stichting beheer IISG/VVG, Amsterdam 2000. 192 pp. Ill. D.fl. 24.90; € 11.30.
The ten essays in this bilingual collection examine how women adopted a stand toward their fatherland and the political powers. Focusing on the Nationale Tentoonstelling van Vrouwenarbeid (the Dutch National Exhibition on Women's Labour) in 1898, the three English contributions (by Maria Grever, Mary W. Blanchard and Eva Lous) examine the general background of industrial exhibitions, the importance of international contacts for setting up women's exhibitions, and the striking similarities between the various national manifestations in this period. The other contributions explore three main themes of the National Exhibition of 1989: social care and social work, colonial relations, and education.

Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Couleur espérance. La mémoire ouvrière juive. Textes autobiographiques prés. et trad. du yiddish par Nathan Weinstock. Les Éditions Metropolis, Genève 2000. 349 pp. S.fr. 45.000; F.fr. 110.00.
In this book, Dr Weinstock, who has published widely on the Jewish labour movement in prerevolutionary Russia and the Bund, has brought together, and translated from Yiddish, sections from autobiographies of four Bund activists: Leon Bernstein, Laybetshke Berman, Sholem Levine and "A. Litwak". Dr Weinstock has selected four autobiographies from the Bund rank-and-file rather than its leadership. In his general introduction and in the presentations of the texts, he sketches the historical background of the Jewish working-class milieu and the Bund in turn-of-the-century Russia.

Figes, Orlando and Boris Kolonitskii. Interpreting the Russian Revolution. The Language and Symbols of 1917. Yale University Press, New Haven [etc.] 1999. viii, 198 pp. Ill. £16.95.
This study offers a comprehensive analysis of the political culture of the Russian Revolution. It examines the diverse ways that language - defined by the authors in the broadest sense and including symbols such as flags and emblems, songs, parades and other public rituals, monuments, and codes of dress - was used in the political struggles of 1917. The authors argue that the Revolution was in many ways a battle between parties and factions to control the systems of symbolic meaning.

Gestwa, Klaus. Proto-Industrialisierung in Rußland. Wirtschaft, Herrschaft und Kultur in Ivanovo und Pavlovo, 1741-1932. [Veröffentlichungen des Max-Planck-Instituts für Geschichte, Band 149.] Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1999. 680 pp. DM 142.00.
See Gijs Kessler's review in this volume, pp. 263-265.

Heywood, Anthony. Modernising Lenin's Russia. Economic Reconstruction, Foreign Trade and the Railways. [Cambridge Russian, Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies, vol. 105.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1999. xvii, 328 pp. Ill. £45.00.; $69.95.
This book deals with economic development and foreign trade policy in the early Soviet period of war communism and New Economic Policy (NEP). The author argues that the decision by Lenin and the Sovnarkom in 1920 to spend 300 million gold roubles (forty per cent of the total gold supply) on importing railway equipment was at least as important for the strategy of rapid economic modernization as the well-known GOELRO electrification plan. Dr Heywood bases his findings in part on recently opened archives in Russia and the vast personal papers of Iu. V. Lomonosov, the leader of the Russian Railway Mission Abroad, at the Leeds Russian Archive.

Hillyar, Anna and Jane McDermid. Revolutionary women in Russia 1870-1917. A study in collective biography. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 2000; distr. excl. in the USA by St. Martin's Press, New York. viii, 232 pp. £40.00.
In this book the authors have reconstructed the biographies of nearly 1,200 women who joined the revolutionary movement. Many were working-class, and Dr Hillyar and Dr McDermid consider the relationship between the female intellectuals and the rank-and-file female supporters. They base their research on a wide variety of sources, including autobiographies and biographies, memoirs, document collections, books, periodicals, and archive material. In addition to informative tables and figures, the book contains an appendix with biographical notes on female members of the RSDRP, and an appendix with occupations of revoliutsionerki.

Kharkhordin, Oleg. The Collective and the Individual in Russia. A Study of Practices. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 1999. xii, 406 pp. Ill. $50.00; £40.00.
See Michael David-Fox's review in this volume, pp. 265-268.

Moon, David. The Russian Peasantry 1600-1930. The World the Peasants Made. Longman, London [etc.] 1999. xii, 396 pp. Maps. £48.00. (Paper: £17.99.)
This study offers a survey of peasant society in Russia from the consolidation of serfdom in the seventeenth century through the destruction of the traditional peasant world by Stalin's collectivization. The main aim of the book, as David Moon states, is "to cut through the disparaging images and stereotypes of Russian peasants", to provide "insights into the strategies developed by peasant households", and "to understand these strategies from the peasants' point of view". It is largely based on the enormous secondary literature on the subject, from the works by prerevolutionary Russian historians and statisticians to the research of twentieth-century Soviet and Western specialists.

Polian, Pavel. Zhertvy dvuch diktatur. Ostarbaitery i voennoplennye v Tret'em Reiche i ich repatriatsiia. Vash vybor CIRZ, Moskva 1996. 442 p. Ill.
This study is dedicated to a subject that has yet to be studied extensively: the fates of Soviet prisoners of war and civilians (ostarbaitery) in World War II in Germany. Both their assignment to work in Germany and their return to the Soviet Union are captured in a chronological overview. In addition to archival and published sources, the author has used the database compiled in the 1990s by the human rights organization, Memorial, containing data on about 400,000 former ostarbaitery.

Romano, Andrea. Contadini in uniforme. L'armata Rossa e la collettivizzazione delle campagne nell'URSS. [Fondo Parini-Chirio, Nuova Serie: Storia, 3.] Leo S. Olschki, n.p. [Firenze] 1999. xiv, 250 pp. L. 49.000.
This study deals with the role of the Red Army in the collectivization of agriculture in the Soviet Union between the end of the 1920s and the beginning of the 1930s. This crucial period is best explained, according to the author, by taking the Red Army as a vantage point. Two-thirds of both the officers and the troops of the Red Army were farmers, and the Red Army was the scene of clashes between Bolshevist officials and farmers. The archival sources used for the study are unpublished and published documents from the former Russian Centre for Preservation and Study of Records of Modern History (RCChIDNI), now the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History (RGASPI), and the Russian Military State Archive.

Siegelbaum, Lewis and Andrei Sokolov. Stalinism as a Way of Life. A Narrative in DOCUMENTS. DOCUMENTS Compiled by Ludmila Kosheleva, Larisa Rogovaia, Lewis Siegelbaum [a.o.] Text Preparation and Commentary by Lewis Siegelbaum, Andrei Sokolov, and Sergei Zhuravlev. Transl. from the Russian by Thomas Hoisington and Steven Shabad. [Annals of Communism.] Yale University Press, New Haven [etc.] 2000. xvii, 460 pp. Ill. £25.00.
This book is about ordinary Russian citizens and the ways they reacted to Stalinist reality in the 1930s. Accompanied by introductory and linking commentary, the book contains 157 documents - mostly letters to authorities from Soviet citizens, but also reports by secret police and party officials. The documents are organized around themes such as the impact of terror, childhood experience, and collectivization in the countryside. The book is a translation and revised edition of Obshchestvo i vlast' 1930-e gody (Moscow 1998) (see IRSH, 44 (1999), p. 535); the American editor has added a new introduction, eliminated some of the documents from the Russian edition, and inserted explanatory and bibliographic notes where necessary.

Sperling, Valerie. Organizing Women in Contemporary Russia. Engendering transition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1999. x, 303 pp. £37.50; $59.95. (Paper: £13.95; $22.95.)
In this study, Professor Sperling gives a comprehensive analysis of the contemporary women's movement in Russia and of the surrounding social, political, economic, historical, and international context. She focuses on the key challenges facing social movements in postcommunist Russia, with its virtual absence of civil society and constant flux in political institutions. The author also discusses the problems that women's organizations face in the context of societal attitudes toward feminism in Russia. Her study is based on participant observation, primary source materials, and interviews conducted in Moscow and the provincial cities of Cheboksary and Ivanovo. Included are tables and appendices with comprehensive information on women's organizations, including age, education, and occupation of members.

Stalinism. New Directions. Ed. by Sheila Fitzpatrick. [Rewriting Histories.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2000. xviii, 377 pp. £50.00.
This collection brings together twelve articles - of which ten were previously published between 1994 and 1999 - by Russian, American and European scholars, preceded by a substantial introduction by the editor, offering recent research on the history of the Stalinist period of the Soviet Union. The essays are arranged in five parts: "Social Identities", "Private and Public Practices", "Consumption and Civilization", "Varieties of Terror", and "Nationality as a Status". The last two subjects are reappraised in the light of new archival findings. Each part begins with an informative introduction. The contributors include Sarah Davies, Jochen Hellbeck, Vladimir A. Kozlov, Vadim Volkov, and Lewis H. Siegelbaum.

Wade, Rex A. The Russian Revolution, 1917. [New Approaches to European History, vol. 18.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2000. xvii, 337 pp. Ill. Maps. £35.00; $54.95. (Paper: £12.95; $19.95.)
This book attempts to provide a reliable general history of the Russian Revolution, accessible and interesting to general readers, while introducing new perspectives for colleagues in the field of Russian studies. The political history of the revolution is recast, the complexity of the October Revolution is highlighted, and due consideration is given to the social history of the revolution and to groups often left out of the story, including women, national minorities, peasantry, and front soldiers.


Barnosell, Genís. Orígens del sindicalisme català. [Referències, 26.] Eumo Editorial, Vic 1999. 270 pp. Ptas. 2.404.
Based on all available sources, this dissertation (University Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, 1997) analyses the history of labour preceding the union movement from the end of the eighteenth century, the history of the weavers' unions in Vic and Barcelona in the years 1840 to 1843, and, finally, the union movement's relationship with the government in those years. This emerging syndicalism was, according to the author, nipped in the bud by the bombing of Barcelona in 1843. Dr Barnosell attributes the fact that syndicalism started earlier in Catalonia than elsewhere in Spain to the region's more advanced civil society.

Paz, Abel. Buenaventura Durruti 1896-1936. Un combattant libertaire dans la révolution espagnole. [Essais et DOCUMENTS.] Les Éditions de Paris, Paris 2000. 498 pp. Ill. F.fr. 148.00.
This biography of Durruti first appeared in French in 1972. A second, slightly revised edition was published in 1993, with the addition of a few pages from the Spanish version published in 1978. This third edition is identical to the second one, aside from a few modifications to the text reflecting recent discoveries. The section where the many accounts of Durruti's death are analysed is also somewhat abridged.

Ruiz Muñoz, José Antonio. El Movimiento Obrero en Málaga, años 1965-77 (Testimonio). Servicio de Publicaciones - Diputación Provincial de Málaga, Málaga 1999. 303 pp. Ill. Ptas. 1.625.
This book is the commercial edition of a history of the labour movement in Málaga that was previously published internally. The author, initially a member of the Catholic Workers' Youth, participated in the establishment and clandestine operations of the Comisiones Obreras. In chapters that review a year at a time, he relates the chronology of the struggle of the clandestine labour movement. The annexe, which accounts for half the book, features a great many facsimile reprints of documents from the underground.


Leffler, Marion. Böcker, bildning, makt. Arbetare, borgare och bildningens roll i klassformeringen i Lund och Helsingborg 1860-1901. [Bibliotheca Historica Lundensis, 91.] Lund University Press, Lund 1999. 375 pp. S.kr. 105.00.
Focusing on the Swedish cities of Lund and Helsingborg in the period 1860-1901, this dissertation examines the role of labour education and labour culture in class formation. Adopting a theoretical perspective based on Gramsci's concept of hegemony, Dr Leffler analyses the bourgeois discourse on labour education and examines the emergence and the use of city and special labour libraries in both cities in the context of the formation of a labouring class in this period.