Volume 47 part 2 (2002)


General Issues
Continents and Countries

Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.

General Issues


Bowring, Finn. André Gorz and the Sartrean Legacy. Arguments for a Person-Centred Social Theory. Macmillan Press Ltd, Basingstoke [etc.]; St. Martin's Press, Inc., New York 2000. xii, 218 pp. £45.00.
In this introduction to the work and thought of the French philosopher and social theorist André Gorz, Dr Bowring aims to illuminate Gorz's roots in the Continental tradition of existential phenomenology and his contributions in the fields of the transformation of work and political ecology to raise his profile in the English-speaking academic community. According to the author, Gorz's most important achievement is that he has forged a social theory rooted in people's experience of themselves as free and sentient beings.

Brass, Tom. Peasants, Populism and Postmodernism. The Return of the Agrarian Myth. [The Library of Peasant Studies, vol. 17.] Frank Cass, London [etc.] 2000. xii, 380 pp. £45.00. (Paper: £18.50.)
"Tracing the way in which the agrarian myth has emerged and re-emerged over the twentieth century in ideology shared by populism, postmodernism and the political right, the argument in this book is that at the centre of this discourse about the cultural identity of 'otherness'/'difference' lies the concept of an innate 'peasant-ness'." After sketching a historical background to the agrarian myth and its relation to populism, Dr Brass analyses the combined influence of the agrarian myth, populism and nationalism on debates about agrarian change in Latin America and India and examines the role of the agrarian myth in popular and more specifically populist culture.

Buck-Morss, Susan. Dreamworld and Catastrophe. The Passing of Mass Utopia in East and West. The MIT Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 2000. xvi, 368 pp. Ill. £30.95.
Using a large number of images as one of her main sources, Professor Buck-Morss explores in this richly illustrated book the dreamworlds of industrialization, mass culture, and historical progress that gave meaning to collective social life in both the East and the West, up until the disintegration of Soviet socialism. Using her personal experiences in Moscow during the events preceding the fall of the Soviet Union as a point of reference, she analyses Soviet socialist mass culture and Western capitalist mass culture as two closely related versions of modernity and argues that the socialist imaginary failed because it mirrored the dreamworlds of capitalism too faithfully.

Butler, Judith, Ernesto Laclau and Slavoj i ek. Contingency, Hegemony, Universality. Contemporary Dialogues on the Left. [Phronesis.] Verso, London [etc.] 2000. vi, 329 pp. £70.00. (Paper: £20.00.)
In this volume, three of the most prominent representatives of "poststructuralist Marxist" critical theory each contribute three essays that respond to one another, based on a list of questions each had compiled to identify the central issues in contemporary critical theory and leftist politics. The issues dealt with cover the contemporary legacy of Gramsci's notion of hegemony, the Hegelian legacy in critical theory, the theoretical dilemmas of multiculturalism, the universalism-versus-particularism debate, the strategies of the left in a globalized economy and the relative merits of poststructuralism and Lacanian psychoanalysis for a critical social theory.

Collier, Ruth Berins. Paths Toward Democracy. The Working Class and Elites in Western Europe and South America. [Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1999. xii, 230 pp. £32.50; $49.95. (Paper: £10.95; $17.95.)
Against the background of the long-standing debate on whether democratic institutions are introduced through an elite-led strategy from above or a popular triumph from below, Professor Collier explores in this study the politics of democratization through a comparative analysis of twenty-one countries in Western Europe and South America in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and again in the 1970s and 1980s. Examining the role of labour unions in relation to elite strategies, she suggests an institutional explanation of labour's role, focused on the way actors' resources and strategies were shaped by prior experiences with democratic regimes and the immediately antecedent, pre-reform regime.

Crane, Diana. Fashion and Its Social Agendas. Class, Gender, and Identity in Clothing. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago [etc.] 2000. x, 294 pp. Ill. $20.00. (Paper: $13.00.)
This study examines the social significance of fashion and clothing choices in France, the US and England from the middle of the nineteenth century to the present day. Based on sources from nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century researches and on budget and contemporary case studies, Professor Crane deals with the ways that nineteenth-century working-class men and women used clothing to express and negotiate their social position; the influence of economic and social changes on working-class clothing choices; gender coding of clothing; the importance of uniforms and dress codes as a form of social control; and the expression of the fragmentation of the contemporary in styles of dress.

Lederer, Robert. Freiheit und Sozialismus. [Politikwissenschaft, Band 68.] Lit, Münster 2000. 418 pp. € 35.90.
In this study, based on a philosophical and historical investigation of the ideological foundations of socialism and state socialism in relation to the concept of individual freedom, Dr Lederer aims to explore the conditions that render individual freedom compatible with socialism, and, following the "golden age" of democratic socialism in Western Europe and the collapse of bureaucratic state socialism with the demise of Soviet communism, whether a form of socialism respectful of individual freedom is still conceivable.

New Methods for Social History. Ed. by Larry J. Griffin and Marcel van der Linden. [International Review of Social History, Suppl. 6.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1999. ii, 165 pp. £12.95; $22.95.
"Our intent in publishing this collection of essays is to introduce historians to a set of quantitative and qualitative social science methods that have genuine, and as yet un- or under-explored utility for historical inquiry." In the seven contributions to this Supplement 6 of the International Review of Social History, the authors aim to demonstrate new methodologies through an analysis of actual historical cases. Included are essays on temporarily recursive regression analysis, event history analysis, spatial regression, linguistic and statistical tools for the analysis of historic events, qualitative comparative analysis, historical social network analysis and historical inference and event-structure analysis. See also Chris Lorenz's review in this volume.

Sassoon, Anne Showstack. Gramsci and Contemporary Politics. Beyond pessimism of the intellect. [Routledge Innovations in Political Theory, vol. 4.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2000. vii, 173 pp. £45.00.
In this collection of eleven essays, Professor Sassoon applies interpretations of Gramsci's ideas on intellectuals, political language, civil society and political leadership to examine key contemporary political issues including citizenship, modernizing the welfare state and the relationship between parents and children. Combining theoretical discussion with empirical and personal examples, informed by feminist debates, the author argues that the inconsistencies and contradictions of rapid social change can produce the necessary theoretical and practical insights necessary to establish the foundation for widespread consent to political and social reforms.


After Slavery. Emancipation and its Discontents. Ed. by Howard Temperley. [Studies in Slave and Post-Slave Societies and Cultures.] Frank Cass, London [etc.] 2000. vi, 310 pp. £45.00; $57.50. (Paper: £26.50; $17.50.)
The thirteen contributions to this volume deal with the varying experiences of former slaves after their emancipation. Examining the situation during and after the abolition of slavery in the American South, the Caribbean, Latin America, India and Africa, the authors sketch how the transition from slavery to freedom met with strong resistance, both among former slave owners and among other groups who considered their interests threatened, and explore the difficulties that former slaves faced in building a new, free life. In the concluding essay, Stanley Engerman compares various approaches to the ending of slavery.

L'anarchico e l'ebreo. Storia di un incontro. [A cura di Amedeo Bertolo.] Elèuthera, n.p. [Milano] n.d. [2001] 238 pp. € 14.46.
This book comprises the papers of the international academic conference Anarchists and Jews organized by the Centro Studi Libertari/Archivio "G. Pinelli" (Milan) and the Centre International de Recherche sur l'Anarchisme (CIRA) (Lausanne) in Venice in May 2000. Following a historical introduction on Yiddish anarchism, the collection opens with an essay by Furio Biagini, the author of Nati altrove (1998) (see IRSH 43 (1998), p. 501), about the social-utopian aspect of Judaism. The 13 remaining essays cover various individuals, organizations and movements at the crossroads of Judaism and anarchism.

Bush, M.L. Servitude in Modern Times. [Themes in History.] Polity, Cambridge [etc.] 2000; Blackwell Publishers Inc., Malden (MA). xii, 292 pp. £50.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
This study aims to offer a comparative analysis of the major systems of servitude that have been present in the world since 1500, including all labour and service through legal subjection of one person to another in Europe, the New World, Africa, the Ottoman Empire and Asia: slavery, serfdom, debt bondage, indentured service and convict labour, with an emphasis on the forms of servitude that played an important role in the process of early modernization. Arguing against the neo-abolitionist view that the servile were always powerless victims living in grim conditions, Professor Bush argues that slaves and servants in many cases were able to acquire rights and liberties.

Cooper, Frederick, Thomas C. Holt [and] Rebecca J. Scott. Beyond Slavery. Explorations of Race, Labor, and Citizenship in Postemancipation Societies. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 2000. xii, 198 pp. Ill. Maps. £25.95. (Paper: £11.95.)
The three essays in this volume examine three examples of postemancipation societies. Professor Holt focuses on emancipation in Jamaica and the contested meaning of citizenship in redefining the concept of freedom; Professor Scott examines the complex struggles and cross-racial alliances that evolved in the sugar societies in southern Louisiana and Cuba after the end of slavery; and Professor Cooper explores the convergence of emancipation and imperialism in French West Africa. In their collective introduction and afterword, the authors address issues of citizenship, labour and race in the postemancipation period and question standardized, Western notions of freedom.

Dock Workers. International Explorations in Comparative Labour History, 1790-1970. Ed. by Sam Davies, Colin J. Davis, David De Vries [a.o.] Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2000. xiv; vii, 863 pp. (in 2 vols.) £75.00.
The 34 contributions to this two-volume book originate from a comparative research project on the history of dock labour started in 1993 at the initiative of Klaus Weinhauer and culminating in a conference organized in November 1997 at the International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam. Based on a framework document, studies of 22 ports on every continent were written and provided the foundation for selecting the twelve more general themes covered in the second part of thematic studies. These themes include dock workers as subjects in labour history (Frederick Cooper), the work process (Anna Green), power and control in the docks (Klaus Weinhauer), ethnicity and race (Bruce Nelson), criminality (Linda Cooke Johnson), space as a determinant (Mariam Dossal Panjwani) and, in the concluding essay by Lex Heerma van Voss and Marcel van der Linden, the various configurations of dock labour from a comparative perspective. An extensive annotated bibliography on the history of dock labour is appended.

Ehlen, Patrick. Frantz Fanon. A Spiritual Biography. [Lives & Legacies.] The Crossroad Publishing Company, New York 2000. 192 pp. Ill. $19.95.
Frantz Fanon (1925-1961), French psychiatrist, radical philosopher and prolific revolutionary writer, whose writings profoundly influenced the radical, anti-colonial movements in the 1960s, is probably known best for his The Wretched of the Earth (1961), often referred to as "the handbook for the black revolution". In this biography, Dr Ehlen traces Fanon's roots on the French colony of Martinique and sketches the background of his family and youth to analyse the formative influences on his subsequent career as a philosopher and revolutionary.

Eleanor Marx (1855-1898). Life, Work, Contacts. Ed. by John Stokes. [The Nineteenth Century.] Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2000. xi, 196 pp. £45.00.
The twelve essays in this volume, based on papers delivered at the Eleanor Marx Centenary Conference, held in London in March 1998, cover the broad range of aspects of Eleanor Marx's lifetime activities: her feminism and its relation to her radical socialism, her relationship with Edward Aveling, her work as an actress, journalist and literary translator advancing contemporary understanding of Shakespeare, Ibsen and Flaubert and her relation and contacts with people like Oscar Wilde, Amy Levy, Margaret Harkness, Victoria Woodhull and Mathilde Blind.

Erfolgreiche Kooperation: Das Frankfurter Institut für Sozialforschung und das Moskauer Marx-Engels-Institut (1924-1928). Korrespondenz von Felix Weil, Carl Grünberg u.a. mit David Borisovi Rjazanov, Ernst Czóbel u.a., aus dem Russischen Staatlichen Archiv für Sozial- und Politikgeschichte Moskau. [Beiträge zur Marx-Engels-Forschung, Neue Folge, Sonderband 2.] Argument, Berlin [etc.] 2000. 439 pp. Ill. DM 39.80.
This source edition contains the main part of the correspondence between the Frankfurter Institut für Sozialforschung and the Marx-Engels Institute in Moscow in the years 1924-1928, a crucial period in the history of the historical-critical edition of the first and second Marx-Engels Gesamtausgabe. The correspondence, which comes from the Russian State Archive for Social and Political History (the former Central Party Archive), reveals the prominent roles of Felix Weil, Carl Grünberg and others at the Frankfurter Institute in their cooperation with David Rjazanov and others in the realization of a historical-critical, academic edition through their mediating involvement towards the SPD leadership and their efforts to recruit qualified and competent collaborators.

Gonçalves, Adelaide [e] Jorge E. Silva. Bibliografia libertária. O anarquismo em língua portuguesa. Editora Imaginário, São Paulo 2001. 142 pp. R$18.00.
This is the second edition of the bibliography of anarchist books and brochures in Portuguese. The first edition, which appeared in 1999, listed only publications since the fall of the respective dictators in Portugal and Brazil (1974, 1980), while the new edition features all publications since the emergence of anarchism and its precursors. A bibliographical essay precedes the actual bibliography. Both anarchist publications and publications about anarchism are included. Literary texts are not listed. Various annexes contain titles in the categories of atheism and anti-clericalism, contemporary anti-authoritarian authors, cooperatives and anti-authoritarian utopias. The book concludes with a list of addresses of anarchist archives and libraries.

Hart, Mitchell B. Social Science and the Politics of Modern Jewish Identity. [Stanford Series in Jewish History and Culture.] Stanford University Press, Stanford (Cal.) 2000. ix, 340 pp. £35.00; $55.00.
This study examines how and why the social sciences became an integral part of Jewish scholarship from the late nineteenth century onward. Focusing on the prominence of statistics amongst Jewish scholars in central Europe, Professor Hart argues that the initial impetus for organized, institutionalized Jewish social sciences lies in the Zionist movement, which pursued the knowledge of contemporary Jewish life deemed necessary for nationalist revival. He also examines the involvement of non-Zionist, liberal, assimilationist scholars, who were interested in the effects of modernization on Jewry in the first decades of the twentieth century.

The International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. [By] Anthony Carew, Michel Dreyfus, Geert Van Goethem [and] Rebecca Gumbrell-McCormick. Marcel van der Linden (Ed.) [International and Comparative Social History, vol. 3.] Peter Lang, Bern [etc.] 2000. 624 pp. S.fr. 117.00; DM 147.00; S 975.00.
This study aims to give the first comprehensive history of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU), a confederation of national trade union centres founded in 1949. Michel Dreyfus and Geert Van Goethem examine the forerunners of the ICFTU in the period 1902-1919 and 1919-1945; Anthony Carew deals with the World Federation of Trade Unions (1945-1949), which was the immediate precursor to the ICFTU, and the first decades of the ICFTU; Rebecca Gumbrell-McCormick covers the final three decades of the last century. In a concluding chapter, Marcel van der Linden discusses the organization's prospects for the twenty-first century. See also Patrick Pasture's review essay, this volume.

Maternal Measures. Figuring caregiving in the early modern period. Ed. by Naomi J. Miller and Naomi Yavneh. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2000. xvi, 374 pp. Ill. £40.00. (Paper: £19.95.)
The nineteen contributions to this volume explore the experience and image of maternity in particular and of female caregivers in general in the early modern period. Covering a broad spectrum of positive and negative images, from prototypes to antitypes of female caregiving, contributors deal with such oppositional figures as mothers and stepmothers, midwives and wet nurses, wise women and witches, saints and amazons, murderers and nurturers. Drawing examples both from several European countries, Latin America, Mexico and the New World, the volume links the disciplines of literature, social history, music history and art history.

The Renaissance Computer. Knowledge technology in the first age of print. Ed. by Neil Rhodes and Jonathan Sawday. Routledge, London [etc.] 2000. xi, 212 pp. Ill. £15.99.
Based on a symposium held at the University of St Andrews, Scotland in June 1998, the twelve contributions to this volume consider how the invention of the printing press in the mid-fifteenth century enabled Renaissance scholars to devise new methods for storing and retrieving information. Contributors explore the similarities between the printing revolution and the digital revolution of today in the influence of new knowledge technologies in our understanding of the world.

Ringer, Fritz. Toward a Social History of Knowledge. Collected Essays. Berghahn Books, New York [etc.] 2000. vi, 239 pp. £35.00.
Professor Ringer, a well-known historian of intellectual life and education in Germany, brings together in this volume eight previously published articles, most of which appear here in English for the first time. They focus on theoretical considerations, education and the middle classes, quantitative studies and comparative intellectual history. The articles cover contemporary and historical debates about the relationship between ideas and their context, the role of education and middle-class consciousness, the social role of academics and intellectuals and the competing ideals of learning, science and history.

The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. A Database on CD-Rom. Ed. by David Eltis, Stephen D. Behrendt, David Richardson [and] Herbert S. Klein. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1999. £125.00; $195.00.
This CD-Rom contains the records of 27,233 trans-Atlantic slave ship voyages made between 1595 and 1866. According to the editors, these records account for roughly 70 percent of the Atlantic slave trade. In the extensive manual that accompanies the CD-Rom, the editors sketch the origins of the project and the data set and describe the nature of the sources used. The information presented on the CD-Rom draws on the archival efforts of an international team of scholars working with Portuguese, Danish, French, Spanish, Dutch and English sources. The manual explains the 162 data variables used in the database, which are grouped according to seven categories: vessel name; shipowners; crew; African captives, including the number, age and gender of slaves purchased, and mortality; areas of trade; dates of sail; and sources of each voyage. The database also comprises a group of 64 imputed or calculated variables designed to make the data more accessible or to compensate for missing information; these include grouping data geographically or chronologically and consideration for the outcome of a voyage. This allows the editors to make assumptions about the total number of slaves, the number of slaves that died on board, the number that reached the Americas, etc. A comprehensive list of data and imputed variables is included in the manual, as well as a list of sources. The format allows thus users to track information by time period and geographic region and to perform keyword searches. Data can also be downloaded in SPSS format for use in other programmes. In addition, the series of interactive maps enables users to chart the trans-Atlantic connections that underlie the detailed records.

Turley, David. Slavery. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford 2000. xi, 174 pp. £14.99.
This textbook aims to provide a general, comparative examination of slavery with a broad geographical and chronological scope, covering ancient Greece and Rome, medieval Europe, the Muslim societies of the Middle East and Africa, sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas. The three key themes cover the social and economic importance of slavery within societies, the experience of slavery by both slaves and those who control them and the means by which slavery was reproduced and perpetuated, including the role of race, ethnicity and religious differences in slave systems.

Work and the Image. Vol. I. Work, Craft and Labour. Visual Representations in Changing Histories. Vol. II. Work in Modern Times. Visual Mediations and Social Processes. Ed. by Valerie Mainz and Griselda Pollock. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2000. xi, 222 pp.; xi, 256 pp. Ill. £49.95; 49.95. (2 vol. set: £89.50.)
This two-volume work relates the history of the visual representations of work to changes in the work process and in the meaning of work, including the issues around the artistic activity as a form of work even as it offers a representation of labour. The ten contributions to the first volume aim to sketch the changing definitions of work as labour, craft, social relations and a source of historical identity, and analyse the role of visual representation in the formation and transformation of work and work processes. The topics covered range from the anti-slavery movement, enunciation of workers' rights, revolutionary politics, relations of class and gender, unemployment and subjectivity, Stalinist aesthetics and nationalist identities. In the second volume, the ten contributors discuss traditional analyses of the image of the worker in the light of contemporary critical theories that consider the subjectivity of the workers in relation to class, gender, nationhood and the concept of modernity.


Condrau, Flurin. Lungenheilanstalt und Patientenschicksal. Sozialgeschichte der Tuberkulose in Deutschland und England im späten 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhundert. [Kritische Studien zur Geschichtswissenschaft, Band 137.] Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2000. 363 pp. DM 76.00.
Around 1900 tuberculosis was the main cause of death among adults in Europe. From 1890 onward, treatment in sanatoriums became the prevailing therapeutic intervention both in Germany and in England. This comparative social history of tuberculosis treatment in Germany and England in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries examines the origins of the therapy in sanatoriums, the differences in the actual therapy and the daily life experience inside the sanatoriums between the two countries, the social origins of patients and the roles and positions of doctors and nursing staff.

The Rise and Development of Collective Labour Law. Ed. by Marcel van der Linden and Richard Price. [International and Comparative Social History, vol. 6.] Peter Lang, Bern [etc.] 2000. 458 pp. S.fr.
The thirteen essays in this volume provide a comparative overview of the history and development of labour law in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, covering eleven countries: Argentina (Jeremy Adelman), Australia (Raymond Markey), Brazil (Michael M. Hall), Canada (Dale Gibson), France (Norbert Olszak), Hong Kong (Anthony Woodiwiss), Japan (Sheldon Garon), Sweden (Susanne Fransson), Taiwan (G.S. Shieh), the United Kingdom (Gerry R. Rubin) and the United States (Katherine Van Wezel Stone). In addition to a concise account of the history of labour law, a critical historiography is provided for each country. Anthony Woodiwiss and Bob Hepple contribute two general comparative essays.

Rose, Mary B. Firms, Networks and Business Values. The British and American Cotton Industries since 1750. [Cambridge Studies in Modern Economic History, vol. 8.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2000. xii, 352 pp. £40.00; $64.95.
Offering a critical synthesis of secondary sources, this study analyses the long-term forces shaping the British and American cotton industries from the eighteenth through the twentieth centuries. Tracing social, political and developmental differences from the early stages of industrialization, Dr Rose notes the embedment of firms in local and regional networks, the changing competitive environment, community characteristics and national differences to explain the distinctness of each of the cotton industries.


Bade, Klaus J. Europa und die Migration am ende des 20. Jahrhunderts. Akademievorlesung gehalten am 4. Juli 2000. [Berichte aus den Sitzungen der Joachim Jungius-Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften e.V., Hamburg, Jg. 18, 2000, Heft 5.] Joachim Jungius-Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften (In Komm. beim Verlag Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen), Hamburg 2000. 34 pp. € 7.90.
In this written account of an academic lecture, delivered in July 2000, Professor Bade, a well-known German expert on migration studies (see IRSH, this volume, pp. 115-117), considers European migration policies at the end of the twentieth century. He sketches the background and main causes of the rising immigration into Europe, which increasingly takes place illegally, and formulates standards for a truly European immigration policy.

Bales, Kevin. New Slavery. A Reference Handbook. [Contemporary World Issues.] ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara (Cal.) [etc.] 2000. xvii, 225 pp. £29.95.
This reference work aims to illuminate contemporary forms of slavery around the world. Professor Bales argues that slavery in some form or another is found in almost every country today, both in the developing and in the industrialized world, often as part of the criminal economy. In addition to defining slavery and providing various examples and a chronology of recent developments in slavery, the author gives (biographical) sketches of persons and organizations active in contemporary antislavery work, statistical data, evidence and firsthand testimonies and lists a variety of printed and unprinted sources.

Charles, Nickie. Feminism, the State and Social Policy. Consultant Editor: Jo Campling. Macmillan Press Ltd, Basingstoke [etc.]; St. Martin's Press, Inc., New York 2000. viii, 245 pp. £47.50.
Comparing social policy change, changes in the position of women and the activities of feminist social movements over the last three decades of the twentieth century in Britain, Europe and North America, this study explores the impact of feminist social movements on social policy. Dr Charles analyses the complex interaction between feminist social movements and the state, both on a theoretical and on a more practical, political level, and aims to assess to what extent the changes in the position of women over the last three decades are the result of feminist activities or arise merely from general economic and societal changes.



Robinson, David. Paths of Accommodation. Muslim Societies and French Colonial Authorities in Senegal and Mauritania, 1880-1920. [Western African Studies.] Ohio University Press, Athens; James Currey, Oxford 2000. xvi, 361 pp. Ill. Maps. £40.00. (Paper: £16.95.)
Focusing on French colonial rule in Senegal and Mauritania between 1880 and 1920, this study examines the relations between the colonial authorities and the leaders of Muslim Sufi orders. Professor Robinson describes the ways in which these orders preserved autonomy within the religious, social and political realm under colonial rule, while the French established a reputation as an imperial power with a capacity for ruling over Islamic subjects, as paths of accommodation. See also Mamadou Diouf's review in this volume.


Larson, Pier M. History and Memory in the Age of Enslavement. Becoming Merina in Highland Madagascar, 1770-1822. [Social History of Africa.] Heinemann, Portsmouth (NH); James Currey, Oxford; David Philip, Cape Town 2000. xxxii, 415 pp. Ill. Maps. £40.00. (Paper: £16.95.)
This study aims to contribute to the rapidly growing supply of literature on the history of slavery in Africa. Dr Larson focuses on the relatively unknown territory, which is interesting because it lies outside the well-researched Atlantic region and is well connected with the Indian Ocean region. The author emphasizes the important effects of the internal diaspora within Madagascar and aims to contribute to the debate on the identity of the Merina people in central Madagascar by analysing how this ethnic group emerged from the interaction of experiences with slavery, merchant capitalism and internal political dynamics.


Alden, Chris. Mozambique and the Construction of the New African State. From Negotiations to Nation Building. Palgrave, Basingstoke [etc.] 2001. xxii, 166 pp. £42.50.
This study explores the making of modern Mozambique from the late 1980s to 1999, which was a period of armed struggle against colonialism, the establishment of state socialism and the outbreak of a civil war with intervention by foreign powers. In 1992, as a result of exhaustion and international pressure, a peace treaty was negotiated, guaranteed by the UN peacekeeping force ONUMOZ and backed by international financial support. The author discusses the effects of this international intervention on the Mozambican state and society and argues that it did not strengthen the central state, and that a new and in some cases criminal elite has reaped the benefits of the accessory liberalization.

South Africa

Deegan, Heather. The Politics of the New South Africa. Apartheid and After. Longman, Harlow 2000. x, 261 pp. Ill. Maps. £28.99.
This textbook aims to offer a political history of twentieth-century South Africa. Emphasizing the period after 1990 and focusing on the social-economic background, this chronologically structured book deals with the rise of apartheid, the anti-apartheid movement, the course of the struggle, the great transformations in South-African society between 1990 and 1994 and the work and influence of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Appended are, among others, important speeches by President de Klerk and Nelson Mandela from the dramatic year 1990.


McCreery, David J. The Sweat of Their Brow. A History of Work in Latin America. [Latin American Realities.] M.E. Sharpe, Armonk (New York) [etc.] 2000. ix, 211 pp. $
This history of work in Latin America aims to give a comprehensive analysis of labour systems spanning the pre-Columbian period to the present. Proceeding chronologically and identifying both continuities and discontinuities with respect to each preceding period, Professor McCreery both deals with "classic" labour history and covers the impact of work on family life, the influence of changing labour needs on demographic patterns, the influence of war and revolution on the rhythm of work and various forms of unfree labour and their impact on quality of life. See also Alexandre Fortes's review in this volume.

Peck, Gunther. Reinventing Free Labor. Padrones and Immigrant Workers in the North American West, 1880-1930. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2000. xiii, 293 pp. Ill. Maps. £35.00; $54.95. (Paper: £11.95; $19.95.)
The padrone, an immigrant boss who allegedly enslaved his compatriot immigrant workers, was infamous in North America during the Progressive Era. In this study, Professor Peck focuses on the lives and activities of three padrones from Italy, Greece and Mexico, respectively, and on the workers they imported to North America in the period 1880-1930 to analyse the padrone's deep cultural resonance and examine the far-flung coercive networks they established and the emancipation strategies among the immigrant workers, who used the tools of the padrone to their advantage. See also Seth Wigderson's review in this volume.

Repression, Resistance, and Democratic Transition in Central America. Ed. by Thomas W. Walker and Ariel C. Armony. SR Books, Wilmington (DE) 2000. xxvi, 301 pp. £44.95.
The eleven contributions to this volume discuss the transitions to democracy in six Central American countries in the 1980s and 1990s (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama) and discuss how these transitions have enhanced our understanding of democratization in the late twentieth century. In addition to essays on the six countries, five contributions deal with the various forces that figured in the process: other nation states, supranational organizations (UN and OAS), religion, neoliberalism and civil society in these countries.


Baskes, Jeremy. Indians, Merchants and Markets. A Reinterpretation of the Repartimiento and Spanish-Indian Economic Relations in Colonial Oaxaca, 1750-1821. Stanford University Press, Stanford 2000. xv, 306 pp. Maps. £45.00; $60.00.
Traditional historiography has interpreted the repartimiento de mercancías in colonial Mexico as a production and consumption system in which Spanish officials compelled Mexican Indians to produce goods marketable in the Spanish economy and to purchase expensive and unwanted Spanish products. Challenging this interpretation in this study of the production of cochineal, a dyestuff produced exclusively by Oaxacan Indians, Professor Baskes argues that the Mexican Indians were much more actively engaged in the market than customarily imagined and were better at promoting their interests than hitherto believed, despite the discriminatory policies of colonialism.

Hayes, Joy Elizabeth. Radio Nation. Communication, Popular Culture, and Nationalism in Mexico, 1920-1950. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson 2000. xx, 155 pp. Ill. $35.00.
Professor Hayes analyses in this study various aspects of the importance of the radio in the history of twentieth-century Mexico. Dealing with issues such as the relation between Mexican nationalism and North American influence, the author argues that radio was optimally suited for shaping the nationalism and populism of post-revolutionary Mexico and at the same time served the commercial interest in creating a national market. Although commercial radio has always been predominant, the analysis of the station XFX, controlled by the Ministry of Public Education, led by the Marxist Pablo Bassols between 1931 and 1934, sheds an interesting light on the formation of the Mexican nation and national culture.

Brown, Timothy C. The Real Contra War. Highlander Peasant Resistance in Nicaragua. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman 2001. xxvii, 321 pp. Ill. Maps. $29.95.
In this study of contra-revolutionary struggle in Nicaragua after the Sandinistas seized power, Dr Brown argues that the urban-based Sandinistas made the last of a long series of efforts over the past five centuries to subjugate the peasant population of the Segovian Highlands, causing these marginalized peasants to form a coalition with Somoza regime supporters who had fled with US assistance. According to the author, the elections of 1996 have finally restored these peasants to their legitimate position in Nicaraguan society. Dr Brown was senior liaison officer to the Contras for the US State Department from 1987 to 1990.

United States of America

Brenner, Johanna. Women and the Politics of Class. Monthly Review Press, New York 2000 [recte 2001]. vi, 330 pp. $50.00. (Paper: $19.95.)
Professor Brenner has brought together in this collection ten essays - all previously published between 1984 and 1998 and three of them co-authored - that reflect a Marxist perspective on feminist issues in the US, such as abortion, reproductive technology, women's impoverishment, the crisis in care-giving and the shredding of the social safety net. Her arguments focus on the need to place these issues in the political and economic context of a state and society dominated by the imperatives of capital accumulation. In her concluding essay, written for this volume, Professor Brenner takes on the notion of "intersectionality" to incorporate analysis of race into her work on gender and class.

Cobb, William H. Radical Education in the Rural South. Commonwealth College, 1922-1940. Wayne State University Press, Detroit 2000. 263 pp. £29.50.
This is a history of the Commonwealth College, the longest-lived of the resident labour colleges, which operated in the United States in the 1920s and 1930s. Founded in 1923 and modelled on the characteristics of pre-war experiments, its early leaders were adherents of Eugene Debs's Socialist Party and believed that massive social change could be brought about by a different type of education for the working-class. Professor Cobb describes how the regional and national publicity, combined with allegations that the College was a communist cell, actually drove the College into the communist camp in the longer run, before it was forced to close in 1940.

Cox, Oliver Cromwell. Race. A Study in Social Dynamics. Monthly Review Press, New York 2000. xli, 306 pp. $48.00. (Paper: $21.00.)
This is a new, abbreviated edition of the 1959 second edition of Caste, Class, and Race, of which the first edition was published in 1948 and in the 1960s became one of the classic sociological studies of race relations in the United States. This edition features the original edition's third section (Race), which accounted for almost half of the original volume. As Adolph Reed, Jr argues in his introduction to this edition, Cox's central argument was that racism and racial prejudice emerged from the class dynamics of capitalism and its colonial and imperial programmes. A biographical sketch of Cox by Herbert M. Hunter, originally published in 1987, is reproduced in this volume as well.

Dollinger, Sol and Genora Johnson Dollinger. Not Automatic. Women and the Left in the Forging of the Auto Workers' Union. Monthly Review Press, New York 2000. xv, 214 pp. Ill. $48.00. (Paper: $18.00.)
This history of the early years of the United Automobile Workers (UWA), covering the period from the early 1930s to the late 1940s, is written by the union activist Sol Dollinger. Mr Dollinger recounts the labour struggles, the factional fights and the important contributions of rank-and-file members, especially by militant workers affiliated with the Socialist Party. Included is also an oral history of the 1937 Flint Sitdown Strike and a section covering the importance of women workers based on an interview with Genora Johnson Dollinger (1913-1995), an active organizer at the time.

Kollisch, Eva. Girl in movement. A memoir. Glad Day Books, Thetford (VT) 2000. x, 262 pp. $16.95.
These are the memoirs of Eva Kollisch, who came to the United States as a young Jewish refugee from Austria at the beginning of World War II and joined the small radical sect of the Trotskyist Workers Party during the war. Her memoirs express the blending of her coming of age socially, sexually and politically, and offer a distinctly female point of view about the inner circles of the radical New York left that hitherto has been written about mostly by men.

Reagan, Patrick D. Designing a New America. The Origins of New Deal Planning, 1890-1943. [Political Development of the American Nation: Studies in Politics and History.] University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst 2000. xii, 362 pp. Ill. £33.95.
Although the idea of national planning in the United States is commonly associated only with the period of the Great Depression and the New Deal, this study aims to show that it originated in a combination of intellectual and institutional developments that date back to the 1890s. Professor Reagan explores the careers of five individuals who served on the National Resources Planning Board (NRPB) in the 1930s and argues that their background in Progressive politics, mobilization for World War I and the reform initiatives of the 1920s was central to the development of national planning.

Schäfer, Axel R. American Progressives and German Social Reform, 1875-1920. Social Ethics, Moral Control, and the Regulatory State in a Transatlantic Context. [USA-Studien, Band 12.] Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 2000. 252 pp. DM 96.00; S.fr. 96.00; S 701.00.
In the last quarter of the nineteenth century, young reform-minded, progressive Americans regarded German social thought and reform developments as an inspiration and example for American society. Rather than giving a comprehensive overview of the influence of German social thought, this study examines a selection of American adoption of German social thought in the period 1875-1920. Focusing on the influence of the German historical school of economics, Dr Schäfer considers urban reform, city planning and social insurance.

Storrs, Landon R.Y. Civilizing Capitalism. The National Consumers' League, Women's Activism, and Labor Standards in the New Deal Era. [Gender and American Culture.] The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 2000. xiv, 392 pp. Ill. £37.50. (Paper: £14.95.)
This study examines the history of the National Consumers' League (NCL), an organization founded in 1899 by women concerned about the exploitation of women wage earners, in the New Deal era. Using the history of the NCL to illustrate the evolving reform tradition in the US, Professor Storrs explores how the NCL applied consumer pressure and other strategies to spark a successful movement for the betterment of labour standards, state laws to reduce hours and the establishment of minimum wages for women.

Warren, Wilson J. Struggling with "Iowa's Pride". Labor Relations, Unionism, and Politics in the Rural Midwest Since 1877. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City 2000. xv, 185 pp. $16.95.
This history of meatpacking workers in Ottumwa, Iowa and labour relations in the local meatpacking industry dominated by the large firm of John Morrell and Company examines workers' experiences and behaviour from the industry's origins in 1877 to its shutdown in 1973. Professor Warren focuses on the several forms of labour relations, including evangelical Christian paternalism, welfare capitalism and CIO unionism, as well as on their interconnection with Ottumwa's status as a company town and the emergence of a blue-collar packing neighbourhood in the plant's immediate surroundings.

Weir, Robert E. Knights Unhorsed. Internal Conflict in a Gilded Age Social Movement. Wayne State University Press, Detroit 2000. 228 pp. Ill. $39.95.
In this study of the rise and decline of one of the first American labour movements, the Knights of Labor (KOL), Professor Weir analyses why the KOL became the leading labour organization in the US in a relatively brief period of less than fifty years (1869-1917) and then rapidly declined. Analysing the conflicting personalities and organizational structure of the KOL, the author questions the dominant autocracy thesis in the historiography, which attributes the decline to the autocratic leadership of Terence V. Powderly, and holds a combination of enormous external pressures and factionalism responsible for the KOL's ultimate failure.


Gott, Richard. In the Shadow of the Liberator. Hugo Chávez and the transformation of Venezuela. Verso, London [etc.] 2000. ix, 246 pp. £12.00.
This is a journalistic account of the rise to the presidency of Hugo Chávez, the present leader of Venezuela, and his revolutionary political and social programme. Mr Gott, a specialist on Latin American affairs, sketches Chávez's long road to power and his ideological background, which is rooted partly in the heritage of Simón Bolívar and partly in the tradition of left-wing, revolutionary military in Latin and Central America. According to the author, Chávez's programme may prove to be a new solution for Latin America as a whole.



Osella, Filippo and Caroline Osella. Social Mobility in Kerala. Modernity and Identity in Conflict. [Anthropology, Culture and Society.] Pluto Press, London [etc.] 2000. xi, 320 pp. Maps. £55.00. (Paper: £19.99.)
This is a comprehensive ethnographic study of the Izhavas, an community of former untouchables in the southern Indian state of Kerala. Using Bourdieu's theoretical framework, the authors examine how this community has tried, through repudiation of its nineteenth-century identity of being untouchable and politically and economically weak, to improve its position and assert its right to mobility. At the same time, this rise of a formerly stigmatized group has brought the Izvahas into complex relationships with modernity, colonialism and globalization. See also Anna Lindberg's review in this volume.


Bernstein, Deborah S. Constructing Boundaries. Jewish and Arab Workers in Mandatory Palestine. [SUNY series in Israeli Studies.] State University of New York Press, Albany 2000. xvii, 277 pp. Ill. $23.95.
Examining the competition, interaction and impact among Jewish and Arab workers in the labour market of Mandatory Palestine, this study of the labour market of Haifa is based on the Split Labor Market Theory. Demonstrating the impact of the pervasive national conflict on the relations between the workers and their labour movements, Dr Bernstein analyses the attempts of Jewish workers to construct boundaries between themselves and the Arab workers, but also highlights cases of cooperation between Jewish and Arab workers and of joint class struggle.


Gibbs, Michael H. Struggle and Purpose in Postwar Japanese Unionism. [Japan Research Monograph, vol. 14.] Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley 2000. xii, 322 pp. $20.00.
In this study of the development and changing role of trade unions in Japan in the period of transformation from an imperial state to the postwar democratic nation (i.e. 1943-1984), Dr Gibbs explores the themes of status, "high purpose" and lineage. Focusing on the steel industry, he aims to show how "high purpose", in the sense of commitment to the larger, general national cause (the well-being of the Japanese nation and economy), dominated policies and actions of trade-union leaders and managers alike. As a result, the immediate results in labour conflicts were less important than the sense of purpose among their leaders.


New Zealand

Green, Anna. British Capital, Antipodean Labour. Working the New Zealand Waterfront, 1915-1951. University of Otago Press, Dunedin 2001. 202 pp. Ill. NZ$39.95.
Focusing on the ports of Auckland, Wellington and Lyttelton, this study examines the experience of dock-workers in New Zealand in the period from 1915 to1951, when a bitter, five-months' strike ended in defeat for the national union of dock-workers. Dr Green explores the establishment of the major shipping companies, the working conditions, labour process and labour relations on the waterfront and the development of trade unionism. She considers the role of the state, which throughout the whole period and especially in the 1951 strike was a decisive force in favour of the employers. See also Eric Taplin's review in this volume.


Breckman, Warren. Marx, the Young Hegelians, and the Origins of Radical Social Theory. Dethroning the Self. [Modern European Philosophy.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2000. xii, 335 pp. £35.00; $54.95.
This study aims to offer a new interpretation of Marx's early development in the context of Young Hegelianism, and that movement's relationship to political and intellectual currents in early nineteenth-century Germany and France. Challenging the traditional distinction drawn between the exclusively religious concerns of Hegelians in the 1830s and the sociopolitical preoccupations of the 1840s, Professor Breckman aims to show that strong connections exist between the theological, political and social discourses of the Hegelians, and that proper understanding of these connections leads to a re-interpretation of the radical social theory of the 1840s.

Burrows, Simon. French Exile Journalism and European Politics 1792-1814. [Studies in History New Series.] The Royal Historical Society/ The Boydell Press, Woodbridge [etc.] 2000. xvi, 272 pp. Ill. £40.00; $75.00.
Between 1792 and 1814 a thriving French émigré newspaper and periodical press emerged in London, serving both an exile readership and a pan-European Francophone elite. Looking at staffing, production and dissemination of émigré journals, the author of this study argues that émigré journalists were professional activists engaged in an international ideological and propaganda struggle and combined journalism with a variety of other counterrevolutionary activities. Dr Burrows also traces the ideological development of the émigré press over the period, its impact on French and British foreign policies and its ultimate importance in the evolution of a Black Legend of Napoleon in Britain and the shaping of an ideological framework for Bourbonism.

Epstein, S.R. Freedom and Growth. The rise of states and markets in Europe, 1300-1750. [Routledge Explorations in Economic History, vol. 17.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2000. xiii, 223 pp. Maps. £55.00.
In this study of the relationship between political regimes and institutions and economic growth in late medieval and early modern Europe (between 1300 and 1750) and the late medieval social and economic crisis, Dr Epstein aims to offer new perspectives on the causes of pre-industrial growth in Europe and divergence and on the transition from feudalism to capitalism. Examining integrated grain markets, urban hierarchies and the use of European fair networks, the author illustrates how instrumental states were in overcoming market failures caused by political decentralization, and how the late medieval crisis itself represented a watershed for European political and economic integration.

Fragmente zu internationalen demokratischen Aktivitäten um 1848 (M. Bakunin, F. Engels, F. Mellinet u.a.). Hrsg. und bearb. von Helmut Elsner, Jacques Grandjonc, Elisabeth Neu und Hans Pelger. [Schriften aus dem Karl-Marx-Haus, Trier, Band 48.] Karl-Marx-Haus, Trier 2000. 444 pp. Ill. DM 59.00.
This source edition offers documentation and extensive introductions about three major events in the period of international democratic activism in Europe during the Vormärz: Friedrich Engels's expulsion from France in January 1848; Bakunin's speeches in Paris in November 1847 and in Brussels in February 1848 on the Polish-Russian alliance; and the so-called Risquons-Tout affair of March 1848, in which the Belgian government criminalized and prosecuted members of the Association Démocratique. These fragments are preceded by documentation on the surveillance and prosecution of German democratic oppositionists by the French government in the period February 1845 - February 1848.

Orlow, Dietrich. Common Destiny. A Comparative History of the Dutch, French, and German Social Democratic Parties, 1945-1969. Berghahn Books, New York [etc.] 2000. xi, 370 pp. £47.00.
This study aims to provide a comparative analysis of the organizational development, leadership and policies of three West European social democratic parties in the first twenty-five postwar years: the German SPD, the French SFIO and the Dutch PvdA. The shared element in the parties' histories was, according to Professor Orlow, the disappearance of their core constituency (the "classical" working class) through its absorption into the "bourgeoisified" postwar society. The author considers the domestic and foreign policies of the parties extensively.

Panayi, Panikos. An Ethnic History of Europe Since 1945. Nations, States and Minorities. Longman, Harlow [etc.] 2000. xiii, 274 pp. Maps. £55.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
The central theme of this history of Europe since 1945 from an ethnic perspective is the relationship between nation states and minorities that pertain to the dominant ethnic grouping. Covering countries from Scandinavia to Turkey and from Great Britain to the Soviet Union, Professor Panayi focuses on the Soviet Union, Great Britain, France and Germany as the countries with the largest populations and on Rumania, Yugoslavia and Cyprus as the countries with the most obvious ethnic problems. He deals with demographic, economic and social aspects; with ethnicity, its definition and its political usage; and with the role of the state and public opinion.


Papathanassiou, Maria. Zwischen Arbeit, Spiel und Schule. Die ökonomische Funktion der Kinder ärmerer Schichten in Österreich 1880-1939. [Sozial- und wirtschaftshistorische Studien, Band 24.] Verlag für Geschichte und Politik, Wien; R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 1999. 332 pp. S 680.00; DM 79.00.
This revised edition of a dissertation (Vienna, 1996) examines the various economic roles of children under fourteen in poorer Austrian families between 1880 and 1939 and analyses the children's contribution to household survival. Based on autobiographical source materials (childhood memoirs and interviews), Dr Papathanassiou explores the significance of these experiences for the socialization process of children in relation to school education and leisure. See also Angélique Janssens's review in this volume.

Eire - Ireland

Clear, Caitriona. Women of the House. Women's household work in Ireland 1926-1961. Discourses, Experiences, Memories. [Women in Irish History.] Irish Academic Press, Dublin [etc.] 2000. x, 278 pp. Ill. £39.50. (Paper: £18.50.)
This study examines the experiences of lower-middle class women, working-class women and women on small to medium farms, who were not in the paid workforce in Ireland over four decades of Irish independence. Based both on official records and on personal testimonies, Dr Clear considers various aspects of household work, such as food preparation and washing, as well as pregnancy, childbirth and infant care. She concludes that Irish women embraced modernity in a way that made sense to them and preserved their authority and standing.

Delaney, Enda. Demography, State and Society. Irish Migration to Britain, 1921-1971. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool 2000. xiv, 345 pp. £32.00. (Paper: £12.95.)
From the foundation of the independent Irish state until the early 1970s, approximately one and a half million Irish people migrated, the vast majority to Britain. This study aims to offer a comprehensive analysis of this twentieth-century exodus to Britain and covers the reasons for migration; the role of Irish state policy; the way this migration shaped Irish society; gender dimensions; official British responses; and the crucial phenomenon of return migration. Dr Delaney argues that migration was qualitatively different from the earlier migration wave to the United States in its temporality.


Andress, David. Massacre at the Champ de Mars. Popular Dissent and Political Culture in the French Revolution. [Studies in History New Series, vol. 17.] The Royal Historical Society/The Boydell Press, Woodbridge [etc.] 2000. x, 239 pp. £35.00; $61.00.
On 17 July 1791 the revolutionary National Guard of Paris opened fire on a crowd of protesters. This event, which later became known as the "massacre" of the Champ de Mars, is the central focus in this study of the rapidly changing political culture and the role of popular dissent and the often contradictory interpretations of it in the French Revolution. Dr Andress examines what it meant to be "one of the people", where boundaries were drawn around the national community (defined in terms of "us" and "them"), and how these issues could quickly change over time.

Beecher, Jonathan. Victor Considerant and the Rise and Fall of French Romantic Socialism. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 2001. xvi, 584 pp. Ill. $65.00; £40.00.
This is a comprehensive study of the life, work and thought of Victor Considerant (1808-1893), one of the most important followers of the utopian thinker Charles Fourier and the leading organizer and theorist of the Fourierist movement. Professor Beecher explores Considerant's course of life and activities as a leading pupil of Fourier, his role in the French Left during the Revolution of 1848 and the Second Republic, his forced exile after June 1849, his efforts to create a Fourierist experiment in Texas in the 1850s and his role in the Workers' International after his return to France in 1869. See also Arthur Mitzman's review in this volume.

Le congrès d'Épinay. Un nouveau départ pour les socialistes. Prép. par Yves Attou, Alex Bergounioux, Jean-Marcel Bichat [e.a.] Parti socialiste, en collab. avec la Fondation Jean-Jaurès et l'OURS, n.p. [Paris] 2001. 80 pp. Ill. € 7.62.
This richly illustrated, large-size booklet is published in honour of the thirtieth anniversary of the congress of Épinay, the unity congress of the French socialists held on 11-13 June 1971, where the SFIO rejoined with the PSU to form the Parti Socialiste (PS) under the leadership of François Mitterand. In addition to an overview of the course of the congress, the main speeches are reproduced here, together with short biographies of the speakers, as well as the minutes of the closing session and an overview of the persons elected and the voting behaviour of the various regional federations.

Guidoni, Pierre. La belle ambition. [Portraits.] OURS, Bruno Leprince Éditeur, n.p. [Paris.] 2000. 63 pp. Ill. € 10.50.
This large, richly illustrated booklet commemorates the life and work of the French socialist politician and diplomat Pierre Guidoni (1941-2000). Guidoni, who was one of the most important spokesmen of the French socialist party (PS) for international affairs, was also president of l'Office universitair de recherche socialiste (OURS), the scientific bureau of the PS from 1997 to his death. His widow has gathered several of his writings, which detail the various aspects of his career in politics and diplomacy. Lionel Jospin, with whom Guidoni collaborated closely, has contributed a preface.

Jennings, Lawrence C. French Anti-Slavery. The Movement for the Abolition of Slavery in France, 1802-1848. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2000. x, 320 pp. Ill. £35.00; $54.95.
This is a study of the French abolitionist movement in the first half of the nineteenth century, with an emphasis on the period of the July monarchy. Professor Jennings traces the political struggle of an elitist group of humanitarians against a well-organized colonial lobby and a largely indifferent government and concludes that the abolitionist movement was too weak to move French public opinion until the 1848 Revolution brought the Second Republic and the abolition of slavery. See also Paul Kielstra's review in this volume.

Lefebvre, Denis. Socialisme et franc-maçonnerie. Bruno Leprince Éditeur, n.p. 2000. 221 pp. Ill. € 18.30.
Although many socialists in mid-nineteenth-century France were freemasons, most socialists kept their distance from the lodges after the Commune. This study sketches the opposition from two sides that socialists encountered when they started to re-enter the Freemasonry from the 1880s onwards: the radicals, who had taken over the lodges, and fellow socialists, who opposed to the secretive nature and the principles of the Freemasonry altogether. Dr Lefebvre examines in this study the relations between Freemasonry and the socialist movement in the period from 1880 to 1920, when the Third International prohibited its members from becoming freemasons after the foundation of the French Communist Party (PCF).

Meyer, Ahlrich. Die deutsche Besatzung in Frankreich 1940-1944. Widerstandbekämpfung und Judenverfolgung. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2000. v, 279 pp. DM 88.00; S.fr. 80.00; S 642.00.
In this study of the German occupation of France, Professor Meyer focuses on the role of the Wehrmacht in the fight against the French resistance and the connection between this fight, especially against the communist resistance groups, and the persecution, deportation and murder of the French and foreign Jews in France. The author aims to show that the level of barbarism and cruelty among the ordinary Wehrmacht forces matched that of the troops in eastern Europe, despite of the image that prevails in Germany of a relatively "clean" war in western Europe.

Le Parti socialiste entre Résistance et République. Sous la dir. de Serge Berstein, Frédéric Cépède, Gilles Morin [et] Antoine Prost. [Science Politique, 2.] Publications de la Sorbonne, Paris 2000. 359 pp. Ill. € 35.06.
This book comprises the proceedings of a colloquium, held in October 1998 in Paris, on the history of the French Socialist Party (SFIO) in the period between the end of World War II and the beginning of the Cold War (i.e. 1944-1948). Twenty-two contributions deal with the heritage of the resistance and its impact on the identity and position of the SFIO; the power position of the SFIO in the political, economic and administrative constellation at the end of the war; the relations with the communists; and the development of the political and societal relations in the first year after the Liberation.

Rosenband, Leonard N. Papermaking in Eighteenth-Century France. Management, Labor, and Revolution at the Montgolfier Mill 1761-1805. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 2000. xv, 210 pp. Ill. £31.00.
This case study of the Montgolfier paper mill in France at the end of the eighteenth century examines the relationship between technological developments in the papermaking industry, the labour relations between masters and journeymen and the Montgolfier family and the role of tradition in these labour relations. Professor Rosenband sketches how this background paved the way to a bitter strike and lockout in 1781, which enabled the Montgolfier family to train a new group of workers, who were to be more malleable employees not moulded by the traditions of the trade, and to introduce new production techniques and a new production system.

Thompson, Victoria E. The Virtuous Marketplace. Women and Men, Money and Politics in Paris, 1830-1870. [The Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science, 118th Series, vol. 2.] The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 2000. viii, 229 pp. Ill. $32.00.
This study aims to explain the effort to exclude women from public life in mid-nineteenth-century France and its relation to the political exclusion of women first articulated during the French Revolution by exploring changes in the role of women in the markets of Paris and the changing and sometimes contradictory views of the market as a model for French society. Professor Thompson focuses, among others, on the figure of the prostitute, as a characterization of the dangers of the public market and a foundation for the regulation of the market and consequent exclusion of women from it.


Alsop, Rachel. A Reversal of Fortunes? Women, Work and Change in East Germany. Berghahn Books, New York [etc.] 2000. x, 228 pp. £25.00. (Paper: £13.50.)
Whereas by the 1980s women experienced nearly full employment in the GDR, they faced much higher unemployment than their male counterparts after the re-unification of Germany and through the postcommunist restructuring of the 1990s. Dr Alsop examines in this study the processes behind women's changing relationship to the labour market and the causes of women's high susceptibility to unemployment. She argues that, contrary to assertions by the centre-right in West Germany, the fall in female employment did not result from a plummeting demand for employment amongst women.

Armengesetzgebung und Freizügigkeit. Bearb. von Christoph Sachsse, Florian Tennstedt, Elmar Roder, unter Mitarb. von Margit Peterle. [Quellensammlung zur Geschichte der deutschen Sozialpolitik 1867 bis 1914; I. Abt.: Von der Reichsgründungszeit bis zur kaiserlichen Sozialbotschaft (1867 bis 1881), Band 7.] WBG, Darmstadt 2000. xlviii, 986 pp. (In 2 vols.) DM 278.00; S.fr. 250.00; S 2029.00.
These two tomes of source editions are the seventh volume of the first section of a series of source editions on the history of German social policy from 1867 to 1914 (see IRSH, 46 (2001), pp. 305f. for previous volumes in this section). This volume focuses on the modernization of poor relief legislation. The legislation around the freedom of settlements in 1867 and the introduction of the principle of poor relief in the place of residence for the whole of the North German federation in 1870 are milestones in this process of modernization, which is conveyed through a total of 194 documents and nine more in the appendices, published in two volumes. The second tome encompasses the documents on the developments in Bavaria, where modernization followed a somewhat divergent path, although ultimately with similar results for poor relief legislation.

Brunner, Detlev. Sozialdemokraten im FDGB. Von der Gewerkschaft zur Massenorganisation, 1945 bis in die frühen 1950er Jahre. [Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für soziale Bewegungen, Schriftenreihe A: Darstellungen, Band 12.] Klartext, Essen 2000. 476 pp. DM 128.00.
Unlike the history of the SED and the GDR state, the history of the East German labour organization, the Freie Deutsche Gewerkschaftsbund (FDGB) was scarcely covered in the historiography of the GDR in the 1990s. This study explores the early development of the FDGB from its establishment in 1945 until the early 1950s. Dr Brunner characterizes this development as the transition from a trade union-like organization dedicated to representing the interests of the workers into a "mass organization" led by the SED; a trend accompanied by the gradual elimination and expulsion of all social-democratic, democratic and trade unionist staff.

Griessmer, Axel. Massenverbände und Massenparteien im wilhelminischen Reich. Zum Wandel der Wahlkultur 1903-1912. [Beiträge zur Geschichte des Parlamentarismus und der politischen Parteien, Band 124.] Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 2000. 338 pp. Ill. € 39.90.
In the first years of the twentieth century, the elections in Imperial Germany were dominated by heightening competition between mass political parties, such as the SPD, and mass movements aimed at mobilizing voters at the right of the political spectrum, such as the Deutscher Flotten-Verein and the Reichsverband gegen die Sozialdemokratie. This dissertation (University of Saarland, 1998/1999) explores the conditions that enabled this competition between mass movements. Dr Griessmer argues that these electoral and agitational movements may be regarded as the response of the conservative right to the rise of social democracy.

Malycha, Andreas. Die SED. Geschichte ihrer Stalinisierung 1946-1953. Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn [etc.] 2000. 541 pp. DM 98.00.
This history of the Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands (SED) between 1946 and 1953 explores the structural changes within the party in these years and features a comprehensive review of the equalization of the party in the course of its Stalinization. Providing a detailed analysis of the implementation of dictatorial power structures within the Soviet occupation zone and the organizational changes within the SED, Dr Malycha aims to assess whether the SED may be regarded as a continuation of the Stalinist KPD, and whether opportunities arose for a more democratic development of the SED up to 1953.

Tammena, Heiko. "Unser schönes rotes Luckenwalde": Lager, Milieu und Solidargemeinschaft der sozialistischen Arbeiterbewegung zwischen Ausgrenzung und Verstaatlichung. [Schriftenreihe von Stipendiatinnen und Stipendiaten der Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Band 3.] Lit, Münster [etc.] 2000. iv, 475 pp. DM 49.80.
This dissertation (Göttingen, 1999) examines the origins, development and downfall of the socialist milieu in the provincial German town of Luckenwalde in Brandenburg from the 1870s to the period after the German reunification in the 1990s. Sketching the origins and tracing the local socialist milieu in the exclusion of the socialist movement under Bismarck, the growth, professionalization and stabilization of the milieu from 1870 through the Weimar era, the defeat and equalization after 1933 and the incorporation and centralization of the local labour movement in the GDR, Dr Tammena argues that the genuine socialist milieu eventually disappeared in the course of all these transformations.

Great Britain

Bradley, Katherine. Friends and Visitors: History of the Women's Suffrage Movement in Cornwall, 1870-1914. [Women of Cornwall Monograph Series: The Hypatia Notebooks, vol. 3.] [The Patten Press for] The Hypatia Trust, Newmill [etc.] 2000. 90 pp. £5.00.
This booklet offers an analysis of the development of the suffrage movement in Cornwall from 1870 to 1914. The author identifies two distinct phases: the first from 1870 into the 1890s and the second from 1909 onward, when both the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) and the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) started intensive campaigns. Although largely similar to much of the national debate on suffrage, the Cornish debate was characterized by a lack of militancy, especially in the second phase.

Croll, Andy. Civilizing the Urban. Popular Culture and Public Space in Merthyr, c. 1870-1914. [Studies in Welsh History, vol. 17.] University of Wales Press, Cardiff 2000. xi, 240 pp. £25.00.
The reputation of nineteenth-century industrial Merthyr as a synonym for spectacular rates of urban growth, acute social unrest and appallingly high death rates has been notorious among historians and contemporary observers alike. By concentrating upon the often complex relationship between popular culture, public space and urban meaning, Dr Croll examines in this study the far less well-known reaction of Victorian urban reformers in the period 1870-1914 in their attempts to civilize the town's public spaces and its inhabitants and thus construct a more "civic" image for the town.

Duffy, Patrick. The skilled compositor, 1850-1914. An Aristocrat among Working Men. [Modern Economic and Social History.] Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2000. xii, 231 pp. Ill. £45.00.
This study sets out to examine the experiences of the skilled compositor in Britain in the period 1850 to 1914. Focusing primarily on the workplace and workplace institutions, Dr Duffy explores issues of control, cooperation and conflict to determine to what extent the compositor belonged, as is often claimed in labour historiography, to an aristocracy of labour. In addition to compiling an overview of the technological and organizational development of the trade and exploring the formation and development of trade unions and employers' associations, the author reviews the role of women in the printing trade.

MacDougall, Ian. Bondagers. Personal recollections by eight Scots women farm workers. [Flashbacks, vol. 10.] Tuckwell Press, in assoc. with the European Ethnological Research Centre and The Scottish Working People's History Trust, East Linton 2000. xvi, 240 pp. Ill. £9.99; $15.95; C$23.95.
Based on a series of interviews conducted in 1997-1998, this volume offers the edited personal recollections of the working lives of eight Scottish women farm workers, who at the time of the interviews ranged in age from 82 to 93. Their recollections cover both their working years on farms in the south-east of Scotland and other aspects of their lives, such as their housing and their educational and recreational experiences.

MacDougall, Ian. "Oh, Ye Had Tae Be Careful". Personal recollections by Roslin gunpowder mill and bomb factory workers. [Flashbacks, vol. 9.] Tuckwell Press, East Linton 2000, in assoc. with The European Ethnological Research Centre [and] The Scottish Working People's History Trust. xi, 220 pp. Ill. £9.99.
This book features the personal recollections of eleven workers - ten women and one man - from the gunpowder mill at Roslin near Edinburgh, which for 150 years until its closure in 1954 was major force in Scottish industrial development and the British defence industry. The accounts of the interviewees deal with their daily work in the mill, the dangers and gender relations on the shop floor.

Thorpe, Andrew. The British Communist Party and Moscow, 1920-43. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 2000; distr. excl. in the USA by St. Martin's Press, New York. xi, 308 pp. £47.50.
In this history of the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) from its foundation in 1920 to the end of World War II, Dr Thorpe traces the key stages in the party's development and its relations with the Soviet Union. The study deals with the formation of the CPGB itself, the role of Lenin and Stalin and the party's frequent shifts of line. The author argues that, although Moscow was an important factor in the CPGB's development, the relationship cannot be seen as a straightforward one of domination by the Soviets.

Voth, Hans-Joachim. Time and Work in England 1750-1830. [Oxford Historical Monographs.] Clarendon Press, Oxford [etc.] 2000. viii, 304 pp. £40.00.
This study of working hours in England during the Industrial Revolution uses court records from both urban and rural areas over the period 1750 to 1830 to reconstruct patterns of labour and leisure in this period. Professor Voth concludes that the length of the annual working year increased considerably, mainly through the demise of a large number of religious and political festivals and holy days, such as "St Monday". The author argues that labour productivity was actually zero or even negative, and increased output was caused mainly by the rise in labour input, implying that improvements in living standards were even smaller than hitherto assumed.


Freifeld, Alice. Nationalism and the Crowd in Liberal Hungary, 1848-1914. The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, Washington, D.C.; The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.], 2000. xiv, 398 pp. Ill. $54.00.
This study examines the role of the crowd and crowd experience in Hungarian politics and the influence from its legacy from the aftermath of the defeated revolution of 1848/1849 to 1914. Connecting the history of nationalism and the history of the crowd in its variety of appearances, Professor Freifeld argues that it was through the "chastened crowd of revolutionary defeat that the Hungarians constructed and reconstructed their sense of nationality and polity in the second half of the nineteenth century".


Bianchi, Roberto. Bocci-Bocci. I tumulti annonari nella Toscana del 1919. [Biblioteca di Storia Toscana Moderna e Contemporanea, Studi e Documenti, 48.] Leo S. Olschki Editore, Firenze 2001. 406 pp. L. 60.000.
In this study of food riots in Tuscany in June and July 1919, the author uses a broad range of sources to analyse the course of the events, which have hitherto been covered insufficiently in historiography. After exploring the food situation under the conditions of the war economy and the political situation at the end of the war, Dr Bianchi examines the riots in Florence and subsequently throughout Tuscany, deals with the socio-economic background of the participants and considers the responses from the authorities and the labour organizations. "Bocci" was a colloquialism of bolscevichi.

Catanuto, Santo [e] Franco Schirone. Il canto Anarchico in Italia nell'ottocento e nel novecento. Edizioni Zero in condotta, Milano 2001. 384 pp. Ill. L. 38.000.
This collection presents 247 Italian anarchist songs in chronological order. It opens with the Internationale (1871) and ends with a song in memory of the Nigerian refugee Semira Adamu, who died while being deported from Belgium in 1998. The lyrics to the songs appear with the music scores, as well as an explanatory caption and a reference to its source. In the introduction the editors place anarchist songs in the context of political and popular songs in general. A bibliography, discography, index of persons and an alphabetical index of the songs have been added.

Movimenti sociali e lotte politiche nell'Italia liberale. Il moto anarchico del Matese. Atti del convegno di San Lupo 24-25 aprile 1998. A cura di Luigi Parente. [La società moderna e contemporanea, 81.] FrancoAngeli, Milano 2001. 284 pp. L. 44.000.
The fourteen contributions to this volume, based on the colloquium held in San Lupo in April 1998 on the anarchist uprising in Matese from 5 to 12 April 1877, deal with three main themes: the revolt and its suppression, the instigators (Cafiero, Kravcinskij, Malatesta and Ceccarelli) and the social-economic context of the uprising. The appendix features a brief review of the Italian films produced about the nineteenth-century social utopia and the script for Mariella De Libero's play La rivoluzione mancata.


Costa Pinto, António. The Blue Shirts. Portuguese Fascists and the New State. [Social Science Monographs, Boulder.] Distr. by Columbia University Press, New York 2000. xv, 271 pp. $34.50.
This study of Portuguese fascism in the interwar period, a revised and shortened edition of the original Portuguese one published in 1994, focuses on the Nacional Sindicalismo, the National Syndicalist Movement (NS), led by the charismatic Rolão Preto and its relation to the Salazar regime and his creation of the New State. Tracing the roots of Portuguese fascism back to the Integralismo Lusitano in the 1910s, Professor Pinto analyses the growing tensions between Salazar and the fascists, due to their forced integration into Salazar's new authoritarian order, and compares the Portuguese developments with the Spanish Falange, Mussolini's Fascist Party and Valois's fascist movement in France.


Duskin, J. Eric. Stalinist Reconstruction and the Confirmation of a New Elite, 1945-1953. Palgrave, Basingstoke [etc.] 2001. viii, 195 pp. £42.50.
In this study Professor Duskin challenges the generally accepted emphasis on the continuity of pre-war Stalinism in post-war Russia. Focusing on the technical intelligentsia and their reconstitution as a Stalinist elite, he argues that post-war Stalinism differed significantly from the pre-war phenomenon of Stalinism. In industry rationalism carried against voluntarism and institutionalized professionalization replaced the promotion of worker campaigns, such as shock work and Stakhanovism. The main sources used by the author include the archives of industrial ministries and individual factories, as well as newspapers and journals.

Easter, Gerald M. Reconstructing the State. Personal Networks and Elite Identity in Soviet Russia. [Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2000. xiii, 221 pp.£37.50; $54.95.
The collapse of the command-administrative state in 1989 was unforeseen both by most area specialists and comparative political theorists. Professor Easter argues in this study of informal aspects of the state power in the Soviet Union that the collapse of the Soviet state is attributable to the convergence of informal sources of power - personal networks and elite identities - with the formal structures of the state in a manner that directly influenced its capacities to rule. He also argues that the seeds of state collapse can be traced back to the original Bolshevik state-building strategies.

Edmunds, Neil. The Soviet Proletarian Music Movement. Peter Lang, Oxford [etc.] 2000. Ill. 407 pp. S.fr. 86.00.
The proletarian music movement, consisting of several organizations, such as the Music Department of the Ministry of Culture and Education (Narkompros) and the Russian Association of Proletarian Musicians (RAPM), was, according to the author of this study, the driving force behind many musical endeavours in the Soviet Union during the 1920s and early 1930s. The movement remained influential long after the reconstruction of artistic organization in 1932. Dr Edmunds examines the movement's beliefs and ideological foundations and reviews its achievements in musical education, amateur musical activities and composition.

Encyclopedia of Russian Women's Movements. Ed. by Norma Corigliano Noonan and Carol Nechemias. Greenwood Press, Westport (Conn.) [etc.] 2001. xix, 399 pp. £84.50.
This volume is divided into three periods: the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries until 1917, the Soviet period and, by far the most elaborate part of the book, the transitional and post-Soviet era. The editors have used a rather broad definition of women's movements and groups in selecting entries for inclusion. Individuals "who advanced the status of women in some way" have been included as well. The entries contain cross-references and lists of suggested readings and are written by an international group of contributors, most of them from the United States and Russia.

Gender, State and Society in Soviet and Post-Soviet Russia. Ed. by Sarah Ashwin. Routledge, London [etc.] 2000. ix, 176 pp. £15.99.
The seven essays in this volume, all by Russian contributors, deal with the transformation of gender roles and gender relations under Bolshevik rule and the implications of the collapse of communism for those gender roles and relations. The issues covered include the construction of the Soviet gender role and the state's symbolic appropriation of the paternal role; motherhood and fatherhood in Soviet and post-Soviet society; the changing experience of male and female breadwinners; and youth sexuality in contemporary Russia.

Graziosi, Andrea. A New, Peculiar State. Explorations in Soviet History, 1917-1937. Praeger, Westport (Conn.) [etc.] 2000. xvii, 272 pp. £54.95.
In this book, Professor Graziosi brings together five essays, based on previously published articles, on the first twenty years of the Soviet Union. Included are essays on the life and activities of the major Bolshevik leader, G.L. Piatakov (1890-1937); on the civil war as reflected in the reports of the political police; on the New Economic Policy as seen from the Donbass in 1921; on the industrialization as seen and judged by thousands of foreign workers who went to the Soviet Union in the 1930s; and on Stalin's "Workerism" and labour practices. This latter essay was published in IRSH 40 (1995), pp. 95-138.

Hildermeier, Manfred. The Russian Socialist Revolutionary Party Before the First World War. Lit Verlag, Münster; St. Martin's Press, New York 2000. iv, 385 pp. $69.50.
This is the English translation of a study originally published in German in 1978 and annotated in IRSH, 25 (1980), p. 305. In his preface to this English edition, Professor Hildermeier explains his decision to publish a translation of the original edition, albeit more than twenty years old. Reflecting on the various reactions to and critiques of the study, he concludes that its findings about the reasons for the ultimate defeat of the Russian Socialist Revolutionary Party (PSR) still hold true.

Kirschenbaum, Lisa A. Small Comrades. Revolutionizing Childhood in Soviet Russia, 1917-1932. [Studies in the History of Education.] RoutledgeFalmer, New York [etc.] 2001. ix, 232 pp. Ill. £13.99.
Focusing on children between three and seven, the period after nursery and before school on which comparatively little research has been conducted, Kirschenbaum examines the Bolshevik conceptions of childhood and their policies in the field of child education and upbringing. She shows how these policies changed in the various periods after the revolution, from Civil War to NEP and First Five Year Plan. The study relies primarily on the observations of teachers. In a postscript the author treats the child reminiscences of Elena Bonner, Ol'ga Berggol'ts and Lev Kopelev.

Kort, Michael. The Soviet Colossus. History and Aftermath. Fifth Ed. M.E. Sharpe, Armonk [etc.] 2001. xiii, 466 pp. Ill. $85.95. (Paper: $29.95.)
This general history of the Soviet Union opens with a few chapters focusing on the period before the Russian revolution and then proceeds with a chronological review of the history of the Soviet Union. In this fifth edition (the first edition is entitled: The Soviet colossus: a history of the USSR and appeared in 1984; the subtitle for the fourth edition is History and aftermath), chapters have been added on the Gorbachev period and the first post-Soviet decade.

Mau, Vladimir and Irina Starodubrovskaya. The Challenge of Revolution. Contemporary Russia in Historical Perspective. Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 2001. xvi, 369 pp. £50.00.
In this book the authors, who were both witnesses to and involved in the practical process of Russian transformation, examine the implications of the transformation process in Russia for the theory of revolution and consider how the theory of revolution can elucidate the current course of events in Russia. They argue that the Russian transformation should be interpreted according to the logic of revolutions such as the French and the Bolshevik ones, rather than through comparison with transformations in other post-communist countries. The book contains interviews with four leaders of the Russian transformation: Mikhail Gorbachev, Alexander Yakovlev, Yegor Gaidar and Gennadii Burbulis.

Shenfield, Stephen D. Russian Fascism. Traditions, Tendencies, Movements. M.E. Sharpe, Armonk (New York) [etc.] 2001. xiv, 337 pp. $66.95. (Paper: $29.95.)
How strong are the fascist organizations in post-Soviet Russia, and how significant are fascist tendencies within other parts of Russian society, such as the Communist Party, the Orthodox Church, the Cossack revival movement and youth subcultures of different kinds? These are the questions Dr Shenfield addresses in this book. The first chapter is fully devoted to the different definitions of fascism in use in academic literature and elsewhere. Following the historical overview, subsequent chapters address fascist tendencies in Russian society and partly or wholly fascist organizations: Zhirinovsky's Liberal-Democratic Party of Russia, Barkashov's Russian National Unity and Limonov's National-Bolshevik Party. The book contains an elaborate bibliography.

Sowjetjugend 1917-1941. Generation zwischen Revolution und Resignation. Hrsg. von Corinna Kuhr-Korolev, Stefan Plaggenborg [und] Monica Wellmann. Klartext, Essen 2001. 310 pp. DM 54.60.
This collection is the outcome of the research project "Jugend und Gewalt in Sowjetrussland 1917-1932" [Youth and violence in Soviet Russia, 1917-1932] at the universities of Basel and Marburg, supervised by Heiko Haumann and Stefan Plaggenborg, to describe the social milieus of young adults and to relate them to experiences with and perpetration of violence. The thirteen articles in the collection with contributions by researcher from different countries are based on papers for a conference held in Marburg in July 1999. The studies reflect extensive use of newly accessible source material from Party and Komsolmol archives, both from Moscow and Petersburg, and from the province.

Stalinismus und das Ende der ersten Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe (1931-1941). Dokumente über die politische Säuberung des Marx-Engels-Instituts 1931 und zur Durchsetzung der Stalin'schen Linie am vereinigten Marx-Engels-Lenin-Institut beim ZK der KPdSU aus dem Russischen Staatlichen Archiv für Sozial- und Politikgeschichte, Moskau. [Beiträge zur Marx-Engels-Forschung, Neue Folge, Sonderband 3.] Argument, Berlin [etc.] 2001. 460 pp. Ill. DM 39.90; € 20.50.
This volume in the series of contributions to the Marx-Engels research contains both essays and source documentation on the history of the Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe (MEGA) in the decade between 1931 and 1941, the period of the political purges within the Marx-Engels Institute and the dominance of Stalin's political line at the unified Marx-Engels-Lenin Institute, which reported to the Central Committee of the Party. The documentation includes material about V.V. Adoratsky's seizure of command at the Marx-Engels Institute and an essay by Wladislaw Hedeler on the purge of the Institute and the fate of the many foreign collaborators.

Toker, Leona. Return from the Archipelago. Narratives of Gulag Survivors. Indiana University Press, Bloomington [etc.] 2000. xv, 333 pp. $39.95.
"The present study is devoted to literary reflections of the Gulag, mainly to survivor narratives, both fictional and memoiristic." The author explicitly equates the value of these literary sources for understanding the course of events in the Soviet concentration camps with factual and statistical information from archival documents. As the author states: "Enlightening as the discovered documents [from the formerly secret archives] have proved to be, they do not, by themselves, reveal the nature of the human predicament in which the victims of the Stalinist penitentiary system found themselves." The book is a comprehensive historical survey and critical analysis of the vast body of narrative literature about the Soviet Gulag. Special attention is devoted to the works of Solzhenitsyn and Shalamov.

Wade, Rex A. The Bolshevik Revolution and Russian Civil War. [Greenwood Press Guides to Historic Events of the Twentieth Century.] Greenwood Press, Westport [etc.] 2001. xxiii, 221 pp. Ill. Maps. £29.95.
This textbook is intended as an introduction to the Russian Revolution for students and interested readers. The first chapters, on the October revolution, are based on the author's recent study The Russian Revolution, 1917 (2000) (see IRSH, 46 (2001), p. 319). The following chapters deal with the Civil War and the topical issue of ethnicity and nationality. The book contains a section of short biographies of personalities of the Revolution and Civil War, as well as a section of commented primary documents (reprinted English translations of the originals). An annotated bibliography is included as well.


Bernal, A.M., M.R. Alarcón [y] J.L. Gutiérrez. La jornada de seis horas 1936. Movimiento obrero y reducción de la jornada de trabajo en el ramo de la construcción de Sevilla. Centro Andaluz del Libro & Libre Pensamiento, Sevilla 2001. 111 pp. Ill. Ptas. 1.750.
On 26 June 1936 the anarcho-syndicalist construction workers union of Seville reached a collective labour agreement (reproduced in the appendix), establishing a working week of six six-hour days. Most of this booklet consists of a historical analysis by José Luis Gutiérrez of the anarcho-syndicalist movement's campaign to reduce working hours to create jobs. This unique labour agreement set a historical precedent for the contemporary quest for a 35-hour working week. The article by Manuel Ramón Alarcón is a judicial analysis of the effort in Spain today.

Cleminson, Richard. Anarchism, Science and Sex. Eugenics in Eastern Spain, 1900-1937. Peter Lang, Oxford [etc.] 2000. 287 pp. S.fr. 69.00.
This study examines the reception of the controversial science of eugenics in three Catalan and Valencian anarchist periodicals in the early twentieth century, placing this anarchist discourse on sexuality, theories of degeneration, inheritance and diseases in the context of anarchist ideology, European sexology and eugenics. According to Dr Cleminson, some anarchists' acceptance of eugenic science was based on their enthusiasm for "objective" science. He argues that an anarchist form of eugenics was constructed, incorporating sexological science into what the anarchists believed to be a radical sexual project for the future.

Gallardo Romero, Juan José. Los orígenes del movimiento obrero en Santa Coloma de Gramenet. El anarcosindicalismo (1923-1936). Grupo de Historia "José Berruezo", Santa Coloma de Gramenet. 237 pp. Ill. Ptas. 1.900.
In 1900 Santa Coloma de Gramenet was a rural village with 1,500 inhabitants. Forty years later it had evolved into a bedroom suburb with a population of 17,000 that consisted mainly of industrial workers. This is the history of the anarcho-syndicalist movement in a place where it was less influential than elsewhere in Catalonia, due to the lack of local industries. The book reviews the history of the trade union and the resistance funds that preceded it, the social struggle under the Republic and the cultural organizations of the labour movement, such as the Rationalist School established following the proclamation of the Republic.

Guerra civil i franquisme. Seixanta anys després. Actes de les Jornades celebrades a Blanes (la Selva) els dies 30 i 31 de març i 1 d'abril del 2000. Eds: Narcís Figueras Capdevila i Antoni Reyes Valent. Centre d'Estudis Selvatans, Santa Coloma de Farners 2000. 315 pp. Ill.€ 13.80.
This book comprises the papers (all in Catalan) of a colloquium held from 30 March through 1 April 2000 in the Catalan town of Blanes in honour of the sixtieth anniversary of the end of the Spanish Civil War. In addition to the text from a lecture by Miquel Berga on the influence of the Civil War on British authors, the book features ten extended and nine short papers. The work is divided into the two main themes of the hinterlands during the war and Francoism. The first section comprises both general texts and studies about the consequences of the war in the province of Gerona. The book concludes with a round-table discussion between several contemporary leading members of CNT and POUM.

Íñiguez, Miguel. Esbozo de una Enciclopedia histórica del anarquismo español. Prólogo de Juan Gómez Perin. Fundación de Estudios Libertarios Anselmo Lorenzo, Madrid 2001. 645 pp. Ptas. 7.200; € 43.27.
This first encyclopaedia of Spanish anarchism and anarcho-syndicalism covers all individuals involved from the outset on whom information is available, from illustrious figures to the simplest activists. Young people who became active after 1975 have been omitted. Entries for periodicals until 2000 are also offered, including the ones published in exile. The organizations and their main organs are also listed, such as the CNT with its congresses and Comités Nacionales, as well as factions, such as the Amigos de Durruti. There are also separate entries for congresses, arranged by venue, and major events, similarly arranged by venue.

Notícia de la negra nit. Vides i veus a les presons franquistes (1939-1959). [De l']Associació Catalana d'Expresos Polítics. Diputació de Barcelona, [Barcelona] 2001. 429 pp. Ill. Ptas. 4.000.
This is an oral history of the Francoist prison system based on testimonies from members of the Catalan association of former political prisoners. The period until 1959 has been selected, because the repression gradually became less severe after that point and because recording the testimonies had become rather urgent. The section with the testimonies is preceded by a few brief studies about the repression and the prisons. The testimonies are arranged by theme. The texts are in Catalan and Castilian.


Liotta, P.H. Dismembering the State. The Death of Yugoslavia and Why It Matters. Lexington Books, Lanham [etc.] 2000. viii, 623 pp. Maps. $125.00.
This study aims to examine the disintegration of the state of former Yugoslavia in the 1990s "as it seems reflected in the complex interdependence between technological influence and human reality". Taking an "ecological" or "holistic" perspective, Professor Liotta explores social, economic, political, historical and religious aspects of Yugoslav disintegration. The extensive appendices comprise the texts of important international agreements and a large numbers of maps. The author has served as military attaché on the Balkans.