Volume 49 part 1 (April 2004)
Continents and Countries
Algeria | Egypt | Ethiopia | Senegal | Uganda | Zanzibar | Zimbabwe
Chile | Cuba | Mexico | United States of America
Mongolia | Vietnam
- Australia and Oceania
France | Germany | Great Britain | Italy | The Netherlands | Portugal | Russia - USSR | Spain | Switzerland
Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.
SOCIAL THEORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE
McAdam, Doug, Sidney Tarrow [and] Charles Tilly. Dynamics of Contention. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. xxi, 387 pp. £40.00; $59.95. (Paper: £14.95; $21.95.)
In this jointly written volume, Professors McAdam, Tarrow and Tilly aim to identify "similarities and differences, pathways and trajectories across a wide range of contentious politics - not only revolutions, but also strike waves, wars, social movements, ethnic mobilizations, democratization, and nationalism." Examining and comparing eighteen contentious episodes in various parts of the world since the French Revolution, ranging from nineteenth-century nationalist movements to contemporary cases, they consider the implications of their approach for explanations of revolutions, nationalism and democratization and devise the foundations for a general programme for the study of contentious episodes wherever and whenever they occur. See also the Review Symposium on this book in this volume, pp. 103-141.
Newman, Michael. Ralph Miliband and the Politics of the New Left. The Merlin Press, London 2002; Monthly Review Press (USA); Fernwood Publishing (Can.). xiv, 368 pp. Ill. £15.95.
This is a biography of Ralph Miliband (1924-1994), one of the major thinkers of the post-war New Left, an editor of New Left Review and founding editor of The Socialist Register. Recounting Miliband's life and analysing the development of his ideas and work, Professor Newman aims to show that Miliband's most famous books, Parliamentary Socialism (1961) (see IRSH, 7 (1962), p. 152) and The State in Capitalist Society (1969), figured within a broader project to construct a form of socialism that would avoid the dictatorship of Soviet socialism and the timidity of social democracy. See also Marcel van der Linden's review in this volume, pp. 154-156.
Pratt, Jeff. Class, nation and identity. The anthropology of political movements. [Anthropology, culture and society.] Pluto, London [etc.] 2003. vii, 220 pp. £50.00. (Paper: £15.99.)
In this study, Dr Pratt aims to re-examine the qualitative distinction usually drawn between political movements that are class-based and materially driven, and those which are culturally based and driven by nationalist or ethnic motives. Illustrating his arguments with case studies from twentieth-century movements, ranging from Basque nationalism and the break-up of Yugoslavia to Andalusian anarchism and Italian communism, he advocates a new analytical framework that extends the study of identity formation and ethnographic analysis of economic and social processes to all political movements.
Alberti, Johanna. Gender and the Historian. Longman, Harlow [etc.] 2002. vi, 158 pp. £21.95.
This book features a general survey of writing by women's historians from 1969 to 1999. Over this period, Dr Alberti argues, the perspective has shifted from the history of women to gender history. Presenting a chronological account of the historiographical developments and the most influential practitioners in the field, the author reveals the elements of continuity in the conceptualization and writing of gender history from the 1970s onward and the changes that have affected not only women's history but historiography in general.
The Biography of Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua: His Passage from Slavery to Freedom in Africa and America. Ed. by Robin Law and Paul E. Lovejoy. Markus Wiener Publishers, Princeton 2001. xvi, 272 pp. Ill. $39.95. (Paper: $19.95.)
In 1854 a pamphlet was published in the United States entitled An Interesting Narrative. Biography of Mahommah G. Baquaqua, the only known biography of an American slave born in Africa, instead of being born into slavery in the Americas. Enslaved in northern Benin in the early 1840s, he was shipped to Brazil, and obtained his freedom in New York City and escaped to the free Black state of Haiti, where he converted to Christianity. In this edition, the pamphlet is reproduced with extensive annotations. In the lengthy introduction the authorship of his biography is discussed and his life placed in the context of mid nineteenth-century Atlantic slavery and the abolition movement.
Briggs, Asa and Peter Burke. A Social History of the Media. From Gutenberg to the Internet. Polity, Cambridge 2002. ix, 374 pp. Ill. £55.00. (Paper: £15.99.)
This study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the development of communication media from the invention of printing to the present information and communication revolution brought about by Internet, and of the social and cultural contexts within which these media emerged and evolved over time. Emphasizing both the technological changes and the continuities in the use of various media, Professors Briggs and Burke deal with the various constituent elements in what came to be called "the media". In their concluding chapter they analyse the convergences associated with digital communication technology, and the relation with globalization. See also Bert Hogenkamp's review in this volume, pp. 143-145.
Grayzel, Susan R. Women and the First World War. [Seminar Studies in History.] Longman, Harlow [etc.] 2002. xvii, 193 pp. Ill. £21.95.
This textbook aims to provide an introduction to the experiences and contributions of women during World War I. As the first modern, total war, World War I demanded active participation in the part of men and women alike. Exploring women's relationship to the war in each of the main protagonist states, Professor Grayzel highlights the heated public debates about the role of women that the war inspired, women's representation in propaganda, their role in peace movements and revolutionary activity that resulted from the war and the consequences of the war for the position of women in its immediate aftermath.
Press, Politics and the Public Sphere in Europe and North America, 1760-1820. Ed. by Hannah Barker and Simon Burrows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2002. ix, 263 pp. £45.00; $60.00.
The ten essays in this volume examine the role of newspapers in political and social change in various European countries and in North America in the second half of the eighteenth and the early decades of the nineteenth centuries. Covering the Netherlands, Germany, England, Ireland, America, France, Italy and Russia, both individually and comparatively, the contributors explore the involvement of the press in the political upheavals of the period and the relationship between newspapers and public opinion and attempt to identify their role in the emergence of a "public sphere" as defined by Jürgen Habermas.
Rappaport, Helen. Encyclopedia of Women Social Reformers. ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara (Cal.) [etc.] 2001. xxxvii, 888 pp. Ill. 2 vol. set: £110.00.
In this encyclopaedia, over 400 women from 64 countries are included who have been active in social reform, broadly defined as a variety of spheres of activism, welfare and philanthropy, from the French Revolution to the present. Including women from all parts of the world, Dr Rappaport, has selected in addition to the obvious candidates from the white middle class in the United Kingdom and the United States, women from some countries who might not have been considered appropriate according to a strict definition of social reform. In the field of political activism, only women involved in peaceful lobbying and protest have been selected.
Robinson, Cedric J. An Anthropology of Marxism. [Race and Representation.] Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2001. xxii, 169 pp. £40.00.
Almost twenty years after the publication of his Black Marxism: The Making of the Black Radical Tradition (1983), Professor Robinson analyses in this new critique of Marxism the Western origins of socialist tradition from before the capitalist era. Examining the social origins of materialism and socialism before Marx, he concludes that Marxism was not the first expression of an authentic and viable socialism, and that an important socialist tradition existed before and independent of the rise of bourgeois capitalism.
Silver, Beverly J. Forces of Labor. Workers' Movements and Globalization since 1870. [Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2003. xv, 238 pp. £ 45.00. (Paper: £ 16.99.)
Based on the World Labor Group database, compiled at Binghamton University's Fernand Braudel Center in the 1980s, this book reviews cases of labour unrest from all over the world, culled from the New York Times and the London Times in the years 1870-1996. The author distinguishes between Marx and Polanyi types of conflict and looks for the spatial and technological fixes that capitalists employ against worker militancy. The textile and automobile industries are leading sectors of working-class formation and labour unrest, both moving from the high income core to the middle and low income periphery. The database also aims to reveal the complex interplay between international politics and labour unrest in the years surrounding the two World Wars. See also Lex Heerma van Voss's review in this volume, pp. 151-154.
Haus, Leah A. Unions, Immigration, and Internationalization: New Challenges and Changing Coalitions in the United States and France. [Europe in Transition: The NYU European Studies Series.] Palgrave Macmillan, New York [etc.] 2002. xi, 219 pp. £40.00.
Most twentieth-century labour unions in the West generally supported restrictive immigration policy measures to reduce the flow of labour into the country and thereby to improve wages and working conditions. In the late twentieth century, however, unions changed sides and came to support more liberal views in immigration policy debates. Comparing unions in France and the United States, two postindustrial democracies with relatively weak labour movements and substantial immigration flows, this study explores this change in immigration policy preferences of unions and the underlying factors.
The Charitable Impulse. NGOs & Development in East & North-East Africa. Ed. by Ondine Barrow and Michael Jennings. James Currey, Oxford 2001; Kumarian Press, Bloomfield, CT. xiii, 210 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £14.95.)
The ten contributions to this volume offer case studies on the historical and contemporary role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in both relief and development efforts in East and North-East Africa from the 1970s to the present. Included are both sectoral analyses of particular areas of action for NGOs - such as refugees, famine relief, democracy and human rights - and an institutional focus on specific NGOs - such as Oxfam and Christian Aid. Both scholars and active participants in NGOs have contributed.
Geschichte wird gemacht. Soziale Triebkräfte und internationale Arbeiterbewegung im 21. Jahrhundert. Hrsg. von Theodor Bergmann, Wolfgang Haible [und] Gert Schäfter. VSA-Verlag, Hamburg 2002. 236 pp. € 18.00.
In April 2001 at a conference organized in Elgersburg, Thüringen, independent Marxist social scientists discussed the renewal of Marxism that was needed to cope with the changing circumstances of the struggle for social and political emancipation and liberation in the twenty-first century. The nineteen contributions to this volume, based on that conference, deal with contemporary problems of the working class and of social movements in eight industrialized countries and in China, India and South-Korea and explore opportunities for internationalism within the labour movement.
Parreñas, Rhacel Salazar. Servants of Globalization. Women, Migration and Domestic Work. Stanford University Press, Stanford (Cal.) 2001. xi, 309 pp. $55.00; £40.00. (Paper: $18.95; £12.95.)
This is a study of migrant Philippine domestic workers in the 1990s who leave behind their own families to do mothering and caretaking work throughout the world. Focusing on workers in the cities of Rome and Los Angeles and based on interviews with domestic workers, Professor Parreñas portrays both the broader economic perspective as domestic workers from developing countries increasingly come to perform the menial labour of the global economy and the individual experiences of migrant Philippine domestic workers, situating their experiences in the local, transnational and global contexts. See also Ratna Saptari's review in this volume, pp. 156-158.
CONTINENTS AND COUNTRIES
Simon, Jacques. Messali Hadj (1898-1974). Chronologie commentée. [Creac-Histoire.] L'Harmattan, n.p. [Paris] 2002. 231 pp. € 19.80.
Following a biography (see IRSH, 45 (2000), p. 418), Dr Simon now has published an annotated chronology of the life and political career of Ahmed Messali Hadj (1898-1974), leader of the Algerian workers' association in Paris in 1927 and founder of the Étoile Nord-Africaine, the Parti Populaire Algérien and the post-war Mouvement pour le Triomphe des Libertés Démocratiques, which played a major part in the struggle for Algerian independence. The chronology of Messali's life is divided in three parts: before 1946, 1946-1954 and 1954-1974. In each part the chronology of Hadj's life is preceded by a general chronology of France and Algeria.
Meijer, Roel. The Quest for Modernity. Secular Liberal and Left-Wing Political Thought in Egypt, 1945-1958. RoutledgeCurzon, London [etc.] 2002. x, 278 pp. £60.00.
This study analyses the political ideologies of influential liberal, socialist and communist thinkers, groups and movements that aimed to modernize Egypt in the period 1945-1958. According to Dr Meijer, economic and social modernization, as well as democratization, was as important as and possibly more important than nationalism was to these Egyptian intellectuals. In the second part of the book, the author examines how the reform programmes, originally drafted with the intention of forming a democratic society, were in the end used by the new generation of intellectuals in their support for the authoritarian modernism of Nasser's July Revolution.
Remapping Ethiopia. Socialism and After. Ed. by Wendy James, Donald L. Donham, Eisei Kurimoto [and] Alessandro Triulzi. [Eastern African Studies.] James Currey, Oxford 2002; Ohio University Press, Athens; Addis Ababa University Press, Addis Ababa. xiii, 306 pp. Ill. Maps. £40.00. (Paper: £14.95.)
The fall of "the Derg", the Ethiopian socialist regime, in 1991 enabled field research in the Ethiopian provinces for the first time since 1974. The fifteen contributions in this collection are based on papers presented at the 13th International Conference of Ethiopian Studies in Kyoto 1997. Since 1991, the centre-periphery relationship has changed dramatically in Ethiopia: from centralist to ethnically defined. The context in which these regional studies should be considered, according to Professor Donham in the "Introduction", is that of a conflict-ridden region, from Sudan to Rwanda, where new identities emerge from violence.
Searing, James F. "God Alone is King": Islam and Emancipation in Senegal. The Wolof Kingdoms of Kajoor and Bawol, 1859-1914. [Social History of Africa.] James Currey, Oxford 2002; Heinemann, Portsmouth (NH); David Philip, Cape Town. xxxiv, 294 pp. Ill. Maps. £40.00. (Paper: £16.95.)
This book analyses the internal dynamics in the period 1859-1914 in the Kajoor and Bawol Wolof kingdoms in Senegal. In this period the aristocratic and slave-based social structure made way for a cash-crop economy based on small farmers. Islam was a dominant factor in this process. Although the French rule was important, the author emphasizes on the internal struggle between the aristocrats and Muslims such as Amadu Bamba. The author complements French sources with written and spoken texts in Wolof, both from the royal tradition and from the rising Islamic Murid Sufi order.
Reid, Richard J. Political Power in Pre-Colonial Uganda. Economy, Society & Warfare in the Nineteenth Century. [Eastern Africa Studies.] James Currey, Oxford 2002; Fountain Publishers, Kampala; Ohio University Press, Athens. xiv, 274 pp. Maps. £45.00. (Paper: £16.95.)
To the North and the East of Lake Victoria lay the Kingdom of Buganda. This monograph covers the pre-colonial history of this state, present-day Uganda, and explores how in Buganda material and human resources were used to achieve affluence, internal stability and external security. Buganda expanded in the early nineteenth century and started to decline around 1850. The system of trade and warfare malfunctioned, due to a complex combination of excessive elephant hunting, dependence on slavery, cattle diseases and government shortcomings. The study is based on research in the United Kingdom and Uganda.
Petterson, Don. Revolution in Zanzibar. An American's Cold War Tale. Westview Press, Boulder [etc.] 2002. xvii, 286 pp. Ill. Maps. $28.00; C$42.50; £19.99.
In January 1964 tensions in Zanzibar erupted into an outburst of violence. Black insurgents attacked the dominant Arab population. Zanzibar soon became an East-German style people's republic run by Abeid Amani Karume. This account of a long-forgotten incident in the early history of post-colonial Africa and the Cold War is related in detail by one of the few American eyewitnesses to the entire episode. As an American diplomat, Don Petterson experienced the independence, revolt and communist takeover. The sources of the author include his own notes and letters from that time, as well as published texts.
Meredith, Martin. Our votes, our guns. Robert Mugabe and the Tragedy of Zimbabwe. PublicAffairs, New York 2002. viii, 243 pp. $26.00.
This book by Mr Meredith, who wrote previously about Zimbabwe (The Past Is Another Country, London, 1980), is a journalistic history of Robert Mugabe's career. The shock of the electoral defeat in June 2000 is crucial for understanding the current political crisis. The author attributes the seemingly irrational measures against the white farmers during and after these elections to Mugabe's desire to remain in power by mobilizing his supporters. Whether this end is achieved through the polls or through violence and intimidation is, according to the author, immaterial to him.
Baldez, Lisa. Why Women Protest. Women's Movements in Chile. [Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2002. xvii, 234 pp. £45.00; $65.00. (Paper: £15.95; $23.00.) Comparing two very different women's movements in Chile - the mobilization of women against President Salvador Allende (1970-1973) and that against General Augusto Pinochet (1973-1990) - Professor Baldez explores under what conditions women protest based on their gender identity. Analysing the point of convergence of various organizations to form a women's movement, she argues that two conditions trigger this cascade of mobilization among women: partisan realignment, understood as the emergence of a new set of issues around which political elites define themselves, and the decision by women to frame realignment in terms of widely held norms about gender difference.
Sweig, Julia E. Inside the Cuban Revolution. Fidel Castro and the Urban Underground. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 2002. xix, 254 pp. Ill. $29.95; £19.95.
This study examines relations within the 26th July movement in the period 1957 - 1959. Based on sources including recently issued archive material on Cuba, the author portrays relations between the revolutionaries in the countryside and those in the city (Sierra versus Llano). The author questions the image created by Che Guevara of the small group of guerrilleros who gained control of the entire country from the mountains. The urban movement was essential. The failure of the strikes of April 1958, a Llano initiative, was crucial in this course of events and shifted the balance of power toward the group around Castro, who subsequently led a complex coalition to victory.
Pásztor, Suzanne B. The spirit of Hidalgo. The Mexican Revolution in Coahuila. [Latin American and Caribbean series.] University of Calgary Press, Calgary [etc.] 2002. xvi, 224 pp. Ill. $24.95.
This study focuses on the north-eastern Mexican state of Coahuila from the late Portifirian era (at the end of the nineteenth century) to 1920, to examine the social, political and economic developments that contributed to revolutionary activism within the state. Professor Pasztor explores the social origins and characteristics of support for the revolutionary movements of Francisco I. Madero and Venustiano Carranza and the role of the extensive Coahuila-Texan border in financing the Mexican Revolution and studies the reforms introduced during the Revolution.
Patch, Robert W. Maya Revolt and Revolution in the Eighteenth Century. [Latin American Realities.] M.E. Sharpe, Armonk (NY) 2002. xx, 249 pp. Maps. £54.95.
The colonial system in Spanish America struck a balance between freedom for the indigenous elites to operate without hindrance and the tax burden from the Spanish officials. Infringements on the former and increases to the latter regularly instigated rebellions intended to restore the status quo ante. The rebellion of Jacinto Canek in 1761 in Yucatán, who rose up against the Spaniards as King Montezuma, was the only case of a revolutionary insurgence, as the Mayas wanted to rule themselves. The author uses many local legal sources on the five cases in this book.
United States of America
Faue, Elizabeth. Writing the Wrongs. Eva Valesh and the Rise of Labor Journalism. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 2002. xi, 249 pp. Ill. £23.50.
In this biography of Eva McDonald Valesh (1866-1956), Professor Faue explores the life and work of one of the most prominent American labour journalists and publicists of the Progressive Era. Born into a working-class family, she progressed from a labour reporter and organizer, writing about the many examples of social wrongs, into the right hand of AFL president Samuel Gompers and a national political figure, leading an eccentric life among the elite and disappearing from public view in the 1920s. Through portraying Valesh's life, Professor Faue sketches the developments in American social reform and labour journalism and labour's political culture, as well as the changes in the role of women there.
Fujita-Rony, Dorothy B. American workers, colonial powers. Philippine Seattle and the transpacific West, 1919-1941. University of California Press, Berkeley, Calif. [etc.] 2003. xviii, 302 pp. $21.95.
Focusing on the city of Seattle as a major port of Philippine immigration between World Wars I and II, this study examines the dynamics of the Filipino migrant community through the frameworks of race, geography, gender and class. Embedded in the historiographical traditions of new social history and history from below, migration history and the New Western history approach to American colonialism, Professor Fujita-Rony aims to show how racism against Filipino Americans led to constant mobility into and out of Seattle, where only some remained permanently, given the limited employment opportunities.
Owings, Alison. Hey, Waitress! The USA from the Other Side of the Tray. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 2002. viii, 334 pp. Ill. $29.95.
This is a journalistic, oral history of American waitresses in the final decades of the twentieth century. Based on interviews with some 35 waitresses of various social, ethnic and cultural backgrounds, Mrs Owings aims to portray the everyday experience of being a waitress, describing working conditions, relations with bosses, clients and co-workers and the struggles for waitress unions and against sexual discrimination.
Richardson, Heather Cox. The Death of Reconstruction. Race, Labor, and Politics in the Post-Civil War North, 1865-1901. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 2001. xvii, 312 pp. £27.50.
This study explores the causes for the "retreat from Reconstruction," the gradual abandonment by the Northern Republicans of the "free labor" ideology of integration and emancipation of the black freedpeople in the South in the decades after the end of the Civil War. Professor Richardson rejects traditional explanations for the end of Reconstruction, such as racism, and argues that growing concern among moderate Republicans for class antagonism and a radicalization among the southern freedpeople led them to abandon the ideals of Reconstruction.
Steward, Austin. Twenty-Two Years a Slave and Forty Years a Freeman. With an Introd. by Graham Russell Hodges. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse 2002. xl, 182 pp. Ill. $19.95.
This memoir of the black abolitionist Austin Steward (1793-1869), originally published in 1861, is one of the few first-hand testimonies of activism against slavery and racism by freed blacks. In the introduction, Professor Hodges places Steward's life in its historical context, from his rise from enslavement to his success as a self-made businessman and as leader of the ill-fated Wilberforce Colony in Ontario, Canada, providing evidence for Steward's important role in free black activism in the antebellum northern states and his relationships with other famous abolitionists, such as Frederick Douglass, William Wells Brown, Nathaniel Paul and Gerrit Smith.
Morozova, Irina Y. The Comintern and Revolution in Mongolia. [Inner Asia book series, vol. 3.] White Horse Press, Cambridge 2002. 96 pp. £27.50.
This monograph is dedicated to the activities of the Comintern in Central Asia and the politics of Soviet Russia towards the East. It describes the transition of Mongolia from a theocratic monarchy to a socialist republic. Particular emphasis is placed on the interference of the Comintern and Moscow in the political struggles among the Mongolian elite and its policy of social transformation in this nomadic society. The author describes the emergence of the MPRP (Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party) and the Comintern politics towards Buddhist monasteries and lamas. The problem of Mongolian nationalism and the ensuing response from the Comintern are a central issue.
The Revolution Defamed. A Documentary History of Vietnamese Trotskyism. Ed. by Al Richardson. Socialist Platform, London 2003. vii, 205 pp. ^7.85.
This volume brings together 26 documents dating from the 1930s to the 1990s to illustrate the history of Trotskyism in Vietnam. Included are selections of correspondence between Trotskyist activists and, for the most part, selections from periodicals and historical writings on the struggle between the Stalinists under the leadership of Ho Che Minh and the much smaller Trotskyist movement in South Vietnam and among Vietnamese migrants in France.
AUSTRALIA AND OCEANIA
Bunbury, Bill. It's not the money, it's the land. Aboriginal stockmen and the Equal Wages Case: talking history. Fremantle Arts Centre Press, Fremantle 2002. 192 pp. $24.95.
In 1965 pastoralists in northern Australia were forced by the Equal Wages Case to pay Aboriginal stockmen equal wages. Although Aboriginals were the underpaid backbone of the pastoral industry, pastoralists often supported entire Aboriginal communities, allowing people to stay in their own country and retain much of their culture and traditional knowledge. The Equal Wage Case disrupted this equilibrium, with devastating consequences for its supposed beneficiaries. This oral history aims to record the experiences of the Aboriginal people living through these difficult changes, focusing on the hardship, struggle and repercussions of this major event on racial relations in Australia.
Becoming Delinquent: British and European Youth, 1650-1950. Ed. by Pamela Cox [and] Heather Shore. [Advances In Criminology.] Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2002. xii, 184 pp. £ 45.00.
Based on an international conference organized at the University of Cambridge in 1999, the nine essays in this collection analyse definitions of and responses to disorderly youth from the mid-seventeenth to the mid-twentieth centuries across Western Europe. In this comparative approach, the volume aims to show how themes such as panics about urban culture, poor parenting, dangerous pleasures, family breakdown and future social stability dominated European discourse on juvenile delinquency, and how these various threats were countered by recurring strategies that equivocated between moral reform and physical punishment.
The Communist successor parties of Central and Eastern Europe. Ed. by András Bozóki and John T. Ishiyama. M.E. Sharpe, Armonk (NY) [etc.] 2002. xvii, 501 pp. £75.50.
Contrary to initial expectations, the organizational successors to the ruling communist parties in Eastern Europe since 1991 have proven quite durable. This book is devoted to the rise of communist successor parties in Eastern Europe and Russia, their survival strategies and adaptation to changed circumstances and the ways in which these processes differed in the various countries. Following a section devoted to a general theoretical framework, the second section comprises some ten case studies in the different countries in individual chapters. In the third section, the authors present comparisons between the cases to produce general lessons on the adaptation strategies of successor parties.
Fluchtziel Paris. Die deutschsprachige Emigration 1933-1940. Hrsg. [von] Anne Saint Sauveur-Henn. [Dokumente - Texte - Materialien, Band 48.] Metropol, Berlin 2002. 336 pp. Ill. € 19.00.
The twenty-nine contributions to this volume, based for the most part on papers presented at a colloquium of the Gesellschaft für Exilforschung organized in Paris in March 2001, explore the everyday history and historical topography of German-speaking exiles in Paris between 1933 and 1940. The topics addressed by the authors include the political activities of emigrants and the surveillance the experienced by French and German officials, as well as literary accounts of exile experiences. In the last five contributions exiles relate their experiences from that period.
Die Geschichte der sozialen Arbeit in Europa (1900-1960). Wichtige Pionierinnnen und ihr Einfluss auf die Entwicklung internationaler Organisationen. Hrsg. von Sabine Hering und Berteke Waaldijk. Leske + Budrich, Opladen 2002. 240 pp. € 15.00.
Based on a workshop organized at the Conference for Social Work, held in Mainz in 2001, the 25 contributions to this volume offer a current account of the historiography of social work in eleven European countries, focusing on the pivotal role of women in social work. The first part features ten biographical contributions on important people in social work in several European countries; the second part offers an impression of the existing comparative documentation and work on social organizations and structures in the eleven countries; in the third part, methodological and substantive problems with archival research in the field are discussed based on two case studies from Ireland and the Netherlands, respectively.
Health Care and Poor Relief in 18th and 19th Century Northern Europe. Ed. by Ole Peter Grell, Andrew Cunningham and Robert Jütte. [The History of Medicine in Context.] Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2002. x, 337 pp. £57.50.
The fifteen contributions to this volume, based on a conference in Stuttgart in June 1998, examines how governments in Northern Europe (the German states, Russia, Scandinavia, Britain, France and the Netherlands) coped with the needs of the poor for health care and relief in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The pauperization, brought about by industrialization, had undermined the old poor relief arrangements, borne by religious and civic institutions and individuals, resulting, as the contributors aim to show, in a response that replaced the traditional principle of "outdoor" relief with a generally repressive system of "indoor" relief.
Rusnock, Andrea A. Vital Accounts. Quantifying Health and Population in Eighteenth-Century England and France. [Cambridge Studies in the History of Medicine.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2002. xvi, 249 pp. Ill. £45.00; $65.00.
This is a social history of the physicians, clergymen and government officials who introduced numeric tables to quantify and evaluate health and population in eighteenth-century England and France. Professor Rusnock explores the developments in the disciplines of political and medical arithmetic in this period and the main concomitant controversies about health and population, in which these scientific instruments designed for evaluating smallpox inoculation, linking weather with disease, comparing infant and maternal mortality rates, identifying changes in disease patterns and challenging prevailing views about the decline of the European population were of paramount importance.
Dieng, Amady Aly. Les premiers pas de la Fédération des Étudiants d'Afrique Noire en France (FEANF) (1950-1955) (de l'Union Française à Bandoung). Préf. de Samir Amin. [Forum du Tiers-Monde.] L'Harmattan, Paris [etc.] 2003. 375 pp. € 29.00.
This is a history of the Federation of Students from Black Africa in France (FEANF) from its foundation in 1950 - in part a response to the establishment of the French Union in 1948 - to 1955, the year of the Bandung Conference, the meeting of 29 Asian and African states against colonial rule. Amidst the Cold War, the FEANF figured prominently in the struggle for independence of African countries under French colonial rule, according to Dr Aly Dieng, who was president of the FEANF in 1961/1962.
The French Revolution and Napoleon. A sourcebook. Ed. by Philip G. Dwyer and Peter McPhee. Routledge, London [etc.] 2002. Ill. xxii, 213 pp. £14.99.
This textbook brings together a broad selection of primary texts to illustrate the changes France and Europe underwent during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic periods. Included are, among others, translations of a number of Cahiers de doléances, journalistic accounts of major events in the Revolutionary period and reports from foreigners living in France, decrees, declarations, laws (such as the Napoleonic Civil Code), letters and memoirs of contemporaries.
Harsin, Jill. Barricades. The War of the Streets in Revolutionary Paris, 1830-1848. Palgrave Macmillan, New York [etc.] 2002. ix, 417 pp. Ill. £25.00.
Focusing on Paris in the period of the July Monarchy, this study explores the Parisian republican working class activists who made up the montagnard movement. Based on court records, newspapers and memoirs, Professor Harsin deals with the political turmoil of the period in which the montagnards were active and examines the social and ideological background of montagnardism, which she characterizes as an ideology of violence to overthrow the bourgeois state and transform the social and economic environment, with a strong sense of honour linked with a contemporary working-class definition of masculinity and a romantic awareness.
McPhee, Peter. The French Revolution 1789-1799. Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 2002. v, 234 pp. Maps. £12.99.
This textbook aims to give a comprehensive overview of the causes, nature, main events and consequences of the French Revolution. Surveying the recent debates among historians, Professor McPhee refutes many revisionist interpretations, reasserts the importance of social dynamics in the causes of the Revolution and emphasizes the repercussions of the revolutionary events on daily practice, women's experiences and rural society.
Meriggi, Maria Grazia. L'invenzione della classe operaia. Conflitti di lavoro, organizzazione del lavoro e della società in Francia intorno al 1848. [Studi e ricerche storiche.] FrancoAngeli, Milano 2002. 324 pp. € 21.00.
This study analyses the proposals and experiments concerning the "Organisation du Travail" (named after the title of a booklet by Louis Blanc) from the 1830s until the "Ateliers Nationaux" of 1848, which were intended to protect workers from the influence of the capitalist labour market. The author also examines the emergence of coalitions and strikes and standards of living among Paris workers and the rise of the modern working class from the interaction between conflicts and ideologies of social protection. Her research sources include police archives in Paris and Northern France and publications such as L'Atelier, as well as the writings of contemporary sociologists such as Villermé and Levasseur.
Popkin, Jeremy D. Press, Revolution, and Social Identities in France 1830-1835. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park (PA) 2001. xi, 329 pp. Ill. $65.00. (Paper: $22.50.)
Examining the press in the French revolutionary crisis of the early 1830s in the city of Lyon, Professor Popkin aims to demonstrate in this study the crucial role of newspapers in devising a new repertoire of identities for various social groups, thus redefining the public sphere. Whereas in the aftershocks of the July Revolution of 1830 the population of Lyon had rallied around its liberal newspaper and opposed the conservative Restoration government, Lyon's press and its public opinion had become fragmented within less than two years, with new periodicals claiming to speak for workers, for women or for the local interests of the city.
Revolutionary France 1788-1880. Ed. by Malcolm Crook. [The Short Oxford History of France.] Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 2002. xi, 250 pp. Maps. £37.50.
In this textbook, the second in a projected series of six on the history of France from 900 to 2000, the period 1788-1880 is generally defined by a sequence of revolutionary events. In the first two contributions, the editor and Pamela Pilbeam cover the main events chronologically; five thematic chapters deal with state and religion (Thomas Kselman); class and gender (Elinor Accampo); town and country (Peter McPhee); province and nation (Robert Gilda) and France and its overseas empire (Michael Hefferman).
Riviale, Philippe. L'impatience du bonheur. Apologie de Gracchus Babeuf. [Critique de la politique Payot.] Éditions Payot & Rivages, Paris 2001. 269 pp. € 22.11.
This study provides both an anthology of extended excerpts from the texts of Gracchus Babeuf (1760-1797), derived from the journals he published (La Liberté de la presse and Le Tribun du peuple, his correspondence around the Conjuration pour l'egalité and his defence at his trial before the high court of the Vendôme) and a critique of Babeuf's ideas. In his study, Mr Riviale aims to defend Babeuf's revolutionary ideas against both the usurpation of his legacy by Marxists and his condemnation as an anachronistic Jacobin among liberal thinkers.
Ross, Kristin. May '68 and Its Afterlives. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago [etc.] 2002. ix, 238 pp. $27.50.
The mainstream historical interpretation of May 1968 in France has given the revolutionary movement of that period a predominantly cultural and ethical meaning. In this study of the May '68 events and their subsequent interpretation, Professor Ross re-examines the actual events and argues that sociologists, repentant ex-student leaders and the mainstream media have erased the political perspective of the violence, anti-capitalism, anti-Americanism and anti-imperialism that was far more characteristic of the movement than the cultural perspective emphasized in later interpretations.
Schechter, Ronald. Obstinate Hebrews. Representations of Jews in France, 1715-1815. [Studies on the History of Society and Culture, vol. 49.] University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 2003. viii, 331 pp. $60.00.
In this study of representations of Jews in eighteenth-century France, Professor Schechter aims to explain why such an insignificant minority received so much attention: Jews made up only a very small minority of the French population with no power whatsoever. He argues that thinking about the Jews helped the French reflect on a series of general issues of importance in the Enlightenment, such as the role of dogma and religion, the perfectibility of human nature, national identity and the nature of citizenship. Thus, he concludes, the "Jewish question" was comparable to present-day discourses about women, blacks and Native Indians. See also Karin Hofmeester's review in this volume, pp. 148-150.
Stone, Bailey. Reinterpreting the French Revolution. A global-historical perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2002. viii, 292 pp. £47.50; $65.00. (Paper: £17.95; $24.00.)
Based on recent scholarly literature on the diplomatic, political, social, economic and cultural history of eighteenth-century and revolutionary France, together with current theoretical writing on modern revolutions, Professor Stone argues in this study that the outbreak of the French Revolution and the subsequent developments were attributable to the interacting pressures of international and domestic politics on French political leaders. In his re-interpretation, he aims to deviate from both Marxist socioeconomic orthodoxy and from recent "political-cultural" analyses.
Fremd- und Zwangsarbeit in Sachsen 1939-1945. Beiträge eines Kolloquiums in Chemnitz am 16. April 2002 und Begleitband einer Gemeinschaftsausstellung der Sächsischen Staatsarchive. Hrsg. von Gerald Kolditz und Jörg Ludwig. [Veröffentlichungen der Sächsischen Archivverwaltung. A. Archivverzeichnisse, Editionen und Fachbeiträge 2.] MDV, Halle 2002. Ill. 174 pp. € 20.50.
The eight contributions to this volume are the proceedings of a colloquium organized in Chemnitz in April 2002 on forced labour during the period 1939-1945 in the German state of Saxony. Saxony played a major role in the Nazi arms manufacturing industry, in which over half a million, predominantly Eastern-European forced labourers were put to work between 1939 and 1945. The second part of the volume, which accompanies an exhibition on the subject, features a general overview of the forced and foreign labour and presents selected documents.
Goch, Stefan. Eine Region im Kampf mit dem Strukturwandel. Bewältigung von Strukturwandel und Strukturpolitik im Ruhrgebiet. [Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Stadtgeschichte, Beiträge, Band 10.] Klartext, Essen 2002. 804 pp. Maps. € 17.50.
Within four decades, the most typical industrial region of Germany has successfully transformed into a post-industrial society, now defined by high-tech companies, modern architecture and a vibrant cultural ambience. This study, based on a Habilitationsschrift (Ruhr University, Bochum, 1999), offers an in-depth exploration of this economic transformation of the Ruhr region from the late 1960s onward, the related structural economic policies and the social, economic, political and cultural consequences of this process.
Haffner, Sebastian. Die deutsche Revolution 1918/19. Kindler, Berlin 2002. 253 pp. Ill. € 19.90. This is a new edition of the book that was originally published in 1969 as Die verratene Revolution. Deutschland 1918/19 (see IRSH, 15 (1970), p. 331). Included is Dr Haffner's epilogue with the new edition from 1979.
Kessler, Mario. Exil und Nach-Exil. Vertriebene Intellektuelle im 20. Jahrhundert. VSA-Verlag, Hamburg 2002. 206 pp. € 13.80.
Covering both the period 1933-1945 and the post-war period, Dr Kessler sketches in the twelve essays in this volume (of which ten were previously published between 1991 and 2002) the experiences of several German and Austrian intellectuals who went into exile after 1933. Amidst all their differences, these exiles shared their adherence to or sympathy for the socialist movement, also after 1945, and a critical view either of their new homelands or towards the GDR or West Germany, after their return. Included are essays on, among others, Albert Einstein, Hermann Duncker, Arthur Rosenberg, Richard Löwenthal and Leo Löwenthal and Stefan Heym.
Potthoff, Heinrich [und] Susanne Miller. Kleine Geschichte der SPD 1848-2002. Dietz, Bonn 2002. 589 pp. Ill. € 15.90.
In 1974, the first edition of this general history of the SPD (the German social democratic party) was published, in two volumes at the time (see IRSH, 20 (1975), pp. 135, 136) and addressed the period until 1945. An updated and revised fourth edition appeared in 1981 (see IRSH, 26 (1981), p. 396), and with its eighth edition, this manual has again been revised and updated until 2002. The second part, covering the period 1949 to 1982, has undergone thorough revision and now reflects the changes in eastern Germany as well, and a new, third part has been added to cover the two decades since 1982. Because of the new division of the work between the authors, the sequence of the authors' names has been reversed.
Smith, Helmut Walser. The Butcher's Tale. Murder and Anti-Semitism in a German Town. Norton, New York, N.Y. [etc.] 2002. 270 pp. Ill. Maps. $25.95; £20.95.
The murder and brutal mutilation of a Christian boy in 1900 in the small town of Konitz in East Prussia formed the pretext for an outburst of violent anti-Semitic riots and demonstrations, in which rumours of the traditional blood-libel accusations against the Jews, and in particular the ones made by the town's Christian butcher against his Jewish next-door neighbour, played a major role. In this study, Professor Walser Smith explores the accusations, as well as the police records and testimonies, to reconstruct the crime and places the anti-Semitic frenzy in the historical context of European anti-Semitism.
Ashton, Owen R. and Paul A. Pickering. Friends of the People. Uneasy Radicals in the Age of the Chartists. The Merlin Press, London 2002. vi, 169 pp. £14.95.
This volume offers biographical studies of six Chartist leaders from middle-class backgrounds and as such atypical for a movement for working-class rights. Through the lives and radical political activism of three ministers of religion (Henry Solly, James Scholefield and Benjamin Parsons), a doctor (Peter M. McDouall), a leisured gentleman (William Villiers Sankey) and a newspaper magnate (Richard Bagnall Reed), the authors explore the rise of dissent, the nature of class and the role of class differences and the politics of radicalism in the Chartist movement.
Changing Family Size in England and Wales. Place, Class and Demography, 1891-1911. [By] Eilidh Garrett, Alice Reid, Kevin Schürer [and] Simon Szreter. [Cambridge Studies in Population, Economy and Society in Past Time.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. xxiii, 526 pp. Maps. £60.00; $90.00.
Drawing on the individual returns from the 1891, 1901 and 1911 censuses in England and Wales, the authors of this volume explore the interactions between the social, economic and physical environment in which people lived and their family-building behaviour. They re-examine the declines in infant mortality and marital fertility, comparing white-collar, agricultural and industrial communities, and conclude that to find the causal factors that brought about these demographic changes, the concept of a revolutionary demographic transition should be replaced by an idea of multiple and often differing demographic regimes among different regions and classes.
Coombes, B.L. These Poor Hands. The Autobiography of a Miner Working in South Wales. With an Introd. by Bill Jones and Chris Williams. University of Wales Press, Cardiff 2002. xl, 207 pp. £7.99.
This is a new edition of a miner's autobiography, which was originally published in 1939 and soon became a best-seller, making the author B.L. Coombes one of the better-known "proletarian writers" of his time. Coombes, an English-born miner working in South Wales, aims in this book to offer an accurate account of his working-life experiences, which included the lockouts of 1921 and 1926. In the introduction to this fully-annotated new edition, Professor Williams and Dr Jones place Coombes's autobiographical writing in its historical and literary contexts.
European Immigrants in Britain 1933-1950. Ed. by Johannes-Dieter Steinert and Inge Weber-Newth. K.G. Saur, München 2003. 224 pp. € 98.00.
The thirteen contributions to this volume are the proceedings of a homonymous international conference organized in London in December 2000 and focused on refugees from Nazi Germany and labour migrants in the immediate post-war period. Contributors have dealt with British immigration and immigrant policies and its historiography and have examined social, cultural and economic aspects, as well as questions about migrants' perceptions of themselves and others and the reactions of the receiving community.
McKee, Christopher. Sober Men and True. Sailor Lives in the Royal Navy 1900-1945. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 2002. 285 pp. Ill. $29.95; £19.95.
Based on unpublished diaries, letters, memoirs and oral interviews, Professor McKee aims to reconstruct in this study the everyday lives and experiences on board of sailors who served in Britain's Royal Navy during the first half of the twentieth century. As most standard images of sailors in the Navy are based on sources of the officers, the author aims in this book to give a more authentic impression of the working-class experience on board from the perspective of the ratings, including the harsh discipline, comradeship, shipboard homoeroticism and the responsibilities of marriage and family at home.
Meanings of Modernity. Britain from the Late-Victorian Era to World War II. Ed. by Martin Daunton and Bernhard Rieger. Berg, Oxford [etc.] 2001. x, 250 pp. Ill. £42.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
While recent historiography has proliferated the use of the modernity concept in historical research to analyse the pervasive social, economic and cultural changes from 1870 to 1940 in continental Western Europe, the concept was hitherto hardly used in British historiography of this period. The ten essays in this volume, based on the Neale Colloquium, held in London in 1998, aim to redress this by looking at different aspects of British conceptions and expressions of modernity, including mass consumption and the emergence of modern travelling, notions of selfhood and developments in psychology, the "national character" and visions of the future.
Roberts, Ken. Class in Modern Britain. Palgrave, Basingstoke [etc.] 2001. ix, 270 pp. £45.00.
This introductory textbook aims to show that class remains as important as ever in Britain today, despite the important changes in the size, character and composition of all the main social classes. Professor Roberts reviews the main sociological theories on class, relevant class schemes, the relation to economic change, culture and politics and the issue of social mobility and provides an analysis of the main classes in modern Britain.
Rowntree Arnold. The Letters of Arnold Stephenson Rowntree to Mary Katherine Rowntree, 1910-1918. Ed. by Ian Packer. [Camden Fifth Series, vol. 20.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2002. x, 265 pp. £45.00; $70.00.
This source publication is a scholarly edition of the letters that Arnold Stephenson Rowntree wrote his wife Mary Katherine Rowntree (née Harvey) from 1910 until 1918, the period during which Rowntree, a Quaker, was Liberal MP for York. The edition, the editor argues, offers a glimpse of the world of backbench Liberal MPs committed to New Liberalism, as well as of the Quaker stand on social and political issues, the problems that pacifist MPs faced during World War I and the construction of gender identities within political marriages in Edwardian Britain.
Degl'Innocenti, Maurizio. L'epoca giovane. Generazioni, fascismo e antifascismo. [Società e Cultura, 26.] Piero Lacaita Editore, Manduria [etc.] 2002. viii, 452 pp. € 18.00.
This study examines the generational effect on processes of political change. It is also a historical study of political rhetoric and language from the perspective of the young/old, new/old dichotomy situated in the early decades of the twentieth century. At the time the "uprising of the sons" acquired a special importance in conjunction with the social and cultural turnaround as a consequence of World War I and the rise of totalitarianism. This issue is analysed here according to the relationship between fascism and anti-fascism during the Interbellum.
Furiozzi, Gian Biagio. Alceste De Ambris e il sindacalismo rivoluzionario. FrancoAngeli, Milano 2002. 91 pp. € 13.00.
This essay by an expert on Italian revolutionary syndicalism revolves around the ideas and political actions of Alceste de Ambris (1874-1934). De Ambris figured prominently in this movement, which peaked in the first fifteen years of the twentieth century. A member of the socialist party from 1892, he became skilled in organizing strikes. The author also addresses his views on general strikes and direct action, as well as his liberal corporatism. As an anti-fascist, he went into exile in France and was active in the movement of exiles.
Granata, Mattia. Lettere d'amore e d'amicizia. La correspondenza di Leda Rafanelli, Carlo Molaschi [e] Maria Rossi (1913-1919). Per una lettura dell'anarchismo Milanese. [Biblioteca di storia dell'anarchismo, 13.] BFS edizioni, Pisa 2002. 110 pp. Ill. € 8.00.
This book presents in chronological sequence the letters (11) from Leda Rafanelli (1880-1971) to Carlo Molaschi (1886-1953) and vice versa (3) and the complete correspondence (27) from Molaschi to Maria Rossi (1891-1990), whom he married in 1918. All three were part of the individualist-anarchist and anti-militarist circle in Milan during World War I. Molaschi and Rafanelli were active as publicists, while Rossi was a schoolteacher and supporter of the Modern School of Francisco Ferrer. The correspondence reveals the intimate world of protagonists of Milanese anarchism. Mattia Granata has written a lengthy introduction and provided the annotations.
Gualdi, Paolo. Repubblicanesimo e Cooperazione a Ravenna. Dal patto di fratellanza operaia alla nascita di Acmar: 1871-1951. Longo, Ravenna 2002. 190 pp. Ill. € 20.00.
This history of the rise and consolidation of the Republican cooperative movement, especially the cooperatives of masons, in Ravenna, based on existing publications, is intended for a general readership. The author reviews the vicissitudes of the Republican cooperative movement from the first efforts by Mazzini, the resistance against the fascist regime, the clashes between Republicans, socialists and communists and, more broadly, the relation between the social struggle in the Romagna region and the changes in this cooperative movement.
Pier Carlo Masini, un profilo a piú voci. Atti della giornata di studi sulla figura e l'opera di Pier Carlo Masini. Bergamo, Sala Curò, 16 gennaio 1999. A cura di Giorgio Mangini. Civica Biblioteca Angelo Mai, Bergamo 2001. 252 pp. € 15.40.
This collection comprises seven contributions to a workshop held in January 1999 about the life and work of the historian Pier Carlo Masini (1923-1998). As a historiographer, Masini was deeply interested in the conflict between anarchists and Marxists of the First International. His publications included a history of anarchism in Italy from Bakunin to Malatesta (IRSH, 14 (1969), p. 309) and address several related subjects as well. Giorgio Mancini and Franco Bertolucci have added an extensive biographical bibliography, and three hitherto unpublished interviews featuring a wealth of autobiographical information are also included.
Quando il popolo si desta... 1848: l'anno dei miracoli in Lombardia. A cura di Nicola Del Corno e Vittorio Scotti Douglas. [Ricerche e Strumenti.] FrancoAngeli, Milano 2002. 223 pp. € 18.50.
This book comprises the eight proceedings from a workshop organized by the Istituto per la Storia del Risorgimento Italiano in Milan in 1999. Following an introductory essay by Franco della Perruta about various aspects concerning 1848 in Lombardy, the contributions address: urban development in Milan from 1815-1865; the battle of the barricades in March 1848; the bitter political struggle in Milan from March to August 1848, which the democrats had already lost by mid-May; the agrarian issue in Lombardy, which the democrats were unable to use to their advantage; the richly variegated press of Milan; the uprisings in Bergamo and Brescia.
Sacchetti, Giorgio. Ligniti per la Patria. Collaborazione, conflittualità, compromesso. Le relazione sindacali nelle miniere del Valdarno superiore (1915-1958). [Storia e memoria.] Pref. di Sergio Cofferati ed Enzo Brogi. Introd. di Adolfo Pepe. Ediesse, Roma 2002. 356 pp. € 14.00.
This dissertation (University of Teramo, 2001) focuses on syndicalism among miners in the Upper Valdarno lignite mines in Tuscany, interpreted according to the concepts of conflict and co-operation. It offers both an economic history of an industry from the rise of Italian industrial society to the decline of the mining industry; and a social history of a community where trade unions were paramount in establishing social identity; and a history of the ideas of the political movements and of anarcho-syndicalism.
Beer, Hans de. Voeding, gezondheid en arbeid in Nederland tijdens de negentiende eeuw. Een bijdrage tot de antropometrische geschiedschrijving. Aksant, Amsterdam 2001. 249 pp. Ill. € 22.65.
Examining the nutritional and health conditions among the Dutch population during the nineteenth century, this Ph.D. thesis (Utrecht University, 2002) examines to what extent Dutch people in those days filled their nutritional needs, and what the implications of more or less adequate nutrition were for the labour force's standard of living, health and physical labour productivity. Comparing the situation in the Netherlands in the nineteenth century to the one in other nations at the time, Dr de Beer concludes that a paradoxical situation existed: although the Netherlands was among the most prosperous countries, a high proportion of the population benefited very little from this affluence. See also Ad van der Woude's review in this volume, pp. 145-148.
Belangenpolitiek. [Cahier over de geschiedenis van de christelijk-sociale beweging, 4 (2002).] Uitgeverij Aksant/CNV, Amsterdam/Utrecht 2002. 152 pp. Ill. € 13.60.
The nine contributions to this volume deal with the relationship between the Protestant trade-union movement and the Protestant political parties in the Netherlands in the twentieth century, particularly with regard to social and labour issues. Included are essays on the role of the Protestant trade-union movement in introducing the eight-hour day, the involvement of Protestant politicians in the adoption of legislation concerning working hours and other issues in various industrial sectors and the rise and decline of the agrarian lobby in Protestant political parties.
Bos, Dennis. Waarachtige volksvrienden. De vroege socialistische beweging in Amsterdam 1848-1894. Uitgeverij Bert Bakker, Amsterdam 2001. 444 pp. Ill. € 17.92.
This dissertation (University of Amsterdam, 2001) explores the origins and early development of the socialist labour movement in the City of Amsterdam during the second half of the nineteenth century. Examining the traditions, mentalities, social and geographical structures and networks that shaped the early socialist labour movement, Dr Bos aims to revise the traditional historiography of socialism in the Netherlands, which treats this early period only as a less-successful prelude to the emergence of the "modern" labour movement. The author concludes that though politically ineffective in the long run, the "old" movement was very successful in creating an autonomous social world. See also Hendrik Defoort's review in this volume, pp. 150-151.
Bras, Hilde. Zeeuwse meiden. Dienen in de levensloop van vrouwen, 1850-1950. [IISG: Studies + Essays, 34.] Aksant, Amsterdam 2002. 258 pp. Ill. € 27.50.
Based on a reconstruction of the life courses of over 700 women from the Dutch province of Zealand born between 1835 and 1927, this dissertation (Utrecht University, 2002) examines the everyday lives of female domestic servants and the reasons for and impact on their course of life of the decision to enter domestic service among young working-class women from the mid-nineteenth until the mid-twentieth centuries. Dr Bras concludes that entering domestic service not only meant migration from rural areas to the urbanized west of the Netherlands but in many cases also afforded more opportunities for upward social mobility than did rural labour for the women who stayed behind in Zealand.
Kuypers, Ivo. In de schaduw van de grote oorlog. De Nederlandse arbeidersbeweging en de overheid, 1914-1920. [IISG: Studies + Essays, 33.] Aksant, Amsterdam 2002. 304 pp. Ill. € 27.50.
This revised edition of a dissertation (Utrecht University, 1999) analyses the influence of World War I on the development of the main currents within the Dutch labour movement: Catholics, socialists, Protestants and syndicalists. Although the Netherlands was able to stay out of the war, the impact of the war caused, according to Dr Kuyper, the changes to accelerate, especially the regulation of labour relations: the Dutch government acknowledged its political plight to ensure the security of the working-class and recognized the trade unions as the main representative of the workers. Thus, he argues, the foundations for the post-1945 welfare state were laid during World War I.
Roosblad, Judith. Vakbonden en immigranten in Nederland (1960-1997). [Migratie- en Etnische Studies.] Aksant, Amsterdam 2002. x, 203 pp. € 20.00.
From the mid-1950s, shortages on the Dutch labour market were met by recruiting guest workers from the Mediterranean. In this dissertation (University of Amsterdam, 2002), Dr Roosblad explores how the Dutch trade union movement has dealt with this new form of labour migration and the presence of this new group of labour migrants from Spain, Morocco and Turkey and examines in what measure the trade unions have protected the interests of these workers. Considering the national context, as well as the setting of the various trade unions and the shopfloor, she examines whether the Dutch trade union attitude is comparable to that of trade unions elsewhere in Western Europe.
Ferreira, Maria de Fátima Sá e Melo. Rebeldes e Insubmissos. Resistências Populares ao Liberalismo (1834-1844). Ediçoes Afrontamento, Porto 2002. 589 pp. Maps. € 11.55.
This study, a revised edition of a dissertation (Sorbonne, Paris, 1995), focuses on the popular movement against liberalism in Portugal during the decade following the liberal victory in the Civil War from 1832 to 1834. The objective of the author was to elucidate the role of the popular classes in this process and to enhance knowledge of the nature of this anti-liberalist stand among the people. The author has also investigated the geographic distribution and duration of the resistance, and relates the emergence of political opinions to social conflicts.
Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Borrero, Mauricio. Hungry Moscow. Scarcity and Urban Society in the Russian Civil War, 1917-1921. [Studies in Modern European History.] Lang, New York [etc.] 2003. x, 228 pp. € 69.40.
This book examines the impact of the severe and chronic food shortages during the revolutions of 1917 and the subsequent civil war on the inhabitants of Moscow. A case study of the survival strategies devised by individuals, organizations and institutions and of the impact of these strategies on government policies, the work also touches on related issues, such as the relationship between central and local power, urban-rural relationships, rationing, the growth of black markets and Bolshevik social policies.
Haynes, Mike. Russia. Class and Power 1917-2000. Bookmarks Publications, London [etc.] 2002. v, 251 pp. Ill. £12.00.
In this general, essayistic overview of the history of Russia from the October Revolution to 2000, Dr Haynes presents four main arguments, all based on an outspoken radical Marxist perspective. First: the October Revolution was a genuine workers' revolution which degenerated into something else; second, no logic intrinsic to the revolution explains why Stalinism developed as it did; third, the Soviet system was not a form of socialism but a form of bureaucratic state capitalism; and fourth, the transition after 1991 did not involve a form of radical change but a shift in the form of capitalism: from state to more market oriented.
Marks, Steven G. How Russia shaped the modern world. From art to anti-Semitism, ballet to bolshevism. Princeton University Press, Princeton (N.J.) [etc.] 2003. xii, 393 pp. £19.95.
This book studies the impact Russia exerted on the world between the 1880s and the 1980s through the power of political and cultural ideas generated there. The nine chapters cover Russian revolutionary radicalism, the ideas of Kropotkin, Dostoevsky and Tolstoy, Russian anti-Semitism, Russian avant-garde in theatre, ballet and painting and Soviet communism and discuss the influences of each of these currents (subjects), not only on the western world, but also on countries in Asia and Africa.
New Labor History. Worker Identity and Experience in Russia, 1840-1918. Ed. by Michael Melancon and Alice K. Pate. Slavica Publishers, Bloomington 2002. v, 248 pp. $25.95.
The nine essays in this collection aim to explore the role of workers in the late tsarist and revolutionary history from a new perspective. Covering the period from 1840 to 1917 and examining worker experience both at the centre and along the peripheries of the Russian Empire, the Russian and American contributors explore the more familiar themes within Russian labour history, such as socialist activism, as well as subjects covered less extensively, such as rank and file worker aspirations, worker psychology and identity, child labour, religion, the role of language and the complexity of workers' identities.
Patenaude, Bertrand M. The Big Show in Bololand. The American Relief Expedition to Soviet Russia in the Famine of 1921. Stanford University Press, Stanford (Cal.) 2002. viii, 817 pp. Ill. Maps. £53.50.
When a devastating famine descended on Soviet Russia in 1921, the United States responded with a massive two-year relief campaign that battled starvation and disease and saved millions of lives. This book narrates the story of the famine and the relief campaign by the ARA (the American Relief Administration) under the chairmanship of Herbert Hoover. The initial chronological part is followed by three other sections examining the personal triumphs and tragedies of the relief workers in Bolshevik Russia (or Bololand, as it was known), the political confrontations between the Americans and the Bolshevik commissars and the cultural encounter occasioned by the relief mission, respectively. The author makes extensive use of the diaries, memoirs and letters of the American participants.
Pozefsky, Peter C. The Nihilist Imaginiation. Dmitrii Pisarev and the cultural origins of Russian radicalism (1860-1868). [Middlebury studies in Russian language and literature.] Lang, New York [etc.] 2003. x, 272 pp. € 74.50.
Dmitrii Ivanovic Pisarev (1840-1868) was a leading nihilist intellectual and a key figure in the history of Russia in the nineteenth century. This study, the first English-language book devoted to him, examines the Russian revolutionary movement of the 1860s from the perspective of his life, focusing on cultural factors involved in the process by which Russian radicalism evolved from a handful of individuals and circles into one of the most active revolutionary movements in Europe. The author argues that the subculture of this radical intelligentsia emerged and was preserved through cultural symbols, taken from Russian literature, European science and philosophy, as much as through ideas, individuals and social networks.
Resnick, Stephen A. [and] Richard D. Wolff. Class Theory and History. Capitalism and Communism in the USSR. Routledge, New York [etc.] 2002. xiv, 353 pp. £16.99.
This book aims to give a new interpretation of the history of the USSR, focusing on class structures. In the first two chapters the authors develop an economic theory of communism and state capitalism, respectively, based upon a Marxian concept of class but emphasizing "surplus" production and distribution. This forms the theoretical basis for their analysis of the Soviet Union, which fills the rest of the book. In the last chapter they conclude that their analysis contributes "to the realization that communist class structures can and should be tried and tested as alternative to all forms of capitalism."
Stalinscher Terror 1934-41. Eine Forschungsbilanz. Hrsg. von Wladislaw Hedeler. BasisDruck, Berlin 2002. 371 pp. Ill. € 22.00.
Based on an international conference, organized in November 2001 in Berlin, this collection of fifteen contributions aims to disclose the current state of research on the Stalinist Terror of the period 1934-1941. The essays cover three main themes: the extent and system of the Great Terror and the relation between the central People's Commissariat Internal Affairs (NKVD) and its regional divisions; the functional mechanism of the Terror and the forces that unified the perpetrators and divided the victims; and the various social and national groups of victims of the Terror, such as women, and the German political, cultural and economic émigrés.
Taubman, William. Khrushchev. The Man and his Era. W.W. Norton & Company, New York [etc.] 2003. xx, 876 pp. Ill. $35.00; £24.00.
This book is a comprehensive biography of Nikita Khrushchev. Reflecting the full range of sources that have become available since the collapse of the USSR, it draws on newly opened archives in Russia and Ukraine, visits to places where Khrushchev lived and worked, plus extensive interviews with his family members, friends, colleague, subordinates and diplomats who jousted with him. The account combines historical narrative with political and psychological analysis.
Ayala Vicente, Fernando. Partidos y èlites político-sociales en la provincia de Cáceres durante la Segunda República (1931-1936). Universidad de Extremadura, Cáceres 2002. 195 pp. Ill. Maps. € 11.00.
This study consists of two parts: the first comprises short biographies of provincial and local officials of Cáceres and of leaders of parties and movements. The second volume is a political analysis of the social movements and political parties that operated in this province during the Second Republic, divided according to four blocks: rightist, republican, regionalist and proletarian. The book contains a list of all mayors during the Second Republic, including their political affiliations. The annex features three lists of social and political organizations from before and during the Second Republic.
Balfour, Sebastian. Deadly Embrace. Morocco and the Road to the Spanish Civil War. Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 2002. xviii, 349 pp. Ill. Maps. £25.00.
Professor Balfour examines in this study Spain's colonial war in Morocco (1908-1927) and the role of the Army of Africa in the very brutal guerrilla warfare. This included, as the author reveals here for the first time, the use of chemical weapons by the Spanish army against the civilian population at an unprecedented scale. Combining military, political, cultural, social and oral history, the author aims to reveal the impact of this colonial war on the everyday life of the soldiers, on the Moroccan population and on Spanish society, as well as its influence on the genesis and course of the Civil War.
Bengoechea, Soledad. Les dècades convulses: Igualada com a exemple. Mobilització patronal i obrera entre principis del segle XX i la Dictadura de Primo de Rivera. Publicacions de l'Abadia de Montserrat, Barcelona 2002. 298 pp. € 28.24.
In the years of mounting social tensions after the start of twentieth century, according to the author of this study, Catalan employers modelled themselves after the labour movement and formed a resistance movement. From 1919 the Barcelona employers' organization encouraged the establishment of a network of local counterparts to serve as a foundation for a form of corporatism. This Catalan case study, based on, among others, archives and local newspapers of workers' and employers' organizations, compares the changes in the region to the specific situation of the impoverished industrial city of Igualada. In 2000 the book received the Doctor Joan Mercader Award.
Domingo, Alfonso. El canto del búho. La vida en el monte de los guerrilleros antifranquistas. Oberón, Madrid 2003. 299 pp. Ill. € 16.00.
This book is based on testimonies gathered throughout Spain about the communist, socialist and anarchist guerrilla effort against Franco, which peaked in the period from 1942 to 1952. Circumstances varied by region, as did the political affiliation of the resistance groups. Altogether, between six and seven thousand armed fighters operated in the various mountain areas of Spain and about ten times as many couriers - often women and children - who provided connections and supplies, as well as information services. In Barcelona and Madrid a city guerrilla operated as well.
Fernández Santander, Carlos. El exilio gallego de la Guerra Civil. [Biblioteca del Exilio.] Do Castro, Sada 2002. 638 pp. € 22.00.
This is a compendium of persons and organizations from Galicia that entered exile after the Civil War. It features detailed biographical information about the persons involved and describes the organizations concerned, which included publishers. Galician publications in exile and information about radio broadcasts by the BBC and from South America are also listed. The book also includes a list of Galicians killed in Mauthausen, as well as 70 pages of documents on the exile, such as letters and manifestos.
Las huelgas de 1962 en España y su repercusión internacional. El camino que marcaba Asturias. Coord.: Rubén Vega García. Ediciones Trea, S.L., Gijón 2002; Fundación Juan Muñiz Zapico, Oviedo. 540 pp. € 20.00.
The 22 contributions in this volume are based on the conference organized by the Fundación Juan Muñiz Zapico in 2002 in honour of the fortieth anniversary of the strikes in 1962. This wave of strikes, which involved ca. 300,000 workers, affected over half the Spanish provinces. The contributors discuss the conditions that gave rise to the strikes, characteristics in the different regions of the country and the reverberations abroad. The annex comprises government documents, documents from the opposition, domestic and foreign newspaper articles and statements of solidarity from intellectuals and international trade-union federations.
Marín Silvestre, Dolors. Clandestinos. El Maquis contra el franquismo, 1934-1975. [Así fue. La historia rescatada.] Plaza & Janés, Barcelona 2002. 331 pp. Ill. € 18.00.
This is a historical account of the anarchist resistance against Franco from the end of the Civil War, although the author also refers to earlier episodes in the history of the anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist movements in Spain. Based on sources such as oral testimonies, she reviews the resistance in the French refugee camps, co-operation with the French resistance against the Nazis, the resistance organized from Toulouse by the Spanish libertarian movement and in Spain itself and resistance operations by Sabaté and Facerías in Barcelona. A chronology and an annex featuring seven short documents conclude the book.
Mateos Lopez, Abdón. Exilio y clandestinidad. La reconstrucción de UGT 1939-1977. [Aula abierta.] Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid 2002. 363 pp. € 14.95.
This is a synthetic history of the socialist trade union confederation Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT) in exile and underground. The author summarizes the history of the organization with three keywords: reestablishment in 1944 of the organization that had previously disintegrated in factions; continuity during exile and the period of clandestine operation, two mutually beneficial elements; and restructuring in 1971 as an independent socialist organization. The author has also devoted a chapter to the international affiliations of the UGT. The book concludes with brief biographies of trade union leaders and a chronology.
Peyrou, Florencia. El republicanismo popular en España 1840-1843. Universidad de Cádiz, Cádiz 2002. 256 pp. € 14.04.
In her introduction the author submits that republicanism as a social movement has received little consideration in Spanish historiography, whereas Republican ideology has been covered far more extensively. Republicanism drew many supporters well into the twentieth century. The aim of this study is to determine how the republican message reached the masses, what its political programme was, and in what measure it satisfied the needs of the popular classes. The author bases her conclusions on a substantive analysis of the Madrilenian newspapers Huracán, El Peninsular, Guindilla and La Revolución.
Pons i Altés, Josep Maria. Moderats i progressistes a la Lleida del segle XIX (1843-1868). Pròleg de Manuel Lladonosa Vall-llebrera. Pagès editors, Lleida 2002. 430 pp. € 10.58.
This revised dissertation in Catalan (Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, 2001) focuses on the policy of the Spanish liberals between 1843 and 1868. In Lérida the progressive liberals were powerful opponents of the conservative administration that came to power thanks to the pronunciamiento of 1843. The study addresses the political conflicts between conservatives and liberals in Lérida, census suffrage, election procedures and fraud, the progressive intermezzo from 1854 to 1856 and finally the progressive-liberal city government from 1859 to 1865.
El primer franquisme a les terres de Lleida (1938-1950). Actes del seminari El primer franquisme, Lleida (1938-1950), (Lleida, 12-22 d'abril de 1998). Institut d'Estudis Ilerdencs, Lleida 2002. 193 pp. € 12.00.
This collection in Catalan comprises the proceedings of a colloquium organized in Lleida in 1998 to inventory the research on the early years of Francoism and encourage further study based on this analysis. Following an introductory account of this research, the following six contributions address the archive of the provincial representation of the central state authority (Gobierno Civil) and the archive on public order; repression under the Franco regime; border control and its consequences for the local population; the Acción Católica; the resistance by the underground marxist parties and the UGT trade union.
Rodrigo, Antonina. Una mujer libre. Amparo Poch y Cascón, médica anarquista. [Colección Tramontana.] Flor del Viento, Barcelona 2002. 300 pp. Ill. € 21.00.
This is the biography of Amparo Poch y Gascón (1902-1968), one of the few women in her day who studied medicine in Spain. As a physician, she tried to improve the plight of working-class women during the years prior to the Civil War, in part through her publications about motherhood, sexuality and hygiene, which broke several taboos in conservative Spain. She was a founding member of the anarchist movement "Mujeres Libres" (Free Women) established shortly before the Civil War, served at the front as a physician and provided relief to children.
Santidrián Arias, Víctor Manuel. Historia do PCE en Galicia (1920-1968). Castro, Sada 2002. 683 pp. € 31.00.
This study in Galician, based on a dissertation (University of Santiago de Compostela, 2001) uses archival research in the historical archive of the Spanish Communist Party (PCE) to explore the Galician chapter of this party from its establishment in 1920 until the establishment of the Galician Communist Party in 1968. The subjects addressed are the national issue in Galicia, the structure, support and political line of the party and the anti-Francoist guerrilla and trade-union activities. The appendix comprises reproductions of manifests and leaflets, as well as photographs of leading figures.
Schiedt, Hans-Ulrich. Die Welt neu erfinden. Karl Bürkli (1823-1902) und seine Schriften. Chronos, Zürich 2002. 384 pp. Ill. € 39.90.
This dissertation (University of Zürich, 2002) is a biographical study of the life and work of the influential nineteenth-century Swiss socialist Karl Bürkli (1823-1901). Born into a wealthy merchant family, the young Bürkli took a keen interest in the radicalism of the 1830s and pre-1848 French socialism (especially Fourierism), which led him to become a strong advocate of the cooperative movement in Switzerland. As an activist for the so-called democratic movement, he became a pioneer of the direct democracy movement and a member of the First International.