Volume 47 part 3 (2002)


General Issues
Continents and Countries

Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.

General Issues


Am Beispiel Leo Koflers. Marxismus im 20. Jahrhundert. Hrsg. von Christoph Jünke. Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster 2001. 329 pp. € 32.00.
The sixteen contributions to this volume, based on papers for a conference organized at the Ruhr University, Bochum, in April 2000, reflect on the development of Marxist theory in the course of the twentieth century in relation to a critical review of the work of the German-Austrian Marxist sociologist and philosopher Leo Kofler (1907-1995) (see IRSH, this volume, p. 160). The themes covered are the theory and history of bourgeois society, theories on Marxism, aesthetics, anthropology and humanism, Stalinism and the New Left.

Aminzade, Ronald R., Jack A. Goldstone, Doug McAdam [a.o.]. Silence and Voice in the Study of Contentious Politics. [Cambridge Studies in Contentious Politics.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. xv, 280 pp. £45.00; $64.95. (Paper: £15.95; $22.95.)
Seven leading specialists in the field of the study of social movements, protest and contentious politics have co-authored this volume on notable lacunae, "silences" in their field. The topics addressed are emotion (Ron Aminzade and Doug McAdam), spatial dimensions of contention (William H. Sewell, Jr), temporality (Doug McAdam and William H. Sewell, Jr), leadership (Ron Aminzade, Jack A. Goldstone and Elizabeth J. Perry), religion (Elizabeth J. Perry), threat as a stimulus to contention (Jack A. Goldstone and Charles Tilly) and demographic and life-course processes (Doug McAdam and Jack A. Goldstone).

Dämpfling, Björn. Arbeit und Wertschöpfung bei Marx. Eine kritische Studie über produktive und unproduktive Arbeit. VSA-Verlag, Hamburg 2000. 335 pp. € 24.60.
The distinction between productive and unproductive labour as made in the productive-labour theory of value is a central concept in Marxian theory. In a critical analysis of this distinction, Dr. Dämpfling concludes that Marx has not provided a sound theoretical justification for it. According to the author, the conflict of the formal and material dimension in Marx's theory of the creation of value presents an unsolved theoretical dilemma, which can be explained by the limited development of the capitalist mode of production in Marx's time.

Fine, Ben. Social Capital versus Social Theory. Political economy and social science at the turn of the millennium. [Contemporary political economy.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2001. viii, 293 pp. £65.00. (Paper: £19.99.)
The concept of social capital has become very influential in the past decade in the areas of socio-economic analysis and policy. In this study Professor Fine traces the origins of the concept through the work of Gary Becker, Pierre Bourdieu and James Coleman and critically analyses the development of the use of social capital from a concept to reveal how family affects schooling into a way of explaining why nations, communities and individuals are rich or poor in every respect. He argues that the concept of social capital neglects the existence of power and conflict and concludes that political economy needs to be restored as an integral part of the social sciences, in addition to cultural and social theory.

Knowledge, Social Institutions and the Division of Labour. Ed. by Pier Luigi Porta, Roberto Scazzieri [and] Andrew Skinner. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham [etc.] 2001. xi, 367 pp. £69.95.
The concept of social knowledge (as distinguished from specialized economic knowledge) has come to be regarded as a critical economic parameter in institutional economics. The sixteen contributions to this volume, all based on papers for a conference on institutions, markets and the division of labour, organized at the University of Bologna in February/March 1998, are divided in three parts: one on the issue of the development of science as an aspect of the division of labour; another on issues concerning the moral bases for social interaction and, more particularly, commercial society; and a final part on analyses of questions on the division of labour, social institutions and the diffusion of knowledge in society.

Mészáros, István. Socialism or Barbarism. From the "American Century" to the Crossroads. Monthly Review Press, New York 2001. 126 pp. $45.00. (Paper: $15.95.)
Based on his large theoretical work, Beyond Capital (1995), Professor Mészáros analyses in this concise study the capitalist world system at the beginning of the new millennium. Drawing on the works of Rosa Luxemburg and others, he aims to analyse from a critical Marxist perspective the origins and development of the United States' status of a world power and to show how its supremacy has come at the cost of exhausting the universalizing pretensions of capitalism. The first part of the text is an expanded version of an essay in the Greek journal OYTOPIA, 39 (2000); the second part, an interview with the author, was first published in English in Science and Society, 63 (1999).

Ragin, Charles C. Fuzzy-Set Social Science. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago [etc.] 2000. xviii, 352 pp. $48.00; £30.50. (Paper: $20.00; £13.00.)
In this study, based on a philosophical and historical investigation of the ideological foundations of socialism and state socialism in relation to the concept of individual freedom, Dr Lederer aims to explore the conditions that render individual freedom compatible with socialism, and, following the "golden age" of democratic socialism in Western Europe and the collapse of bureaucratic state socialism with the demise of Soviet communism, whether a form of socialism respectful of individual freedom is still conceivable.

New Methods for Social History. Ed. by Larry J. Griffin and Marcel van der Linden. [International Review of Social History, Suppl. 6.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1999. ii, 165 pp. £12.95; $22.95.
Fuzzy sets are a relatively new methodological tool, indicating the degree of membership of a variable in a well-defined set. In this study, Professor Ragin explores possible applications of fuzzy-set methodology in the social sciences. He argues that social scientists must relinquish many of the "homogenizing assumptions" used with quantitative analysis and focus on diversity, using analytical strategies that are more common in qualitative inquiry. Fuzzy sets would thus enable a far richer dialogue between ideas and evidence and between theory and data analysis.


L'anarchisme a-t-il un avenir? Histoire de femmes, d'hommes et de leurs imaginaires. Colloque international, Toulouse, 27-28-29 octobre 1999. Textes réunis par Renaud de Bellefon, David Michels [et] Mimmo Pucciarelli. Atelier de création libertaire, Lyon 2001. 559 pp. € 20.60.
These are the proceedings of an international colloquium organized in October 1999 in Toulouse, under the same title ("Has anarchism a future? History of women, men and their imaginations"). The themes of the thirty-six contributions include the historical balance of anarchism (Gaetano Mafredonia); Italian anarchism in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries (Franco Bertolucci); the Argentine anarchist Manuel Gonzalez Prada (Joël Delhom); anarchist accomplishments in the Spanish Civil War (Nicolas Iwan); Victor Serge (Sharif Gemie); and several issues and debates related to the state of present-day anarchism, such as the relation with feminism, the role of Internet and future prospects for anarchism.

Dilas-Rocherieux, Yolène. L'Utopie ou la Mémoire du futur. De Thomas More à Lénine, le rêve éternel d'une autre société. Robert Laffont, Paris 2000. 407 pp. F.fr. 159.00; € 24.24.
This study aims to offer a general overview of utopian thought and movements from their origins with Thomas More to the twentieth century and focuses on the relation between utopism and twentieth-century communism. Dr. Dilas-Rocherieux deals first with the development of utopia as political idea. She then sketches a broad spectrum of utopian thinkers and utopian experiments (emphasizing those in France) and ends with a treatise in which she relates the utopian idea to the emergence of Soviet communism and French communism.

Household Strategies for Survival 1600-2000: Fission, Faction and Cooperation. Ed. by Laurence Fontaine and Jürgen Schlumbohm. [International Review of Social History, Supplement 8.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2000. iv, 196 pp. £12.95.
The eight contributions in this volume examine households as the basic organizational units in the struggle for survival of the labouring poor. Including case studies from seventeenth-century Europe to present-day developing countries, the contributors discuss strategies of and within families and households to analyse the full range of economic choices and activities pursued by the members of a single household and to consider the structure, composition and definition of a household.

Jews, Labour and the Left, 1918-1948. Ed. by Christine Collette and Stephen Bird. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2000. viii, 186 pp. £42.50.
The seven essays in this volume explore Jewish involvement in labour movements outside Israel from the end of World War I to the end of World War II. Included are contributions on the American Jewish Labor Committee and its relation with the Jewish community (Gail Malmgreen); British Jewry and Labour politics (Deborah Osmond), the Labour and Socialist International (Christine Collette) and the Communist Party of Great Britain (Jason Heppell); the British Labour Party's stances to Zionism (Paul Kelemen) and the Holocaust (Isabelle Tombs); and Jewish white-collar workers in British-ruled Palestine (David De Vries). A bibliography on the subject by Arieh Lebowitz completes the volume.

Kenny, Kevin. The American Irish. A History. [Studies in Modern History.] Longman, Harlow [etc.] 2000. xxi, 328 pp. Ill. £27.99.
This textbook aims to offer a concise history of Irish migration to the United States in the period 1700-2000. Professor Kenny analyses the conditions in Ireland that led to mass migration and examines the Irish immigrant experience in the United States in terms of patterns of settlement, labour, race, gender, politics and nationalism.

Krain, Matthew. Repression and Accommodation in Post-Revolutionary States. St. Martin's Press, New York 2000. x, 310 pp. $49.95.
Using case studies of Iran, Cuba, Nicaragua and Bolivia, Professor Krain analyses in this study the use of repression by political leaders in post-revolutionary and post-internal war states in the second half of the twentieth century. Examining what prompts post-revolutionary leaders to employ repression or accommodation, he analyses the effects of these choices on the reaction of domestic opposition, the resulting type of political system and the opportunities for leaders to stay in power over the long term.

New Perspectives on Historical Writing. Second Edition. Ed. by Peter Burke. Polity, Cambridge 2001. ix, 306 pp. £50.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
Published ten years after the first edition (see IRSH, 37 (1992), p. 125), this second edition of this collection on the new approaches in historiography now features a contribution on environmental history by Richard Grove as well. The editor has added a postscript to the introduction, as well as updates about recent research on the history of the book, intellectual history and microhistory.

Pacifism Since 1914: An Annotated Reading List. Comp. by Peter Brock. Peter Brock, Toronto 2000. xiii, 119 pp. £12.00.
This annotated bibliography brings together 355 titles on the history of pacifism world-wide since 1914. Organized largely chronologically, as well as geographically within the chronological chapters, Professor Brock has devoted separate chapters to literature on Gandhi's philosophy of non-violence and its followers, the peace movement during the Cold War, the "new" conscientious objection movement from the 1950s onward, the historic pacifist religious groups (Quakers, Mennonites and Church of Brethren) and pacifist currents within Buddhism, Catholicism, Judaism and among Palestinian Arabs.

Patterns of Social Capital. Stability and Change in Historical Perspective. Ed. by Robert I. Rotberg. [Studies in Interdisciplinary History.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. viii, 394 pp. Maps. £35.00; $54.95. (Paper: £12.95; $18.95.)
This volume brings together thirteen essays, previously published in two special issues of the Journal of Interdisciplinary History in 1999, on the themes of social capital, civil society and civic culture. Ranging from early modern Italy to modern Asia and the United States, the contributions deal with, among others, voluntary associations as indicators of citizen readiness for civic engagement and the question as to whether accumulation and diminution of social capital is a cyclical process, or whether societal deterioration has occurred in our modern age.

Rago, Margareth. Entre a história e a liberdade. Luce Fabbri e o anarquismo contemporâneo. Editora Unesp, São Paolo 2000. 368 pp. Ill.
This is a biography of Luce Fabbri (1908-2000), the daughter of the well-known Italian anarchist Luigi Fabbri, in whose footsteps she followed. The book is based on the recollections that Luce Fabbri shared with the author in conversations from 1995 to 2000 about her childhood, exile in Uruguay, the Spanish Civil War and her anarchist activities in Uruguay. Other sources include the many books, pamphlets, articles in newspapers and journals, reviews and interviews that Fabbri published. In addition, the author interviewed several people who knew Luce Fabbri. The book concludes with an exhaustive bibliography of and about Luce Fabbri. The personal papers of Luce Fabbri have been entrusted to the IISH (see http://www.iisg.nl/archives/en/files/f/10769524.php).

Le siècle des communismes. Sous la dir. de Michel Dreyfus, Bruno Groppo, Claudio Sergio Ingerflom [e.a.] Les Éditions de l'Atelier/Les Éditions Ouvrières, Paris 2000. 542 pp. € 24.39.
The twenty-eight longer and nine shorter contributions brought together in this volume aim to provide a comprehensive analysis of communism in the twentieth century. In response to two recent publications, François Furet's Le passé d'une illusion: essai sur l'idée communiste au xxe siècle (1995) (see IRSH, 46 (2001), p. 114), and Le livre noir du communisme (1998), which according to the editors have exposed only one side of communism, this volume aims to emphasize the plurality and complexity of communism. The first part addresses the state of the historiography of communism; the second part charts the various phases in its development, including an extensive section on Soviet communism; in part three, the individuals and social groups attracted by and involved in communism are the focus; in part four, three recent themes and debates in the research of communism are discussed: the relation between communism and violence, the relation with fascism and antifascism; and the relation to the labour movement.

Steinfeld, Robert J. Coercion, Contract, and Free Labor in the Nineteenth Century. [Cambridge Historical Studies in American Law and Society.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. xi, 329 pp. £40.00; $59.95. (Paper: £14.95; $22.95.)
Aiming to perform a fundamental reassessment of the nature of nineteenth-century wage labour, Professor Steinfeld explores in this study the common use of penal sanctions in England to enforce wage labour agreements. He argues that wage workers were not employees at free will but were often bound to their employment by enforceable labour agreements, which employers used whenever possible to manage their labour costs and supply. In the northern United States, where employers could not ordinarily use penal sanctions, he argues that common law provided solutions to enable similar enforcement of labour agreements. He concludes that modern free wage labour came into being only late in the nineteenth century, as a result of reform legislation that restricted the contract remedies legally available to employers.


Schönwälder, Karen. Einwanderung und ethnische Pluralität. Politische Entscheidungen und öffentliche Debatten in Großbritannien und der Bundesrepublik von den 1950er bis zu den 1970er Jahren. Klartext, Essen 2001. 700 pp. € 39.90.
Both Great Britain and West Germany were countries of immigration from the late 1950s until the early 1970s. This comparative study offers a detailed analysis of the political processes and public debates around the issue of mass immigration in both countries. Dr. Schönwälder examines how different political traditions, self-images within the two societies and specific problems determined responses to immigration processes and informed the policies devised.


Culture and Politics in the Information Age. A new politics? Ed. by Frank Webster. [Transnationalism.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2001. xiii, 231 pp. £18.99.
The twelve contributions in this volume, based mostly on papers presented at a conference at the University of Birmingham in September 1999, explore the changes in politics and political culture that have resulted from the latest information and communication technologies, globalization and the apparent decline of traditional political organizations and ideology. British and Canadian contributors deal with topics such as digital democracy, the use of popular culture and new media in politics, as well as transnational social movements and their use of new information and communication technologies.




Benamrouche, Amar. Grèves et conflits politiques en Algérie. Préf. de René Gallissot. [Hommes et Sociétiés.] Éditions Karthala, Paris; Institut Maghreb-Europe, Saint-Denis 2000. 374 pp. F.fr. 180.00.
This study explores the role and influence of strikes and strike movements in the political changes in Algeria from the 1960s to the 1990s. After sketching the course of labour relations, the role of the state and the development of labour legislation over this period, Dr. Benamrouche explores the rise of labour conflicts in relation to the cyclical political trends and concludes with a case study of the steelworkers' strike in May 1992. The author concludes that analysis of the labour conflicts and strike movements shows that the contemporary political situation in Algeria is more complex than the schematic picture often presented.


De Witte, Ludo. The Assassination of Lumumba. Transl. by Ann Wright and Renée Fenby. Verso, London [etc.] 2001. xxxi, 224 pp. Ill. £17.00.
In this English translation of the De moord op Lumumba (1999), Mr. De Witte provides a meticulous chronological analysis of the period from June 1960 until January 1961, when the net closed in around Patrice Lumumba, the charismatic leader of the Mouvement National Congolais, and the first prime minister of the Republic of Congo, who was assassinated on 17 January 1961. The author uses official sources and interviews with those concerned to support his argument of Belgian involvement. De Witte submits that Lumumba was a nationalist impediment to the Western establishment in the recently proclaimed neo-colonial project of the Congo. The Cold War heightened the fatal element of the political struggle and led to consequences that remain palpable.


Asiamah, A.E.A. The Mass Factor in Rural Politics. The Case of the Asafo Revolution in Kwahu Political History. Ghana Universities Press, Accra 2000; distr. by African Books Collective Ltd, Oxford (UK). xiv, 189 pp. £16.95; $27.95.
In this study Dr. Asiamah analyses the complex world of internal African politics in colonial Ghana. He explores the role of the so-called Asafo – "companies" in which mainly young men and women organized – in the political dynamics of Kwahu in particular (south-east of Kumasi). Other regions are covered as well. The Asafo in Kwahu achieved considerable power during the first half of the twentieth century. The author also elucidates the role of the Asafo in educating and mobilizing the rural population in this part of Ghana.

Sierra Leone

Blyden, Nemata Amelia. West Indians in West Africa, 1808-1880. The African Diaspora in Reverse. [Rochester Studies in African History and the Diaspora, vol. 8.] University of Rochester Press, Rochester 2000. xi, 258 pp. £50.00; $75.00.
This study examines the migration of black West Indians to Sierra Leone in the period after the abolition of the slave trade in Britain and the role they adopted there, especially that of the West Indians who arrived in the colony under the auspices of the British government to take up government positions. Spanning the period between 1808, when the British took over the colony of Sierra Leone, and 1880, when the number of West Indians as a distinct group in the colonial government dwindled as a result of a shift in British policy, Professor Blyden examines the historical development of the group, its contribution to the establishment of the colony of Sierra Leone and the reasons for its influence and power.

South Africa

Seekings, Jeremy. The UDF. A History of the United Democratic Front in South Africa, 1983-1991. David Philip, Cape Town; James Curry, Oxford; Ohio University Press, Athens 2000. xiii, 371 pp. Ill. $24.95.
The 1980s were crucial in the decline of the apartheid regime in South Africa. At the start of this decade, the regime tried to survive through political reforms. The failure of this effort was largely attributable to the major anti-apartheid coalition the United Democratic Front (UDF), which was established in 1983. The UDF led the successful campaigns against the Tricameral Parliament divided along racial lines and survived the repression during the revolt in the townships from 1984 onward. Professor Seekings has based this political history on over hundred interviews in addition to extensive written sources.


Bolland, O. Nigel. The Politics of Labour in the British Caribbean: The Social Origins of Authoritarianism and Democracy in the Labour Movement. Ian Randle Publishers, Kingston; James Curry, Oxford; Markus Wiener Publishers, Princeton 2001. xxii, 696 pp. £25.00.
This study aims to give a comprehensive overview of the politics of labour, the political culture and the role and development of labour organizations in the British Caribbean, focusing on the period from the mid-1930s until the mid-1950s, which was the beginning of constitutional decolonization. Tracing the roots of the labour movement in the plantation societies of the British Caribbean since the Emancipation of 1838, Professor Bolland concludes that although the new political institutions after decolonization were ostensibly democratic in purpose, they often exhibited authoritarian tendencies deeply rooted in the political culture inherited from colonialism and slavery. See also Ulbe Bosma's review in this volume.

Gambone, Michael D. Capturing the Revolution. The United States, Central America, and Nicaragua, 1961-1972. Praeger, Westport (Conn.) [etc.] 2001. xiv, 275 pp. £56.95. (Paper: £18.50.)
"This book proposes to integrate the issues of revolution and response into a more holistic study of the United States and Latin America." Cold War relations and the worsening social-economic problems in Latin America led President Kennedy to formulate the Alliance for Progress, an alternative policy proclaimed at Punta del Este in August 1961. The ideals of peaceful social-economic growth, as in post-war Western Europe, however, proved impossible to attain. According to Professor Gambone, this was caused by the War in Vietnam and the dollar crisis in the United States and by the intransigence of the local balances of power and militarization of social conflicts in Latin America.


Di Tella, Torcuato S. Perón and the Unions: The Early Years. [Research Papers, vol. 55.] Institute of Latin American Studies, London 2001. iv, 63 pp. £5.00.
This concise study, part of a larger work in preparation, examines the relationship between Perón and the Argentine working-class movements in the crucial early years of the Peronist regime (1945-1946). Although the majority of the working class was supportive of Perón, the support and involvement of the trade-union leadership has been much debated in the historiography. Based on a detailed prosopographic exploration of the various trade unions, Professor Di Tella concludes that the great majority of the established trade-union leadership remained in opposition to the Peronist regime, and that the autonomous working-class organization was subsequently replaced by an authoritarian and mobilizationist one.

Region and Nation: Politics, Economics, and Society in Twentieth-Century Argentina. Ed. by James P. Brennan and Ofelia Pianetto. St. Martin's Press, New York 2000. xvii, 233 pp. Maps.
The eight contributions to this volume aim to challenge both Argentina's supposed exceptionalism in Latin-American history and the Buenos Aires-centred focus of much of the existing historiography of twentieth-century Argentina. The themes dealt with include, among others, the persistence of political clientilism and oligarchic rule, enclave economies and precapitalist social relations; the role of traditional institutions such as the Catholic Church and the family; and intensive class conflict and working-class militancy.

Suriano, Juan. Anarquistas. Cultura y política libertaria en Buenos Aires, 1890-1910. Manantial, Buenos Aires 2001. 361 pp.
In this study Professor Suriano describes the intense political and cultural world of Argentine anarchism during the twenty most important years of its existence in Buenos Aires. After an introduction about the preceding events, the author reveals a world of groups, circles, trade unions and conferences. He also deals extensively with the press, festivals and the theatre. In the 1900s and 1910s anarchism was the strongest movement among the urban working class in Argentina. During these years special symbolic metaphors arose as well. The conclusion offers an analysis of the decline of Argentine anarchism after 1910. Repression, the rise of revolutionary syndicalism and spatial distribution of working-class neighbourhoods in greater Buenos Aires are the main concepts used here.


Labouring the Canadian Millennium. Writings on Work and Workers, History and Historiography. Ed. by Bryan D. Palmer. Canadian Committee on Labour History, St. John's (Newfoundland) 2000. 483 pp. Ill. C$20.00.
On the occasion of the new millennium, the editors of Labour/ Le Travail have brought together in this volume thirteen specially commissioned essays, which aim both to give an overview of the historiography of labour and work in the twentieth century, addressing the more traditional themes of union organizing and the politics of labour, and to focus on more innovative efforts to rechart and reconceptualize the meanings of work in modern society, including the role of gender, family and sex; the question of nationality; and cultural aspects, both of the working class itself and of labour historiography.

Rennie, Bradford James. The Rise of Agrarian Democracy. The United Farmers and Farm Women of Alberta 1909-1921. University of Toronto Press, Toronto [etc.] 2000. ix, 282 pp. Ill. $65.00; £42.00. (Paper: $24.95; £16.00.)
This study details the history of the United Farmers and Farm Women of Alberta (UFA/UFWA), one of the greatest agrarian and mass democratic movements in Canadian history in the first decades of the twentieth century. Dr. Rennie describes the events leading to the formation of the UFA in 1909, the emergence of a distinct "movement culture", the establishment of the UFWA and its development into the major political movement in Alberta, which was in power from 1921 to 1935. The author focuses on the farmers' gender assumption and class opposition and on agrarian ideals of a collective sense of responsibility, cooperation and confidence.


Brenner, Johanna. Women and the Politics of Class. Monthly Review Press, New York 2000 [recte 2001]. vi, 330 pp. $50.00. (Paper: $19.95.)
This English translation of El Anarquismo en Cuba (Madrid, 2000) aims to offer a general history of anarchism in Cuba from the 1860s to the present day. Mr Fernández, an anarchist militant in exile, gives a chronological overview of the development of anarchism in Cuba, its significance for the rise of the labour movement and its resistance to the dictatorship of Machado and Batista. Special attention is devoted to the hitherto neglected role of anarchism in the revolution of 1959 and the subsequent repression of anarchists under the Castro regime. See also Joan Casanovas's review in this volume.


Gonzales, Michael J. The Mexican Revolution, 1910-1940. [Diálogos.] University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque 2002. xi, 307 pp. Ill. Maps. $45.00. (Paper: $21.95.)
Professor Gonzales aims to offer in this study an overview of the Mexico Revolution and its causes during the nearly 35-year regime of Porfirio Díaz. According to the author, the main social-economic causes were land ownership, population growth and the proliferation of cash-cropping; while the main political ones were the increased centralization and entrenchment of the small political leadership. Financial dependence on European and especially U.S. capital was a constant destabilizing factor throughout the period. Cárdenas's establishment of the Partido Revolucionario Mexicano in 1938 meant that these three decades of violence culminated in the typically Mexican version of populist statism.


Parodi, Jorge. To Be a Worker. Identity and Politics in Peru. Ed., with an Introd., by Catherine Conaghan. Transl. by James Alstrum [and] Catherine Conaghan. [Latin America in Translation/en Traducción/em Tradução.] The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 2000. xx, 177 pp. £29.95. (Paper: £15.50.)
This is the English translation of "Ser obrero es algo relativo ...": Obreros, Clasimo y Politica (1986), a study of the changes in the political identity and economic strategies of the Peruvian working class in the 1970s and 1980s. Focusing on a large metal factory in Lima, Dr. Parodi traces the rise and decline of the modern labour movement in Peru. Using in-depth interviews the author aims to show how workers in their efforts to support themselves and their families during a period of political and economic crisis were increasingly forced to seek opportunities outside the industrial sector and in the process began to question their very identities as workers. See also Marcus Klein's review in this volume.

United States of America

American Radicalism. Ed. by Daniel Pope. [Blackwell Readers in American Social and Cultural History, vol. 5.] Blackwell Publishers, Malden [etc.] 2001. xii, 356 pp. Ill. £16.99.
This textbook on the history of American radicalism from the American Revolution to the end of the twentieth century brings together nine articles published between 1971 and 1995 that examine the radical tradition in American history and the social movements that have unfolded over this period. Topics included are women's movements, anarchism and the struggles of African Americans, urban workers and small family farmers against slavery, discrimination and exploitation. Documents and suggestions for further reading with each article support and illustrate the issues covered.

American Sexual Histories. Ed. by Elizabeth Reis. [Blackwell Readers in American Social and Cultural History, vol. 6.] Blackwell Publishers, Malden [etc.] 2001. xv, 416 pp. Ill. £55.00; $64.95. (Paper: £16.99; $27.95.)
This textbook on the history of sexuality in America from the colonial times to the present brings together fourteen recent articles published between 1985 and 1999 that aim to reflect the different historical analyses of sexuality and sexual trends. The essays deal with topics such as contraception, interracial sex, "free love", hysteria, homosexuality, reproductive issues and the sexual revolution. Documents and suggestions for further reading with each article support and illustrate the issues covered.

American Sexual Histories. Ed. by Elizabeth Reis. [Blackwell Readers in American Social and Cultural History, vol. 6.] Blackwell Publishers, Malden [etc.] 2001. xv, 416 pp. Ill. £55.00; $64.95. (Paper: £16.99; $27.95.)
This textbook on the history of sexuality in America from the colonial times to the present brings together fourteen recent articles published between 1985 and 1999 that aim to reflect the different historical analyses of sexuality and sexual trends. The essays deal with topics such as contraception, interracial sex, "free love", hysteria, homosexuality, reproductive issues and the sexual revolution. Documents and suggestions for further reading with each article support and illustrate the issues covered.

Anarchy! An Anthology of Emma Goldman's Mother Earth. Ed. and with commentary by Peter Glassgold. Counterpoint, Washington, D.C. 2001. xxxvi, 428 pp. Ill. $25.00; C$37.50.
This anthology brings together almost ninety articles and contributions that appeared between 1908 and 1919 in Mother Earth, the leading anarchist journal published in the United States by Emma Goldman. Included are writings by important anarchists from the beginning of the twentieth century, such as Goldman, Margaret Sanger, Peter Kropotkin and Alexander Berkman. Covering five main themes (anarchism, the woman question, literature, civil liberties and the social war), Mr. Glassgold has based the selection in part on unavailability elsewhere, originality, historical relevance and representativeness. A general introduction by the editor on Mother Earth and Goldman's role precedes the selection.

Arnesen, Eric. Brotherhoods of Color. Black Railroad Workers and the Struggle for Equality. Harvard University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. v, 332 pp. Ill. £28.95.
In this comprehensive study of African American railroad workers from the inception of the railroad in the United States at the beginning of the nineteenth century until the end of the twentieth century, Professor Arnesen analyses the systematic employment discrimination against black workers and the responses of African Americans. He shows how this practice severely limited black occupational advancement and restricted them to the low-paid job categories, such as track layers, porters, dining car attendants and station red caps. The agents of this employment discrimination included, according to the author, railroad company managers, powerful white railroad union leaders and government officials.

Berry, Chad. Southern Migrants, Northern Exiles. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2000. xiii, 236 pp. Ill. $44.95. (Paper: $21.95.)
Based on three larger oral history projects, as well as on dozens of interviews conducted by the author himself, Professor Berry explores in this study the massive out-migration of white southern workers to the Midwest, in the middle of the twentieth century, known as the great white migration. Focusing on the migrants' own experiences, the author argues that despite their negative reputation, Southern workers were generally economically successful, but that their close ties with Southern traditions and life-style caused a "spiritual exile".
The Civil Rights Movement. Ed. by Jack E. Davis. [Blackwell Readers in American Social and Cultural History, vol. 3.] Blackwell Publishers, Malden [etc.] 2001. xxiv, 314 pp. Ill. £50.00; $ 59.95. (Paper: £16.99; $27.95.)
This textbook on the Civil Rights Movement brings together twelve articles, published between 1991 and 1999, that cover topics such as the Movement's foundations in pre-World War II activism, the role of organized labour, the white resistance and its relation to anti-communism, the role of liberals and of women, the relationships between local and national initiatives, the black power movement and affirmative action since the 1960s. Appended are a detailed chronology and, with each article, supporting primary documents and suggestions for additional reading.

Deslippe, Dennis A. "Rights, Not Roses". Unions and the Rise of Working-Class Feminism, 1945-80. [The Working Class in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2000. x, 259 pp. Ill. $49.95. (Paper: $21.95.)
This study explores the fight for gender equality in the United States in the decades following World War II, through two case studies of the unions representing packinghouse workers and electrical workers. Focusing on how women and men in the unions shaped gender relations in contract negotiations, politics and the fight for equal rights legislation, Dr. Deslippe aims to explain why gender equality emerged as an issue in the 1960s, how working-class women contributed to the debate, and what changed with respect to the position of working-class women in the unions and views of middle-class women on gender equality.

Gillespie, Michele. Free Labor in an Unfree World. White Artisans in Slaveholding Georgia, 1789-1860. The University of Georgia Press, Athens [etc.] 2000. xxii, 236 pp. £33.95.
This study of white male artisans in the American South in the century preceding the Civil War focuses on the marginal and ambiguous social and professional position that white tradespeople held as skilled, free labourers in a slaveholding society. Professor Gillespie explores the migration of craft and trade workers to the South and the evolution of a rudimentary class identity during the post-Revolutionary period and then analyses, based in part on individual case studies, how social and economic opportunities for southern white artisans declined, and how efforts to organize a white working class were thwarted by the hegemony of slavery in the decades prior to the Civil War.

Harris, Howell John. Bloodless Victories. The Rise and Fall of the Open Shop in the Philadelphia Metal Trades, 1890-1940. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2000. xvii, 456 pp. £30.00; $44.95.
In this study of the labour relations in the Philadelphia Metal Trades between 1890 and 1940, Professor Harris analyses how employers in the 1910s formed an employers' association to resist unionism and effectively forced an open shop in the metal trade. In the 1930s, however, trade unions, backed by New Deal politicians, re-established the closed shop, until they once again lost their position of strength in the second half of the twentieth century.

Jepsen, Thomas C. My Sisters Telegraphic. Women in the Telegraph Office, 1846-1950. Ohio University Press, Athens 2000. x, 231 pp. Ill. $21.95.
Soon after the introduction of the telegraph in the United States in the 1840s, women started to work as telegraph operators. This study explores the history of women telegraphers in the period 1846-1950, dealing with daily operations at the telegraph office, social backgrounds of the women telegraphers, gender issues in the telegraph office and society at large, and ties with the labour movement. A separate chapter is devoted to the role of women telegraphers in literature and cinema. In the conclusion, Mr. Jepsen compares women telegraphers in the nineteenth century with women's work in information technology today.

Kelly, Brian. Race, Class, and Power in the Alabama Coalfields, 1908-21. [The Working Class in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2001. ix, 265 pp. Ill. $49.95. (Paper: $19.95.)
In this study of labour relations in the Alabama coalfields in the period marked by two hard-fought strikes (1908 and 1921), Dr. Kelly examines the efforts of employers in the aftermath of the 1908 strike to foment racial divisions as a means of splitting the workforce and weakening the miners' union. According to the author, Birmingham's small but influential black middle class actually played a significant role in this, indicating that class antagonism is just as essential as racial division for understanding labour relations in the Alabama coalfields. See also Robert H. Zieger's review in this volume.

Margo, Robert A. Wages and Labor Markets in the United States, 1820-1860. [NBER Series on Long-term Factors in Economic Development.] The University of Chicago Press, Chicago [etc.] 2000. xii, 200 pp. $28.00; £20.00.
Using two sources of evidence, Professor Margo constructs in this study wage series data for three occupational groups in four major American census regions and in California for the period 1820-1860. Based on these data and other evidence on prices, the author explores the antebellum economic development, concluding that real wages increased in the long run. While labour markets were reasonably effective in allocating labour, he concludes that a widening differential in wages between white-collar labour and other occupations and a persistent gap in wages between the South and the North are identifiable. See also Stephen T. Ziliak's review in this volume.

Millikan, William. A Union Against Unions. The Minneapolis Citizens Alliance and Its Fight Against Organized Labor, 1903-1947. Minnesota Historical Society Press, St. Paul (MN) 2001. xxxi, 495 pp. Ill. $34.95.
This study aims to offer a detailed portrait of the Minneapolis Citizens Alliance (CA) from its inception in 1903 to the passage of the Labor Relations Management Act of 1947. The Minneapolis CA was formed by business leaders to combat labour unions, which they regarded as a threat to their business interests. Mr. Millikan sketches how the CA, engaging in true class warfare, blacklisted union workers, ran a spy network and occasionally raised a private army to crush union opposition with brutal force, often in close cooperation with the police, the army, government agencies and the courts.

Schwartz, Marie Jenkins. Born in Bondage. Growing Up Enslaved in the Antebellum South. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 2000. x, 272 pp. Ill. £23.95.
This study of slave children in the Antebellum South deals with the complicated relation between the children of slaves on the one hand and their parents and the slaveholders on the other, who were both involved in raising them and could lay – often contradictory – claims on them. Professor Schwartz argues that most slave parents found subtle ways to pass on essential lessons about enduring bondage with dignity, despite the constant threat of separation and the need to submit to the slave owner.

Thompson, Heather Ann. Whose Detroit? Politics, Labor, and Race in a Modern American City. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 2001. viii, 295 pp. Ill. $29.95.
In this study of the tumultuous struggles for civil and labour rights in the city of Detroit during the 1960s and 1970s and their social, economic and political backgrounds, Professor Thompson uses the stories of the 1967 riot and of James Johnson Jr – an African American automobile worker, who after suffering racial discrimination on the workfloor for years, shot three white workers at a Chrysler plant – as symbols in her analysis of the severe political and racial crises of the Motor City.


Guide to the Asian Collections at the International Institute of Social History. Ed. by Emile Schwidder & Eef Vermeij. Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 2001. 184 pp. Ill. € 17.92.
Reflecting Asia's enlarged role in the world arena, the IISH decided to feature Asia in its activities and in 1996 established an Asia Department covering the social history and the history of progressive and emancipatory political movements in Asia. This guide offers a survey of all collections with a substantial Asian interest located at the International Institute of Social History (IISH) in Amsterdam. The collections comprise archival, library and audiovisual materials, including materials from several oral history projects.


Parthasarathi, Prasannan. The Transition to a Colonial Economy. Weavers, Merchants and Kings in South India 1720-1800. [Cambridge Studies in Indian History and Society, vol. 7.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. xii, 165 pp. £37.00; $54.95.
In this study, Professor Parthasarathi examines the transformation of Indian society and its economy under British rule in the eighteenth century. Focusing on the labouring classes, particularly those in the South Indian textile industry, the author argues that their treatment during this transition had no precedent in the precolonial past. He demonstrates that, until the late eighteenth century, labouring groups in South India actually had considerable power and earned incomes well above subsistence level, and that the poverty and low wages of colonial India were a direct product of colonial rule. See also Dietmar Rothermund's review in this volume.


Anarchisten gegen Hitler. Anarchisten, Anarcho-Syndikalisten, Rätekommunisten in Widerstand und Exil. Hrsg. von Adreas G. Graf. Lukas Verlag, Berlin 2001. 317 pp. Ill. € 25.00.
The twelve essays in this collection, of which two are in English, are based on papers presented at a colloquium organized in May 1997 at the Free University in Berlin and deal with the resistance activities of anarchists, anarcho-syndicalists, council communists and trotskyists against national socialism. The subjects of the contributions include the resistance of German anarchists against nazism (Andreas Graf), Italian anarchists' struggle against fascism and nazism (Ronald Creagh), Spanish anarchism after 1939 in the French resistance and domestic resistance to the Franco regime (Rainer Tosstorff) and the anarcho-syndicalist German brothers August, Fritz and Willy Brenner (Tânia Ünlüda ). Günter Wernicke examines the persecution of trotskyists in the GDR by the Staatssicherheitsdienst after 1945.

Cultural Diversity in Trade Unions. A challenge to class identity? Ed. by Johan Wets. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2000. xii, 238 pp. £39.95.
The ten essays in this volume, all based on a seminar held in Louvain (Belgium) in February 1997, deal with social and cultural divisions within the European labour population in the second half of the twentieth century. Four contributions deal with regional and local cultural diversities and their influence on solidarity with the labour movements in Belgium, Italy, Spain and (East) Germany. Five contributions deal with the challenge facing the trade unions when dealing with immigrants. Staffan Zetterholm contributes an introductory essay on the effects of cultural and regional diversity on the legitimacy of a political system or an organization such as trade unions.

Early Modern Capitalism. Economic and social change in Europe, 1400-1800. Ed. by Maarten Prak. [Routledge Explorations in Economic History.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2001. xv, 236 pp. £60.00.
Based on papers, presented at the third Braudel Days, organized in Wassenaar, the Netherlands, in May 1997, the nine contributions to this volume reflect recent research on economic growth and the emergence of capital and labour markets during the early modern period, i.e. during the centuries preceding the Industrial Revolution. Issues included are the nature of the late medieval crisis, the quantitative dimensions of economic growth and the consumption of energy, proto-industry, proletarianization and labour mobility. The authors all emphasize the diversity in the economic experience of early modern Europe.

Entstalinisierungskrise in Ostmitteleuropa 1953-1956. Vom 17. Juni bis zum ungarischen Volksaufstand. Politische, militärische, soziale und nationale Dimensionen. Hrsg. und eingel. von Jan Foitzik. Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn [etc.] 2001. 393 pp. € 51.60
This volume encompasses, apart from an introductory contribution by Jan Foitzik, eleven contributions on the social, political and military developments in Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia and the GDR, from the death of Stalin to the Hungarian uprising of 1956, highlighting the process of destalinization in the different national contexts. The articles are based on recently opened archives in the countries concerned. Furthermore, nine documents from the former archives of the Central Committee of the CPSU about Janos Kadar's rise to power in November-December 1956 are published here in German translation.

Holmes, Janice. Religious Revivals in Britain and Ireland 1859-1905. Irish Academic Press, Dublin [etc.] 2000. xxii, 281 pp. Ill. £35.00; $52.50.
Religious revivals, which are powerful explosions of popular religious fervour that occur at periodic intervals within the life-cycle of a church or denomination, lost much of their spontaneous and ecstatic quality during the nineteenth century in Britain and Ireland. This study examines the phenomenon of revivalism in a period of decline, the second half of the nineteenth century. Dr. Holmes explores the changing nature of revivalism in this period by looking at those who promoted it, such as working-class men, visiting American preachers and a small but significant number of women, and examines the response to this more "professionalized" revivalism from within the evangelical community.

Israel, Jonathan I. Radical Enlightenment. Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750. Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 2001. xxi, 826 pp. Ill. £30.00.
In this comprehensive new interpretation of the role of the Radical Enlightenment in the development and direction of the general European Enlightenment, Professor Israel aims to demonstrate first that the Enlightenment was a truly integrated intellectual and cultural movement that reflected unprecedented cohesion in European intellectual culture in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. In most cases, newly invented channels of communication, such as erudite journals and the "universal" library, were crucial in this integration. Second, he argues that contrary to most previous interpretations the Radical Enlightenment, and especially Spinoza and Spinozism, were an integral, vital and even more internationally cohesive part of the mainstream Enlightenment.

Levine, David. At the Dawn of Modernity. Biology, Culture, and Material Life in Europe after the Year 1000. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 2001. vii, 431 pp. $45.00.
Covering the vast period from the eleventh century until the outbreak of the Black Death in 1348, this study aims to offer a wide-ranging synthesis of the biological, demographic and cultural medieval origins of the "European miracle", Europe's rise to world hegemony after 1450. Focusing on the transition from feudalism to modernity, Professor Levine combines a top-down and bottom-up perspective, exploring both the Gregorian Reformation of Christianity and the development of centralizing state formation and the transformations in the demographic and social relations that structured everyday life. See also Peter Hoppenbrouwers's review in this volume.

Migration, Mobility and Modernization. Ed. by David J. Siddle. [Liverpool Studies in European Population, vol. 7.] Liverpool University Press, Liverpool 2000. ix, 225 pp. Maps. £32.00 (Paper: £14.95.)
Using alternative sources in many cases, such as apprentice books, guild and craft records, legal documents and diaries, the eight essays in this volume on mobility, migration and migrational behaviour in Europe from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries focus on the behaviour of individuals, as well as on aggregate numbers, to analyse and explain processes of movement and migration. Contributors include William J. Smyth, Laurence Fontaine, John Langton, Diana E. Ascott, Fiona Lewis, Antoinette Fauve-Chamoux, Jacinta Prunty, Josef Ehmer, Colin G. Pooley and Jean Turnbull.

Networking Europe. Essays on Regionalism and Social Democracy. Ed. by Eberhard Bort and Neil Evans. [Liverpool Studies in European Regional Cultures, vol. 6.] Liverpool University Press, Liverpool 2000. viii, 488 pp. Ill. Maps. £17.50.
The twenty-six contributions to this volume, a selection of papers presented at the annual Freudenstadt symposia on European Regionalism between 1991 and 1999, reflect on the role of regionalism and explore the consequences of regionalization for European unification and the role of social democracy in this process. The themes included are working-class experience in European regionalism, the consequences of unification and regionalism for women, the role of racism and xenophobia and the interaction between supranational, national, regional and sub-regional structures of government.

Reinterpreting Revolution in Twentieth-Century Europe. Ed. by Moira Donald [and] Tim Rees. [Themes in Focus.] Macmillan Press, Basingstoke [etc.] 2001. vi, 242 pp. £47.50.
This volume with ten contributions aims to examine the changing and conflicting meanings of political revolution in Europe in the twentieth century. Case studies included deal with radical political change in Russia in 1905, the Russian Revolution in 1917, Nazism, Stalin's great turn in the 1930s, the Spanish Civil War and Eastern Europe in 1989-1991. Pamela Pilbeam explores the legacy of the nineteenth century for the twentieth, while the editors and Krishan Kumar review the nature of revolutionary political change and place twentieth-century Europe in a global context of revolution.


Ansell, Christopher K. Schism and Solidarity in Social Movements. The Politics of Labor in the French Third Republic. [Structural Analysis in the Social Sciences, vol. 20.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. xiii, 278 pp. £40.00; $60.00.
This study analyses the organizational and ideological development of the French labour movement between 1872 and 1922, the year the French Communist Party was established. Focusing on the dynamic interplay between organization, ideology and political mobilization that produced ongoing shifts between ideological schisms and broad-based solidarity, Professor Ansell aims to develop a more generic understanding of schism and solidarity in organizations and social movements.

Berthuin, Jérémie. De l'espoir à la désillusion. La CGT-SR et la Révolution espagnole. Juillet 1936 - décembre 1937. Éditions CNT-Région parisienne, Paris 2000. 198 pp. Ill. € 9.14.
Based on materials of the weekly Le Combat syndicaliste, this study analyses the disposition of the small French anarcho-syndicalist Confédération générale du travail syndicaliste (CGT-SR) towards the Spanish Civil War and, in particular, towards the anarcho-syndicalist revolution in Spain between July 1936 and December 1937. The author first sketches the political and ideological parallels between the CGT-SR and the Spanish CNT-FAI and then deals with the response of the CGT-SR to the outbreak of the Civil War, the social revolution that took place, the active participation of CGT-SR members in the war, the schism within the CGT-SR as a result of the developments within the CNT-FAI and the reaction to the defeat of the anarcho-syndicalists within the Spanish revolutionary camp.

Bonnot de Mably, Gabriel. Gabriel Bonnot de Mably, Politische Texte 1751-1783. Hrsg. von Hans Erich Bödeker [und] Peter Friedemann. Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden 2000. 366 pp.
The French philosopher Gabriel Bonnot de Mably (1709-1785) was one of the major representatives and prolific political writers of the French Enlightenment. This annotated anthology of his political texts – the first German anthology of his work – aims to give an overview of Bonnot de Mably's critical writings on the crisis of the ancien regime and the political discourse between the 1740s and the eve of the French Revolution. In their introduction the editors sketch Bonnet de Mably's career as political writer. A bibliography of his works is appended.

Bouchet, Thomas. Le roi et les barricades. Une histoire des 5 et 6 juin 1832. [Histoires, cultures et sociétés.] Seli Arslan, Paris 2000. 221 pp. Ill. Maps.
This study deals with the insurrection in Paris on 5 and 6 June 1832, the first Republican uprising after the beginning of the July monarchy in 1830. In addition to examining the actual events, background and motives, and aftermath, Mr. Bouchet considers the commemoration of 5 and 6 June 1832, in both the collective popular memory and in the historiography and literature. The insurrection featured in Victor Hugo's Les Misérables is one important example of such commemoration.

Durand, Pierre. Maurice Thorez (1900-1964). Le fondateur. Essai biographique. Le Temps des Cerises, Pantin 2000. 258 pp. Ill. F.fr. 120.00.
This is the second biography of Maurice Thorez (1900-1964), long-time leader of the French Communist Party (PCF) in the same year (see IRSH, this volume, p. 156). Mr. Durand, former editor of the communist paper L'Humanité and an acquaintance of Thorez, focuses in particular on Thorez's personality.

Hourmant, François. Au pays de l'Avenir radieux. Voyages des intellectuels français en URSS, à Cuba et en Chine populaire. [Collection historique.] Aubier, Paris 2000. 281 pp.
Numerous French left-wing writers and intellectuals, both well-known and less famous, went on "red cruises" to the Soviet Union, Cuba or the People's Republic of China during the twentieth century to experience socialism as it existed in the ideal states. In this study, Mr. Hourmant explores the motives of the travellers and the host regimes, the actual practice of these travels, their impact on the travellers, the propagandistic and literary use of their experiences and testimonies and the many amazing forms of censorship and self-censorship involved.

Militantisme et histoire. Éd. par Marie-Danielle Demélas, avec la collab. d'Alain Boscus. [Tempus.] Presses Universitaires du Mirail, Toulouse 2000. 326 pp. Ill. € 22.87.
In this Festschrift for Professor Rolande Trempé, well-known French historian of labour, labour movements and labour militancy, the twenty-six contributions cover various aspects of the relation between activism and writing history, between involvement as a militant and distancing as a historian. The themes dealt with reflect the main interests in Professor Trempé's writings and include, among others, the history of mining labour and miners' militancy, the history of social movements, May 1968 and the role of women in the Résistance.

Robien, Gilles de. Alexis de Tocqueville. [Grandes Biographies.] Flammarion, n.p. [Paris] 2000. 465 pp.
This biography of Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859), one of the major political thinkers of the nineteenth century and a founding father of modern liberalism, offers a straightforward chronological sketch of his life, his political career from the July Monarchy to the Second Republic and the development of his political ideas. Mr. de Robien, a French liberal politician himself, highlights de Tocqueville's contribution to the development of democratic liberalism.


Die Ausdehnungsgesetzgebung und die Praxis der Unfallversicherung. Bearb. von Wolfgang Ayass. [Quellensammlung zur Geschichte der Deutschen Sozialpolitik 1867 bis 1914; II. Abt.: Von der kaiserlichen Sozialbotschaft bis zu den Februarerlassen Wilhelms II. (1881 bis 1890), Band 2., Teil 2.] WBG, Darmstadt 2001. xlii, 684 pp. € 92.00; S.fr. 155.00.
This is the second tome of the second volume in a series of source editions on the history of German social policy from 1881 to 1890, which is part of a larger project of source editions on the history of German social policy from 1867 to 1914. The first tome of this volume was published in 1995 and annotated in IRSH, 42 (1997), p. 327. The selection of documents in this tome focuses on the extension of the accident insurance act of 6 July 1884 and covers other trades and economic sectors, including agriculture and forestry and the implementation of the accident insurance act.

Biographisches Handbuch der Reichsrätekongresse 1918/19. Bearb. von Sabine Roß. [Handbücher zur Geschichte des Parlamentarismus und der politischen Parteien, Band 11.] Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 2000. 296 pp. Ill.
In December 1918 and April 1919, the Reichsrätekongressen (the only two congresses of the German National Council), convened in Berlin to debate the future of Germany in these "parliaments of the German revolution". Dr. Ross has brought together biographical entries of all 708 delegates. The entries are preceded by a collective biography of the congresses, dealing with the social, cultural, economic and political backgrounds of the delegates, and an introduction on the role of the congresses in the history of the German Revolution of 1918/1919.

Europäische Sozialgeschichte. Festschrift für Wolfgang Schieder. Hrsg. von Christof Dipper, Lutz Klinkhammer und Alexander Nützenadel. [Historische Forschungen, Band 68.] Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2000. xiv, 558 pp. € 76.00; S.fr. 131.00.
This Festschrift for Professor Wolfgang Schieder, one of the major social historians in Germany, published on the occasion of his sixty-fifth birthday, brings together thirty-three essays on issues that reflect the main themes in his work, which has always been internationally comparative. The six major themes covered are political movements and regimes; revolutions and upheavals; classes and professions; mentalities and cultures; discourses and identities; and methodology and historiography of social history.

Halder, Winfrid. "Modell für Deutschland". Wirtschaftspolitik in Sachsen 1945-1948. Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn [etc.] 2001. 638 pp. € 93.80.
German communists in the Soviet Occupation Zone received an opportunity in the period from 1945 to 1948 to apply their ideas about economic restructuring and policy. As the industrial heartland, Saxony served as the "role model for Germany". In this dissertation (Technical University, Dresden, 1999) Dr. Halder explores the results of this new economic policy, which revolved around economic planning and government control, to assess the extent to which this economic policy was an improvement over the market economy.

"Hier ißt man anstadt Kardofln un Schwarzbrodt Pasteten..." Die deutschen Überseewanderung des 19. Jahrhunderts in Zeitzeugnissen. Bearb. von Peter Maidl. Hrsg. von Pankraz Fried. [Veröffentlichungen der Schwäbischen Forschungsgemeinschaft, Reihe 9, Historische Migrationsforschung in Bayerisch-Schwaben, Band 1.] Wißner, Augsburg 2000. xii, 340 pp. Ill. € 25.00.
This source edition comprises 67 documents on transatlantic migration from Germany (especially Bavaria and Swabia) to the United States and other transatlantic destinations. Both official documents, e.g. from German emigration authorities, and personal documents, such as letters, travel reports and reports on the experiences overseas, are enclosed. The concise introduction covers the general course of migration, from requests for permission, travel to the port of departure and passage, to arrival and settlement. A special section is devoted to return migration.

Perspektiven der Gesellschaftsgeschichte. Hrsg. von Paul Nolte, Manfred Hettling, Frank-Michael Kuhlemann [und] Hans Walter Schmuhl. Verlag C.H. Beck, München 2000. vi, 171 pp. € 29.90; S.fr. 52.50.
Based on a colloquium, organized in October 1996 at the University of Bielefeld in honour of the sixty-fifth birthday of Professor Hans-Ulrich Wehler, the thirteen contributions to this volume reflect on the achievements, limitations and perspectives of the Gesellschaftsgeschichte, the German school of social history, as it was developed from the late 1960s onward by Wehler and others. Themes dealt with include the relation with cultural history, the role of agency, emotions and violence in Gesellschaftsgeschichte, interdisciplinary research and the relationship of history with other social sciences, as well as the relation of Gesellschaftsgeschichte to the public. In a concluding chapter, Professor Wehler discusses prospects for Gesellschaftsgeschichte in the twenty-first century.

Pinkard, Terry. Hegel. A Biography. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2000. xx, 780 pp. Ill. £25.00; $39.95. (Paper: £17.95; $24.95.)
This biography of one of the founders of modern philosophy, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831), aims to offer not only a complete, up-to-date account of his life but also an accessible overview of the key philosophical concepts in Hegel's work. Situating Hegel in the context of the political, economic, social and scientific revolutions of his period, Professor Pinkard characterizes Hegel as a complex and fascinating figure in the emerging European modernity.

Rivoluzione e controrivoluzione in Germania 1918-1920. Dalla fondazione del Partito comunista al putsch di Kapp. [ Di] Paul Frölich, Rudolf Lindau, Albert Schreiner [e] Jakob Walcher. Edizioni PANTAREI, Milano 2001. xxvii, 449 pp. Ill. Maps. € 15.50.
This is the Italian translation of the Illustrierte Geschichte der deutschen Revolution, which was published by the Internationaler Arbeiter-Verlag in Berlin in 1929 as the collective work of 28 authors. The Italian publisher argues in the introduction that the real authors were Frölich, Lindau, Schreiner and Walcher, of whom three were expelled from the KPD at the time of his publication, while one (Lindau) was removed from the offices he held in the party. The book is a detailed and richly documented history of the two turbulent years after the end of World War I. It follows Frölich's Guerra e politica in Germania 1914-1918, which this publisher issued in 1995.

Schochat, Asriel. Der Ursprung der jüdischen Aufklärung in Deutschland. Aus dem Hebräischen von Wolfgang Jeremias. Mit einem Vorwort von Michael Graetz. [Campus Judaica, Band 14.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt [etc.] 2000. 476 pp. € 51.00; S.fr. 89.00.
This is the German translation of an original Hebrew study, Im chillufej tekufot [An der Epochenwende. Beginn der Aufklärung bei den deutschen Juden 1700-1750] (1960). In this study Professor Schochat (1906-1993) has traced the origins of the Jewish Enlightenment in Germany (Haskalah) back to the first half of the eighteenth century and has placed the intellectual, ideological and scholarly developments, which are generally seen as constitutive to the Jewish Enlightenment and traditionally situated from the 1750s onward, in their longer-term social and cultural contexts..

Great Britain

Bush, Julia. Edwardian Ladies and Imperial Power. [Women, Power and Politics.] Leicester University Press, London [etc.] 2000. xii, 242 pp. Ill. £45.00; $75.00.
This study evaluates the nature and impact of organized female imperialism in Edwardian Britain. Dr. Bush analyses aristocratic and upper-middle-class women's involvement in imperialist associations and their relationship with male imperialist leaders and male-dominated patriotic leagues and explores the "women's work" of female emigration, education, colonial hospitality and imperial racial ideology. The author concludes that women's imperialist associations formed a significant element in the broader women's movement of the era.

Darlington, Ralph and Dave Lyddon. Glorious Summer. Class struggle in Britain, 1972. Bookmarks, London [etc.] 2001. xii, 304 pp. Ill. £13.99.
During the years 1969-1974, Britain experienced a wave of strikes that peaked in 1972. This study describes the main industrial disputes in this year: the miners' pay strikes in January and February; the dockers' dispute over the containerization; the building workers' pay strike; a pay dispute in engineering; and industrial action on the railways. The authors analyse the industrial and political backgrounds to these events in 1972 and then focus on the miners' strike, the railway dispute and the engineering sit-ins in Greater Manchester.

The English Civil War. The Essential Readings. Ed. by Peter Gaunt. [Blackwell Essential Readings in History.] Blackwell Publishers, Oxford [etc.] 2000. viii, 360 pp. £55.00; $69.95. (Paper: £15.99; $29.95.)
This volume brings together fourteen articles on the English Civil War, which were published between 1973 and 1994, introduced and contextualized by the editor. A general introduction, "What was the English Revolution?" by John Morrill, Brian Manning and David Underdown (1984) is reprinted as well. Five essays on the causes, five on the course and three on the consequences of the English Civil War are reprinted. A selected bibliography is appended.

Essex Pauper Letters 1731-1837. Ed. by Thomas Sokoll. [Records of Social and Economic History, New Series, vol. 30.] Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 2001. xli, 727 pp. Ill. Maps. £50.00.
The parochial records of the "old" English poor law before 1834 include letters to the overseers of the poor that came from the poor themselves. Some 750 of those pauper letters, all those presently known to survive in the county of Essex, are brought together in this volume. As personal testimonies of people claiming relief, the pauper letters provide insight into the living conditions, experiences and attitudes of the labouring poor in late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century England. In his introduction, Dr. Sokoll argues that the documents reveal the strong belief of the poor in their right to relief and their relatively powerful position in negotiating their case with the overseers.

Hardy, Dennis. Utopian England. Community Experiments 1900-1945. [Studies in History, Planning and the Environment.] E & FN Spon, London 2000. ix, 305 pp. Ill. Maps. £22.99.
In this sequel to his Alternative Communities in Nineteenth Century England (1979) (see IRSH, 25 (1980), pp. 298f.), Professor Hardy charts the utopian ideals and experiments in the twentieth century. The dramatic events in the first half of twentieth century, World War I, the rise of fascism, and World War II led several utopian ideals from various origins to be implemented, with the involvement of various literary, intellectual and artistic icons of the time, including George Bernard Shaw, George Orwell, H.G. Wells, D.H. Lawrence, Eric Gill and Virginia Woolf.

Holstun, James. Ehud's Dagger. Class Struggle in the English Revolution. Verso, London [etc.] 2000. xix, 460 pp. £25.00.
In this re-interpretation of the role of the lower classes in the English Revolution, Professor Holstun adopts a clear Marxist perspective to reconstruct the history of the working-class in the English Revolution as a history from below. After first engaging current, postmodernist interpretations of the English Revolution, he focuses on five "radical projects": the assassination of the Duke of Buckingham in 1628 by John Felton; the role of the common soldiers in the Puritan New Model Army; the Fifth Monarchist visionary Anna Trapnel; the Leveller theorist and Agitator Edward Sexby; and the agrarian communist Diggers of Surrey and their leader Gerrard Winstanley.

Jaffe, James A. Striking a bargain. Work and industrial relations in England 1815-1865. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 2000; distr. excl. in the USA by St. Martin's Press, New York. x, 273 pp. £45.00.
In this exploration of the nature of work and industrial relations in England in the first half of the nineteenth century, Professor Jaffe argues that, contrary to the prevailing assumptions, continuous bargaining was already taking place on the shopfloors in this period about issues such as wages, work-loads and working conditions. Employer-employee relations were based, according to the author, on a sense of reciprocity and mutual obligations.

King, Steven and Geoffrey Timmins. Making Sense of the Industrial Revolution. [Manchester Studies in Modern History.] Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 2001; distrib. excl. in the USA by Palgrave, New York. xiii, 402 pp. Ill. Maps. £17.99.
Opening with a summary of the major debates in the literature on this period, this textbook on the Industrial Revolution advocates re-introducing a regional approach and viewing the period 1700-1850 as one of fundamental change in British social and economic history. Looking at the development of the economic structure, including financing, technological advances, markets and demands and agricultural progress, the authors examine the impact of economic growth on demography, household economy, families and the built environment.

McKibbin, Ross. Classes and Cultures. England 1918-1951. Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 2000. x, 568 pp. £14.99.
In this study Professor McKibbin explores the ways that class and class culture characterized English society between 1918 and 1951. Focusing on the lower and middle classes, he investigates how class influenced various aspects and domains of society: families and family life, friends and neighbours, the workplace, schools and colleges, religion, sexuality, sports, music, film and radio. He also highlights the increasing Americanization of English society in this period.

Perkins, Maureen. The Reform of Time. Magic and Modernity. Pluto Press, London [etc.] 2001. ix, 158 pp. Ill. £45.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
Focusing on the social history of time management, the reform in nineteenth-century Britain of the understanding of time and temporality and the development of exact measurement of time, Dr. Perkins explores in this study how modernity brought about a decline in the status of magic and magical practices. Following E.P. Thompson's argument of internalization of the temporal accuracy by workers in the late eighteenth century, she argues that another type of internalization took place in the nineteenth century, that of temporal uniformity. See also Hans de Waardt's review in this volume.

Woodhams, Stephen. History in the Making. Raymond Williams, Edward Thompson and Radical Intellectuals 1936-1956. Merlin Press, London 2001; Fernwood Publishing, [Halifax]; Pluto Press Australia, [Sydney, etc.]. viii, 221 pp. £30.00; $49.95. (Paper: £14.95; $21.50.)
This is a collective biography of five prominent radical British historians who grew up in the 1930s and were influential in the New Left of the 1950s: Raymond Williams, Dorothy and Edward Thompson, John Saville and Ralph Miliband. Examining their backgrounds and social and cultural contexts, Dr. Woodhams sees their moral socialism as it was shaped in the 1930s as their chief similarity. He focuses particularly on Raymond Williams's involvement in adult education and the group's activities around the journal The Reasoner and in the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. See also John Callaghan's review in this volume.


Filippo Turati. Bibliografia degli scritti 1881-1926. A cura di Paola Furlan. [Strumenti e Fonti, 19.] Piero Lacaita Editore, Manduria [etc.] 2001. xix, 373 pp. Ill. € 20.00.
This annotated bibliography is the latest in the series of source publications issued by the Fondazione di studi storici "Filippo Turati" dedicated to research on Turati. Various sections of his correspondence appeared previously (see IRSH, 46 (2001), p. 313f.). This bibliography features over one thousand entries of books, articles, speeches, etc. in the period from 1881 to 1926 in chronological order. Collective articles by the editors of the journal Critica sociale, of which Turati was in charge, are listed as well. The entries on journal articles contain an abstract. The book concludes with indices of titles and persons.

Galleani, Luigi. Faccia a faccia col nemico. Cronache giudiziarie dell'anarchismo militante. A cura di Giuseppe Galzerano. [Atti e memorie del popolo.] Galzerano Editore, Casalvelino Scalo (Salerno) 2001. xxxii, 504 pp. Ill. € 25.82.
This is a new edition of an anthology by Luigi Galleani (1861-1931), which was first published in 1914 by the Gruppo Autonomo di East Boston. After abandoning his legal studies, Galleani became an anarchist publicist and agitator. In 1901 he moved to the United States, where he edited La Questione Sociale at first and then edited Cronaca Sovversiva from 1903 until his deportation to Italy in 1919. The anthology comprises 15 accounts of legal trials of anarchist perpetrators of attacks that appeared previously as an article in Cronaca Sovversiva. Ravachol, Henry, Passanante and Kropotkin were among the defendants in these cases. The publisher has added a brief biography of Galleani.

Memorie di una generazione. Piero Boni dalle "Brigate Matteotti" alla Cgil (1943-1977). A cura di Simone Neri Serneri. [Strumenti e Fonti, 18.] Piero Lacaita Editore, Manduria [etc.] 2001. 300 pp. € 15.34.
This volume contains nineteen essays and speeches by Piero Boni (1920) from 1948 to 1977, when he figured prominently in the Confederazione generale italiana del lavoro (Cgil). After fighting with the partisans, he joined this confederation, where he served first as the national secretary to the union of chemical workers and then as secretary general of the metalworkers union and deputy secretary general of the Cgil in the 1970s. An extended interview with Boni conducted by Simone Neri Serneri precedes his articles. In her introduction the editor writes that the volume was compiled from the perspective of Boni's course of life, which exemplified that of an entire generation of anti-fascists, to depict the history of the Cgil.

Riforme e istituzioni fra Otto e Novecento. A cura di Luigi Cavazzoli e Carlo G. Lacaita. [Società e Cultura, 24.] Piero Lacaita Editore, Manduria [etc.] 2002. viii, 439 pp. € 20.00.
This volume encompasses the nineteen contributions to a colloquium, held in October 2000 in Mantegna, initiated in part by the Fondazione di studi storici "Filippo Turati". In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries many different fields of Italian society underwent rapid modernization: economics, infrastructure and education. These essays cover the institutions and individuals responsible for this modernization. They also elaborate on the cultural backgrounds of the actors and their relation to civil society. The essays highlight government administration, political movements, ideologies among the ruling classes, technicians and professionals and education and the press.

The Netherlands

Schmidt, Ariadne. Overleven na de dood. Weduwen in Leiden in de Gouden Eeuw. Uitgeverij Prometheus/Bert Bakker, Amsterdam 2001. 333 pp. Ill. € 22.46.
Based on administrative, fiscal and legal sources, this dissertation (University of Amsterdam, 2001) explores the implications of widowhood for the legal, social and economic status of women in the city of Leyden during the Dutch Golden Age in the seventeenth century. Widows constituted a considerable minority in early modern urban society. Dr. Schmidt concludes that both the egalitarian nature of Dutch inheritance laws and the dominance of the nuclear family influenced the specificity of the situation for widows in Holland. See also Martha Howell's review in this volume.

Wals, Henk. Makers en Stakers. Amsterdamse bouwvakarbeiders en hun bestaansstrategieën in het eerste kwart van de twintigste eeuw. [IISG: Studies + Essays, 32.] Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 2001. 374 pp. Ill. D.fl. 58.40.
This dissertation (University of Amsterdam, 2001) explores the living strategies of construction workers in Amsterdam in the first quarter of the twentieth century. Dr. Wals sketches how structural changes in the building industry after 1870 affected the traditional job security of the various occupations in the trade and analyses how workers and their families took different measures to provide themselves with a livelihood and cope with risks such as unemployment. He argues that both the family budget and aspects of honour and self-respect played a major role in decisions such as whether or not to join a trade union, and if so, which one.


Pickhan, Gertrud. "Gegen den Strom". Der Allgemeine Jüdische Arbeiterbund "Bund" in Polen 1918-1939. [Schriften des Simon-Dubnow-Instituts Leipzig, Band 1.] Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart [etc.] 2001. 445 pp. € 68.00; S.fr. 117.00.
This study aims to give a comprehensive history of the Allgemeine Jüdische Arbeiterbund, commonly known as the Bund, in the period 1918-1939. Professor Pickhan aims to sketch how the Bund, a socialist, antinationalist political party of Jewish workers, founded in 1897 in Vilna, became an important political force on the eve of World War II as the dominant political movement among the Jewish population in Poland and, furthermore, was pivotal in the flourishing of Yiddish culture in this period.

Russia – Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Baron, Samuel H. Bloody Saturday in the Soviet Union. Novocherkassk, 1962. Stanford University Press, Stanford (Cal.) 2001. xviii, 241 pp. Ill. Maps. $45.00; £35.00.
On June 1, 1962, Pravda disclosed Chrushchev's decision to raise the prices of meat and butter steeply. That same day thousands of workers of the locomotive factory NEVZ in Novocherkassk went on strike spontaneously. As a result, more than hundred workers were put on trial. Seven were executed, and many others received long prison terms. These events remained virtually unknown for a long time. Only with the advent of glasnost did journalists begin to investigate the story. Professor Baron has written the first comprehensive study of this course of events. The book details its background, process and cover-up by the government and analyses the role of Novocherkassk in the demise of the Soviet Union.

Chatterjee, Choi. Celebrating Women. Gender, Festival Culture, and Bolshevik Ideology, 1910-1939. [Pitt Series in Russian and East European Studies.] University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh (PA) 2002. x, 223 pp. Ill. $34.95.
This study traces the development of International Women's Day in Russia and the Soviet Union from 1910 to 1939 – from its origin at the women's conference of the Second International in Copenhagen to one of the important events on the Soviet calendar, together with May Day and the anniversary of the October Revolution in the 1920s and its role in Stalinist propaganda during the 1930s. The author examines the development of Soviet holiday rituals and their relation to the changing Bolshevik identity, the strategies used in Soviet propaganda and the evolution of the "New Soviet Woman's" public identity.

Getzler, Israel. Nikolai Sukhanov. Chronicler of the Russian Revolution. [St Antony's Series.] Palgrave (in assoc. with St Antony's College, Oxford), Basingstoke [etc.] 2002. xix, 226 pp. Ill. £42.50.
Since virtually all his personal papers have disappeared, this book is an attempt at a political and intellectual portrait, rather than a full-fledged biography of Nikolai Sukhanov (1882-1940). Getzler's study revolves around Sukhanov's seven-volume Zapiski o revoliutsii (Notes on the Revolution), a compelling and incisive account of the events of 1917 by a deeply committed participant. Sukhanov emerges as an independent-minded revolutionary intellectual. As an agrarian economist he championed the obshchina, the Russian village commune, against the collectivization policy during the agrarian debates of the 1920s. He was arrested in 1930, was a defendant at the March 1931 Menshevik show-trial and was shot in June 1940, as the victim of a trumped-up charge of spying for Germany.

Goldman, Wendy Z. Women at the Gates. Gender and Industry in Stalin's Russia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2002. xvii, 294 pp. Ill. £47.50; $60.00. (Paper: £17.95; $23.00.)
This study is about the participation of women in Soviet Russian industry. It examines the gender segregation of industry and shows how in the 1920s "gates" – the author's metaphor for the state's policy to define and control the size, composition and behaviour of the working class – were put up to exclude women from the workforce, and how in 1930 these "gates" were toppled by a vast and mobile crowd of peasants and women in search of work and by severe labour shortages. As a result, 42 percent of all industrial workers in 1935 were women. Goldman compares women's experiences with industrialization under socialism in the Soviet Union with those under capitalism in Europe and America and raises questions about the causes, structures and cultural tenacity of women's subordination across economic systems.

Hough, Jerry F. The Logic of Economic Reform in Russia. Brookings Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 2001. xvii, 318 pp. $44.95. (Paper: $18.95.)
Analysing the reasons for the failure of Russia's economic reforms of the 1990s, Professor Hough argues in this study that these reasons cannot be found in the Soviet past, in Russian national character or in the lack of a capitalist culture, but that corruption, mafia, capital flight, lack of investment and lack of economic growth were the natural consequences of the response of rational people to the incentive system created by economic reform. Ample attention in this respect is given to the consequences of Yeltsin's economic policy. Part of the argument advanced in the book is based on data gathered from surveys conducted in the period 1993-1997 in some sixty Russian regions and former autonomous republics.

Jansen, Marc and Nikita Petrov. Stalin's Loyal Executioner. People's Commissar Nikolai Ezhov, 1895-1940. Hoover Institution Press, Stanford (Cal.) 2002. xiii, 274 pp. Ill. $25.00.
During the Great Terror (1937 to 1938), at least 1.5 million Soviet citizens were arrested for alleged crimes against the state. Some 700,000 of them were shot. During this period Nikolai Ezhov was Stalin's ruthless functionary in total charge of these massive purges. Making extensive use of materials from the former Soviet archives, whose doors were set ajar in the 1990s, the authors disclose many new facts about the gruesome events in this period. Focusing on Ezhov's hitherto little-known biography, Drs Jansen and Petrov dwell extensively on his relation to Stalin.

Martin, Terry. The Affirmative Action Empire. Nations and Nationalism in the Soviet Union, 1923-1939. [The Wilder House Series in Politics, History, and Culture.] Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 2001. xvii, 496 pp. Maps. £36.95. (Paper: $27.50; £18.50.)
This monograph provides a survey and interpretation of the Soviet management of the nationalities question. It shows how Russia's new revolutionary government confronted nationalism by creating tens of thousands of national territories, promoting national languages and training new national elites and analyses the evolution of the "Affirmative Action Empire" from the 1923 nationalities policy decrees through the campaign to promote a "Brotherhood of the Peoples", the concept of "Friendship of the Peoples" and the completion of a fundamental policy revision during the Great Terror in 1938.


L'exili cultural de 1939. Seixanta anys després. Actas del I Congreso Internacional (Valencia, 2001). Tomo 1. Tomo 2. Ed. de Fernanda Mancebo, Marc Baldó y Cecilio Alonso. [Actas del Congreso Plural "Sesanta años después", IX.] Universitat de València, Valencia 2001. 687 pp.; 629 pp. Ill. € 42.07.
These two large volumes comprise the contributions to an international congress held in December 1999 in Valencia and Segorbe (where the Fundación Max Aub is located) to commemorate the sixtieth anniversary of the fall of the Spanish Republic and the 500th anniversary of the establishment of the University of Valencia. The contributions are arranged in chapters by subject and cover: (Part I) visual arts; press, cinema and photography; the political history of the exile; the history of scholarship in exile; the history of education in exile; (Part II) labour culture, especially of anarchists; literature and drama, featuring sections on Max Aub, novels and short stories, poetry, drama and miscellaneous; personal testimonies of the exile. Despite the title, all but two of the contributions are in Castilian.

Forrest, Andrew. The Spanish Civil War. [Questions and Analysis in History.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2000. x, 150 pp. Ill. £6.99.
This textbook aims to give a concise introduction to the history of the Spanish Civil War for undergraduate readers. Dr. Forrest covers the background of the war with the fall of the monarchy and the Second Republic, the military uprising, Franco and his ties with fascism, the conflict itself, the role of the foreign powers and the legacy of the war.

Gorkin, Julián. Contra el estalinismo. Editorial Laertes, Barcelona 2001. 366 pp. Ill. € 13.46.
Julián Gorkin (1901-1987) was part of the old guard of Spanish communists. From 1922 he worked in exile for the Communist International, until he abandoned Stalinism in 1929. He then joined the independent communists, who merged with the POUM. This anthology, published under the auspices of the Fundación Andreu Nin to commemorate the hundredth anniversary of Gorkin's birth, comprises eleven of his writings about his struggle with Stalinism in Spain and outside. Two introductions address his life and work. A bibliography of Gorkin's works concludes the book.

Saña, Heleno. Die libertäre Revolution. Die Anarchisten im Spanischen Bürgerkrieg. Edition Nautilus, Hamburg 2000. 319 pp. € 20.80.
This study is a history of the role of the anarcho-syndicalist, libertarian movement in the Spanish Civil War. Giving a general overview of the course of the Spanish Civil War, Mr. Saña, son of a leading Catalonian anarchist, focuses on the efforts of the anarcho-syndicalists to realize a genuine social revolution and on the opposition and sabotage they experienced, particularly from the side of the communists in the revolutionary camp.

Sebastià Domingo, Enric. La revolución burguesa. La transición de la cuestión señorial a la cuestión social en el País Valenciano. Vol. I, II. Pref. de Javier Paniagua. Estudio preliminar de José A. Piqueras; [Biblioteca hiStoria Social, 10.] Valencia 2001. 228 pp; 212 pp.
This book is the publication of a PhD thesis that was defended at the University of Valencia in 1971 and has since become a classic in Spanish historiography. The central argument of the thesis is that the region of Valencia was crucial during the revolutionary course of events that took place in Spain between 1834 and 1843, which led to the demise of the feudal system there. Valencia derived its importance from its social-economic growth since the eighteenth century and the ensuing social struggle between the feudal class on the one hand and the middle class, farmers and manual craftsmen on the other hand.