Volume 47 part 1 (2002)
Continents and Countries
Egypt | South Africa | Zimbabwe
Argentina | Canada | Chile | Cuba | Mexico | United States of America
Belgium | Croatia | France | Germany | Great Britain | Italy | The Netherlands | Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics | Spain
Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.
SOCIAL THEORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE
Beilharz, Peter. Zygmunt Bauman. Dialectic of Modernity. Sage Publications, London [etc.] 2000. xi, 180 pp. £45.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
This book aims to provide a synthetic overview and critique of the ideas and work of the influential social theorist Zygmunt Bauman (1925), who is particularly well-known for his major work, Modernity and the Holocaust (1989). Professor Beilharz explores the roots of Bauman's approach to capital and labour issues and explains the relationship between these ideas and his later, broad-ranging work on culture, intellectuals, utopia, the Holocaust, modernity and postmodernity.
Moore, Barrington, Jr. Moral Purity and Persecution in History. Princeton University Press, Princeton 2000. xvi, 158 pp. £12.50.
Professor Moore, Jr, author of the landmark work in comparative historical sociology Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World (see IRSH, 13 (1968), pp. 93f.), explores in this latest work the ideological and philosophical origins of political and social movements that persecute, torture and kill people on account of different religious, political and economic ideas, and the defence of moral purity. He traces these origins back to the Old Testament and the Hebrew invention of monotheism. Tracing the concept of moral purity and its consequences further through history in the French Wars of Religion and the French Revolution and subsequently comparing it to the developments in the main religions in Asia, the author concludes that monotheism, with its monopoly on virtue and failure to provide supernatural scapegoats, is responsible for some of the most virulent forms of intolerance.
Thompson, Willie. What Happened to History? Pluto Press, London [etc.] 2000. xii, 212 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £13.99.)
In this volume, Professor Thompson explores the emergence of the postmodern and linguistic turns in history, which in his view resulted from the social, political and cultural changes of the 1970s and 1980s. After charting the growth and development of the historical method in the twentieth century, including the impact of Marxist historiography and the emergence of new approaches, such as the work of E.P. Thompson, up until the eruption of postmodernism, the author concludes that although the basic theoretical foundations of postmodernism are flawed, the value of the ideology lies in its critique of the "grand narratives" of modernist historiography.
Burke, Peter. A Social History of Knowledge. From Gutenberg to Diderot. Based on the first series of Vonhoff Lectures given at the University of Groningen (Netherlands). Polity, Cambridge [etc.] 2000. vii, 268 pp. Ill. £50.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
In this study, based on a lecture series delivered at the University of Groningen (the Netherlands), Professor Burke examines the changes in the organization of knowledge during the Renaissance and the Enlightenment from the invention of printing around 1450 to the publication of the French Encyclopédie from the 1750s onward. Using a socio-cultural approach and focusing on the role of cities, universities and academies, states and markets in gathering, classifying, disseminating and sometimes concealing information, he explores the history of the knowledge "explosion" that followed the invention of printing and the discovery of the world beyond Europe as a process of exchange or negotiation between different bodies of knowledge, such as male and female, theoretical and practical, high-status and low-status and European and non-European.
Cultures of empire. Colonizers in Britain and the empire in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A reader. Ed. by Catherine Hall. Manchester University Press, Manchester 2000. x, 390 pp. Ill. Maps. £47.00. (Paper: £16.99.
This collection features fourteen essays, previously published between 1989 and 1998, exploring, through discursive analysis, British imperialism as a cultural phenomenon. Included are five contributions on theoretical issues, among which "Subaltern Studies as Postcolonial Criticism" (1994) by Gyan Prakash and "Who needs the nation? Interrogating ‘British' History" (1997) by Antoinette Burton; five contributions on the effects of colonialism on British society "at home"; three essays on the cultural effects of colonialism in the colonies; and an essay on the legacies of colonialism in postcolonial Trinidad, Tobago and the Bahamas (1994) by M. Jacqui Alexander.
Dimitroff, Georgi. [Band I.] Tägebücher 1933-1943. Hrsg. von Bernhard H. Bayerlein. Aus dem Russischen und Bulgarischen von Wladislaw Hedeler und Birgit Schliewenz. [Band II.] Kommentare und Materialien zu den Tagebüchern 1933-1943. Hrsg. von Bernhard H. Bayerlein und Wladislaw Hedeler unter Mitarb. von Birgit Schliewenz und Maria Matschuk. Aufbau-Verlag, Berlin 2000. 712 pp.; 773 pp. (2 vols) DM 99.90.
This German edition of the diaries of Georgi Dimitroff (1882-1949), General Secretary of the Comintern from 1935 to 1943), is based on the original material in Bulgarian, Russian and German and includes the entries from 9 March 1933, his first annotations on the day of his arrest in Berlin for the Reichstag fire, until 12 June 1943, the dissolution of the Comintern. In this edition's second volume, Bernard H. Bayerlein and Wolfgang Engler analyse in two essays Dimitroff's role as Stalin's first lieutenant in the Comintern. A chronicle of the years 1933-1945, editorial notes to the diaries, a selected bibliography on Dimitroff and the Comintern, a short biographical chronology of Dimitroff, biographical notes on the main persons mentioned in the diaries and extensive indexes complement this second volume. See also Ursula Langkau-Alex's review in this volume, pp. 125-130.
Große Revolutionen der Geschichte. Von der Frühzeit bis zur Gegenwart. Hrsg. von Peter Wende. Verlag C.H. Beck, München 2000. 391 pp. DM 49.80; S.fr. 46.00; S 364.00..
This textbook intended for a general readership features twenty contributions dealing with as many revolutions or revolutionary events throughout history, with an emphasis on modern revolution (i.e. from the French Revolution onward). Included are ancient orientalist revolutions (Jörg Klinger), the English Revolution (the editor), the German Revolution of 1848/1849 (Dieter Hein), the Paris Commune (Beatrix Bouvier), the Russian Revolution 1917-1921 (Dietrich Beyrau), the Revolution of 1918/1919 in Germany (Klaus Schönhoven), the Mexican Revolution (Horst Pietschmann), the communist revolutions in China (Jürgen Osterhammel) and Cuba (Nikolaus Werz), the revolutionary events of 1968 (Arthur Marwick), the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979 (J. Paul Luft) and the fall of the GDR in 1989 (Hartmut Zwahr).
Headrick, Daniel R. When Information Came of Age. Technologies of Knowledge in the Age of Reason and Revolution, 1700-1850. Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 2000. ix, 246 pp. Maps. £22.50.
In this study of the conceptual roots of the present-day Information Revolution, Professor Headrick argues that, like the roots of democracy and industrialization, the foundations of the Information Age were built in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Surveying the many conceptual developments between 1700 and 1850 and establishing parallels with leading technologies today, the author covers the pioneering statistics and graphs of eighteenth-century political arithmeticians and demographers, the development of dictionaries, the invention of semaphore telegraphs and naval flag signalling and conceptual changes in the use and purposes of postal services.
Hudson, Pat. History by numbers. An introduction to quantitative approaches. Arnold, London 2000; Oxford University Pres Inc., New York. xxii, 278 pp. Maps. £45.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
This textbook aims to offer a comprehensive introductory overview of the use of quantitative data, techniques and models for historians. Assuming no prior statistical knowledge, Professor Hudson first describes the origins and nature of quantitative thinking in historiography, then deals with the various sorts of descriptive and analytical statistics for historians and concludes by considering the use of models and computer-aided techniques in historical research.
Palmer, Bryan D. Cultures of Darkness. Night Travels in the Histories of Transgression. Monthly Review Press, New York 2000. xiii, 609 pp. Ill. $55.00. (Paper: $24.00.)
Dr Kotek aims to show how by 1919 the Bolsheviks, through the establishment of the Communist Youth International and a strategy of large-scale infiltration and cell formation in a variety of politically-neutral international youth organizations, sought to control an important part of politically-concerned youth worldwide. He argues that only after the beginning of the Cold War from the early 1950s onward did the American Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) begin to launch counter-operations and start infiltration practices and covert funding operations of its own.
Pantsov, Alexander. The Bolsheviks and the Chinese Revolution 1919-1927. [Chinese Worlds.] Curzon, Richmond 2000. xii, 324 pp. Ill. £40.00.
This volume brings together five case studies that re-examine the process of the collectivization of agriculture under socialism in Russia, Bulgaria, Hungary, China and Cuba and evaluate the potential of various forms of land and resource pooling to improve agricultural performance under varying conditions. Focusing on the diversity of and dependency on local circumstances, the editor stresses the importance of such a re-examination as a contribution to the ongoing debate about the role of cooperative forms of agriculture in rural development.
Pasture, Patrick. Histoire du syndicalisme chrétien international. La difficile recherche d'une troisième voie. Trad. du néerlandais par Serge Govaert. [Chemins de la mémoire.] Éditions L'Harmattan, Paris [etc.] 1999. 468 pp. F.fr. 250.00.
In this study of international Christian trade unionism from its origins in Europe at the end of the nineteenth century to the 1970s, Dr Pasture identifies the ongoing search for an independent third way as a general trait of the international Christian trade-union movement. This third way runs between laissez-faire liberalism and socialism in the first phase, between socialism and fascism in the interwar years and between the capitalist West and communist East during the Cold War. The author concludes his comprehensive chronological account of the developments with the transformation in more recent decades of international Christian trade unionism into a solidarity movement with Third World countries. See also Claudia Hiepel's review in this volume, pp. 117-119.
The Revolutions in Europe 1848-1849. From Reform to Reaction. Ed. by R.J.W. Evans and Hartmut Pogge von Strandmann. Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 2000. xiii, 250 pp. £35.00.
Based on a series of lectures delivered at Oxford to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the 1848/1849 revolutions in Europe, the ten essays in this volume aim to place the revolutionary events of these years in their broader context. The authors cover both the main centres of disturbance in France (Geoffrey Ellis), Germany (Hartmut Pogge von Strandmann) and the Habsburg lands (R.J.W. Evans) and the reactions in and impact on Britain (Leslie Mitchell), the Russian Empire (David Saunders) and the United States (Timothy M. Roberts and Daniel W. Howe), and the role of 1848 in European collective memory (Robert Gildea).
Stearns, Peter N. Gender in World History. [Themes in World History.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2000. ix, 162 pp. £10.99.Stearns, Peter N. Gender in World History. [Themes in World History.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2000. ix, 162 pp. £10.99.
This textbook, a volume in a new series in the expanding field of world history, explores the changes in gender views that result from encounters between different cultural systems. Professor Stearns explores the impact of Islamic and Middle-Eastern gender practices on India and sub-Saharan Africa; the results of new contacts with China on conditions for women in Japan; European colonial influences on the Americas, India, Africa and Pacific Oceania; and the impact of international influences on the twentieth-century Middle East.
Revolutions and the Revolutionary Tradition in the West 1560-1991. Ed. by David Parker. Routledge, London [etc.] 2000. xi, 237 pp. Maps. £15.99.
This textbook on the comparative study of revolutions brings together eleven essays dealing with specific revolutions, from the Dutch Revolt in the sixteenth century to the anti-communist revolutions in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union in 1989-1991. Key themes dealt with in all contributions are the political, social and economic factors of the causes; the effects of political and philosophical ideas or ideology; the importance of violence and popular support; and the changing historiographical perspective on revolutions.
Beder, Sharon. Selling the Work Ethic. From Puritan Pulpit to Corporate PR. Scribe Publications, Carlton North (Vic.); Zed Books, London [etc.] 2000; distr. in the USA excl. by St Martin's Press, New York. ix, 292 pp. £49.95; $69.95. (Paper: £15.95; $25.00.)
Dr Beder aims to analyse in this book the origins and development of the modern, capitalist work ethic and its consequences for both the environment and quality of life. The triumphant culture of work and its values, in which only material wealth is respected and inequality is justified, is to be regarded, according to the author, as a construct, actively promoted through religion, corporate propaganda, the educational system and socialization by those who benefit the most from them. Only by unlearning and changing these values that have become pathological, she argues, can we reverse the destruction of the environment and the deterioration of quality of life.
Lovejoy, Paul E. Transformations in Slavery. A History of Slavery in Africa, Second Edition. [African Studies, vol. 36.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2000. xxii, 367 pp. Maps. £45.00; $79.95. (Paper: £16.95; $25.95.)
First published in 1983, this is the second, revised edition of a history of slavery in Africa from the Islamic slave trade in the fifteenth century, through the Atlantic slave trade to the early twentieth century. Examining the evolution of African slavery within an international context, Professor Lovejoy considers the process of enslavement and marketing of slaves, the impact of European abolition and the role of slavery in African history. This second edition revises all statistical material on slave trade demographics and includes an updated bibliography.
Al-Ali, Nadje. Secularism, Gender and the State in the Middle East. The Egyptian Women's Movement. [Cambridge Middle East Studies, vol. 14.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2000. xv, 264 pp. £40.00; $64.95. (Paper: £14.95; $22.95.)
This book attempts to provide a detailed ethnographic account of the context, content and political significance of secular women's activism in post-colonial Egypt. Based on interviews with members of women's groups and individual activists, Dr Al-Ali places the contemporary women's movement in Egypt in the context of broader Egyptian political culture and international organizations. In her analysis of the women's movement, the author criticizes and challenges standardized categorizations of 'western' versus 'indigenous' and 'modern' versus 'traditional'.
Kunnie, Julian. Is Apartheid Really Dead? Pan-Africanist Working-Class Cultural Critical Perspectives. Westview Press, Boulder [etc.] 2000. xv, 272 pp. £24.99.
Adopting a black awareness working-class perspective, Professor Kunnie critically analyses in this book the political economy in South Africa since the abolition of apartheid with its ongoing problems of social inequality. Sharply criticizing the optimism of many post-apartheid observers, the author argues that the capitalist, neo-liberal policy of the post-apartheid government results in a neo-colonial political economy, in which gender oppression, working-class exploitation, environmental despoliation and linguistic colonization persist. Discussing the black trade union movement, Professor Kunnie concludes that the only hope for change lies in a revolutionary black working class and a rural peasant-based movement.
Johnson, David. World War II and the Scramble for Labour in Colonial Zimbabwe, 1939-1948. University Zimbabwe Publications, Harare 2000; distrib. by African Books Collective Ltd, Oxford (UK). iv, 179 pp. £12.95; $20.95.
For many African countries World War II signified a major break with the past. Professor Johnson embarks on a detailed examination of the situation of black labour in this period in colonial Zimbabwe, exploring how the explosive demand for agrarian products, as a result of the war, finally enabled the white class of colonists, after the hardship of the 1930s, to recruit black labour via coercive measures imposed by the colonial authorities. The African response to this forced recruitment, resistance and illegal migration are discussed extensively. The study is based on research in archives in Harare, London and Oxford.
Morgan, Kenneth. Slavery and Servitude in North America, 1607-1800. [BAAS Paperbacks.] Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2000. v, 153 pp. £12.95.
This textbook aims to give a comprehensive overview of the two unfree labour systems in North America during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: the institutions of indentured servitude and black slavery. Professor Morgan describes how these two labour systems interacted and deals with their impact on the economy, on racial attitudes, social structures and regional variations within the colonies.
Saeger, James Schofield. The Chaco Mission Frontier. The Guaycuruan Experience. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson 2000. xviii, 267 pp. Ill. $50.00.
This study reviews the effectiveness of Catholic missions in Spanish America by examining how Guaycuruan peoples of the Gran Chaco (in present-day Argentina and Paraguay) adapted to the mission system in the 1700s. Professor Saeger uses Spanish missionary documents to reconstruct Guaycuruan social, economic, political and religious life before the missions and to reveal how this life changed through the introduction of the mission system. He argues that the Guaycuruans were much better able to negotiate the conditions under which they would adapt to the mission way of life than hitherto understood, thus correcting overgeneralization about the role and influence of the mission system in Latin America.
Quijada, Mónica, Carmen Bernand y Arnd Schneider. Homogeneidad y nación. Con un estudio de caso: Argentina, siglos XIX y XX. [Tierra nueva e cielo nuevo, 42.] Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Centro de Humanidades; Instituto de Historia, Departemento de Historia de América, Madrid 2000. 260 pp. Ill. Ptas.
In this study, Dr Quijada examines the paradigm of the homogeneous Argentine nation and the integration of the indigenous population in Argentina and authors the concluding chapter, which deals with the powerful myth of the "white nation with a European culture." Dr Bernand explores the black population of Buenos Aires in the period 1777-1862. Dr Schneider explores the integration of the large Italian, Jewish, Spanish and German immigrant communities, arguing that the term criollización best summarizes the current and future development of Argentina.
Mochoruk, Jim, with Nancy Kardash. The People's Co-op. The Life and Times of a North End Institution. Fernwood Publishing, Halifax 2000. viii, 176 pp. Ill. C$24.95.
This is an illustrated history, written for a general readership, of the Workers and Farmers Co-operative Association in Winnipeg, Western Canada, and known as the People's Co-op. This consumer cooperative, founded in 1928 in Winnipeg's North End, an immigrant, class-conscious neighbourhood, ran several enterprises, including a dairy, until fierce competition forced the Co-op to sell its business in the early 1990s.
Stephens, D.P. (Pat). A Memoir of the Spanish Civil War: An Armenian-Canadian in the Lincoln Battalion. Ed. and with an Introd. by Rick Rennie. Canadian Committee on Labour History, St. John's 2000. 119 pp. Ill. C$24.95.
This volume comprises the memoirs of an Armenian-Canadian volunteer who joined the International Brigades in the Spanish Civil War. Douglas Patrick Stephens (1910-1987), born in Armenia as Badrig der Stepanian, emigrated at the age of sixteen to Canada, where he joined the Communist Party of Canada in his early twenties. In December 1936 he was among the 1,400 Canadians who volunteered for the predominantly American Abraham Lincoln Battalion, where he served until early 1939 in a variety of posts, lastly as a military investigator.
Por un rojo amanecer: hacia una historia de los comunistas Chilenos. Comp.: Manuel Loyola T[apia]. [y] Jorge Rojas F[lores]. Impresora Valus S.A., n.p. 2000. xiii, 277 pp. Ill.
The contributions to this volume, based on the papers prepared for the seminar "En torno a la historia de los comunistas chilenos" organized at the Centro de Estudios Nacionales de Desarrollo Alternativo (Cenda), Santiago, Chile, in January 1999, feature an inventory of topics concerning the history of the Communist Party of Chile, one of the oldest communist parties of Latin America. Well-known themes, such as Bolshevization and Stalinization are addressed. Among the ten contributions, two are by Russian historians: Olga Ulianova deals with materials on Manuel Hidalgo in the Comintern archives in Moscow. Jorge Rojas Flores provides a useful bibliographic survey in his contributions.
Arboleya, Jesús. The Cuban Counterrevolution. Transl. by Rafael Betancourt. [Research in International Studies, Latin American Series, no. 33.] Ohio University Center for International Studies, Athens 2000. xvi, 361 pp. $26.00.
Originally published in Spanish as La contrarrevolución cubana in 1997, this study is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the history of the counterrevolutionary movement in Cuba from its origins in the period shortly before the successful communist revolution in 1959 to the present day. Adopting a Marxist perspective, Professor Arboleya interprets the counterrevolution as a historically inevitable phenomenon reflecting the struggles of the Cuban people for independence and social emancipation. The author also addresses migration to the United States and the dominance of the Cuban immigrants in the counterrevolutionary movement.
Baskes, Jeremy. Indians, Merchants, and Markets. A Reinterpretation of the Repartimiento and Spanish-Indian Economic Relations in Colonial Oaxaca, 1750-1821. Stanford University Press, Stanford (Cal.) 2000. xv, 306 pp. Maps. £45.00; $60.00.
In this study of the Indian-Spanish economic relations in Mexico from the mid-eighteenth century to the 1820s, Professor Baskes revises the traditional image of the repartimiento de mercandías as a forced system of production and consumption in which officials of the Spanish Crown compelled Mexican Indians to produce goods marketable in the Spanish economy and to purchase expensive and unwanted Spanish products. Focusing on the production of and transatlantic trade in cochineal, a dyestuff, the author aims to show that Mexican Indians were far more actively engaged in the market and adept at promoting their own interests than has hitherto been acknowledged.
Pla Brugat, Dolores. Els exiliats catalans a Mèxic. Un estudi de la immigració republicana. [Recerca i pensament, 11.] Editorial Afers, Catarroja (País Valencià)[etc.] 2000. 402 pp. Ptas. 3.120; € 18.75.
Catalans accounted for approximately one fifth of all Spanish exiles that settled in Mexico following the Civil War. In this study of this group of exiles, the author argues that, although their general situation was the same as that of other groups in exile, they differed with respect to their desire to retain their language and culture, which had been suppressed under the regime of Franco. The study is based largely on interviews conducted since the 1970s by the Archivo de Historia Oral Refugiados Españoles en México.
United States of America
Dailey, Jane. Before Jim Crow. The Politics of Race in Postemancipation Virginia. [Gender and American Culture.] The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 2000. xii, 278 pp. Ill. Maps. $39.95; £29.95. (Paper: $17.95.)
In the period 1879-1883, the Readjuster Party, an interracial coalition of black Republicans and white Democrats, governed the state of Virginia. This study chronicles that period and the efforts by the Readjusters to stimulate political cooperation across the colour line. Professor Dailey argues that postemancipation Southern politics were far more fluid and far less dominated by race and white supremacy than was subsequently the case during the Jim Crow period.
Fishback, Price V. and Shawn Everett Kantor. A Prelude to the Welfare State. The Origins of Workers' Compensation. [NBER Series on Long-term Factors in Economic Development.] The University of Chicago Press, Chicago [etc.] 2000. xiii, 316 pp. $37.50.
Between 1910 and 1920, workers' compensation laws - giving workers added protection for work-related injuries and generally higher restitutions when accidents occurred - were adopted in most states in the US. Generally seen as an important step towards the social welfare state, these laws have for the most part been perceived as a victory for labour and the Progressive Movement. Professors Fishback and Kantor argue in this study that workers' compensation succeeded because all relevant parties - not only labour, but also management, insurance companies, lawyers and legislators - benefited from such legislation.
Green, James. Taking History to Heart. The Power of the Past in Building Social Movements. University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst 2000. x, 341 pp. Ill. £45.00. (Paper: £19.00.)
Blending autobiography and history, Professor Green recounts in this book how he became immersed in political protest and in writing the history of progressive social movements in the United States from the late 1960s onward. Based on practical examples of his involvement in progressive movements, such as the radical student movement, the civil rights movement and the labour movement and his activities as an educator and historian of those movements, he aims to share his view as an activist and scholar of the connection between political activism and the writing of - what he labels as - movement history.
Kersten, Andrew Edmund. Race, Jobs, and the War. The FEPC in the Midwest 1941-46. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2000. x, 210 pp. Ill. $35.00.
This study explores the activities and influence of the President's Committee on Fair Employment Practice (FEPC), established in 1941 by President Roosevelt in response to intensive lobbying by black leaders who challenged his administration to eliminate racial discrimination in US defence plants, from 1941 to 1946 across the Midwest. Contesting the view that black advancement during the war was due primarily to labour shortages, Professor Kersten aims to show that the FEPC's success in allaying was especially dependent on cooperation from local authorities; this was greater in the northern than in the southern regions of the Midwest.
Lipset, Seymour Martin and Gary Marks. It Didn't Happen Here. Why Socialism Failed in the United States. W.N. Norton & Company, New York [etc.] 2000. 379 pp. $26.95; C$37.99; £19.95.
As a classical case of American exceptionalism, the question why socialism failed to become a major political force in the United States has long been a source of considerable interest among historians and social scientists alike. In this study, two leading political sociologists explore this phenomenon by contrasting the American political development with other industrialized countries. Professors Lipset and Marks explore the influence of political culture, the role of the American Federation of Labor, the effects of immigration from diverse sources, the role of purism of the Socialist Party and political oppression, and conclude that the failure of socialism in America was 'overdetermined.'
Sklar, Kathryn Kish. Women's Rights Emerges within the Antislavery Movement, 1830-1870. A Brief History with DOCUMENTS. [The Bedford Series in History and Culture.] Bedford/St. Martin's, Boston [etc.] 2000. xxi, 216 pp. Ill. £9.50.
This volume offers a selection of 54 excerpts and complete letters and writings from women who were active in the abolitionist movement in the United States in the 1830s and emerged in the campaign to end slavery as women's rights activists as well. Focusing on the circle around Angelina and Sarah Grimké, Professor Sklar emphasizes in her historical introduction the religious context of the role of women in the abolitionist movement and the emergence of the women's rights movement.
Strouthous, Andrew. US Labor and Political Action, 1918-24. A Comparison of Independent Political Action in New York, Chicago and Seattle. Macmillan, Basingstoke [etc.]; St. Martin's Press, Inc., New York 2000. xi, 208 pp. £42.50.
Between 1918 and 1924, major city centres of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) attempted to launch labour parties, notwithstanding the opposition from the national leadership of the AFL, culminating in AFL support for an independent presidential candidate for the first time in 1924. Examining organized labour in the cities of New York, Chicago and Seattle and their attempts to build a political organization, Dr Strouthous challenges the traditional "exceptionalist" view of the American working class in arguing that it was not an ideological commitment of the working class to the "classless" American Dream but the opposition from employers, the main parties and the AFL leadership that doomed the efforts to establish a labour party.
Verney, Kevern. Black Civil Rights in America. [Introductions to History.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2000. v, 135 pp. £30.00.
This concise textbook aims to offer an introduction to the political, social and cultural history of black civil rights from the Civil War in the 1860s to the race riots in the 1990s. The topics addressed include leading civil rights activists and African-American leaders; the black political movement within the United States; crucial legal and political developments; and a portrayal of African Americans in popular culture.
Ahmad, Aijaz. Lineages of the Present. Ideology and Politics in Contemporary South Asia. Verso, London [etc.] 2000. xvi, 366 pp. £25.00; $40.00; C$55.00.
Professor Ahmad brings together in this volume nine essays, previously published between 1978 and 2000, in which he analyses the ideological and political trends on the Indian subcontinent from the independence until the present day. The subjects he deals with include the Partition of India and the phenomenon of communalism, the political developments in Pakistan (in which he was involved until the early 1980s, when he became a political exile), Hindu fundamentalism in India as a form of fascism, present-day politics in India and the tense Indo-Pakistani relations.
Archivi audovisivi europei. Un secolo di storia operaia. Convegno internazionale e rassegna di film inediti, a cura dell' Archivio audiovisivo del movimento operaio e democratico, Roma, 20-21 novembre 1998. [Pubblicazioni degli Archivi di Stato, Saggi 56.] Ministero per i beni e le attività culturali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, Roma 2000. 292 pp. L.
In November 1998 the Italian Audiovisual Archive of Democratic and Labour Movements organized the conference "European Audiovisual Archives: A Century of Labour History". These proceedings comprise all 42 contributions - in Italian, French, German and English - to the conference. The subjects covered include experiences with similar audiovisual centres in a great many European countries. Each contribution is followed by a brief summary in two languages (English, French or Italian). The ultimate objective of the gathering was to form a common database and to elaborate initiatives conducive to fruitful collaboration in audiovisual and multimedia activities.
Bade, Klaus J. Europa in Bewegung. Migration vom späten 18. Jahrhundert bis zur Gegenwart. [Europa Bauen.] Verlag C.H. Beck, München 2000. 510 pp. DM 58.90; S.fr. 53.50; S 430.00.
In this comprehensive overview of the history of European migration in the long nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Professor Bade explores the various forms and trends in migration throughout Europe in five chronologically ordered sections. The first two parts cover, among others, the migration traditions and systems in the transition from agrarian to industrial society, labour migration, mass emigration to North America and the relation between nationalism and migration regimes. Parts 3 and 4 deal with migration and politics in the era of the World Wars and the Cold War, whereas the last part is devoted to contemporary migration problems and policies. See also Leo Lucassen's review in this volume, pp. 115-117.
Farr, James R. Artisans in Europe 1300-1914. [ New Approaches to European History, vol. 19.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2000. ix, 306 pp. Ill. £35.00; $54.95. (Paper: £12.95; $19.95.)
This textbook aims to give a comprehensive survey of the history of European urban artisans from the fourteenth century to the era of industrialization. Dealing with economic, institutional and social topics, Professor Farr also covers changing ideologies of work, cultural trends and artisans resisting various authorities. The author considers masters, journeymen and apprentices, as well as women and non-guild workers, and concludes with an examination of the transformation of artisan culture in the nineteenth century, when the early modern craftsmen turned into industrial wage-workers, mechanics or shopkeepers.
Sperber, Jonathan. Revolutionary Europe, 1780-1850. [Longman History of Modern Europe.] Longman, Harlow [etc.] 2000. xiii, 472 pp. Ill. Maps. £84.99.
This textbook aims to provide a concise historical overview of revolutionary events in Europe in the period 1780-1850, commonly described as the age of revolutions. Professor Sperber covers four major themes: the economic responses to rapid population growth; the transformation of old regimes into civil societies of property owners; the increase in state power; and the often violent struggles for political participation during periods of social crisis and cultural change.
Stella, Alessandro. Histoires d'esclaves dans la péninsule ibérique. Édtions de l'École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris 2000. 215 pp. F.fr. 145.00; € 22.10.
Using mainly official documents (marriage certificates, testimonies, etc.) as sources, this study explores the history of various forms of slavery that existed in Spain and Portugal from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries. The Christian ideology of white supremacy was invoked to justify holding hundreds of thousands of people of African descent as slaves for brief or extended periods. Dr Stella explores the ways that people became enslaved, the treatment they received from their masters, their everyday life and family life, their general social marginalization, and the extent to which they nonetheless became integrated in Spanish and Portuguese societies.
Trade Unions, Immigration, and Immigrants in Europe, 1960-1993. A Comparative Study of the Attitudes and Actions of Trade Unions in Seven West European Countries. Ed. by Rinus Penninx and Judith Roosblad. [International Studies in Social History, vol. 1.] Berghahn Books, New York [etc.] 2000. viii, 248 pp. £47.00.
The seven essays in this volume, the first of the new series International Studies in Social History issued by the International Institute of Social History, deal with the question of how trade unions in West-European countries responded to immigration in general in the post-1945 period. Three general dilemmas that faced trade unions in all seven countries covered (Austria, Britain, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland) are explored: should trade unions cooperate with employers and authorities in the employment of foreign workers?; should immigrant workers be excluded or included in the trade-union movement?; and, if included, should special measures be advocated for these immigrants, or should equal treatment be enforced for all workers?
Deceulaer, Harald. Pluriforme patronen en een verschillende snit. Sociaal-economische, institutionele en culturele transformaties in de kledingsector in Antwerpen, Brussel en Gent, ca 1585 - ca 1800. [IISG: Studies + Essays, 31.] Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 2001. 431 pp. Ill. D.fl. 58.40.
This revised dissertation (Free University, Brussels, 1998) aims to offer an integral history of the textile trade in the cities of Antwerp, Brussels and Ghent between 1585 and 1800. Dr Deceulaer examines the central role of the guilds in the trade and their social and cultural functions, the various forms of trades and entrepreneurship, the relationship between masters, journeymen and apprentices and between men and women in the trade, and market trends. The study highlights the transformations that took place in this period: from purely artisanal production to more mass production, from made-to-measure to ready-to-wear and the transformation of the mutual relation between the three cities. See also the review essay "Artisans: Comparative-Historical Explorations" by Wilfried Reininghaus in this volume, pp. 101-113.
Biondich, Mark. Stjepan Radi , the Croat Peasant Party, and the Politics of Mass Mobilization, 1904-1928. University of Toronto Press, Toronto [etc.] 2000. xiii, 344 pp. C$60.00. (Paper: C$24.95.)
In this biography of Stjepan Radi (1871-1928), Croatian peasant leader and the founder of the Croatian Peasant Party in 1904, Dr Biondich sketches how Radi was driven by a strong commitment to the Croatian peasant, and how his peasantism was infused by ardent nationalism. Placing Radi in his ideological and cultural context, the author holds that, despite his shortcoming of autocratic leadership, hiss greatest achievements were the political emancipation of the Croatian peasant and the creation of a national mass movement. See also Keith Hitchins' review in this volume, pp. 135-137.
Burkhard, Bud. French Marxism Between the Wars. Henri Lefebvre and the "Philosophies". Humanity Books, Amherst (New York) 2000. 278 pp. $55.00.
In 1924, a group of young French Marxist intellectuals formed a collective named the 'Philosophies' circle. Including Henri Lefebvre, Georges Friedmann, Paul-Yves Nizan, Georges Politzer, Pierre Morhange and Norbert Guterman, the Philosophies were initially preoccupied with religious mysticism. This study examines their responses to the widespread cultural turmoil after World War I and their unusual intellectual course, which explored German idealism and embraced the ideas of Pascal, Spinoza and Nietzsche. Dr Burkhard describes how they became the first innovative French Marxist theorists and made important theoretical contributions to psychology, sociology, political economy, philosophy and literature.
La Commune de 1871: utopie ou modernité? Sous la dir. de Gilbert Larguier et Jérôme Quaretti. [Collection Études.] Presses Universitaires de Perpignan, Perpignan 2000. 447 pp. F.fr. 150.00.
These are the proceedings of a conference organized in March 1996 in Perpignan, France, on the Commune of 1871: utopia or modernity? The general theme was dealt with from four more specific perspectives: the views of different generations on the Commune over time; the Commune in the French provinces and outside France; commemorations, interpretations and positioning; and the scientific, artistic and literary legacy of the Commune.
Jaurès, Jean. Critique littéraire et critique d'art. Textes rass. et annotés par Michael Launay, Camille Grousselas et Françoise Laurent-Prigent avec la collab. de Madeleine Rebérioux et Géraldi Leroy. Présentations par Madeleine Rebérioux, Michel Launay et Camille Grousselas. [&140;uvres de Jean Jaurès, 16.] Fayard, n.p. [Paris] 2000. viii, 546 pp. F.fr. 150.00.
This volume 16 of the new series &140;uvres de Jean Jaurès, one of the first to be published of the 18 volumes planned for this series, is devoted to Jaurès's critique of literature and art. From 1887 onward, Jaurès wrote literary critiques, first in the Toulouse-based daily La Dépêche, from 1893 to 1898 in La Quinzaine littéraire and until his assassination in August 1914 in the Revue de l'enseignement primaire et primaire supérieur. This volume comprises a large selection of these writings, preceded by excerpts from the philosophical lectures on aesthetics he taught at the lycée in Albi. Each section of these writings, which are arranged chronologically, is introduced by one of the editors.
Launay, Michel. Jaurès orateur ou L'oiseau rare. Avant-propos de Madeleine Rebérioux. Jean-Paul Rocher, Éditeur, Paris 2000. 241 pp. F.fr. 140.00; € 21.35.
This study of Jean Jaurès focuses on his talents as an orator. The author, a literary historian, first examines Jaurès's training and emergence as an orator, both as a member of parliament and as a socialist militant. In the second part of the book, Professor Launay analyses the political power that Jaurès derived from his eloquence and his rhetorical skills. He argues that Jaurès was exceptional both because of his eloquence and because of his political integrity.
Pilbeam, Pamela. French Socialists Before Marx. Workers, Women and the Social Question in France. Acumen, Teddington 2000. x, 259 pp. Ill. £40.00. (Paper: £14.95.)
In this study, Professor Pilbeam aims to examine and reassess the main socialist thinkers in France from the period of the Second Republic (1848-1852) to 1870. Tracing the origins of French socialism in this period back to the revolutionary communism of Babeuf, the author explores the range of thought and activities of people like Louis Blanc, Etienne Cabet, Victor Considerant, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Jeanne Deroin, Pauline Roland and Auguste Blanqui. She identifies and analyses the major issues that preoccupied these pre-Marxist socialists (revolution, religion, education, the status of women, association and work) and explores their practical contributions through the participation of working women in running schools, labour associations and newspapers.
Sirot, Stéphane. Maurice Thorez. [Références/Facettes.] Presses de Sciences Po, Paris 2000. 302 pp. F.fr. 90.00.
In the first part of this biographical study of Maurice Thorez (1900-1964), long-time leader of the French Communist Party (PCF), Dr Sirot analyses the various autobiographical, biographical and historical representations of Thorez and his role in French politics and French communism. In the second part, the author gives her own assessment of Thorez, examining his youth and background, his early rise to leadership in the PCF, his role in the Popular Front government, his exile to Moscow in 1943 and his sustained Stalinism, even after 1956.
Tranvouez, Yvon. Catholiques et communistes. La crise du progressisme chrétien 1950-1955. [L'histoire à vif.] Les Éditions du Cerf, Paris 2000. 363 pp. F.fr. 165.00.
This study deals with Christian Progressivism, a current within French Catholicism that embraced communism from around 1943 to 1957. Basing himself mainly on an analysis of the Christian progressiste periodical La Quinzaine and focusing on the period between 1 July 1949, when the Decree of the Holy Office prohibited Catholics from advocating communism or from joining Communist parties, and the papal condemnation of La Quinzaine in February 1955, the author analyses the various factions and ideological strands within French Christian Progressivism. See also Patrick Pasture's review in this volume, pp. 133-135.
Allinson, Mark. Politics and popular opinion in East Germany 1945-68. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 2000; distr. excl. in the USA by St. Martin's Press, New York. xiii, 178 pp. £45.00.
Concentrating on the Thuringian county of Erfurt, the author of this study investigates the experiences of East Germans at local and regional levels with the political and social changes that accompanied the establishment of a socialist state in the Soviet Occupation Zone and the subsequent stabilization of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) between 1945 and 1968. Focusing, among others, on the attempt to coopt East German churches and young people to "real existing socialism," Dr Allinson concludes that political stability in the GDR coexisted with a strong element of ideological non-conformity.
Brandt, Willy. Auf dem Weg nach vorn. Willy Brandt und die SPD 1947-1972. Bearb. von Daniela Münkel. [Berliner Ausgabe, Band 4.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachf. GmbH, Bonn 2000. 659 pp. Ill. DM 54.00; S.fr. 51.00; S 394.00.
Brandt, Willy. Zwei Vaterländer. Deutsch-Norweger im schwedischen Exil - Rückkehr nach Deutschland 1940-1947. Bearb. von Einhart Lorenz.[Berliner Ausgabe, Band 2.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachf. GmbH, Bonn 2000. 424 pp. Ill. DM 54.00; S.fr. 51.00; S 394.00.
These volumes two and four are the first of a projected ten-volume series of the "Berlin Edition" of the writings of Willy Brandt (1913-1992). In volume two, 29 documents - sections from and complete letters, speeches, manuscripts and excerpts from contemporary publications by Brandt - are brought together from the period 1940-1947 (i.e. from his exile in Sweden until his return to Germany at the end of 1947). In volume four, 103 documents are brought together from 1947 to 1972, the period of Brandt's rise to the political leadership of the SPD and his influential contributions to the renovation and modernization of the party. The documents selected highlight changes in day-to-day politics, Brandt's political style and the party's programme and organization. In the introduction to each volume, the editor sketches the broader historical context.
Browning, Christopher R. Nazi Policy, Jewish Workers, German Killers. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2000. xii, 185 pp. £30.00; $49.95. (Paper: £11.95; $15.95.)
Professor Browning aims in this study, based on the Trevelyan Lectures delivered at Cambridge University in 1999, to shed new light on controversial issues in current Holocaust research including: how did Nazi Jewish policy evolve during the early years of World War II; when did the Nazi regime cross the historic watershed from population expulsion and "ethnic cleansing" to total and systematic extermination; how did the Nazi authorities attempt to reconcile policies of expulsion and extermination with the wartime urge to exploit Jewish labour; how were Jewish workers impacted; and what can be learned about the mindset and behaviour of local perpetrators? See also Tobias Mulot's review in this volume, pp. 130-133.
Exil und Neuordnung. Beiträge zur verfassungspolitischen Entwicklung in Deutschland nach 1945. Hrsg. von Claus-Dieter Krohn und Martin Schumacher. [Dokumente und Texte, Band 6.] Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 2000. 419 pp. Ill. DM 98.00.
Based on a colloquium organized in September 1999 in Bonn at the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany, the eighteen papers comprised in this volume sketch the varying contributions made by exiles to constitutional reform and renewal in Germany after 1945. Included are, among others, essays on the role of émigrés in Great Britain (Ludwig Eiber) and Switzerland (Ulrike Hörster-Philipps, Elke Seefried) and articles on Fritz Bauer and Robert M.W. Kempner (Irmtrud Wojak), on the influence of Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich August von Hayek on German economic policy and order (Jürgen Schneider) and on Paul Hertz's impact on American politicians (Ursula Langkau-Alex).
Fertig, Georg. Lokales Leben, atlantische Welt. Die Entscheidung zur Auswanderung vom Rhein nach Nordamerika im 18. Jahrhundert. [Studien zur historischen Migrationsforschung (SHM), Band 7.] Universitätsverlag Rasch, Osnabrück 2000. 466 pp. Maps. DM 56.00; S.fr. 51.00; S 409.00.
The mass migration of thousands of people in the eighteenth century from the German-speaking areas along the Rhine to Northern America has been interpreted largely as a negative trend for the German states of origin. In this revised dissertation (Free University, Berlin, 1993/1994), Dr Fertig applies a micro-analysis of a little village in the German county of Baden-Durlach to examine the conditions and local context of the decision to emigrate. He concludes that, contrary to the negative image of emigrants as victims of destabilizing processes of population growth, crop failures and war, the majority of migrants were very well-informed, rational and discerning subjects and were often successful in their endeavours.
Geist und Gestalt im historischen Wandel. Facetten deutscher und europäischer Geschichte 1789-1989. Festschrift für Siegfried Bahne. Hrsg. von Bert Becker [und] Horst Lademacher. Waxmann, Münster [etc.] 2000. xiii, 465 pp. DM 68.00.
This Festschrift for Siegfried Bahne comprises 26 essays by contributors from Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia and the United States. Reflecting the work of Professor Bahne on the history of the labour movement, socialism and communism in the broader context of nineteenth and twentieth-century German and European history, the issues dealt with in these contributions combine facets of long-term historical processes and short-term revolutionary events in Germany and Europe in these centuries and the role of individuals therein. Contributors include Werner Abelshauser, Abraham Ascher, Bernard H. Bayerlein, Willy Buschak, Arno Herzig, Horst Lademacher, Ursula Langkau-Alex, Eberhard Schmitt, Klaus Tenfelde, Reiner Tosstorff and Hermann Weber.
Geschichte der sozialen Ideen in Deutschland. Sozialismus - Katholische Soziallehre - Protestantische Sozialethik. Ein Handbuch. Hrsg. von Helga Grebing. [Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für soziale Bewegungen (vormals: Institut zur Erforschung der europäischen Arbeitersbewegung), Schriftenreihe A: Darstellungen, Band 13.] Klartext, Essen 2000. 1160 pp. DM 148.00.
This voluminous handbook, a thorough revision and extension of the original edition of 1969 (see IRSH, 14 (1969), p. 508), aims to give a comprehensive overview of the connections between social movements and trends in social ideas in the main currents of socialism, Catholic social doctrine and Protestant social ethics in Germany from the early nineteenth century to the present. Walter Euchner covers the history of socialism up to 1933; Helga Grebing deals with socialism from 1933 onward; Franz Josef Stegmann and Peter Langhorst describe social principles in German Catholicism; and Traugott Jähnichen and Norbert Friedrich give an overview of social ideas within German Protestantism.
Grebing, Helga. "Wie weiter, Genossen?" Essays zur Sozialdemokratie im Epochenwechsel. Klartext, Essen 2000. 128 pp. DM 29.80.
This volume comprises ten essays - all but one previously published between 1989 and 1998 - by Professor Helga Grebing, gathered in honour of her seventieth birthday. The well-known historian of the German labour movement and social democracy (see, among others, IRSH, 11 (1966), p. 316) reflects in these essays on prospects for German social democracy for the twenty-first century, against the background of important stages in its twentieth-century history. In the concluding essay, the author, co-editor of the Willy Brandt Edition (see above), outlines a future biography of Willy Brandt.
Habermas, Rebekka. Frauen und Männer des Bürgertums. Eine Familiengeschichte (1750-1850). [Bürgertum. Beiträge zur europäischen Gesellschaftsgeschichte, Band 14.] Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2000. viii, 456 pp. DM 84.00.
This abridged edition of a Habilitationsschrift (Bielefeld, 1997) is a historical-anthropological micro-analysis of the history of two families from the German economic and cultural bourgeoisie between 1750 and 1850. Focusing on gender relations, Dr Habermas examines the specific bourgeois lifestyle and culture that emerged in this period. After considering work, social conduct and private life and marital behaviour, the author concludes that the prevailing impression of an emerging division into a male-dominated public sphere and a private sphere characterized as female merits adjustment based on this micro-historical analysis.
Housden, Martyn. Hitler. Study of a Revolutionary? [Routledge Sources in History.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2000. xi, 220 pp. Ill. £14.99.
This textbook, published in a series presenting key issues in twentieth-century history through original sources, offers primary and secondary documents on Hitler's background, his part in the advent and development of National Socialism, his role as agitator, dictator and deceiver, the regime of the Third Reich, his leadership during World War II in Germany, and his psychological characteristics. The assessment of Hitler as a revolutionary is the main theme in the introduction and commentary texts. For other titles in this series, see IRSH, 43 (1998), p. 522, IRSH 45 (2000), p. 538 and this volume, p. 170.
Judentum und Politische Existenz. Siebzehn Porträts deutsch-jüdischer Intellektueller. Hrsg. von Michael Buckmiller, Dietrich Heimann [und] Joachim Perels. Offizin, Hannover 2000. 419 pp. Ill. DM 44.00.
Portraits of seventeen German Jewish intellectuals who have been leading social theorists in the analysis of the major antagonisms in twentieth-century history constitute this volume. Included are Theodor W. Adorno, Hannah Ahrendt, Walter Benjamin, Ernst Bloch, Martin Buber, Norbert Elias, Ernst Fraenkel, Erich Fromm, Robert Raphael Geis, Max Horkheimer, Gustav Landauer, Theodor Lessing, Herbert Marcuse, Franz L. Neumann, Gershom and Werner Scholem and Ernst Simmel. One of the recurring perspectives in the portraits concerns the variety of ways that these intellectuals have been influenced and informed by their Jewish background and identity. Among the contributors are Michael Buckmiller, Klaus Christoph, Peter R. Gleichmann, Joachim Perels and Gert Schäfer.
Kofler, Leo. Zur Kritik bürgerlicher Freiheit. Ausgewählte politisch-philosophische Texte eines marxistischen Einzelgängers. VSA-Verlag, Hamburg 2000. 237 pp. DM 29.80.
The German-Austrian sociologist and philosopher Leo Kofler (1907-1995) is considered one of the leading transitional figures between the traditional labour movement and the New Left in post-war Germany. Raised in Red Vienna during the interwar years, he fled East Germany in 1950 and became an important, independent leftist socialist thinker. This collection brings together twenty previously published essays by Kofler and an interview from 1982. In the extensive introduction to his life and work the editor aims to show that the connection between freedom and socialism prevails throughout his work.
Koshar, Rudy. German Travel Cultures. [Leisure, Consumption and Culture.] Berg, Oxford [etc.] 2000. x, 241 pp. Ill. Maps. £42.99. (Paper: £14.99.)
Focusing on guidebooks for travel to Germany, this study aims to offer a comprehensive history of the emergence of modern, twentieth-century leisure and tourism. Examining the famous Baedeker guidebook and more specialized, "alternative" handbooks - including guides to Berlin sex life and sites of Nazi martyrdom, a tour guide for the German worker and postwar American tourbooks to West Germany - Professor Koshar relates the history of tourist literature to the origins of distinct travel cultures oriented to specific audiences, tastes and ideologies.
The Problem of Revolution in Germany, 1789-1989. Ed. by Reinhard Rürup. [German Historical Perspectives, vol. XII.] Berg, Oxford [etc.] 2000.xi. 204 pp. £45.00.
The eight essays in this collection explore the impact of revolutions on German history from the French Revolution in 1789 to the "peaceful revolution" of the reunification of 1989. In addition to the effects of the revolutions of 1789 (Reinhard Rürup), 1848 (Rüdiger Hachtmann), 1918 (Heinrich August Winkler) and 1989 (Jürgen Kocka), the periods of great reforms ("revolutions from above") are examined: the period of 1848-1879 (Hans-Ulrich Wehler), the impact of World War I (Wolfgang Kruse), national socialism (Hans Mommsen) and the defeat of 1945 and the German division (Peter Brandt). The editor concludes with a long-term analysis of the problems of revolution in Germany from 1525 to 1989.
Quellen zur deutschen Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus. 1. Teilband: 1933-1939. 2. Teilband: Die Kriegswirtschaft. Hrsg. von Walter Steitz. [Ausgewählte Quellen zur deutschen Geschichte der Neuzeit, Band XXXIX.] Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2000. xiv, 294 pp; xv, 425 pp. DM 248.00; S.fr. 220.00; S 1810.00.
These two volumes, which pertain to a long-term series of selected source publications on modern German history, offer a broad selection of eighty documentary sources on German economic and social history during the twelve years of national-socialist dictatorship and war (1933-1945). Included are official reports, memoranda, correspondence, circulars, law texts, and speeches, as well as statistical data on economic developments. In the first volume, the period until 1939 is covered, in the second the period of the war economy. The selection focuses on general economic changes, omitting aspects such as every-day economic issues, the situation of the labour movement and working class and the economic implications of the persecution of the Jews. In the introduction, the editor provides a concise overview of these general economic changes.
Roth, Karl Heinz. Facetten des Terrors. Der Geheimdienst der Deutschen Arbeitsfront und die Zerstörung der Arbeiterbewegung 1933 bis 1938. Edition Temmen, Bremen 2000. 280 pp. DM 48.00.
This source edition brings together 37 documents - intelligence reports, secret circulars and memoranda - originating from the Amt Information, the intelligence and espionage agency of the Deutsche Arbeitsfront (DAF), the Nazi labour organization. This agency was active between 1933 and 1938, when it was integrated in the SS security service. In his introduction, Dr Roth, who has published extensively on the DAF (see IRSH, 34 (1989), pp. 272ff., 38 (1993), pp. 163ff., and 39 (1994), p. 505), concludes that this agency played a leading role in the repression of labour resistance against the Nazi regime.
Schneider, Christian, Cordelia Stillke [und] Bernd Leineweber. Trauma und Kritik. Zur Generationengeschichte der Kritischen Theorie. [Kritische Theorie und Kulturforschung, Band 3.] Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster 2000. 227 pp. DM 48.00.
The authors of this generational analysis of the Critical Theory of the Frankfurter School aim to analyse and explain the characteristics, success and ultimate demise of the Critical Theory from the combination of Adorno's "negative" philosophy, originating from the trauma of Nazism, and the motives of protest of the generation of the "children of the perpetrators." Educated in the tradition of the Frankfurter School, the authors use their own experiences as students there to explain how the intergenerational conflicts ultimately led to the disintegration of the Critical Theory.
Die SPD unter Kurt Schumacher und Erich Ollenhauer 1946 bis 1963. Sitzungsprotokolle der Spitzengremien. Band 1: 1946 bis 1948. Hrsg. und bearb. von Willy Albrecht. Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 2000. cxxxv, 555 pp. DM 98.00; S.fr. 91.00; S 715.00.
This volume contains the protocols of the party officials and other leading organs of the SPD from its reestablishment in the three Western occupation zones and Berlin in May 1946 until the Party meeting in September 1948. The extensive historical introduction chronicles the main events and developments, including the reconstruction of the Party on a national scale and the first attempts at economic and then political cooperation between the three Western occupation zones. This volume is the first in the projected nine-volume series Die SPD unter Kurt Schumacher und Erich Ollenhauer, which will review the period until 1963.
Spehr, Michael. Maschinensturm. Protest und Widerstand gegen technische Neuerungen am Anfang der Industrialisierung. [Theorie und Geschichte der bürgerlichen Gesellschaft, Band 18.] Westfälischen Dampfboot, Münster 2000. 224 pp. DM 48.00.
This dissertation (Bielefeld, 1998) aims to offer a comprehensive exploration of protest and resistance against technological innovation and the introduction of new machinery in Germany in the early stages of industrialization (i.e. between 1815 and 1848/1849). Dr Spehr examines the scale of violent protest against new machinery and the destruction of machines; the industrial sectors and regions affected; the social groups primarily responsible; and the motives and objectives of the protest movement. According to the author, the demolition of machinery was far less frequent and much less a reflection of blind rage than the popular myth suggests.
Timmer, Karsten. Vom Aufbruch zum Umbruch. Die Bürgerbewegung in der DDR 1989. [Kritische Studien zur Geschichtswissenschaft, Band 142.] Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2000. 416 pp. DM 68.00.
Focusing on the four months from September to December 1989, this dissertation (Bielefeld, 1999) examines the civil movement that led to and carried the waves of protest that brought about the downfall of the German Democratic Republic. Dr Timmer explores the conditions that gave rise to the civil movement, its characteristics and structure, its leading figures and driving forces and its success in mobilizing the masses. Central to the events, according to the author, was the demonstration on 9 October in Leipzig; its non-violent course led to the nationwide expansion of the protests.
Ullrich, Volker. Der ruhelose Rebell Karl Plättner 1893-1945. Eine Biographie. Verlag C.H. Beck, München 2000. 266 pp. Ill. DM 42.00; S.fr. 39.00; S 307.00.
Karl Plättner (1893-1945) was in the early 1920s a notorious, radical left-wing militant, who after his involvement in the abortive rebellion in central Germany in March 1921, led a gang of like-minded rebels who robbed banks and inspired widespread fear among the affluent bourgeoisie, under the motto: "expropriation of the expropriators." Arrested in 1922 and sentenced to an extended term in prison, he spent the rest of his life in jail and at various Nazi concentration camps and died a few weeks after his liberation. Dr Ullrich chronicles Plättner's turbulent life, including his growing political awareness in the pre-1914 social democracy and his radicalization following the Revolution of November 1918.
Archer, John E. Social unrest and popular protest in England 1780-1840. [New Studies in Economic and Social History, vol. 41.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2000. vi, 110 pp. £19.95; $39.95. (Paper: £7.95; $12.95.)
This small textbook offers an overview of the diversity of social protest and popular unrest in England between 1780-1840, a period of great social and political change. Reviewing the historiography and methodology of protest research, Dr Archer addresses all forms of protest, including the Gordon Riots of 1780, food riots, Luddism, the radical political reform movement, Peterloo in 1819, anti-enclosure and anti-New Poor Law riots and forms of "terroristic" action, through the advent of Chartism in 1830.
Belchem, John. Merseypride: Essays in Liverpool exceptionalism. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool 2000. xvii, 228 pp. Ill. £27.95. (Paper: £11.95.)
In the eight essays brought together in this volume (all but one published for the first time), Professor Belchem examines various aspects of the proverbial exceptionalism of Liverpool: the city's problematic projection of its history; the belated emergence of the Liverpudlian "scouse" accent as cultural badge and signifier; the origins and dominance of Toryism in popular political culture; the construction, contestation and continuation of the Liverpool-Irish identity, and, in the concluding two essays, methodological and theoretical perspectives on ethnicity, migration and labour in comparisons between Liverpool and other European, American and Australian cities.
Di Sciullo, Franco M. Il merito e la frusta. Assistenza, disciplina e mobilità sociale nel pensiero politico inglese del Settecento. [Il pensiero politico, 5.] Aracne, Roma 2000. 267 pp. L. 25.000.
In this study the link is explored between social assistance and social control in seventeenth-century England, highlighting the connection between social and repressive legislation concerning the poor. The key issues addressed include the interaction between legislation and its application and contemporary political thought. The author relies largely on sources oriented within the existing social context based on private ownership.
The Golden Age. Essays in British Social and Economic History, 1850-1870. Ed. by Ian Inkster with Colin Griffin, Jeff Hill and Judith Rowbotham. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2000. xix, 284 pp. £45.00.
Exploring major themes of industrial and technological change, social institutions and gender relations in what is generally seen as the golden age of British industry and industrialism, the seventeen essays in this volume aim to construct an interpretation of this golden age that emphasizes social explanation, as well as the social effects of industrialism, and to unravel linkages between institutions, industries and technologies. Through this interpretation, the editors of the volume also seek to challenge and modify the stereotype that 1870 meant the end of that golden age and the beginning of the decline of Britain as the leading industrial nation.
Hall, Catherine, Keith McClelland and Jane Rendall. Defining the Victorian nation. Class, Race, Gender and the British Reform Act of 1867. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2000. xiii, 303 pp. Ill. £15.95; $24.95.
Focusing on the debate preceding the Reform Act of 1867 and on the sweeping controversy over the extension of suffrage, the authors of this book examine the new concepts of masculinity and the masculine voter (Keith McClelland), the beginnings of the women's suffrage movement (Jane Rendall) and the parallel debate about the meanings of nation and national belonging (Catherine Hall) in Britain in the 1860s and 1870s. A detailed chronology and a select bibliography are included.
Hall, Lesley A. Sex, Gender and Social Change in Britain Since 1880. [European Culture and Society.] Macmillan Press, Basingstoke [etc.]; St. Martin's Press, Inc., New York 2000. x, 254 pp. £14.99.
This textbook gives a general overview of the changes and continuances in sexual attitudes and behaviour with respect to gender relations and social change in Britain from 1880 to the present. Topics covered include: homosexuality, the rising distinction between sex and reproduction, changes in the legal and social status of women, alterations in perceptions of and laws affecting marriage, concerns about sex education, anxieties about sexually transmitted diseases and censorship-related problems.
Honeyman, Katrina. Women, Gender and Industrialisation in England, 1700-1870. [British Studies Series.] Macmillan, Basingstoke; St. Martin's Press, Inc., New York 2000. viii, 204 pp. £16.50.
In this textbook on the aspect of gender and the role of women in the history of industrialization in England in the period 1700-1870, Dr Honeyman draws on a range of recent research to suggest that contributions from women workers influenced the direction and progress of the manufacturing industry in England far more than has generally been acknowledged in more traditional historiography. Exploring the mechanisms by which industrial society emerged in the nineteenth century as one centrally defined by gender, the author explores the construction of the differential gender roles and identities and highlights the role of working-class associations and the labour movement in general.
Kinna, Ruth. William Morris: The Art of Socialism. [Political Philosophy Now.] University of Wales Press, Cardiff 2000. viii, 265 pp. £30.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
In this reinterpretation of William Morris's political thought and socialism, Dr Kinna reviews the debates that his work has elicited and suggests that the romanticism and utopianism as expressed in his novel News from Nowhere (1891) are not to be treated as ideological flaws, as has happened in many cases. By analysing the impact of Morris's understanding of art on his political and moral views, she argues that his socialism was driven by the deeply romantic impulse that underpinned his central contribution to socialist thought. According to the author, Morris's image of a good society remains relevant today.
Knox, W.W. Industrial Nation. Work, Culture and Society in Scotland, 1800-Present. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 1999. xv, 368 pp. Ill. £47.50. (Paper: £16.95.)
This social history of Scotland aims to offer a comprehensive overview of the social, economic, cultural and political evolution of the Scottish working class from 1800 to the present day. In five chronologically ordered parts, Dr Knox (editor of the biographical dictionary of Scottish labour leaders, see IRSH, 30 (1985), p. 164) deals with the social consequences of industrialization in the first half of the nineteenth century, the strong adherence to Liberalism among the Scottish working class in the mid-Victorian period and the relatively late formation of a Scottish Labour Party, the changes in working-class culture throughout this period, the effects of deindustrialization after 1945, and the impact of the rise of Scottish nationalism on traditional class politics.
More, Charles. Understanding the Industrial Revolution. Routledge, London [etc.] 2000. ix, 188 pp. £13.99.
Written for students and non-economic historians, this textbook aims to give an overview of the economic causes and immediate economic and more long-term social effects of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain, covering the period 1780-1850. Dr More deals with theories on the supply of capital and the role of labour and demand; innovation and entrepreneurship; the significance of transport; and the impact of industrialization on living standards.
Perry, Matt. Bread and Work. Social Policy and the Experience of Unemployment, 1918-39. Pluto Press, London [etc.] 2000. xv, 244 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
This is a study of unemployment and the way it was experienced in Britain in the interwar years compared with the situation in the United States and the rest of Europe. Dr Perry aims to redress the prevailing revisionist view in the historiography that stresses the political stability, relative consensus and lack of radicalism among the unemployed in Britain in comparison with other countries. He argues that this revisionist consensual view is often biased as a result of excessive reliance on official statistical sources and insufficient consideration for the sources that provide insight into the personal experiences of the unemployed.
Ramdin, Ron. Reimaging Britain. Five Hundred Years of Black and Asian History. Pluto Press, London [etc.] 1999. xiii, 402 pp. £45.00. (Paper: £12.99.)
This book aims to give a comprehensive historical overview of the immigrant communities of Africans and Asians in Britain from 1500 to the present day. By focusing on the relationship and interdependence of the history of the African and Asian migrants and the British through the ages, Mr. Ramdin aims to highlight the importance of the contributions of African and Asian migrants to British society and the consequent need to reconsider British history from this perspective.
Renton, Dave. Fascism, Anti-Fascism and Britain in the 1940s. Macmillan Press, Basingstoke [etc.] 2000. ix, 203 pp. £42.50.
Despite the defeat of Nazism and fascism in World War II, the British fascist movement had behind it the support of several thousands by the winter of 1947-1948 and was able to sustain large public meetings across London. By 1951, however, the fascist movement had again declined to no more than a collection of small sects. This study aims to explore and explain this spectacular ascent and decline of British postwar fascism and the role of antifascist action. Dr Renton argues that fascist organizations took advantage of a moment of popular antisemitism and benefited from police negligence in preventing their growth.
Rogers, Helen. Women and the People. Authority, Authorship and the Radical Tradition in Nineteenth-Century England. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2000. x, 342 pp. £42.50.
Exploring the involvement of various women in early nineteenth-century popular and radical politics, the mid-Victorian reform movement and the women's movement of the late nineteenth century, this study examines how radical women developed or departed from the representational conventions and ideals expressed by female reformers in the late 1810s to consider in what measure they believed they were working within or against a political tradition. Arguing that the representational forms adopted by radicals were as important as their statements, Dr Rogers concludes that in the course of the nineteenth century radical women defined alternative categories of identity.
Simmons, Clare A. Eyes Across the Channel. French Revolutions, Party History and British Writing, 1830-1882. [Interdisciplinary Nineteenth-Century Studies, vol. 1.] Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam [etc.] 2000. ix, 227 pp. $54.00; £36.00; € 57.00.
By examining a broad selection of texts from mid-nineteenth century Britain - ranging from Carlyle's The French Revolution: A History, to Thackeray's Vanity Fair and Dickens's Tale of Two Cities - this study explores how the Victorians responded to developments in France, from the July Revolution in 1830 to the Franco-Prussian War in 1870-1871 and the beginning of the construction of a Channel Tunnel, in historical terms and using the events to understand Britain's own past, present and future. Professor Simmons relates these varying reactions, in politics as well as in historical and literary writing, to the contexts of "Whig" and "Tory" interpretations of history.
Starkey, Pat. Families and Social Workers. The Work of Family Service Units 1940-1985. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool 2000. vi, 279 pp. £32.95. (Paper: £15.95.)
As a voluntary social work agency, Family Service Units (FSU), which originated from the activities of conscientious objectors in Liverpool, Manchester and Stepney during World War II, disproportionately influenced social work practices and training with respect to its size and resources in Britain in the first postwar decades. This study examines the origins, development and impact of FSU, its innovative methods of working with the poor and "problem families" and the conflicts that arose between FSU's commitment to independence and innovation and its dependence on funding from the local authorities.
Wall, Alison. Power and Protest in England 1525-1640. [Reconstructions in Early Modern History.] Arnold, London 2000; Oxford University Press Inc., New York. xi, 217 pp. Ill. £45.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
In this history of early modern authority and contention in England, Dr Wall examines how it can be explained that from the reign of Henry VIII until the 1630s, despite the endemically disordered and rebellious state of affairs, the efficiency of government and social cohesion were ultimately sustained. The author deals first with the questions of who actually held power, and how such individuals promoted their regime among the people, then considers the nature of authority in the early modern family, and in the final part explores themes concerning power in action across the country and the responses from the people.
Bellassai, Sandro. La morale comunista. Pubblico e privato nella rappresentazione del PCI (1947-1956). Pref. di Aldo Agosti. [Storia, 3.] Carocci editore, Roma 2000. 382 pp. L. 48.000.
The author of this study of the party culture of the Italian Communist Party (PCI) in the first decade after World War II hypothesizes that the relationship between the public and private sectors that emerged during this period in the political culture of the PCI is incomprehensible, unless the specific relationship of members to the party in that culture is considered. This relationship was all-encompassing from the perspective of the members and pedagogical in the view of the party. The author has identified the communist morale (i.e. the attitude toward everyday issues) by examining a multiplicity of sources including a vast press and the archives of party chapters, party schools and affiliated organizations.
Labriola, Antonio. Carteggio. I. 1861-1880. A cura di Stefano Miccolis. Bibliopolis, Napoli 2000. xxxi, 700 pp. L. 120.000.
This is the first volume in the annotated edition of the correspondence of Antonio Labriola (1843-1904), issued under the auspices of the Istituto Italiano per gli Studi Filosofici and the Istituto Universitario Orientale in Naples. The entire edition will comprise five volumes and will include all letters from and to him previously published in the Epistolario (Rome, 1983) and in the anthologies of the Lettere inedite (Rome, 1988) and the Fondo Dal Pane (Naples, 1992). The final volume will feature several hitherto unknown letters. The publication also corrects several mistakes in the Epistolario edition (now out of print). This first volume containing 484 letters features 55 hitherto unpublished ones (24 from Labriola) from the years 1863-1880. All but a few of the letters are transcriptions based on the original versions.
A Primer of Italian Fascism. Ed. and with an introd. by Jeffrey T. Schnapp. Transl. by Jeffrey T. Schnapp, Olivia E. Sears, and Maria G. Stampino. [European Horizons.] University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln [etc.] 2000. xxi, 325 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £16.95.)
This sourcebook comprises English translations of 24 excerpts from and complete documents pertaining to Italian fascism and its ideology. The selection of documents aims to situate the rise and fall of fascism's corporatist ideals within the framework of the actual historical development of Mussolini's movement and regime. Included are classic doctrinal statements, such as Mussolini's "Foundations and Doctrine of Fascism," writings by corporatist theorists, the 1938 Manifesto of Race and fascist labour and school charters.
90 jaar CNV: over mensen en uitgangspunten. [Cahier over de geschiedenis van de christelijk-sociale beweging 3 (2001).] Stichting beheer IISG/CNV, Amsterdam/Utrecht 2001. 176 pp. Ill. D.fl. 29.50.
Published in honour of the ninetieth anniversary of the Dutch Christian Federation of trade unions (CNV), the oldest existing trade-union federation in the Netherlands, the eight contributions in this volume explore various topics in the history of the CNV and Christian trade unionism. They include a comparative overview of European Christian trade unions before World War I (P. Pasture); the influence of the CNV on the development of Dutch social security (A. Bornebroek) and the welfare state after 1945 (J.P. van der Toren); and the social profile of the CNV membership (G. van der Veen and B. Klandermans).
Bos, Sandra. "Uyt liefde tot malcander". Onderlinge hulpverlening binnen de Noord-Nederlandse gilden in internationaal perspectief (1570-1820). [IISG: Studies + Essays, 27.] Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1998. 395 pp. Ill. D.fl. 58.00.
Exploring selected guilds in Amsterdam, Utrecht and Leiden, this dissertation (Free University, Amsterdam, 1998) examines how seventeenth and eighteenth-century guilds and journeymen's associations organized their social care, the types of social provisions they offered their members and the factors that explain the many differences with respect to the trade-related support system. Dr Bos attributes the differences between the three cities to their size, the local guild tradition and urban socio-economic trends. Comparison with six other cities in the Netherlands reveals that the support system in Utrecht was the most common. See also the review essay "Artisans: Comparative-Historical Explorations" by Wilfried Reininghaus in this volume, pp. 101-113.
Genabeek, Joost van. Met vereende kracht risico's verzacht. De plaats van onderlinge hulp binnen de negentiende-eeuwse particuliere regelingen van sociale zekerheid. [IISG: Studies + Essays, 29.] Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1999. D.fl. 58.00.
This dissertation (Free University, Amsterdam, 1999) examines official forms of mutual aid in the Netherlands in the nineteenth century by considering the different varieties that existed and the reasons for choosing this form over other, private forms of insurance against sickness, disability, unemployment and death. Aiming to provide an integral impression of mutual aid in the Netherlands in this period, Dr van Genabeek also explores the share of the insurance market held by mutual-aid organizations and how this balance changed in comparison with the mutual aid in Great Britain and Germany. See also the review essay "Artisans: Comparative-Historical Explorations" by Wilfried Reininghaus in this volume, pp. 101-113.
Panhuysen, Bibi. Maatwerk. Kleermakers, naaisters, oudkleerkopers en de gilden (1500-1800). [IISG: Studies + Essays, 30.] Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 2000. 339 pp. Ill. D.fl. 58.00.
Focusing on textile trading from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century in four Dutch cities (Amsterdam, Haarlem, Den Bosch and Zutphen), this dissertation (Utrecht University, 2000) examines the emergence of the tailor guilds, their organizational structures, their economic, social and cultural functions, and the extent to which tailor guilds controlled the market as a formal monopoly. Dr Panhuysen finds, for example, that at the lower end of the market social groups excluded from participation in corporative society, such as Jews and women, gained access to the textile market as used clothes dealers and seamstresses. See also the review essay "Artisans: Comparative-Historical Explorations" by Wilfried Reininghaus in this volume, pp. 101-113.
"Een sterke geest van vrijheid". Brieven van de student J.W. Albarda aan G. Nolet-Adama en F.M. Wibaut. Bezorgd en van een inl. voorzien door Inge de Wilde. Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 2000. 93 pp. Ill. D.fl. 39.50; € 17.92.
This small book comprises the correspondence from the Dutch socialist member of parliament J.W. Albarda (1877-1957) with a friend from his youth and with the prominent socialist F.M. Wibaut between 1899 and 1903. Albarda, leader of the Dutch Social Democratic Labour Party (SDAP) from 1925 to 1940, adopted the socialist ideology as a student at the Polytechnic School in Delft. The letters convey, according to the editor, a good impression of Albarda's activities in the socialist student society (which he co-founded), as well as the origins of his socialist convictions.
Velden, Sjaak van der. Stakingen in Nederland. Arbeidersstrijd 1830-1995. Stichting beheer IISG/NIWI, Amsterdam 2000. 391 pp. Ill. [1 cd-rom encl. System requirements: Windows 95, 98 or NT 4] D.fl. 79.90; € 36.26.
Based on extensive research, resulting in a database of almost 15,000 strikes that took place in the Netherlands between 1830 and 1995, Dr van der Velden examines in this dissertation (University of Leiden, 2000) strike activities during this period to explore gradual changes in the frequency, intensity and duration of strikes and to determine whether a statistical correlation exists between economic, political and institutional developments and the willingness of workers to strike. He concludes that economic development relates to strike activity only in very abstract terms. A cd-rom featuring information such as the database containing all the statistics of the strikes is included.
Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Boobbyer, Philip. The Stalin Era. [Routledge Sources in History.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2000. xix, 250 pp. Ill. £14.99.
This textbook, published in a series featuring key issues in twentieth-century history through original sources, offers primary and secondary documents on the history of Stalin's dictatorship, on Stalinist thought and policy and on the broader context of Lenin's rule and longer-term Russian history. The topics covered include the rise of Stalin, collectivization, industrialization, terror, government, Stalin cult, World War II, education and science, the family, the Orthodox Church and art and the state. For other titles in this series, see IRSH, 43 (1998), p. 522, IRSH 45 (2000), p. 538 and this volume, p. 159f.
Halfin, Igal. From Darkness to Light. Class, Consciousness and Salvation in Revolutionary Russia. [Pitt Series in Russian and East European Studies.] University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh 2000. xii, 474 pp. Ill. $50.00. (Paper: $22.95.)
In a combination of intellectual and social history, this study examines the Bolshevist interpretation and rise of the Marxist eschatological ideology from the 1890s to the late 1920s and the pivotal role of the intelligentsia in this process. After analysing Marxist eschatology and the Bolshevist adoption of it by Lenin and others, Dr Halfin explores the efforts of the Bolshevist elite to use the intelligentsia as a vanguard class in the fabrication of the "New Man" and their consequences for individual intellectuals, including those who contested the Bolshevist proletarianization policy.
Husband, William B. "Godless Communists". Atheism and Society in Soviet Russia 1917-1932. Northern Illinois University Press, DeKalb 2000. xvii, 241 pp. $36.00.
In this study of early communist initiatives to create an atheist society in Soviet Russia, Professor Husband explores the effectiveness of Soviet anti-religious politics and tactics. According to the author, the majority of Russians stood between the extremes of the Orthodox Church and the Bolshevik government. He asserts that the Bolsheviks underestimated how tightly beliefs were woven in the fabric of daily lives and concludes that both severe repression and reasoned scientific arguments failed to eradicate traditional rituals, resulting in an uneasy mix of atheism, science, orthodoxy and folk beliefs, thus shaping attitudes toward religion and atheism that endure to this day. See also Arto Luukkanen's review in this volume, pp. 122-123.
Lo, Bobo. Soviet Labour Ideology and the Collapse of the State. Macmillan Press Ltd, Basingstoke [etc.] 2000. x, 235 pp. £42.50.
Set in a largely chronological framework, this book examines the nature, dimensions and causes of the transformation in Soviet labour ideology in the post-Brezhnev era. The central thesis is that the regime's search for labour productivity was the major factor in the collapse of the Soviet state. Bobo Lo relies mostly on printed sources, among them daily newspapers, proceedings of the Supreme Soviet and Congress of People's Deputies, specialist economics and sociological journals.
Lovell, Stephen. The Russian Reading Revolution. Print Culture in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Eras. [Studies in Russia and East Europe.] Macmillan, Basingstoke, in assoc. with School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University of London; St. Martin's Press, Inc., New York 2000. viii, 215 pp. Ill. £45.00.
In Soviet Russia the rise of a mass reading public was extremely sudden and coincided with the seizure of power by an elite which possessed an extreme missionary vision of culture. Stephen Lovell describes and explains how the "Russian reading myth" (i.e. the conviction that the Soviet reading public was uniquely active) came into being in the early 1930s as a result of these mutually reinforcing circumstances, and how it was eventually challenged in the post-Stalin era. In the final chapter, he discusses the effects of the emergence of market mechanisms on print culture and reading in Post-Soviet Russia. The author pays special attention to the periodical press.
Partija socialistov-revoljucionerov. Dokumenty i materialov. Red. kol.: V.V. &138;elochaev, O.V. Volobuev [i dr.] Tom 1. 1900-1907 gg. Tom 2. Ijun'1907 g. - fevral' 1917 g. Tom 3/1. Fevral'-oktjabr' 1917 g. Tom 3/2. Oktjabr' 1917 g. - 1925 g. [Politi eskie partii Rossii.] ROSSPEN, Moskva 1996; 2001; 2000; 2000. 686 pp.; 583 pp.; 958 pp.; 1055 pp.
The publication in 2001 of volume two completes this edition in three parts (four volumes) about the Socialist Revolutionary Party (PSR) in the elaborate series Politicheskie partii Rossii. Konec XIX - pervaja tret' XX veka. Dokumental'noe nasledie. This work comprises the basic documents of the Socialist Revolutionary Party: programme, and the proceedings and resolutions of its congresses, conferences and Central Committee meetings, as well as other materials (e.g. the Moscow process against the PSR in 1922), from the moment of its formation until the arrest of the last Central Party Bureau in 1925, after which the PSR ceased to operate in Russia and continued its existence in emigration.
Raymond, Boris [and] David R. Jones. The Russian Diaspora 1917-1941.The Scarecrow Press, Inc., Lanham (Maryland) [etc.] 2000. vii, 273 pp. $45.00.
This reference work is a bio-bibliographical dictionary of members of the Russian Diaspora. The compilers confined themselves to pre-1917 Russian citizens, who received some of their education in Russia, left Russia between 1917 and 1941 and "made a significant contribution to world culture after they emigrated from Soviet Russia." In addition to the biographies, the book contains a rather elaborate, geographically ordered introduction and a bibliography of Western-language and Russian references touching on the emigration.
Service, Robert. Lenin. A Biography. Macmillan, Basingstoke [etc.] 2000. xxv, 561 pp. Ill. Maps. £25.00.
Following his three-volume series Lenin: A Political Life (1985, 1991 and 1995) (see IRSH, 42 (1997), p. 334), Dr Service has written a full-scale biography of the Soviet leader, making use of recently opened archives. This work deals extensively with the personal development of the founder of the Soviet Union and conveys a fresh perspective on Lenin as a political leader and thinker. The book is richly illustrated and contains a bibliography and index.
Smith, Jeremy. The Bolsheviks and the National question, 1917-23. [Studies in Russia and East Europe.] Macmillan, Basingstoke [etc.], in assoc. with School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University of London; St. Martin's Press, Inc., New York 1999. xviii, 281 pp. £45.00.
In this study of the national question in the early years of the Bolshevik regime, Dr Smith explores the roles of Lenin and Stalin, Commissar for Nationality Affairs in the new Soviet regime, and examines how the creation of a system of territorially-based national autonomy, national forms of education, recruitment of non-Russians to the communist cause and the disputes and crises surrounding the establishment of a federal multinational state led to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. See also Touraj Atabaki's review in this volume, pp. 119-122.
Williams, Beryl. Lenin. [Profiles in Power.] Longman, Harlow [etc.] 2001. viii, 232 pp. £22.99.
This is the fourth study in the series Profiles in Power devoted to individual Russian leaders. The earlier subjects were Alexander I, Peter the Great and Gorbachev. This textbook provides an introduction to the life and ideology of Lenin and his role in the Russian Revolution. In the final chapter Williams examines Lenin's cult after his death and the reevaluation of his legacy during the past decade.
Aisa, Ferran. Una Història de Barcelona. Ateneu Enciclopèdic Popular (1902-1999). Virus memòria, Barcelona 2000. 632 pp. Ill. Ptas. 3.500.
This is a comprehensive history of the Ateneu Enciclopèdic Popular (AEP), founded in 1902. Athenea were cultural centres designed to proliferate bourgeois culture through lectures, courses and library facilities. The rise of the working class led to the establishment of athenea dedicated to the cultural enrichment of the proletariat as well. With the advent of the Spanish section of the First International, these athenea were subject to the Bakunian influence. The AEP, which was among the most important, followed a course that mirrored the cultural history of Barcelona and Catalonia until 1939, when it was closed by the Franco regime and its collection lost. It reopened in 1980. The author has reconstructed its past through extensive archival research.
Crusells, Magí. La Guerra Civil española: cine y propaganda. [Ariel Historia.] Editorial Ariel, S.A., Barcelona 2000. 299 pp. Ptas. 2.829.
The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) was, according to Dr Crusells, the first armed conflict in which cinematic productions were an important political and propaganda tool. The author argues in this study that films produced in Spain during that period were excellent testimonies of daily life at the front and in the hinterlands, with the Republican side demonstrating more innovative ability than the insurgents. The book opens with a chronology of the Spanish Civil War based on the documentaries made at the time. The author subsequently reviews films produced in Spain and abroad during that era, as well as documentaries and drama productions from after the Spanish Civil War.
La historia de Andalucía a debate. I. Campesinos y jornaleros. Una revisión historiográfica. Ed.: Manuel González de Molina. Anthropos Editorial, Rubí (Barcelona); Diputación Provincial, Granada 2000. 350 pp. Ptas. 3.600; € 21.64.
In the twelve contributions to this volume, the authors aim to revise the traditional image depicted in the historiography - particularly by Hobsbawm - of the Andalusian countryside. The Centro de Investigaciones Etnológicas "Angel Ganivet" has supervised the arrangement of various scholarly gatherings on the history of Andalusia. This volume about the farmers and agricultural workers, the first in a series of three, features studies portraying Andalusia as more complex and less deviant from the general European pattern than hitherto believed.
Historia de la Unión General de Trabajadores en Aragón. Un siglo de cultura sindical y socialista. Eds: Enrique Bernad [y] Carlos Forcadell. Institución "Fernando el Católico" (C.S.I.C.), Zaragoza 2000. 294 pp. Ill. Maps. Ptas. 2.500.
This study is the first to focus the history of the Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT), the Spanish socialist federation of trade unions, in a single region. The author aims to offer a history accessible to a larger readership on UGT members - with a limited number of references to that end - and at the same to comply with modern scholarly standards. In six chronologically ordered chapters seven professional historians cover the various periods in the history of the UGT in Aragón from the foundation of the UGT in 1888 up to the general strike on 14 December 1988.
Iglesias, Pablo. Obras completas de Pablo Iglesias. Ed. a cargo de Aurelio Martín Nájera. [Vol. 1.] Propaganda socialista (1870-1887). Pres. de Alfonso Guerra. [Vol. 2, 3, 4.] En el Parlamento (1910-1923). Pres. de Joaquín Almunia. [Vol. 5, 6.] Correspondencia (1888-1925). Fundación Pablo Iglesias, Madrid; Instituto Monsa de Ediciones, Barcelona 2000. xlv, 446 pp.; xxvii/viii/viii, 1184 pp.; xi/viii, 826 pp. Ill. Ptas. 48.000.
These are the first six volumes of the complete work of Pablo Iglesias (1850-1925), the founder of the Spanish socialist party PSOE and the socialist labour confederation UGT. They have been issued in honour of the hundred and fiftieth anniversary of his birth and the seventy-fifth anniversary of his death and are intended as a complete record of his writings, speeches and correspondence. Propaganda Socialista, the first volume, contains his articles and reports of his propaganda speeches from 1870-1887, as well as articles written for the non-socialist press. Three volumes comprise his parliamentary addresses from 1910-1923 and two volumes his correspondence from 1888-1925. In addition, these volumes include his correspondence with individuals such Friedrich Engels, Karl Kautsky, Wilhelm Liebknecht and Juan B. Justo.
Institucionismo y reforma social en España. El Grupo de Oviedo. Jorge Uría (Coord.), J. Sisinio Pérez Garzón, Manuel Suárez Cortina, Eduardo Zimmermann [y o.]. [Ágora, 11.] Talasa Ediciones, Madrid 2000. 330 pp. Ptas. 3.200; € 19.23.
In the twelve contributions in this volume deal with a group of sociologists, economists and pedagogues from the University of Oviedo that derived inspiration in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries from the modern pedagogical ideas of the Institución libre de Enseñanza of Don Francisco Giner de los Ríos. These individuals pursued sweeping modernization of Spain and helped found the Instituto de Reformas Sociales. The contributors relate the work by the members of this group to themes such as republicanism, the social issue, pedagogical theory and education. Santiago Castillo devotes a contribution to the interpretation of their work by the leading socialist Juan José Morato.
Inventario de los archivos de la Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) (1870-1872, 1922, 1931-) 1936-1939. [IISG Werkuitgave/Working Paper, 42.] Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 2000. xxvi, 184 pp. D.fl. 19.00; € 8.62.
This is the inventory of the historical archives of the anarcho-syndicalist federation of trade unions Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT), which have been at the International Institute of Social History since the Spanish Civil War. They comprise the archives formed by Mariano Vázquez, the secretary to the National Committee of the CNT during the Civil War (1936-1939), as well as archives formed separately for chapters of the CNT or related organizations like the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias and Solidaridad Internacional Antifascista. The archive also features documents from various anarchist officials and is accessible via 367 microfilms. The inventory includes an alphabetical index and a concordance of the archive and microfilms. (see also: http://www.iisg.nl/archives/en/files/c/10741871.php).
Paz, Abel. La cuestión de Marruecos y la República española. [Documentos inéditos.] Fundación de estudios libertarios Anselmo Lorenzo, Madrid 2000. 238 pp. Ill. Ptas. 2.100; € 12.62.
At the beginning of the Spanish Civil War a group of Moroccan nationalists contacted the Committee of antifascist militias in control of Catalonia at the time. Their objective was to achieve the same autonomy for the Spanish Protectorate in Morocco that Catalonia had within the Republic. The Committee dispatched a delegation to propose the idea to the central government in Madrid, which rejected it for fear of conflict with France and Great Britain. In this study Abel Paz has reconstructed the course of events based on testimonies from those directly involved and original documents.
Serrano del Rosal, Rafael. Transformación y cambio del sindicalismo Español contemporáneo. [Politeya, Estudios de Política y Sociedad, 15.] Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto de Estudios Sociales Avanzados de Andalucía, Córdoba 2000. 244 pp. Ptas.
The research for this revised dissertation (University of Granada, 1999) was conducted for the international project "European Trade Unions and Change." The author aims to identify the strategies and organizational changes pursued by the Spanish trade unions to adapt to the conditions of the modernizing economy. The author identifies two stages in the period since the death of Franco during which the objectives and means of the trade unions changed, along with the political, social and economic conditions in Spain. The author puts the turning point around 1986-1987, culminating in the general strike of 14 December 1988.