Volume 48 part 1 (2003)


General Issues
Continents and Countries

Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.

General Issues


Engel, Stephen M. The Unfinished Revolution. Social Movement Theory and the Gay and Lesbian Movement. [Cambridge Cultural Social Studies.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. xxi, 231 pp. £40.00; $59.95. (Paper: £14.95; $21.95.)
This study compares the postwar histories of the American and British gay and lesbian movement, with the more general intention of analysing how distinct political institutional environments affect the development, strategies, goals and outcomes of a social movement. Mr Engel uses both theoretical sources, such as the work of Mancur Olson and Michel Foucault, and sources such as Supreme Court rulings and film and television dialogue to support his arguments. In an appendix, he reviews and assesses the analytical potential of five critical understandings of social movements.

History in Person. Enduring Struggles, Contentious Practice, Intimate Identities. Ed. by Dorothy Holland and Jean Lave. [School of American Research Advanced Seminar Series.] School of American Research Press, Santa Fe; James Curry, Oxford 2001. ix, 389 pp. Maps. £40.00. (Paper: £16.95.)
The ten essays in this book explore, from an anthropological perspective, how people within a framework of broad, long-enduring historical conflicts live their individual everyday lives, how these broader struggles intrude into local social practice, and how individual identities are formed in the resulting "contentious local practice". Contributors explore case studies such as the experience of female political prisoners in Northern Ireland, the social gatherings of Hutu exiles in Canada and the changing nature of political activism over generations in a Mayan family in Guatemala.

Koniordos, Sokratis M. Towards a Sociology of Artisans. Continuities and discontinuities in comparative perspective. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2001. vi, 219 pp. £39.95.
This monograph aims to contribute to a sociological understanding of the social stratum of artisans by considering how artisans have fared in different societies at various times in the modern era and attempting to explain their ongoing existence. After sketching the general characteristics of the artisanate before the advent of modernity, and the ways in which Marxism has dealt with it, Dr Koniordos explores the usefulness of the concept of simple commodity production in relation to artisanal production and the contemporary sociological approach of the artisanate. In his concluding chapter, he undertakes a comparative exploration of continuing forms of artisanate in contemporary Italy and Greece.

Munck, Ronaldo. Marx@2000. Late Marxist Perspectives. Zed Books, London [etc.] 2002. x, 166 pp. £14.95; $19.95.
Professor Munck critically investigates in this study the state of Marxism at the beginning of a new millennium, and explores potential perspectives for a renewed Marxist critical theory for the future. He examines twentieth-century Marxism in terms of its involvement with environmentalism, global development perspectives, new social movements, feminism, culturalism and nationalism to develop a "critical deconstructionist marxist method" and to sketch a postmodern socialism.

New Horizons in Sociological Theory and Research. The frontiers of sociology at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Ed. by Luigi Tomasi. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2001. x, 426 pp. £55.00.
The fifteen essays in this volume aim to investigate what renovations of the theoretical, epistemological and methodological apparatus of sociology are necessary to prepare the discipline for its central task in the new millennium: to provide a profound innovative interpretation of the major societal changes taking place world-wide. Bringing together an international team of renowned sociologists (including Ulrich Beck, Raymond Boudon, Shmuel N. Eisenstadt, Edward A. Tiryakian and Michel Wieviorka), this collection examines the theoretical state of the art of sociology, its approach to contemporary problems of globalization, ethnicity, nationalism and immigration and sociology's challenges for the future.

L'Utopie en questions. Sous la dir. de Michèle Riot-Sarcey. Contr. de Miguel Abensour, Michel Cordillot, Jean-Jacques Goblot [e.a.] [La Philosophie hors de soi.] Presses Universitaires de Vincennes, Saint-Denis 2001. 260 pp. € 22.87.
In the thirteen contributions to this collection, philosophers, historians and literary scholars assess the theoretical and experimental impact of the Utopian idea throughout history by examining its application and elaboration in literary fiction, as a foundation for a new societal organization, as a political ideal and as a social critique of existing societies. The collection includes essays on the impact of the Utopia of the French Revolution (François Hincker), on the various directions and usages of Utopia in philosophy (Jacques Rancière), on Saint-Simonism (Antoine Picon), women and Utopias (the editor) and the relation between the Utopian idea and democracy (Miguel Abensour).

Van den Bosch, Karel. Identifying the Poor. Using subjective and consensual measures. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2001. xviii, 445 pp. £49.95.
This study deals with the question as to whether and how subjective information can be used to identify the poor in social research settings. Using data from Belgium in the final decades of the twentieth century, the author focuses on methods where respondents in sample surveys are asked about their views or feelings on the matter. The two kinds of survey questions discerned consist of inquiring about people's views on general income and consumption needs (the consensual approach) or about their personal income situation (the subjective approach).

Yacine, Jean-Luc. La question sociale chez Saint-Simon. [Logiques Politiques.] L'Harmattan, Paris [etc.] 2001. 349 pp. € 29.00.
In this study of the work and thought of the French Utopian thinker Henri Saint-Simon (1760-1825), Dr Yacine retraces the approach that Saint-Simon has taken to the social question in the various stages of his social theory and philosophy. The author aims to show that despite the two distinct phases in the development of Saint-Simon's philosophy before and after 1816/1817, his views his views on social organization reflect a clear continuity.

Yeager, Leland B. Ethics as Social Science. The Moral Philosophy of Social Cooperation. [New Thinking in Political Economy.] Edward Elgar, Cheltenham [etc.] 2001. viii, 334 pp. £69.95.

Applying the perspective of an economist on moral and political philosophy, Professor Yeager explores in this study possible individual motives for helping to uphold a well-functioning society, i.e. one where members benefit from peaceful cooperation while pursuing their respective goals. He reviews critiques of utilitarianism, as well as alternative ethical standpoints as expressed in contractarianism, rights-based doctrines and appeals to specific intuitions.


Cowen, Noel. Global History. A Short Overview. Polity, Cambridge; Blackwell Publishers Inc., Malden 2001. x, 213 pp. Maps. £40.00. (Paper: £12.99.)
This textbook aims to offer a general introduction to world history. Mr Cowen opens with a short historiographical introduction of recent developments in the field. He then sketches the history of humankind from the earliest movements of people to the contemporary epoch of globalization. His area of emphasis is the intersection of trading networks, expanding political empires and crusading creeds.

Heywood, Colin. A History of Childhood. Children and Childhood in the West from Medieval to Modern Times. Polity, Cambridge; Blackwell Publishers Inc., Malden 2001. vi, 231 pp. Ill. £50.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
In this textbook, Dr Heywood explores the changing experiences and perceptions of childhood from the early Middle Ages to the beginning of the twentieth century. Aiming to place the history of children and childhood in its social and cultural context, he reviews people's different ideas about childhood as a stage of life, the relationships of children with their families and peers and the experiences of young people at work.

Living Economic and Social History. Historians explain their interest in, and the nature of, their subject. Essays to mark the 75th Anniversary of the Economic History Society. Ed. by Pat Hudson. With the ass. of Rachel Bowen. The Economic History Society, Glasgow 2001. xvi, 480 pp. £15.00.
Commemorating the 75th anniversary of the Economic History Society, this collection comprises over hundred original short essays by major names in economic and social history worldwide on the general theme "what economic and social history means to me". Scholars such as François Crouzet, Stanley Engerman, E.J. Hobsbawm, S.A. King, David Landes, Paolo Malanima, W.W. Rostow, John Saville, Jan de Vries, Immanuel Wallerstein and Chris Wrigley discuss the nature of economic and social history, its past, present and future, trace their influences and relate their career paths to the development of the field.

Marwick, Arthur. The New Nature of History. Knowledge, Evidence, Language. Palgrave, Basingstoke 2001. xvi, 334 pp. £15.99.
This textbook on historical methodology is a completely rewritten version of The Nature of History, which was first published in 1970. Professor Marwick addresses the key questions of historical methodology: what is history, and why and how is it studied? In his passionate rebuttal of postmodernist criticisms of the mainstream positivist movement in historical science, he emphasizes the need for exact analysis and interpretation of primary sources and the importance of precise and straightforward terminology in writing history. The appendices include a guide on planning and writing a historical essay.

Nell'anno 2000. Dall'utopia all'ucronia. VII giornata Luigi Firpo. Atti del convegno internazionale, 10 marzo 2000. A cura di Bruno Bongiovanni e Gian Mario Bravo. [Studi e testi, 17.] Leo S. Olschki Editore, Firenze 2001. 242 pp. € 24.79.
This volume contains the proceedings of the seventh colloquium "Luigi Firpo", held in Turin in March 2000. Following two introductory essays by Bronislaw Baczko and Luigi Marino, there are twelve contributions about various aspects of Utopian thought. The contribution from Michel Vovelle about the interaction between revolution and Utopia since the French revolution is in French. Gian Mario Bravo provided one of the two concluding essays, which is entitled "Utopia e socialismo".

Nelles, Dieter. Widerstand und internationale Solidarität. Die Internationale Transportarbeiter-Föderation (ITF) im Widerstand gegen den Nationalsozialismus. [Veröffentichungen des Instituts für soziale Bewegungen. Schriftenreihe A: Darstellungen, Band 18.] Klartext, Essen 2001. 457 pp. Ill. DM 45.00.
This revised version of a dissertation (Kassel, 2000) explores the role of the International Transport Workers Federation (ITF) in the resistance against national socialism in the period 1933-1945 (see also IRSH, 43 (1998), pp. 318 and 319). Focusing on the two trade unions within the ITF most actively involved in the resistance (the railroad workers and the seafarers) and on the role of Chairman Edo Fimmen, Dr. Nelles details the activities in European and American ports, the role of confidants on German inland and sea ships, interaction with the Allied secret services and other subjects. See also Bob Reinalda's review in this volume, pp. 110-113.

Les ouvriers qualifiés de l'industrie (XVIe-XXe siècle). Formation, emploi, migrations. Actes du colloque de Roubaix, 20-22 novembre 1997. Éd. par Gérard Gayot et Philippe Minard. [Collection Histoire, n 15, hors série.] Revue du Nord, Université Charles-de-Gaulle-Lille 3, Villeneuve-d'Ascq 2001. 334 pp. Ill. Maps. € 24.39.
The eighteen contributions to this collection, which are the proceedings of a colloquium organized in Roubaix in November 1997, explore various aspects of the training, employment and migration of skilled workers in Europe and the United States from the sixteenth through the twentieth centuries. The contributions cover labour migration in the textile and metal industries in France, Belgium and Holland; training and qualification practices in various trades in France, Germany, Britain and Belgium and on relation between skills, employment and labour markets in various industries in France, Britain and North America.

Rucker, Laurent. Staline, Israël et les Juifs. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris 2001. 380 pp. € 22.11.
This study examines the relations of the Stalinist Soviet Union with the nascent state of Israel and the Russian Jews in the period 1940-1955. In 1947 Stalin surprised many by supporting the establishment of a Jewish state through political, military and demographic aid, despite the various manifestations of anti-Semitism in the Soviet Union at the time. Dr Rucker explores the secret contacts between the Soviet authorities and the Zionist movement, the arms deliveries through Czecho-Slovakia, the various anti-Semitic processes and Stalin's possible motives for supporting the establishment of a Jewish state.

Wehler, Hans-Ulrich. Historisches Denken am Ende des 20. Jahrhunderts. 1945-2000. [Essener Kulturwissenschaftliche Vorträge, Band 11.] Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen 2001. 108 pp. DM 28.00.
Based on a lecture delivered in Essen in November 1999, Professor Wehler gives in this booklet a comparative sketch of the developments in the historical scholarship in the United States, England, France and Germany from 1945 to the present. Aiming to provide an account of various paradigms and the changes occurring in them rather than a historical-philosophical treatise, the author concludes that the differences in national trends and paradigms far outweigh the similarities. He criticizes the rise of cultural history at the expense of the achievements of social history.

Weissman, Susan. Victor Serge. The course is set on hope. Verso, Londen [etc.] 2001. xix, 364 pp. Ill. £22.00.
This is a new intellectual and political biography of Victor Kibalchich alias Serge (1890-1947), the prolific Russian revolutionary novelist, political writer and historian and also biographer of Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin (see also IRSH, 37 (1992), p. 419). Professor Weissman argues that Serge's rejection of both the Soviet State under Stalin and the capitalist West ensured a position of marginality. She bases her description of Serge's eventful life and his literary and political work in part on a huge collection of unpublished material by Serge, found with Serge's son.

Women, Gender and Labour Migration. Historical and global perspectives. Ed. by Pamela Sharpe. [Routledge Research in Gender and History.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2001. xviii, 318 pp. Ill. Maps. £65.00.
Until recently, historiography of migration paid little attention to female migrants and the role of gender in migration. The fifteen contributions to this collection aim to provide the historical context for the realization that many female migrants were autonomous agents. The contributors explore women's involvement in long distance and international migration from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries, covering various European countries, Japan, South Africa, Australia and Latin America.


Murillo, Maria Victoria. Labor Unions, Partisan Coalitions and Market Reforms in Latin America. [Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. xvii, 250 pp. £40.00; $59.95. (Paper: £14.95; $21.95.)
In this comparative study of Argentina, Mexico and Venezuela in the 1990s, Professor Murillo examines why labour unions in some countries and in some economic sectors resist restructuring and adjustment policies while they submit in other cases. Examining the role of both national confederations and individual unions in specific economic sectors in each country, the author aims to demonstrate the importance of the presence and nature of alliances between political parties and labour unions and the significance of competition between labour unions for representation of the same set of workers.

Neunsinger, Silke. Die Arbeit der Frauen - die Krise der Männer. Die Erwerbstätigkeit verheirateter Frauen in Deutschland und Schweden 1919-1939. Summary: Women's work - men's crisis. [Studia Historica Upsaliensia, 198.] Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala 2001. 286 pp. Ill. (http://publications.uu.se/theses/91-554-5088-1)
This dissertation (University of Uppsala, 2001) compares the employment of married women and the political, legislative and economic discussions around this issue in Sweden and Germany in the interwar period. Whereas in Sweden a law was passed in 1939 that prohibited employers from dismissing female employees because of marriage or pregnancy, the rights of women to paid employment were limited in Germany by 1923. Dr Neunsinger focuses especially on the crucial role of the kvinnoarbetskommittén, a Swedish state commission that investigated women's employment in relation to the risk of unemployment among men.

Walter, Bronwen. Outsiders Inside. Whiteness, place and Irish women. [Gender, Racism, Ethnicity.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2001. xii, 306 pp. £16.99.
Exploring the fate of women in the Irish Diaspora in Britain and the United States over the last 150 years, Dr Walter argues that Irish women's invisibility in the historiography and discourse on race and migration is due to a pervasive oversimplified black-and-white binary construction. Examining the life stories and family histories of Irish women living in Britain in the 1990s and comparing them with those living in the American Diaspora, she aims to trace the links between gender, ethnicity and place in the women's Diasporic identities.


Contemporary Utopian Struggles. Communities between modernism and postmodernism. Ed. by Saskia Poldervaart, Harrie Jansen and Beatrice Kesler. Aksant, Amsterdam 2001. ix, 317 pp. € 17.92.
The twenty-eight contributions to this collection, a selection of papers presented at the Sixth International Communal Studies Association (ICSA) Conference, held in Amsterdam in July 1998, aim to give an overview of contemporary Utopian thought and practice. The international group of authors, both Utopian theorists and members of Utopian communities, discusses whether members of communities need a shared Utopia to establish intentional communities. This discussion is set in the context of a struggle between the changing, more modernist values of the 1960s and those of the postmodernist 1990s.

Parreñas, Rhacel Salazar. Servants of Globalization. Women, Migration and Domestic Work. Stanford University Press, Stanford (Cal.) 2001. xi, 309 pp. $55.00; £40.00. (Paper: $18.95; £12.95.)
This is a study of migrant Philippine domestic workers in the 1990s who leave their own families behind to do mothering and caretaking work throughout the world. Focusing on workers in the cities of Rome and Los Angeles, and based on interviews with domestic workers, Professor Parreñas portrays both the broader economic perspective as domestic workers from developing countries increasingly come to perform the menial labour of the global economy and the individual experiences of migrant Philippine domestic workers, setting their experiences in the local, transnational and global contexts.




Nzongola-Ntalaja, Georges. The Congo from Leopold to Kabila. A People's History. Zed Books, London [etc.] 2002. xvi, 304 pp. £45.00; $69.95. (Paper: £14.94; $25.00.)
This political history of the Congolese independence and democracy movement is the result of both the academic work of the author and his political involvement in Congo today. Based on ongoing personal research and literature, Professor Nzongola-Ntalaja aims to give a history "from below". He views the contradictions between the democratic aspirations of the masses and the egocentric interests of the leaders of the democracy movements as the main problem in modern Congolese history. Political and cultural factors, such as a combination of traditional and modern hero worship, have further exacerbated the situation. The internal oppositions have paved the way toward continuous intervention by Western powers.


Pool, David. From Guerrillas to Government. The Eritrean People's Liberation Front. [Eastern African Studies.] James Currey, Oxford; Ohio University Press, Athens 2001. xviii, 206 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £14.95.)
This study analyses the history of the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF), which seceded from the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) in 1970. Dr Pool focuses on the long but successful road to independence, a success due in part to the fact that the EPLF avoided becoming entangled in the confusing multiplicity of ethnic, religious and linguistic differences within Eritrea. The introduction of Maoist concepts in organization and struggle was an additional factor. The long struggle, however, provided the organization with reflexes, such as stealth and centralization, which are unlikely to have benefited the country that became independent in 1993. The war against Ethiopia (1998/1999) was obviously an additional handicap.


Byfield, Judith A. The Bluest Hands. A Social and Economic History of Women Dyers in Abeokuta (Nigeria), 1890-1940. [Social History of Africa Series.] Heinemann, Portsmouth (NH); James Currey, Oxford; David Philip, Cape Town 2002. xxxix, 264 pp. Ill. £45.00. (Paper: £16.95.)
Professor Byfield analyses in this study the Adire indigenous textile production industry in Abeokuta (Southwest Nigeria) in the period 1890-1940. Yoruba women dominated this craft-based sector. Integration with the world economy is clearly visible in this industry: cotton fabric is imported, processed in Nigeria and sold to cash crop producers in Nigeria and other African countries. The Depression of the 1930s led to difficulties and attempts at technological adaptations that were ultimately prohibited by the local king (Alake). The study is based on archival research in Great Britain and Nigeria. The sources include at least 30 interviews with dyers.



Powers, Nancy R. Grassroots Expectations of Democracy and Economy. Argentina in Comparative Perspective. [Pitt Latin American Studies.] University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh 2001. xvi, 294 pp. $19.95.
Since the restoration of democracy in contemporary Argentina, poor voters have continued to support democratic regimes, even though the economic policies of the successive regimes have failed to improve and have in some cases even reduced their standard of living. Professor Powers examines in this comparative political analysis the perceived material concerns of the poor citizens and their political and economic interests and considers how these conditions influence the expectations of poor Argentineans of the political system.


Colistete, Renato. Labour Relations and Industrial Performance in Brazil. Greater São Paulo, 1945-60. [St Antony's Series.] Palgrave (in assoc. with St Antony's College, Oxford), Basingstoke [etc.] 2001. xxv, 225 pp. £50.00.
This study analyses the influence of the labour relations on industrialization and economic growth in Greater São Paulo in the period 1946-1960. To this end, Professor Colistete examines wages, industrial training and working conditions in the textile and metal industries, and argues that the low-standards strategy of the entrepreneurs ruined the opportunity for Brazil's extended economic growth (over 6 per cent throughout the 15 years from 1946 through 1960) to bring about sustained growth. He states that the emphasis on containment of labour demands brought employers only temporary profits in a structurally poor economy able to function only through protection.


Black, Errol and Jim Silver. Building a Better World. An Introduction to Trade Unionism in Canada. Fernwood Publishing, Halifax 2001. 189 pp. Ill. C$19.95.
This textbook aims to give an introductory account of the role and history of trade unions in Canada. In the first part, the role and function of unions in labour and industrial relations and their internal organization and structure are addressed. A brief history of unionism in Canada from the end of the nineteenth century to the present, including its relations to labour and left-wing politics, is provided in the second part, while the authors analyse the future challenges to Canadian unions in the third part.

Gonick, Cy. A Very RED Life: The Story of Bill Walsh. Canadian Committee on Labour History, St. John's 2001. Ill. 300 pp. C$24.95.
This is a biography of Bill Walsh (1910), born Moishe Wolofsky and a leading Canadian communist and trade-union activist in the 1930s and in the late 1940s and 1950s. After being stranded in Russia during a world tour in the early 1930s, he became a dedicated communist and a communist organizer in Canada. Following his expulsion from the Communist Party in the mid 1960s, he began a new career in labour arbitration. Professor Gonick aims to offer a bottom-up view of the functioning of communist activism inside Canadian trade unionism.


May, Rachel A. Terror in the Countryside. Campesino Responses to Political Violence in Guatemala, 1954-1985. [Research in International Studies. Latin America Series, no. 35.] Ohio University Press, for the Center for International Studies, Athens 2001. xix, 234 pp. $26.00.
Focusing on the experience of the rural (campesino) organizations in Guatemala during the period of civil conflict at the end of the twentieth century, Professor May embarks in this study on a theoretical analysis of the relation between civil society and violence in a period of conflict. She details how ideologies, organizational structures and mobilization strategies evolved among the campesino organization during the years of conflict and concludes that this experience may serve as a basis for a formal democracy after the end of the conflict.


Bliss, Katherine Elaine. Compromised Positions. Prostitution, Public Health, and Gender Politics in Revolutionary Mexico City. The Pennsylvania State University Press, Pennsylvania 2001. xv, 243 pp. Ill. $45.00.
This study of female prostitution in revolutionary Mexico City between 1910 and 1940 aims to explain how and why prostitution became contested and politicized in the context of revolutionary social reform. Focusing on the debates over sexual commerce and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, Professor Bliss argues that the project of Mexican reformism to "redeem" female prostitutes and their clientele was ultimately undermined by revolutionary conditions themselves, by widespread challenges to the reforms, and by the unwillingness of the reformers to alter their outdated ideas about gender, class and society despite their stated commitment to radical social change.

The Economics of Gender in Mexico: Work, Family, State, and Market. Ed. by Elizabeth G. Katz [and] Maria C. Correia. [Directions in Development.] The World Bank, Washington D.C. 2001. xx, 297 pp. $22.00.
Gender has been an explicit category in the work of the World Bank in the Latin American and Caribbean section since 1997. This collection of nine contributions, all written by economists (including nine women), deals with two recurring themes: "Gender and Life Cycle" and "Marriage Market and Labor Market". One contribution addresses the changes in the maquiladora sector. The book concludes with three policy recommendations for measures with respect to youth, marriage and labour and the specific role of the public sector.

Lear, John. Workers, Neighbors, and Citizens. The Revolution in Mexico City. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln [etc.] 2001. xiv, 441 pp. Ill. Maps. $60.00; £45.00.
This study explores the role of organized labour and the urban poor in the 1910 Mexican Revolution and its aftermath, addressing the paradox of their substantial power in the post-revolutionary situation, despite their limited military significance. Exploring the role of women in political agitation, street mobilizations, strikes and riots in the pre-revolutionary and revolutionary periods, Professor Lear concludes that this tradition of resistance and independent organization among the urban poor helps explain the prominence of labour after the revolution. See also Norman Caulfield's review in this volume, pp. 113-116.

Williams, Heather L. Social Movements and Economic Transition. Markets and Distributive Conflict in Mexico. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. xiii, 239 pp. Ill. £35.00; $54.95.
In this monograph, Professor Williams uses two case studies from Mexico in the period 1994-1999 to deal with the issue of social movements and economic transition. The first are the metalworkers in Lázaro Cárdenas City on the west coast of Mexico. Until the privatization, this city was entirely dependent on a heavily subsidized steel factory. The second case study concerns the Barzón farmers' movement in Zacatecas, where farmers and merchants revolved as debtors against the liberalization. Adopting the perspective of the victims of the liberalization, the author aims to demonstrate that these movements derived their strength from the danger they posed to the consensus over the market-oriented future. The study is based on literature, fieldwork and interviews with participants in the movements.

United States of America

Bernstein, David E. Only One Place of Redress. African Americans, Labor Regulations, and the Courts from Reconstruction to the New Deal. [Constitutional Conflicts.] Duke University Press, Durham [etc.] 2001. xiii, 192 pp. £31.95.
This study analyses the relationship between governmental regulations of the marketplace and economic and employment opportunities for African Americans from the end of the Civil War to the New Deal. Considering labour and occupational laws, Professor Bernstein contends that the often criticized jurisprudence of the Lochner era, with its freedom of contract and private market orders, actually discouraged discrimination and helped politically disadvantaged groups. He concludes that the ultimate failure of Lochnerism and the triumph of the regulatory state with the New Deal strengthened racially exclusive labour unions and contributed to a massive loss of employment opportunities for African Americans.

Boys and Their Toys? Masculinity, Technology, and Class in America. Ed. by Roger Horowitz. [Hagley Perspectives on Business and Culture.] Routledge, New York [etc.] 2001. vi, 282 pp. Ill. £60.00.
The ten essays in this volume, five of which were published before, deal with the interrelationship of masculinity, work and experience, class relations and technology in twentieth-century United States. In the first four contributions, the polarity between the ideal types of "rough" manhood (associated with unskilled physical labour) and "respectable" manhood (associated with craft tradition and skills) is the central issue. In the second part, three essays address the issue of training and its gender and class specificity. The three articles in the last part examine the role of playful behaviour and recreation in the formation and perpetuation of masculine forms of identity.

Briggs, Vernon M., Jr. Immigration and American Unionism. [Cornell Studies in Industrial and Labor Relations, no. 33.] ILR Press (an imprint of Cornell University Press), Ithaca [etc.] 2001. ix, 215 pp. £25.50. (Paper: $16.95; £11.50.)
This study explores the history of the interrelationship of unions, labour and immigration in the United States from its independence to the present day from a labour economic perspective. Examining chronologically the macroeconomic setting, the shifting trends in labour demand and supply and in immigration flows, the emergence of unionism and the effects of immigration on union membership, Professor Briggs contends that this relation has been contentious from the outset, and that immigration has always produced a no-win situation for American unionism.

Hewitt, Mark Alan. Gustav Stickley's Craftsman Farms. The Quest for an Arts and Crafts Utopia. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse 2001. xviii, 248 pp. Ill. Maps. $39.95.
This study aims to give a comprehensive history of Craftsman Farms, one of the critical Utopian experiments in early twentieth-century America. From 1911-1917, Gustav Stickley, one of the central figures of the American Arts and Crafts Movement, led this Utopian experiment that figured amid a larger group of Utopian experiments in "living the artistic life". Mr Hewitt sketches the course of events at the Craftsman Farms, placing it in the broader context of the Utopian theories in the Progressive era.

In the Hands of Strangers. Readings on Foreign and Domestic Slave Trading and the Crisis of the Union. [Ed. by] Robert Edgar Conrad. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park (PA) 2001. xix, 516 pp. Ill. Maps. $45.00.
This is a three-part collection of contemporary documents concerning the trade, movement and treatment of slaves in the American colonies and the United States. Part I focuses on the African slave trade to the Americas, from its beginnings in the fifteenth century until the mid-nineteenth century. Part II concentrates on the internal US slave trade, including the increasingly contentious debates over the legitimacy of slavery, while Part III addresses a series of conflicts and crises leading to the Civil War. Each part is preceded by an introductory essay, while comments introduce the (group of) documents. The collection concludes with an essay by the black abolitionist Frederick Douglas.

Kessler-Harris, Alice. In Pursuit of Equity. Women, Men, and the Quest for Economic Citizenship in 20th-Century America. Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 2001. xi, 374 pp. Ill. £25.00.
Professor Kessler-Harris explores in this study the role of gender in the emergence of the twentieth-century American welfare state. Focusing both on the standard social welfare policies and on income tax policies, anti-discrimination laws, protective labour laws, and unemployment compensation policies, she aims to reveal how the debates on these policies reflect cultural beliefs and practices. She labels this complex "gendered imagination" and shows how this imagination about the proper roles of men and women in the workforce and in the family has been translated into public policies.

Kotlowski, Dean J. Nixon's Civil Rights. Politics, Principle, and Policy. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 2001. xi, 404 pp. £23.95.
This study explores the attitudes and assumptions of President Nixon and his aides towards the civil rights issue and the impact of his administration's policy and actions on this point. Professor Kotlowski argues that, notwithstanding Nixon's divisive rhetoric, his administration compiled a creditable record on civil rights. He concludes that in his policy, Nixon aimed to accommodate several social forces emerging from the 1960s and to channel grassroots demands into established institutions, drawing on a form of moderate "modern Republicanism" directed at preserving unity within the Republican Party.

Menard, Russell R. Migrants, Servants and Slaves. Unfree Labor in Colonial British America. [Variorum Collected Studies Series.] Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2001. xiii, 318 pp. £55.00.
In this volume, Professor Menard has collected eleven of his essays, published between 1973 and 1995, on unfree labour in British America, especially on the transition from a work force dominated by English indentured servants to one dominated by African slaves. The author's central argument regarding the transition from servants to slaves is that it was an economic process driven by changes in the labour supply. The issues covered include migration patterns among indentured servants, financing of slave purchases, opportunities for servants after obtaining their freedom and the demographic experience of indentured servants compared to that of African slaves.

Minchin, Timothy J. The Color of Work. The Struggle for Civil Rights in the Southern Paper Industry, 1945-1980. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 2001. xi, 277 pp. Ill. $55.00. (Paper: $24.95.)
This study examines the position of black workers and the struggle for civil rights in one of the major industries in the American South (the paper industry) from the postwar period until 1980. Dr Minchin sketches how jobs in the southern paper industry, and even labour representation, were strictly segregated prior to the 1960s. Although the 1964 Civil Rights Act decreed improvement in the position of black workers, the battle to integrate the southern paper industry was far from over.

The Southern Debate over Slavery. Vol. 1: Petitions to Southern Legislatures, 1778-1864. Ed. by Loren Schweninger. [Southern History/African-American Studies.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2001. xxxix, 283 pp. Ill. $34.95.
This volume offers a sampling of 160 of the thousands of petitions about race and slavery issues that southerners submitted to their state legislatures between the American Revolution and the Civil War. The petitioners were slaveholders and non-slaveholders, slaves and free blacks, women and men, abolitionists and defenders of slavery. Because their claims would be subject to public scrutiny and legal verification, the petitions had to be as accurate and fully documented as possible. Thus, they record with great immediacy and detail many aspects of life in a slave society.



Gilley, Bruce. Model Rebels. The Rise and Fall of China's Richest Village. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 2001. xvi, 219 pp. Ill. $45.00; £29.95. (Paper: $15.95; £10.50.)
In the era of economic reform in China after 1978, one village in northern China (Daqiu) became a model for the rural reforms of the 1980s and early 1990s under the leadership of the charismatic peasant and local Communist Party secretary Yu Zuomin. Yu's growing campaign of political resistance, however, caused increasing tensions between the village and the Chinese state and ultimately led to his downfall and arrest. In this study, Mr Gilley reconstructs Yu's rise and fall, and that of the village with him, analysing it as an archetypal story of economic expansion and emerging political struggle in contemporary rural China.

Young, Helen Praeger. Choosing Revolution. Chinese Women Soldiers on the Long March. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2001. xvii, 283 pp. Ill. $35.00.
Based on interviews with twenty-two women veterans of the Chinese Red Army, Dr Young describes in this book the participation of some two thousand women in the Long March. Revealing the complex interplay between women's experiences and the official version of the Long March, the author explores the experience of growing up female and, in most cases, poor in China during the first half of the twentieth century, and how these women adapted to the demands of being a soldier.


Lindberg, Anna. Experience and Identity: A Historical Account of Class, Caste, and Gender among the Cashew Workers of Kerala, 1930-2000. [Studia Historica Lundensia.] [Lund University], Lund 2001. xvii, 376 pp. S.kr. 290.00.
This dissertation (Lund University, 2001) analyses how the cashew factory work in the South Indian State of Kerala in the period 1930-2000 was structured with regard to gender, caste and class. Against the background of the "Kerala Model" (the political context of a state known for its radicalism, redistribution of resources and high social indicators for men and women alike), Dr Lindberg examines how in this period low-caste female workers have gone through a process of "effeminization", in which capitalist forces disseminated a patriarchal, high-caste gender ideology among the lower castes. See also IRSH, 46 (2001), pp. 155-184.


Linger, Daniel Touro. No One Home. Brazilian Selves Remade in Japan. Stanford University Press, Stanford (Cal.) 2001. xxi, 342 pp. Ill. Maps. $49.50; £35.00. (Paper: $24.95; £17.95.)
The movement of Brazilians of Japanese descent to Japan was a remarkable form of transnational migration in the 1990s. Drawn by the prospect of high salaries, about 200,000 nikkeis, as these migrants often call themselves, now form the third-largest minority group in Japan. This ethnographic study explores the dual identities of those nikkeis employed in the automobile industry of Toyota City, focusing on how these Brazilian factory workers and their children cope with their ambiguous status.


The Country of Memory. Remaking the Past in Late Socialist Vietnam. Ed. by Hue-Tam Ho Tai. Foreword by John Bodnar. [Asia: Local Studies/Global Themes, vol. 4.] University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 2001. xiii, 271 pp. Ill. $50.00; £35.00. (Paper: $19.95; £13.95.)
This collection of essays explores the nuances, sources and contradictions in both official and private memory of the Vietnam War among the Vietnamese themselves. Specific aspects, such as art history, commemorative rituals and literature, gender and tourism, receive consideration. Drawing on diverse sources, such as prison memoirs, commemorative shrines, funerary rituals, tourist sites and brochures, advertisements and films, the contributors examine both the social milieu and the historical context in which different representations of the past are constructed.



Labour and Community: Historical Essays. Ed. by Raymond Markey. University of Wollongong Press, Wollongong 2001. xii, 416 pp. Ill. Maps. A$39.95.
The eighteen essays in this collection, all based on papers presented at the Sixth National Conference of the Australian Society for the Study of Labour History, held in Wollongong in October 1999, examine the importance of community as a historical basis for labour in Australia from the late eighteenth to the twentieth centuries in terms of its reproduction, industrial and political organization, culture and history. The concept of "community" is explored from a broad variety of both national and international perspectives, including workplace, locality, organization, race and ethnicity and gender. Eileen Yeo contributes a theoretical essay from the British perspective.

Mulligan, Martin [and] Stuart Hill. Ecological Pioneers. A Social History of Australian Ecological Thought and Action. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. viii, 338 pp. Ill. £18.95.
Although rarely mentioned in existing studies of the history of ecological thought, Australia has produced a substantial number of thinkers and innovators who have made important contributions to this field. This study traces the emergence and development of ecological understandings in the arts, sciences, politics and public life, focusing both on various influential individuals and on social movements such as the Aboriginal Land Rights Movement and the Conservation Movement.

Working the Nation. Working Life and Federation, 1890-1914. Ed. by Mark Hearn and Greg Patmore. Pluto Press Australia, Annandale 2001; King Street Press, London; distr. by Merlin Press (info@merlinpress.co.uk). vii, 345 pp. Ill. £16.95.
The fourteen contributions to this collection, based on a conference on "Working Life and Federation", held in Sydney in April 2000 for the Centenary of Federation, explore the impact of the promulgation of the Constitution Bill and Federation in 1899-1900 on Australian working life and working-class organization and politics. Issues addressed include gender aspects (Raelene Frances), the relation between national, state and local dimensions (Ray Markey) and employer-employee relations (Eric Eklund).


Europe in Exile. European Exile Communities in Britain 1940-1945. Ed. by Martin Conway and José Gotovitch. Berghahn Books, New York [etc.] 2001. vi, 281 pp. £17.00.
During World War II, many thousands of European citizens found refuge in London, fleeing from the military campaigns on the Continent. In the fifteen contributions in this volume an international team of historians considers the exile groups from Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Poland, Norway and Czechoslovakia. In addition to the relations between the various exile regimes and the British government in terms of its military and social dimensions, the legacy of this period of exile for the politics of postwar Europe is explored. Particular attention is paid to the Belgian exiles, the most numerous exile population during World War II.

Food, Drink and Identity. Cooking, Eating and Drinking in Europe since the Middle Ages. Ed. by Peter Scholliers. Berg, Oxford [etc.] 2001. xi, 223 pp. Ill. £42.99. (Paper: £14.99.)
The eleven contributions to this volume explore the relationship between food and identity and identity formation and the relationship between old and new eating and drinking habits. Covering topics from the fourteenth to the twentieth centuries, contributors deal with issues of class and group identities, as well as with national identities in relation to food and drink, using case studies from Spain, Italy, Germany, France, French Algeria and Norway. General issues included are commensality and the interpretation of food riots.

Harvey, David Allen. Constructing Class and Nationality in Alsace 1830-1945. Northern Illinois University Press, DeKalb 2001. xii, 249 pp. $40.00.
This study analyses the rise of working-class identity and nationality in Alsace, one of the most contested regions in Western Europe, in the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries. Professor Harvey aims to show how both France and Germany tried to impose their own national identity on the region, and how workers, notwithstanding their closer cultural ties with Germany, eventually chose to identify with the French republican state. See also Keith Mann's review in this volume, pp. 103-106.

Keene, Judith. Fighting for Franco. International Volunteers in Nationalist Spain during the Spanish Civil War, 1936-39. Foreword by Gabriel Jackson. Leicester University Press, London [etc.] 2001. x, 310 pp. £25.00; $39.95.
This study examines the motivations, ideological backgrounds and experiences of the foreign volunteers who joined Franco's nationalists during the Spanish Civil War. Professor Keene includes the brigades of White Russians, Romanians and Irish and the French and Belgian nationalist volunteers, who all viewed their involvement in the Spanish Civil War as a means of promoting their own nationalist and fascist political causes at home.

Matthews, Andrew. Revolution and reaction. Europe 1789-1849. [Cambridge Perspectives in History.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. iv, 210 pp. Ill. Maps. £10.95; $17.95.
This textbook aims to feature an account of the key revolutionary and reactionary developments in Europe from the French Revolution to the failure of the revolutions of 1848/1849. Focusing on the French revolution, Napoleon, Restoration France, Metternich's regime and the 1848/1849 revolutions, the author considers the key individuals, groups and political, social and economic pressures that led to revolutionary upheaval, repression and war. An additional document section on the origins of the French Revolution (1774-1792) is appended.

Negotiating Power in Early Modern Society. Order, Hierarchy and Subordination in Britain and Ireland. Ed. by Michael J. Braddick and John Walter. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. x, 316 pp. £40.00; $59.95.
The ten essays in this volume offer case studies of the ways in which subordinated groups (women, poor) in early modern England and Ireland could moderate the exercise of power over them in everyday life. Drawing on recent social theory, contributors examine the politics of age, gender and class, as well as the politics of state formation in the post-Reformation confessional state.

Per la difesa della cultura. Scrittori a Parigi nel 1935. A cura di Sandra Teroni. [Ricerche, 106.] Carocci editore, Roma 2002. xxii, 223 pp. Ill. € 18.60.
This collection contains sixteen contributions, based on the colloquium Parigi 1935. Scrittori a congresso in difesa della cultura held at the University of Cagliari in November 2000. The studies are about the major anti-fascist congress of writers in 1935 in Paris, where 230 delegates from 38 countries gathered. The themes addressed in the collection include the position of the congress with respect to the establishment of the Popular Front, relations with the international communist movement and the French Communist Party and the contribution from German emigrants. The collection also features a bibliography of the contributions to the Congress of 1935, which have not appeared in a complete edition thus far.

The Politics of Information in Early Modern Europe. Ed. by Brendan Dooley and Sabrina A. Baron. [Routledge Studies in Cultural History.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2001. viii, 310 pp. £65.00.
This collection of the twelve contributions from book and media historians aims to give a comprehensive survey of recent research on the origins and development of news publication in various European settings and the most important European information markets in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Topics covered include the relation between printed and manuscript news; the role of censorship mechanisms; effects of politics on reading and publishing; and effects of reading on contemporary politics.

White, Stephen. Communism and its Collapse. [The Making of the Contemporary World.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2001. ix, 91 pp. £30.00.
This textbook, published in the series "The making of the contemporary world" series of the University of Lancaster, draws together material from different disciplines, including economics, politics and sociology. Professor White aims to offer a compact introduction to the subject, with it emphasizes the transition period in the different East European countries. He has included a chronology and a geographically ordered "further reading" section.

Wiernicki, John. War in the Shadow of Auschwitz. Memoirs of a Polish Resistance Fighter and Survivor of the Death Camps. Syracuse University Press, New York 2001. xv, 273 pp. Ill. $29.95.
The Polish resistance fighter John Wiernicki was captured by the Gestapo in 1943 and transported to Auschwitz. In this memoir, he tells, after an introduction to his aristocratic youth and development into an underground resistance fighter, the story of everyday-life experience inside the infamous death camp, the differences in the treatment of Jews and non-Jews, his struggle as a Gentile to survive the horrors of Auschwitz and his experiences after his transfer from Buchenwald to the infamous Sondercamp III.

Workers after Workers' States. Labor and Politics in Postcommunist Eastern Europe. Ed. by Stephen Crowley and David Ost. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., Lanham [etc.] 2001. ix, 241 pp. $26.95.
Ten comparative case studies in this collection, covering Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia and Ukraine, explore the causes, extent, significance and implications of the weakness of labour and labour organizations in the decade after the transition to market economies. Focusing on the status of trade unions and the relationship between labour and politics in each country, the contributors consider why labour has been so quiescent since the fall of communism in Eastern Europe (despite the fact that the market transformation has hit workers hardest of all), and what this weakness of labour means for the consolidation of democracy in the region.

Eire - Ireland

United Irishman. The Autobiography of James Hope. Ed. and Introd. by John Newsinger. Merlin Press, London 2001. 111 pp. £14.95; $21.50.
James Hope (1764-1847) was a leader of the United Irishmen, a movement that protested and worked against the Anglophile absentee landlords. Hope, an Ulster Protestant, joined the United Irishmen in 1795 and took part in the rebellion of June 1798, which was directly inspired by the French Revolution. These are his memoirs of these events and were edited and published in 1843 by Richard R. Marsden, the historian of the United Irishmen. Dr Newsinger provides an introduction about the rise of the United Irishmen, Hope's background and involvement and the movement's bloody defeat.


Kettering, Sharon. French Society 1589-1715. [A Social History of Europe.] Longman, Harlow [etc.] 2001. xi, 204 pp. Maps. £16.99; $25.99.
This textbook aims to give a general overview of social change in France between 1589 and 1715, the "long seventeenth century". Professor Kettering captures the vast changes that affected French society in this period from the perspective of the shifts in social solidarities. These changes in solidarity include the proliferation of the nuclear family at the expense of extended kinship loyalties, increased labour mobility, transformation of the role of the nobility towards greater loyalty to the Crown and an emerging national awareness. The general trend, according to the author, was one of increased civilization and social tranquillity.

Stephan, Ina. Aufstieg und Wandel der Parti socialiste in der Ära Mitterrand (1971-1995). [Reihe Europa- und Nordamerika-Studien, Band 8.] Leske + Budrich, Opladen 2001. 239 pp. DM 48.00.
This study examines the developments and transformations that have occurred within the French Parti socialiste (PS), from its successful years after the unity congress in Épinay in 1975, through the crisis-ridden late 1980s to its period of reforms in the first half of the 1990s. Dr Stephan concludes that the success of the PS in implementing major reforms in the party organization and policies without transforming into another party signifies a breach with the tradition of the exception française.

Streiff, Gérard. Jean Kanapa 1921-1978. Une singulière Histoire du PCF. Tome 1, 2. L'Harmattan, Paris [etc.] 2001. 521 pp.; 587 pp. € 38.00; 38.00.
This voluminous, two-volume thèse (Institut d'études politiques, Paris, 2001) is a comprehensive biography of Jean Kanapa (1921-1978), the leading French communist intellectual and party leader who was emblematic in the postwar history of the Parti communiste de France (PCF). Dr Streiff distinguishes six stages in Kanapa's life: as a student of Sartre before World War II and his conversion to Stalinism; his editorship of the journal La Nouvelle Critique (1948-1958); residence in Prague, Moscow and Havana (1958-1966); close collaborator and advisor to the PCF leadership in the Rochet/Marchais era (1966-1975); active participation in the PCF leadership (1975-1978); and his heritage.

Voet, Thomas. La Colonie phalanstérienne de Cîteaux, 1841-1846. Les fouriéristes aux champs. Préf. de Jean-Claude Caron. Éditions de l'Université de Dijon, Dijon 2001. 213 pp. € 18.50.
This study, based on an award-winning master's thesis (University of Burgundy, 1999), gives a comprehensive history of one of the few experiments carried out in practice based on the ideas of the French Utopian thinker Charles Fourier (1772-1837), the colonie phalanstérienne de Cîteaux, which existed from 1841 to 1846. Mr Voet explores the prosopography of the two principal leaders and the ordinary members of this Utopian colony, the relationship between the Utopian theories of Fourier to the actual practice in the colony, the organization and daily life inside the colony and its relations with the authorities and local population outside.


Dobson, Sean. Authority and Upheaval in Leipzig, 1910-1920. The Story of a Relationship. Columbia University Press, New York 2001. xvii, 476 pp. Ill. $45.00; £29.00.
Based in part on newly opened archives after 1989, this study examines the revolutionary turmoil in 1918/1919 in the city and district of Leipzig. As this was one of the most industrialized and radical districts, workers in and around Leipzig were unusually zealous supporters of the revolution. Exploring the longer-term causes of the revolution, Professor Dobson challenges common historiographical assumptions about the desire for reform among the Wilhelmine elites and the extent of integration of the working class in the established socio-political order.

McDonough, Frank. Opposition and resistance in Nazi Germany. [Cambridge Perspectives in History.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. iv, 68 pp. Ill. £7.25; $12.95.
This small textbook gives a concise overview of the opposition and resistance in Germany to the Nazi regime from 1933 to 1945. Social democratic, communist and general working-class resistance, as well as youth and student protest are dealt with, in addition to the opposition from Christian churches and the conservative and military resistance. Brief selections of primary sources are included in each chapter. The concluding chapter sketches the historical debate surrounding the topic.

Mittag, Jürgen. Wilhelm Keil (1870-1968). Sozialdemokratischer Parlamentarier zwischen Kaiserreich und Bundesrepublik. Eine politische Biographie. [Beiträge zur Geschichte des Parlamentarismus und der politischen Parteien, Band 131.] Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 2001. 649 pp. Ill. Maps. DM 148.00.
This political biography, a revised edition of a dissertation (University of Cologne, 1999), sketches the life and extraordinarily long political career of Wilhelm Keil (1870-1968). As a social democrat, he was a leading member of the Reichstag for 22 years and served in the Southwest German parliaments for 39 years altogether, both before 1933 and after 1945. As chief editor for almost 30 years from 1896 onward of the influential social-democratic newspaper the Schwabische Tagwacht, he was highly influential in public opinion as well.

Riberi, Lorenzo. Arthur Rosenberg. Democrazia e socialismo tra storia e politica. [Storia delle dottrine e dei movimenti politici e sociali, 15.] FrancoAngeli, Milano 2001. 503 pp. € 29.95.
Arthur Rosenberg (1889-1943) is the author of several reference works about the history of Bolshevism and the history of the Weimar Republic, including some published in exile and translated into several languages. As a classical philologist, he published a volume in 1921 on the class struggle in the Antiquity. The present volume features an extensive analysis of his intellectual Werdegang. Rosenberg joined the KPD in 1920 but left the party in 1927, following the slaughter in Shanghai by the Komintern-affiliated Kuomintang, and became a non-partisan socialist. A bibliography of Rosenberg is appended.

Stadtland, Helke. Herrschaft nach Plan und Macht der Gewohnheit. Sozialgeschichte der Gewerkschaften in der SBZ/DDR 1945-1953. [Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für soziale Bewegungen. Schriftenreihe A: Darstellungen, Band 16.] Klartext, Essen 2001. 625 pp. € 65.00.
This dissertation (Bochum, 2000) explores the social history of the Freie Deutsche Gewerkschaftsbund (FDGB), the overarching trade union organization in the Soviet Occupation Zone (SBZ) and the GDR between 1945 and 1953. Based on two case studies (of the miners' union IG Bergbau and the chemical union IG Chemie), Dr Stadtland examines how the balance of power arose between social democrats and communists within the FDGB in this period, the role and position of the works councils, the social origins of union rank and file and leadership and the efforts of the SED to control the shopfloor.

Tischner, Wolfgang. Katholische Kirche in der SBZ/DDR 1945-1951. Die Formierung einer Subgesellschaft im entstehenden sozialistischen Staat. [Veröffentlichungen der Kommission für Zeitgeschichte. Reihe B: Forschungen, Band 90.] Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn [etc.] 2001. 629 pp. Ill. € 88.40.
In this comprehensive exploration of the position and development of Catholicism in East Germany from 1945 to 1951, Dr Tischner analyses the roots of the survival of strong Catholic traditions amid the hostile ideological and political context of the Communist East German state. Using a conceptual framework of a "functionally differentiated sub-society", he argues that key institutional transformations in the East German Catholic Church have contributed greatly to its remarkable resilience. See also Mary Fulbrook's review in this volume, pp. 119-121.

Wolfgang Abendroth. Wissenschaftlicher Politiker. Bio-bibliographische Beiträge. Hrsg. von Friedrich-Martin Balzer, Hans Manfred Bock [und] Uli Schöler. Leske + Budrich, Opladen 2001. 505 pp. DM 68.00.
This collection on the life and work of the German political scientist Wolfgang Abendroth (1906-1985) comprises 24 contributions, which deal mostly with Abendroth's political, academic and scholarly activities. Contributors analyse Abendroth's pivotal work on the constitutional foundation of postwar West Germany; his work as political sociologist and historian of the German labour movement; and his role and activities as a politically involved, renowned Marxist intellectual. Two contributions explore Abendroth's Nachwuchs of political scientists, while the three bibliographic essays feature a comprehensive overview of publications by and on Abendroth.

Great Britain

Cronin, B.P. Technology, Industrial Conflict, and the Development of Technical Education in 19th-Century England. [Modern Economic and Social History.] Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2001. xiv, 301 pp. £55.00.
This study explores the pivotal role of employers in training and educating young workers in nineteenth-century England. Dr Cronin traces the connection between problems with technical education developments and the increasingly antagonistic relations between employers and skilled engineering workers, culminating in the Great Strike and Lockout of 1897. The author explores the development of machine tools from the 1850s onward and the work of Victorian engineers and reassesses the work of F.W. Taylor to show how British employers aimed to gain technical dominance over the strongest craft union and to fracture union control of craft processes.

Lent, Adam. British Social Movements since 1945. Sex, Colour, Peace and Power. [Contemporary History in Context.] Palgrave, Basingstoke [etc.] 2001. xiii, 252 pp. £47.50.
This study aims to provide a comprehensive review of the history of social movements in Britain after 1945. Based in part on interviews with campaigners of the last fifty years, Dr Lent chronicles how social movements evolved from the moderate campaign groups in the period 1945-1958, through the radicalization in the 1960s and 1970s into the fragmentation and division of the late 1970s and the professionalization and direct action of 1980s and 1990s.

McIvor, Arthur J. A History of Work in Britain, 1880-1950. [Social History in Perspective.] Palgrave, Basingstoke [etc.] 2001. xii, 276 pp. £14.99.
This study aims to analyse all varieties of the British workplace experience, with all its continuities and changes between the mid-Victorian period and 1950. Dr McIvor addresses both Marxist theories of deskilling, degradation and subordination of labour and other arguments on the changing shape of the labour force, the role of unions, issues of health and work, the changing role of the state in the workplace, gender relations at work and the role work has played in providing both a living and an identity, as well as a sense of purpose and status.

MacRaild, Donald M. and David E. Martin. Labour in British Society, 1830-1914. [Social History in Perspective.] Macmillan Press Ltd, Basingstoke [etc.] 2000; St. Martin's Press, Inc., New York. xi, 214 pp. £45.00.
This textbook aims to offer a critical narrative of the place of labour in the process of industrialization in Great Britain between 1830 and 1914. The authors focus their approach on the notion that the changes in the position of labour are multidimensional, with a balance in their account between the rural and urban worlds, machine-powered and manual labour, new and old technologies. The roles and positions of men, women and children are taken into account.

Mansfield, Nicholas. English Farmworkers and Local Patriotism, 1900-1930. [Studies in Labour History.] Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2001. xiii, 227 pp. Ill. Maps. £40.00.
Focusing on Shropshire and the Marches, Dr Mansfield explores in this study English farmworkers and their trade unions, the structures of the agrarian economy, class divisions, local loyalties, cultural institutions and political organizations in the first three decades of the twentieth century. He aims to show how the rural elites countered the strong growth of rural radicalism at the end of World War I with a range of new local cultural and political initiatives, diffusing this radicalism by popular conservatism and local patriotism. See also Kenneth Lunn's review in this volume, pp. 108-110.

Manton, Kevin. Socialism and Education in Britain 1883-1902. [Woburn Education Series.] Woburn Press, London [etc.] 2001. xiii, 222 pp. Ill. £39.50.
This study examines the policies and position that British socialists shared on education in the last two decades of the nineteenth century. The central belief among socialists was, according to Dr Manton, that the material reformation of society should coincide with the ethical transformation of individuals. The socialist programme, he concludes, was also heavily centred on direct democratic control of the educational system through the school boards. The removal of this democratic control in the 1902 Education Act was a major factor that led to the growth of state-centred and bureaucratic socialist solutions to the problems of education.

Morgan, Carol E. Women Workers and Gender Identities, 1835-1913. The cotton and metal industries in England. [Women's and Gender History.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2001. xi, 224 pp. Ill. £16.99.
This study examines the experiences of women workers in the cotton and small metal industries in England between 1835 and 1913. Based on an introductory theoretical essay on gender in labour history, Dr Morgan examines the negotiation of the place and identities of women in the English cotton district and in the Birmingham and Black Country metal trades. She aims to demonstrate how harsh realities of working-class life forced women to enter trades such as chainmaking and brass polishing, which were seen as unfeminine in the dominant gender discourse of the time.

Purves, Andrew. A Shepherd Remembers. Reminiscences of a Border Shepherd. [Flashbacks, vol. 13.] Tuckwell Press, East Linton 2001, in assoc. with The European Ethnological Research Centre. vii, 280 pp. £9.99; $15.95; C$23.95.
These are the memoirs of Andrew Purves (1912), who worked most of his life as a shepherd, like his father before him, in the Borders, the border area of northern England and Scotland. Focusing on his childhood years and the Border farm life in the interwar years, Mr Purves aims to offer a comprehensive impression of everyday farm and shepherd life "from the inside". A glossary of Scottish words and farming terms is appended.

Van Arsdel, Rosemary T. Florence Fenwick Miller. Victorian feminist, journalist, and educator. [The Nineteenth Century.] Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2001. xvi, 249 pp. £42.50.
This is a biography of Florence Fenwick Miller (1854-1936), Victorian feminist activist, journalist and suffragist. Based in part on a recently discovered autobiography, recording the first 25 years of Florence Fenwick Miller's life, Professor Van Arsdel chronicles her development from an unhappy girlhood and frustrated adolescence into a conscious feminist and a gifted and popular public speaker and journalist. In her activities for the women's suffrage movement, she helped forge lasting links between British and American suffrage leaders.

Women in Twentieth-Century Britain. Ed. by Ina Zweiniger-Bargielowska. Longman, Harlow [etc.] 2001. xiii, 378 pp. Ill. £30.99.
The twenty-one contributions to this illustrated textbook collection explore transformations in the position of women in Britain during the twentieth century. The essays address issues of change such as the decline of fertility rates and the removal of formal barriers to women's participation in education, work and public life, and, at the same time, issues of limits of formal equality. These issues are discussed from four thematic perspectives: life course; paid and unpaid work; consumption, culture and transgression; and the state and citizenship.


Ben-Ghiat, Ruth. Fascist Modernities. Italy 1922-1945. [Studies on the History of Society and Culture, vol. 42.] University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 2001. x, 317 pp. Ill. $45.00.
In this study of the cultural history of Italian fascism, Professor Ben-Ghiat argues that fascism appealed to many Italian intellectuals as a new model of modernity that would resolve both the contemporary social, economic and cultural crisis in Europe and the longstanding problems of the national Italian past without harming traditional social boundaries and national traditions. Using a range of source materials, the author aims to reveal how fascists intended to transform Italian conduct and values to allow Italy to emerge from its perceived position of marginality.

Berneri, Camillo. Anarchia e società aperta. Scritti editi e inediti. A cura di Pietro Adamo. M&B Publishing, Milano 2001. 342 pp.
"One thing is certain, and that is that I am an anarchist sui generis, tolerated by comrades for my dedication but understood and supported by few". Camillo Berneri (1897-1937) wrote these words to a correspondent. He wrote for the anarchist press during and after his study of philosophy (his thesis advisor was Gaetano Salvemini). This anthology comprises 42 published and unpublished articles annotated by the editor. Dr Adamo has also contributed an extensive introduction in which he analyses Berneri's heterodox views. In 1937 Berneri was murdered in Spain by the Stalinists for his support for the anarchist collectivizations.

Chojnacka, Monica. Working Women of Early Modern Venice. [The Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science, 118th Series (2000), vol. 3.] The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 2001. xxiii, 188 pp. Ill. $25.00.
Exploring the lives of lower-class women in sixteenth and seventeenth-century Venice, Professor Chojnacka argues in this study that these women, whether unmarried, married or widowed, wielded greater social power than traditionally believed. As wage earners, heads of households and even homeowners in some cases, these women had far greater control over their own lives than traditional historiography has led us to believe. See also Ariadne Schmidt's review in this volume, pp. 101-103.

Galzerano, Giuseppe. Gaetano Bresci. Vita, attentato, processo, carcere e morte dell'anarchico che giustiziò Umberto I. Sec. ed., riveduta e ampliata. [Atti e memorie del popolo.] Galzerano Editore, Scalo/Salerno 2001. 1148 pp. Ill. € 36.20.
This is the revised and considerably expanded second edition of the biography published in 1988 of the anarchist Gaetano Bresci (see IRSH, 34 (1989), p. 549), who assassinated King Umberto I on 29 July 1900. This new edition is based on very elaborate archival research in both public and private records. It also covers anarchist U.S. and European press publications about the affair extensively and features lengthy quotations from letters and other documents. There are several new illustrations as well. Altogether, the book has expanded nearly ten times in size.

Gianni, Emilio. L'editore Luigi Mongini e la diffusione del marxismo in Italia (Catalogo storico 1899-1911). Edizioni Pantarei, Milano 2001. 251 pp. Ill. € 10.00.
Luigi Mongini (1852-1909) was the publisher of the first Italian translations of the works of Marx and Engels (36 titles) and of Lassalle (29 titles) from 1899 to 1909. He started publishing them in biweekly instalments. After his death they were issued by the Società Editrice Avanti as a book. Mongini published the works of other socialist authors as well. The brief account of Mongini's life and works is followed by catalogues of publications in chronological and alphabetical sequence by author and the original catalogue from 1909 arranged by series and illustrated with several covers. A biographical repertoire is appended.

Giovannini, Elio. L'Italia massimalista. Socialismo e lotta sociale e politica nel primo dopoguerra italiano. Pref. di Gaetano Arfè. [Storia e Memoria.] Ediesse, Roma 2001. 236 pp. € 10.33.
This study describes in detail the social struggle in Italy during the two "red" years 1919-1920. The account of the class struggle in the countryside and the cities follows a review of resistance to Italian participation in the war and the situation in the country at the end of the war. The author emphasizes that the widespread condemnation of the stance of the radical, maximalist wing of the socialist party, which identified with the movement, risks overlooking the unprecedented broad democratic popular movement involved.

Lettere dei corrispondenti. Vol. I. 1820-1840. A cura di Carlo Agliati. [Carteggi di Carlo Cattaneo, Serie II.] Felice Le Monnier, Firenze; Edizioni Casagrande, Bellinzona 2001. lv, 533 pp. € 47.00.
Carlo Cattaneo (1801-1869) was a freethinker, federalist and supporter of advancement through technical and scientific progress. He studied law but worked exclusively as a publicist in a great many fields from 1835. Following the four-volume publication of his letters, this is the first volume of letters he received from about 150 correspondents. Extensive annotations have been added to the letters, as have references to corresponding letters from Cattaneo. The editor has written an introduction. The book concludes with a chronological index of the 401 printed letters, an index of the correspondents and a register of persons.

Osti Guerrazzi, Amedeo. L'utopia del sindacalismo rivoluzionario. I Congressi dell'Unione Sindacale Italiana 1912-1913. [Historia, 9.] Bulzoni Editore, Roma 2001. 340 pp. € 18.00.
This volume contains the proceedings of the two congresses of the revolutionary-syndicalist Unione Sindacale Italiana: the founding congress held in Modena in November 1912 and the second congress held in Milan in December 1913. The third, which was scheduled for 1914, was cancelled as a result of the departure of the founders Alceste De Ambris, Filippo Corridoni and Tullio Masotti from the organization because of their support for Italian participation in the war. Amedeo Osti Guerrazzi drafted the historical introduction about the revolutionary syndicalism that had figured in the Italian socialist movement since 1904.

Il PCI nell'Italia repubblicana 1943-1991. A cura di Roberto Gualtieri. Pref. di Giuseppe Vacca. [Fondazione Istituto Gramsci onlus, Annali 1999/XI.] Carocci editore, Roma 2001. xxvii, 407 pp. € 28.90.
This collection of eight contributions are the proceedings of an international colloquium, organized in May 2000 by the Istituto Gramsci, which aimed to move away from the historiographies, conditioned by the Cold War, that portray the Italian Communist Party (PCI) as either solely dependent on the Soviet Union, or as a totally independent political party. Based on new archival material, the role of the party in domestic and international politics is examined in contributions that identify themes and referential frameworks for a future historiography of the party. These themes include the role of the PCI in the Italian political system, the disposition of the party toward Europe and its attitude toward consumer society.

Pepe, Adolfo, Pasquale Iuso, Simone Misiani. La CGIL e la costruzione della democrazia. [Storia del sindacato in Italia nel '900, vol. III.] Ediesse, Roma 2001. 508 pp. € 46.48.
After the fascist dictatorship the old CGdL was revived in Italy in 1944 as the "unity trade union" confederation CGIL, which united communists and Catholics. In 1948 the Catholics left. The three authors successively review for the period 1944-1963 the role of the trade union federation in national politics, the international dimension (the CGIL belonged to the communist World Federation of Trade Unions) and the cultural dimension. The cultural dimension concerns the theorization within the trade union movement, as well as sociological research on human relations. The appendix features several explanations and speeches by CGIL officials.

The Netherlands

Nederland een eeuw geleden geteld. Een terugblik op de samenleving rond 1900. Red.: J.G.S.J. van Maarseveen en P.K. Doorn. Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 2001. 316 pp. Maps. € 27.20.
On the occasion of the centennial of the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), the thirteen contributions in this volume view Dutch society at the time of the 1899 census from various perspectives and discuss the methodology of demographic research based on the censuses and the digitalization of the censuses. The topics covered in the contributions include Dutch population growth in the past century (F.W.A. van Poppel), families and households (D.J. Noordam), social structure around 1900 (C.A. Mandemakers) and the structure of the active population (E. Horlings).

Van hot naar her. Nederlandse migratie vroeger, nu en morgen. Red.: Saskia Poldervaart, Hanneke Willemse en Jan Willem Schilt. Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 2001. 127 pp. Ill. € 11.12.
Six of the seven contributions to this collection are based on papers presented at a colloquium organized at the International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam in January 2001, on the issue of migration in the Netherlands. The contributions include historically-oriented essays on the post-war refugee policy (Corrie Berghuis) and postwar emigration experiences (Marijke van Faassen). Two contributions on the migration issue reflect a contemporary European perspective. In a theoretical introduction, Leo Lucassen encourages greater interdisciplinary cooperation between historians and social scientists to analyse long-term migration processes.

Wat toeval leek te zijn, maar niet was. De organisatie van de jodenvervolging in Nederland. Red.: Henk Flap [en] Marnix Croes. Het Spinhuis, Amsterdam 2001. viii, 207 pp. € 19.25.
The question as to why many more Jews were deported from the Netherlands than from other western European countries under Nazi occupation is central in Dutch historiography of World War II and is addressed in this collection of eight essays by sociologists and political scientists. The contributors focus in part on a comparison with the French situation, the role of Dutch official agencies, of Dutch national socialists and of the resistance and on the situation and activities of Dutch Jews. The main perspective concerns the situation at the local level.

Wintle, Michael. An Economic and Social History of the Netherlands, 1800-1920. Demographic, Economic and Social Transition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2000. xv, 399 pp. Ill. £45.00; $69.95.
This study is intended as a comprehensive account of Dutch history from the late eighteenth to the early twentieth century, focusing on population and health, the economy and social-political changes. Adopting a diachronical perspective, Professor Wintle describes the "long nineteenth century" as a crucial period, in which the country experienced rapid population growth, high death rates, staggering fertility, fast economic growth, a large and efficient service sector, a vast and profitable overseas empire, the emergence of the characteristic "pillarization" and relative tolerance. See also Marco van Leeuwen's review in this volume, pp. 106-108.

Zuijdam, F. Tussen wens en werkelijkheid. Het debat over vrede en veiligheid binnen de PvdA in de periode 1958-1977. Aksant, Amsterdam 2002. ix, 457 pp. Ill. € 31.30.
In this dissertation (University of Amsterdam, 2002), Dr Zuijdam explores the causes and background of the metamorphosis in political views on peace and security that occurred within the Dutch Labour party (PvdA) in the 1960s and 1970s. Especially from 1966 onward, under the influence of the New Left within the PvdA, social-democratic ideas on peace and security became far less exclusively focused on Atlantic cooperation. The causes of this change in policy are described in the context of the turbulent developments within the party and in society in general and the changes in international relations.

Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Ascher, Abraham. P.A. Stolypin. The Search for Stability in Late Imperial Russia. Stanford University Press, Stanford (Cal.) 2001. xiii, 468 pp. Ill. £40.00; $55.00.
In this biography of the Russian statesman Petr Arkadevich Stolypin (1862-1911), Professor Ascher aims to give a more balanced portrait than conveyed by the highly divergent views on this leading politician that have prevailed thus far. As Prime Minister and Minister of Internal Affairs from 1906 until his assassination in 1911, Stolypin was, according to the author, the only man who seemed to have a clear notion of how to reform the socio-economic and political system of the Russian empire in the twilight of Nicolas II's reign. His reformism, which was blended with authoritarianism and nationalism, was nevertheless undermined by the Tsar's ultra-conservative entourage.

Brackman, Roman. The Secret File of Joseph Stalin. A Hidden Life. Frank Cass, London [etc.] 2001. xx, 466 pp. Ill. £35.00.
The main subject of this book is the "secret file" of Stalin about his role as an agent provocateur for the Tsarist secret police, the Okhrana. This file was held by the St. Petersburg Okhrana and was discovered in 1926. Brackman re-assesses known material and combines it with new archival and other unpublished sources in order to show, among other things, how Stalin's Okhrana career and the existence of this file help explain his motives behind the Show Trials and the Great Purges.

Gimpelson, Vladimir and Douglas Lippoldt. The Russian Labour Market. Between Transition and Turmoil. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., Lanham [etc.] 2001. xvii, 224 pp. $70.00. (Paper: $26.95.)
Focusing on the period 1992-1998, this study explores the developments on the Russian labour market from the start of the market-oriented economic reform and liberalization to the beginnings of the macroeconomic crisis in August 1998. The authors aim to offer an overview of the labour market dynamics in this period of transition and examine issues of unemployment, wage developments, social protection and the relation between the political instability and the evolution of labour market policy. See also Michael Ellman's review in this volume, pp. 121-122.

Life in a Penal Battalion of the Imperial Russian Army: The Tolstoyan N.T. Iziumchenko's Story. Ed. by Peter Brock and John L.H. Keep. Transl. by John L.H. Keep. William Sessions Limited, York 2001. xiv, 63 pp. £6.00.
This is the English translation of the memoirs of Nikolai Trofimovich Iziumchenko (1867-1927), a young peasant conscript in the Imperial Russian army and a dedicated Tolstoyan and pacifist. Iziumchenko spent two years (from 1892 to 1894) in a penal battalion following his refusal to bear arms. The memoirs relate the daily life inside the penal battalion and attest, according to the editors, to an alternative tradition of non-violent protest against injustice and a commitment to universal humanitarian values, which had authentic popular roots.

The New Russia. Transition Gone Awry. Ed. by Lawrence R. Klein and Marshall Pomer. Stanford University Press, Stanford (Cal.) 2001. xxiii, 454 pp. £47.50; $65.00. (Paper: £17.95; $24.95.)
This book is the culmination of the efforts of the Economic Transition Group, an informal group of Russian and American economists alarmed by the direction of Russian economic reforms. It contains 27 articles, grouped in three parts. Part One (eight articles) provides a critique of narrow economic orthodoxy, Part Two (eight articles) describes the ill effects of the laissez-faire approach to economic transition in Russia and Part Three (eleven articles) presents policy recommendations.

Osokina, Elena. Our Daily Bread. Socialist Distribution and the Art of Survival in Stalin's Russia, 1927-1941. Ed. by Kate Transchel. Transl. by Kate Transchel and Greta Bucher. [The New Russian History.] M.E. Sharpe, Armonk (New York) [etc.] 2001. xv, 255 pp. Ill. £51.95.
This study, an abridged and edited English version of an original Russian book published in 1999, examines the emergence of the symbiotic relationship between the centralized distribution and the market in the Soviet Union from the end of the NEP through the first three five-year plans, 1927-1941. Dr Osokina focuses on the state distribution policies, rationing, and the wide variety of "free" and black market activities and analyses the "hierarchy of distribution", which favoured industrial workers and engineers and disregarded the rural population entirely. See also Wendy Goldman's review in this volume, pp. 116-118.

Reddaway, Peter and Dmitri Glinski. The Tragedy of Russia's Reforms. Market Bolshevism against Democracy. United States Institute of Peace Press, Washington, D.C. 2001. xvi, 746 pp. $55.00. (Paper: $29.95.)
This book combines a chronological description of the profound political, social and economic transformation that took place in Russia in the 1990s with an in-depth analysis of Russia's economic and social decline and the collapse of its democratic movement in the 1990s. The authors employ the perspectives of political science and contemporary history. In an epilogue they examine the issue of missed alternatives and discuss some suggestions and policy recommendations for the foreseeable future.

Restoration of Class Society in Russia? Ed. by Jouko Nikula. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2002. xvi, 150 pp. £37.50.
The aim of this book is to present a comprehensive sociological analysis of Russian society during the 1990s and particularly of the changes in its social structure and class formation. It makes use of data sets from two nationwide surveys, one collected in the spring of 1991 and the other immediately after the August crisis in 1998. In eight chapters the four authors (three from Finland and one from Russia) examine areas such as social mobility, the structure and nature of labour markets, economic well-being and societal atmosphere.

The Russian Revolution. The Essential Readings. Ed. by Martin A. Miller. [Blackwell Essential Readings in History.] Blackwell Publishers, Malden (Mass.) [etc.] 2001. x, 288 pp. £15.99.
This anthology, published as a volume in the Blackwell Essential Readings in History series, features nine key articles (previously published between 1978 and 1997) on the Russian Revolution. They cover the immediate background to the revolution, the parties, movements and personalities, as well as issues of social class, gender and ethnicity. The work concludes with an examination of the historiography of the Russian Revolution after the fall of communism. An explanatory introduction by the editor precedes each essay.

Shlapentokh, Vladimir. A Normal Totalitarian Society. How the Soviet Union Functioned and How It Collapsed. M.E. Sharpe, Armonk (NY) [etc.] 2001. xv, 341 pp. $66.95. (Paper: $26.95).
In this book Professor Shlapentokh aims to analyse Soviet and post-Soviet society without placing moral judgements, in the way "a herpetologist studies snakes, without preconceived sympathies". He combines historical and sociological approaches to offer a "comprehensive and detached look at Soviet society". In four parts the author elaborates the main theoretical premises, examines Soviet ideology and the political and economic systems, analyses the chronic "diseases" of the USSR and looks at the reforms.

Smith, G.S. D.S. Mirsky. A Russian-English Life, 1890-1939. Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 2000. xviii, 406 pp. Ill. £65.00.
This is the first biography of D.S. Mirsky (1890-1939), literary scholar and critic, and historian, author of A History of Russian Literature (1926/1927), which remains the standard introduction to the subject. An officer in the Russian army in World War I and in the Civil War, he emigrated to England and became a leading literary scholar and critic. In 1931 he joined the Communist Party of Great Britain and returned to the Soviet Union in 1932, becoming a prominent Soviet critic. In 1937 he fell victim to Stalin's purges and died in the GULag in 1939.

Velikanova, Olga. The Public Perception of the Cult of Lenin Based on Archival Materials. [Slavic Studies, vol. 6.] The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston [etc.] 2001. x, 284 pp. Ill. $119.95.
This book analyses the development of the cult of Lenin, from 1917 up to the "de-Leninization" of the 1990s. Adopting a socio-anthropological rather than a political perspective, the author deals with the public perception of Lenin's death, the "Lenin enrolment" campaign, the renaming of Petrograd and the organization of "Lenin Corners". The study of the collective representations of Soviet people involved extensive use of the recently opened secret reports of the Soviet political police, reflecting the public moods in the 1920s and 1930s, as well as secretly opened private letters by Soviet citizens found in VChK/OGPU/NKVD archives.


Campesinos, artesanos, trabajadores. Actas del IV Congreso de Historia Social de España, Lleida, 12-15 de diciembre de 2000. Coord.: Santiago Castillo [y] Roberto Fernández. [Actas.] Editorial Milenio, Lleida 2001. 722 pp.
Historia social y ciencias sociales. Actas del IV Congreso de Historia Social de España, Lleida, 12-15 de diciembre de 2000. Coord.: Santiago Castillo [y] Roberto Fernández. [Actas.] Editorial Milenio, Lleida 2001. 374 pp.
These two volumes encompass the proceedings of the fourth congress of the Asociación de Historia Social, held in Lérida in 2000 (see IRSH, 42 (1997), p. 518, and 44 (1999), p. 352, for the proceedings of the second and third congresses). The congress aimed to continue the multidisciplinary and open perspective on social history of the preceding congresses and to reveal the state of Spanish social historiography from around the turn of the century about the eras since the Antiquity and covering various social groups (family, women, sociability). The volume Historia social y ciencias sociales contains the framing documents relating social history to anthropology, sociology, economics and political science, as well as the six corresponding documents for the thematic section of the Congress, which addressed farmers, manual craftsmen and workers from the end of the ancien régime until the contemporary period. The 50 papers and three analytical introductions from this last thematic section are featured in the second volume, Campesinos, artesanos, trabajadores.

Delgado Ruiz, Manuel. Luces iconoclastas. Anticlericalismo, espacio y ritual en la España contemporánea. [Ariel Antropología.] Editorial Ariel, S.A., Barcelona 2001. 185 pp. € 12.99.
This is a treatise about the anti-Catholic frenzy that regularly swept Spain from the nineteenth century until after Franco's revolt in 1936. The author replaces the explanations prevailing in social history and mass psychology with an anthropological one of his own. He puts the iconoclasm and Spanish anti-clericalism in general in a broader anthropological perspective and views them as part of social modernization.

Díez, Xavier. Utopia sexual a la premsa anarquista de Catalunya. La revista Ética-Iniciales (1927-1937). Pròleg d'Àngel Duarte. [Retalls, 3.] Pagès editors, Lleida 2001. 190 pp. Ill.
Like in other countries, in Spain in the 1920s and 1930s there were various groups of anarchists who, in addition to wanting to overthrow the authorities, valued ideas about greater harmony between people. They focused on sexual issues. This study in Catalan addresses the two Spanish journals Ética (1927-1929) and Iniciales (1929-1937), which propagated nudism in Catalonia and promoted ideas about sexual liberation. Their activities included distributing books on the subject. The appendix features a comprehensive index of publications.

El difícil camino a la democracia. Coord.: Antonio Morales Moya. [Las Claves de la España del siglo XX.] España Nuevo Milenio, Madrid 2001. 279 pp. € 15.56.
Ideologías y movimientos políticos. Coord.: Antonio Morales Moya. [Las Claves de la España del siglo XX.] España Nuevo Milenio, Madrid 2001. 368 pp. € 15.56.
La modernización social. Coord.: Antonio Morales Moya. [Las Claves de la España del siglo XX.] España Nuevo Milenio, Madrid 2001. 454 pp. € 15.56.
These are three volumes in a series of eight, containing the proceedings of the congress Claves de la España del siglo XX, held in Valencia in 2001. The volume on democracy, El difícil camino a la democracia, encompasses twelve contributions, addressing various aspects of the twentieth-century political history of Spain; a number of papers deal in greater depth with the resistance to the Franco regime. The volume on ideologies (Ideologías y movimientos politicos) contains fifteen contributions on political parties from left to right, their political culture and doctrines and organizational development. Other contributions are about anarchism, republicanism and the nationalist movements. The volume on social modernization (La modernización social) comprises eighteen contributions on a broad range of themes, including demographic developments, migration, women's emancipation, family life, practices of association, occupational groups and the working class.

Entre surcos y arados. El Asociacionismo agrario en la España del siglo XX. [Por] Antonio Miguel Bernal, Cristóbal Gómez Benito, María Teresa Pérez Picazo [y o.] Coords: Ángel Luis López Villaverde [y] Manuel Ortiz Heras. [Humanidades, 64.] Ediciones de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Cuenca 2001. 235 pp.
The seven contributions in this volume are based on a colloquium on agrarian syndicalism, organized by the University of Castilla-La Mancha in 2000, bringing together scholars from various disciplines: historians, economic historians and sociologists. Their contributions review the latest progress in scholarly research, which has filled many gaps in historiography about the period after the Civil War. The subjects addressed include syndicalism among agricultural workers, the agrarian cooperative movement, joint water management and associations of small farmers.

El exilio republicano navarro de 1939. Coord.: Ángel García-Sanz Marcotegui. [Historia, no 105.] Gobierno de Navarra, Departamento de Educación y Cultura, Pamplona n.d. [2001]. 613 pp. Ill. € 18.00.
This collection encompasses seven contributions on various aspects of the exile of Spaniards from Navarra after the start of the revolt by Franco, who captured Navarra immediately. Four contributions address the exile of various political movements: socialists, communists, Basque nationalists and anarcho-syndicalists, one is about the Pact of Bayonne (which the different Basque movements joined), another is about the prisoners in the Nazi concentration camps, and still another is more general. The book is largely comprised of brief biographies of 95 exiles.

Fernando de los Ríos y el socialismo andaluz. (Ciclo de conferencias celebradas desde el 21 de enero al 11 de febrero de 2000). Centro de Ediciones de la Diputación Provincial de Málaga (CEDMA), Málaga 2001. 201 pp. € 7.81.
Fernando de los Ríos (1879-1949) was a leading Spanish socialist who held various ministerial offices during the Second Republic. He studied law and joined the PSOE in 1919. Confronted with the social issue in Andalusia as a young man, De los Ríos favoured an ethical and humanist socialism and pursued a rebirth of Spain based on the ideals of the Enlightenment. This anthology, which comprises seven contributions about De los Ríos, Andalusia and socialism, is compiled from a lecture series organized in early 2000 at the initiative of the Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País de Málaga in honour of the fiftieth anniversary of his death.

Márquez i Berrocal, Manuel. Història social de la població de Sant Adrià de Besòs. Vol. III. La transformacío del territori: La producció de l'espai urbà a Sant Adrià de Besòs, 1910-1940. Ajuntament de Sant Adrià de Besòs, Barcelona 2001. 222 pp.
This is the third part (published even before the second one) of a social history of Sant Adrià de Besòs, a place in the industrial belt of Barcelona (see IRSH, 42 (1997), p. 517 for volume 1). This historical study is the outcome of an agreement between the municipal authorities and the Department for Contemporary History at the Autonomous University of Barcelona. This part explores themes such as immigration and demographic growth, literacy campaigns, industrialization, urban expansion and the infrastructure development of Sant Adrià. A wealth of statistical data is included as well.

Organización y revolución: De la Primera Internacional al Proceso de Montjuic (1868-1896). Pres., sel. y notas de Francisco Madrid y Claudio Venza. Introd. de Francisco Madrid. Prólogo de Pere Gabriel. [Antología documental del anarquismo español, vol. 1.] Fundación de Estudios Libertarios Anselmo Lorenzo, Madrid 2001. 489 pp. Maps.
This is the first volume of a planned five-volume series of anthologies of anarchist texts from the period 1868 to 1939 and a sixth volume containing a historiographic essay, a bibliography and indices. Each volume opens with an introduction intended to sketch the essential stages in the emergence of Spanish anarchism and the main obstacles, events, internal debates and confrontations with opponents within the Spanish political and social context. By documenting a broad range of opinions based on articles in the press, official internal documents and excerpts from leaflets, the editors have attempted to place the rise of the movement in a broader perspective. The selection criteria include the battle strategies chosen, the organizational models in practice and the theoretical positions adopted.

Paz, Abel. CNT 1939-1951. El anarquismo contra el Estado franquista. Fundación de Estudios Libertarios Anselmo Lorenzo, Madrid 2001. 378 pp. Ill. € 16.23.
In the preface to this book, the author writes that the manuscript for this book is from 1978 but could not be published at the time. The book features a rather detailed description of the resistance efforts of the clandestine CNT in Spain. It also covers the course of events within the CNT in France, which split into two sections in 1945. His research sources included written accounts, collections from the clandestine press and bulletins and circulars of the CNT and court files on people convicted for involvement in the resistance. The appendices comprise a chronology of the resistance and photographs of fighters who perished.

El republicanismo español. Raíces históricas y perspectivas de futuro. Eds: Ángeles Egido León [y] Mirta Núñez Díaz-Balart. Prólogo de Nigel Townson. [Historia Biblioteca Nueva.] Asociacion Manuel Azaña/Biblioteca Nueva, Madrid 2001. 333 pp. € 16.00.
This book is based on several lectures delivered in December 1999 at a colloquium of the Fundación Luis Bello, which is affiliated with the political party Izquierda Republicana. Some of the fifteen contributions address historical subjects, such as the person Azaña, the repression under Franco and the years of exile. Other contributions are about the republican values manifested through anti-clericalism and a civic ethic, as well as federalism. Another section is devoted to the republican view of current political issues. Nigel Townson has contributed an historical account of republicanism.


Ulmi, Nic [et] Peter Huber. Les Combattants suisses en Espagne républicaine (1936-1939). [Histoire.] Éditions Antipodes, Lausanne 2001. 339 pp. Ill. S.fr. 40.00; € 27.00.
Almost 800 Swiss men and women went to Spain during the Civil War as volunteers for the Republicans. This study explores the reactions of left-wing Swiss to the outbreak of the war and the first initiatives to volunteer, the social and political profile and motivations of the volunteers, their experiences in Spain in the International Brigades and the increasing repression by the Stalinist leadership, as well as their experiences upon their return to Switzerland.