Volume 51 part 1 (April 2006)
Continents and Countries
Ghana | South Africa | Zimbabwe
Canada | Chile | Colombia | Cuba | Guatemala | Haiti | Mexico | United States of America
- Australia and Oceania
Eire - Ireland | France | Germany | Great Britain | Italy | The Netherlands | Poland | Russia - USSR | Spain
Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.
General IssuesSOCIAL THEORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE
Blackledge, Paul. Perry Anderson, Marxism and the New Left. The Merlin Press, London 2004. xiii, 210 pp. £16.95.
As the editor of the influential New Left Review from 1963 to 1983 and again from 2000 onward and as a prolific historian, Perry Anderson has achieved a major impact on Marxist political and social theory in the Western world and beyond. According to Dr Blackledge, Anderson is one of the most influential Marxists in the English-speaking world. In this study, the author analyses what he believes to be distinct episodes in Anderson's career to explore the evolution of his Marxism from 1960 onwards and to situate this evolution within the broader culture in which he operated.
Callinicos, Alex. Making History. Agency, Structure, and Change in Social Theory. [Historical Materialism Book Series, vol. 3.] Brill, Leiden [etc.] 2004. liii, 287 pp. $60.00; € 48.00.
Originally published in 1987, this is the second, revised edition of a study of the respective roles played by social structures and human agency in history. Exploring the issue of the extent to which human agents derive their powers from the social structures surrounding them, Professor Callinicos deals with a broad variety of Marxisms, analytical philosophy, social theory and historical writing, including works by Louis Althusser, Perry Anderson, Walter Benjamin, Robert Brenner, G.A. Cohen and many others. In his introduction to this second edition, he reviews the theoretical and more political debates since the first edition was published in 1987.
Drukker, J. W. De revolutie die in haar eigen staart beet. Hoe de economische geschiedenis onze ideeën over economische groei veranderde. Uitgeverij Lemma BV, Utrecht 2003. 347 pp. Ill. € 42.00.
In the 1960s, a paradigmatic shift occurred in the field of economic history, commonly known as the cliometric revolution, when the literary-descriptive method was replaced by a rigorous quantitative-analytical approach. In this study, Professor Drukker aims to explain for the non-specialist the origins and background of this revolution and its consequences for previously accepted ideas about economic development. He concludes that the position of economic history within general historiography changed dramatically as a result of this cliometric revolution, as its highly specialized jargon made it difficult for non-specialists to understand.
Hermans, Cor. De dwaaltocht van het sociaal-darwinisme. Vroege sociale interpretaties van Charles Darwins theorie van natuurlijke selectie, 1859-1918. Uitgeverij Nieuwezijds, Amsterdam 2003. viii, 626 pp. € 42.95.
Focusing on the debates in England, France, Germany and the United States, this dissertation (University of Amsterdam, 2003) explores the origins and development of social Darwinism as social ideology. Analysing the works of social theorists such as Herbert Spencer, Alfred Russell Wallace, Ernst Haeckel and Alfred Schäffle, as well as Darwin's own work, Dr Hermans concludes that although not a homogeneous ideology, different versions of social Darwinism all centered around the general notion that modern society could in the long run not disrupt natural selection without grave consequences.
Krader, Lawrence. Labor & Value. Ed. by Cyril Levitt & Rod Hay. Peter Lang, New York [etc.] 2003. xxv, 300 pp. € 74.00.
The German-American anthropologist Lawrence Krader (1919-1998), editor of works including The Ethnological Notebooks of Karl Marx (1972) and other classic studies such as Dialectic of Civil Society (1976) and A Treatise of Social Labor (1979) (see IRSH, 18 (1973), p. 315, 23 (1978), p. 137, and 25 (1980), pp. 272f.), produced in the last ten years of his life a great number of unpublished manuscripts on a variety of subjects, among which this study on labour and value. In this work, Professor Krader re-examines the history of the theories of labour and value from Aristotle to the present, seeking to combine the leading theories of objective and subjective value and subjecting both to a historical and anthropological critique.
Lange, Dirk. Politische Alltagsgeschichte. Ein interdiziplinäres Forschungskonzept im Spannungsfeld von Politik- und Geschichtswissenschaft. Leipziger Universitätsverlag, Leipzig 2003. 127 pp. € 18.00.
In this essay, Dr Lange aims to elaborate a new historical research concept, in which he relates the concept of the Alltagsgeschichte, as developed within social history as a counterweight to structural concepts, to recent events in political history and political science. He identifies three types of political Alltagsgeschichte (premodern, modern and postmodern) and defines political Alltagsgeschichte as an interdisciplinary concept that explores the cultural conditions for the generation and the everyday results of implementation of general commitment within social groups.
Löwy, Michael. The Theory of Revolution in the Young Marx. [Historical Materialism Book Series, vol.2.] Brill, Leiden [etc.] 2003. ix, 206 pp. $48.00.
This is the first English edition of this essayistic study that was originally published in French in 1970s (see IRSH, 16 (1971), p. 107) and later translated into Italian, Japanese and Spanish. In his preface to this English edition, Professor Löwy expresses his belief that the young Marx's "philosophy of praxis", about which he provides his Marxist interpretation of its origins, "remains the best compass to find one's way in the present confused historical panorama", despite the manifold statements in recent decades that the demise of "really existing socialism" means the end of Marxism as well.
Marx and Other Four-Letter Words. Ed. by Georgina Blakeley and Valerie Bryson. Pluto Press, London [etc.] 2005. vii, 221 pp. £15.99.
The twelve contributions in this textbook are aimed at introducing students to key concepts in Marx's theory and ideas. The contributors also discuss the possible relevance of these Marxian concepts to modern social and political theory today. Concepts include historical materialism, capitalism, class, the state, imperialism division of labour, oppression, production and reproduction, revolution, working class internationalism, equity and democracy.
Understanding Work and Employment. Industrial Relations in Transition. Ed. by Peter Ackers and Adrian Wilkinson. Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 2003. xvi, 366 pp. £19.99.
The seventeen essays in this volume aim to analyse how studies of industrial relations have contributed toward understanding social science. The volume's introduction provides a critical outline of the mainstream tradition in the field. The first eight essays relate the field to "neighbouring" disciplines, such as sociology, economics, management, history, psychology, law, politics and geography. The second part considers industrial relations from a comparative perspective in North America, Australia and Europe. In the final part, contributors examine future prospects for industrial relations to enhance understanding of work, employment and society.
Fogel, Robert William. The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death, 1700-2100. Europe, America, and the Third World. [Cambridge Studies in Population, Economy and Society in Past Time.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2004. xx, 191 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £16.99.)
In this study, based in part on the McArthur Lectures delivered at Cambridge University in November 1996, Professor Fogel explores the background to the unique nature of human progress since 1700, which is commonly described as the "technophysio evolution": the complex interaction between advances in production technology and improvements in human physiology, leading humans to more than double their average life span and to increase their average body size by more than 50 per cent. Looking at future developments, he argues that health care should be viewed as the growth industry of the twenty-first century. See also Jan Luiten van Zanden's review in this volume, pp. 113-114.
Genova, Carlo. Michail Bakunin. L'etica. Pref. di Gian Mario Bravo. Ananke, Torino 2003. 375 pp. € 19.00.
This book is an analysis of the emergence of Bakunin's ethics based on his writings. The author illustrates this theoretical aspect by describing the historical and biographical events closely related to his writings. As a consequence, this book, as Gian Mario Bravo argues in his preface, has become an intellectual biography of the Russian revolutionary. The second part of the book is a bibliography of publications by and about Bakunin based on local bibliographical research and catalogues available via the Internet, with the Bibliografia di Bakunin by Giuseppe Rose as the main source.
Huser, Karin. Eine revolutionäre Ehe in Briefen. Die Sozialrevolutionärin Lidija Petrowna Kotschetkowa und der Anarchist Fritz Brupbacher. [Die Schweiz und der Osten Europas, Band 9.] Chronos, Zürich 2003. 434 pp. € 38.80.
Based on their extensive personal correspondence, this biographical study explores the life of the Russian revolutionary activist and physician Lidija Petrowna Kotschetkowa (1872-?) and her relationship with the Swiss anarchist and fellow physician Fritz Brupbacher (1874-1945). She married Brupbacher in 1901 and divorced him in 1916. They were hardly ever together during their marriage. Through the lens of their personal history, the author aims to trace the remarkable story of this woman revolutionary who was active in the Social Revolutionary Party (PSR) and to examine their relationship as an extraordinary example of intercultural encounter.
Lubbe, Marinus van der. Carnets de route de l'incendiaire du Reichstag, et autres écrits. Documents traduits du néerlandais par Hélène Papot, présentés et annotés par Yves Pagès et Charles Reeve. Éditions Verticales/Le Seuil, Paris 2003. 294 pp. Ill. € 18.00.
Both the left and the Nazis advanced conspiracy theories around the arson of the Reichstag on 27 February 1933, for which Marinus van der Lubbe was convicted. In this volume, the editors have gathered for the first time in French documentation on Van der Lubbe and his background (travel notes, correspondence) to challenge the existing conspiracy theories and to demonstrate that Van der Lubbe might well have acted on his own after all. The biographical introduction sketches Van der Lubbe's youth and background and the Dutch leftist communist milieu and movement of the unemployed in which he was active.
Masters, Servants, and Magistrates in Britain and the Empire, 1562-1955. Ed. by Douglas Hay and Paul Craven. [Studies in Legal History.] University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 2004. xi, 592 pp. £49.95.
This collection of sixteen essays aims to give a comparative account of English employment law, as laid down in master and servant acts, its enforcement and its importance for labour relations in Britain and in the British Empire over the course of nearly four centuries. Included are contributions on the development and enforcement of master and servant law in England, the British Caribbean, India, Africa, Hong Kong, Canada, Australia and colonial America. The topics addressed include the nature of law and legal institutions, the role of courts staffed by largely unsupervised, inferior magistrates and the definition of "free labour" within the multiracial British Empire under this kind of employment legislation.
Miquel, Pierre. Les anarchistes. Albin Michel, Paris 2003. 327 pp. €19.50.
This is a historical overview of anarchism as a political philosophy and political movement for a general readership. The author first offers an introduction to the main features of the various political doctrines from the nineteenth century onward generally labelled as anarchism and then focuses on the emergence of anarchism in the city of Lyon and France in general, in Russia, and in Italy and Spain.
Outman, James L [and] Elisabeth M. Outman. Industrial Revolution. Almanac. [Industrial Revolution Reference Library.] UXL, Detroit [etc.] 2003. xviii, 242 pp. Ill. $60.00.
Outman, James L [and] Elisabeth M. Outman. Industrial Revolution. Biographies. [Industrial Revolution Reference Library.] UXL, Detroit [etc.] 2003. xiv, 218 pp. Ill. $60.00.
Outman, James L [and ] Elisabeth M. Outman. Industrial Revolution. Primary Sources. [Industrial Revolution Reference Library.] UXL, Detroit [etc.] 2003. xv, 212 pp. Ill. $60.00.
Outman, James L [and ] Elisabeth M. Outman. Industrial Revolution. Cumulative Index. [Industrial Revolution Reference Library.] UXL, Detroit [etc.] 2003. 26 pp. $5.00.
This series of reference works on the Industrial Revolution includes a comprehensive handbook about the Industrial Revolution from its intellectual origins in the philosophies of the Renaissance era to the first major technological advances and from the first migrations of workers to urban areas to the rise of giant multinational corporations and the recent wave of economic globalization. The eight chronologically sequenced chapters in this Almanac feature sidebar boxes, focusing on glossary terms and issues discussed in the text, and conclude with suggestions for additional reading. The Almanac is accompanied by two volumes and a booklet with a separate cumulative index. One volume offers biographies of 25 significant figures of the Industrial Revolution, including philosophers Adam Smith and Karl Marx; financiers such as James J. Hill and J.P. Morgan; technological innovators such as Henry Bessemer, Robert Fulton, Eli Whitney and Henry Ford; and critical journalists such as Upton Sinclair. The other volume in this series is a source edition with excerpts from main primary sources on the subject of the Industrial Revolution, subdivided according to the following themes: economic theory (including excerpts from texts by Smith, Marx and others); technological developments and criticism; working conditions; and politics and law.
The Road to Independence. Leaving Home in Western and Eastern Societies, 16th-20th Centuries. [Population, family, and society, vol. 1.] Ed. by Frans van Poppel, Michel Oris and James Z. Lee. Peter Lang, Bern [etc.] 2003. vi, 450 pp. S.fr. 91.00; € 62.80.
Including case studies from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries, covering Belgium, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States, the twelve contributions to this volume give a comparative overview of the way in which children became independent from their parents. Pursuing both qualitative and quantitative approaches, the essays follow a common life-course framework to illuminate how the resources, needs, social ties and patterns of leaving home of children are shaped both by earlier life experiences and by historical and cultural circumstances.
Robertson, Robbie. The Three Waves of Globalization. A History of a Developing Global Consciousness. Zed Books [etc.], London [etc.] 2003. 291 pp. $75.00. (Paper: $25.00.)
In this study of the origins of the globalization process, Dr Robertson argues that interconnections between people first assumed global proportions five hundred years ago, producing three consecutive waves of globalization. This first wave starting around 1500 and the second one in the nineteenth century both resulted, according to the author, in radical transformations of human societies and their economic activities, as well as in depression and war. The challenge for a globalized humanity in the present third wave, he argues, is to achieve global solutions that are inclusive rather than exclusive.
Schmidtke, Michael. Der Aufbruch der jungen Intelligenz. Die 68er Jahre in der Bundesrepublik und den USA. [Campus Historische Studien, Band 34.] Campus, Frankfurt am Main [etc.] 2003. 314 pp. € 34.90; S.fr. 58.60.
Focusing on the American Students for a Democratic Society and the German Sozialistische Deutsche Studentenbund and their mutual contacts from the early 1960s onward, this study reflects a comparative examination of the progressive student movements in Germany and the United States and their prominent role in the revolutionary movement of 1968. The author argues that in addition to being influential through their extensive network comprising other oppositional organizations and movements, both student organizations were important disseminators of the New Left ideology, which became the leading ideology of the 1968 movement.
The Future of Revolutions. Rethinking Radical Change in the Age of Globalization. Ed. by John Foran. Zed Books, London [etc.] 2003. 346 pp. £49.95; $75.00. (Paper: £15.95; $25.00.)
A workshop organized in January 2001 at the University of California at Santa Barbara is the foundation for the eighteen essays in this collection on the question as to whether and under what conditions revolution remains possible in this era of globalization. Historians, sociologists and political scientists specialized in studying revolutionary processes deal with issues such as definitions of revolution and globalization, changes in language and strategies, revolutionary popular movements after the end of the Cold War and future prospects for revolutionary movements. Reports on three thematic discussions and a postscript by Fred Halliday conclude the volume.
International Handbook of Trade Unions. Ed. by John T. Addison and Claus Schnabel. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham [etc.] 2003. viii, 555 pp. £140.00.
This volume aims to offer an authoritative reference tool and handbook of the development of trade unions worldwide in recent decades. The thirteen contributions analyse forces governing unionism, as well as union behaviour and impact, and examine the determinants of union membership, models of union behaviour, the economics of strikes, effects of unions on wages, pay inequality and firm performance and innovation. Included are analyses of trade unions as political actors and their impact on macroeconomic performance, explorations of recent courses of events in Great Britain and the United States and prospects for Europeanization of collective bargaining and a review of union density in more than 100 nations.
CONTINENTS AND COUNTRIES
Fighting the Slave Trade. West African Strategies. Ed. by Sylviane A. Diouf. [Western African Studies]. Ohio University Press, Athens; James Currey, Oxford 2003. xxvii, 242 pp. $59.95. (Paper: $26.95.)
Based on a conference organized at Rutgers University in February 2001, the twelve essays in this collection examine defensive, protective and offensive strategies against the onslaught of the Atlantic slave trade. Contributors deal with a range of ways in which individuals, families, communities and states tried to resist the slave trade, including manipulation of the environment, resettlement, redemption of captives, political centralization, assaults on ships and entrepôts, shipboard revolts and controlled participation in the slave trade. In an epilogue, Carolyn A. Brown describes an oral history project on the subject in Southeastern Nigeria. See also Boubacar Barry's review in this volume, pp. 120-123.
Getz, Trevor R. Slavery and Reform in West Africa. Toward Emancipation in Nineteenth-Century Senegal and the Gold Coast. [Western African Studies.] Ohio University Press, Athens; James Currey, Oxford 2004. xx, 257 pp. Maps. $65.00. (Paper: $26.95.)
This study compares two different areas in West Africa. In both areas, indigenous slavery prevailed over the desires of London and Paris following the abolition. The emerging coalition of European government and local slave owners allowed slavery to continue well into the nineteenth century due to the weak European presence. France and England resorted to a system of indirect rule, and the local indigenous rulers were slave owners themselves. In addition, the family system left slaves in Africa little leverage: slaves who were liberated or ran away had to seek acceptance in new surroundings, whereas as slaves they had at least belonged to the kin group of their master.
Jacobs, Nancy J. Environment, Power, and Injustice. A South African History. [Studies in Environment and History.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2003. xxi, 300 pp. Ill. £16.95; $24.95.
This study explores the socio-environmental history in the area near Kuruman, on the edge of the Kalahari in South Africa. In conjunction with migratory and colonial expansion, the semi-arid area had several consecutive eco regimes, progressing from an eco system of hunters and gatherers, through one of agro-pasturalists, to one of commercial agriculture, mining and wage labour. During the 1980s, when the region was part of the homeland Bophuthatswana, a "donkey massacre" took place, when c.10,000 donkeys of the poor black rural population were shot by the black elite to protect the pasture for cattle ranching. The author argues that the link between environment, class and race is clearly visible here. The poor black population suffered from the changes in the eco regime, while white properties remained outside the jurisdiction of the homeland, and the black elite earned money from cattle ranching.
Austin, Gareth. Labour, Land and Capital in Ghana. From Slavery to Free Labour in Asante, 1807-1956. [Rochester Studies in African History and the Diaspora.] University of Rochester Press, Rochester 2005. xxiv, 589 pp. Ill. £50.00; $75.00.
This study of indigenous capitalism in southern Ghana in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries focuses on the course of cocoa production in the Asante forest zone. In his general examination of the causes and consequences of changes and continuities in property rights and markets in factors of production (both land and labour), Dr Austin analyses the interaction of coercion and the market in the context of the natural environment. Central in this history were the transition from slavery and debt-bondage to hired labour and agricultural indebtedness. See also Michel Doortmont's review in this volume, pp. 123-125
Frueh, Jamie. Political Identity and Social Change. The Remaking of the South African Social Order. [SUNY series in Global Politics.] State University of New York Press, Albany 2003. xvii, 236 pp. $68.50. (Paper $22.95.)
Analysing three social and political conflicts in recent South African history - the Soweto uprising of 1976, the reformist constitutional debates of 1983-1984 and post-apartheid crime - Professor Frueh aims in this study to explain how identity structures changed along with the rest of South Africa's institutions. Building upon the constructivist theory of political identity, the author aims to demonstrate how identity labels - such as "voter", "student" or "black activist" - structure social discourse, how social activity is organized through these structures, and how the labels and their influence have changed during the course of South Africa's recent transition.
Hyslop, Jonathan. The Notorious Syndicalist. J.T. Bain - A Scottish Rebel in Colonial South Africa. Jacana, Johannesburg 2004. xviii, 342 pp. Ill. £24.95.
This detailed biography describes the fascinating life of the South-African trade union activist James Thompson Bain (1860-1919). As a soldier, he fought with the British army in the Zulu War in 1879. He subsequently served in India. After embracing socialism upon his return to Scotland, he emigrated to South Africa in 1890. He helped organize the trade union movement in Johannesburg. He joined the Boer War on the side of the Boers, led the strike in the Rand in 1913 and ended up effectively in power in Johannesburg for a week in April 1919. Bain was a leader of the white labour movement. Only at the very end did he become conscious of the world of black workers. See also Wessel Visser's review in this volume, pp. 125-127.
Rethinking the Labour Movement in the 'New South Africa'. Ed. by Tom Bramble and Franco Barchiesi. [The Making of Modern Africa.] Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2003. xii, 258 pp. £52.50; $94.95.
The twelve contributions to this collection examine how the South African labour movement has reacted to the many changes to the political, economic and industrial environment since the end of apartheid and the election of the ANC government in 1994. Themes dealt with include the labour movement's reaction to the rise of neo-liberalism and the policy of privatizations, changes in the economic policy of the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) since 1994, the trade unions and gender relations and social movement unionism. The volume concludes with an interview with the two union activists John Appolis and Dinga Sikwebu.
South Africa and the Communist International. A Documentary History. Ed. by Apollon Davidson and Irina Filatova, Valentin Gorodnov and Sheridan Johns. Frank Cass, London [etc.] 2003. Ill. lxii, 263, lxi, 304 pp. $90.00 (2 vols).
These two volumes present 193 documents from the RGASPI in Moscow, where the Comintern archive is kept. The four editors provide English translations of the documents, thereby making them more accessible for research in this multi-lingual field. This collection is particularly important because no archive remains of the CPSA itself. Each volume includes a list of names of relevant persons with short biographies and a list of organizations. The documents reveal both the deviant South African reality and the general course of the history of the communist movement, culminating in Stalin's purges.
Kriger, Norma J. Guerrilla Veterans in Post-war Zimbabwe. Symbolic and Violent Politics, 1980-1987. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2003. xx, 293 pp. Map. £45.00; $65.00.
This book places the Lancaster House agreement in the recent tradition of the "peace-building studies". The author argues, however, that considering the domestic agendas of the different actors (the ruling party, the army and two opposing guerrilla organizations) is more important. The veterans presented themselves as forgotten and neglected, hoping to improve the chances of their claims from the state. The ZANU itself used the struggle for freedom to legitimize its post-1980 position. The study is based on at least 100 interviews with concerned individuals and a wealth of literature. An earlier study by Dr Kriger about Zimbabwe's war of independence was annotated in IRSH, 37 (1992), p. 287.
Beyond Bondage. Free Women of Color in the Americas. Ed. by David Barry Gaspar and Darlene Clark Hine. [New Black Studies.]. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2004. xi, 329 pp. $50.00. (Paper: $25.00.)
Covering slave societies in Spanish America, Cuba, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Antigua, Jamaica and the United States, Surinam, Brazil and Puerto Rico, the fourteen essays in this volume explore various issues related to the lives and experiences of free women of colour in the slave societies of the Americas, from the seventeenth to the late nineteenth centuries. Six of the chapters deal with the conditions under which women of colour achieved freedom, legally or otherwise, and the ways in which they sought to preserve their free status. The last eight contributions address issues about the free women's lives shaped by and in freedom in slave societies.
Shewell, Hugh. "Enough to keep them alive". Indian Welfare in Canada, 1873-1965. University of Toronto Press, Toronto [etc.] 2004. xii, 441 pp. $60.00; £40.00. (Paper: $35.00; £22.50.)
In this study of Indian welfare in Canada, Professor Shewell explores the development and administration of social assistance policies directed at First Nation peoples in Canada from the time of the Confederation until the mid-1960s. He argues that Indian welfare policy arose less from humanitarian concern or socially enlightened political thought than from a deliberate effort to oppress and marginalize First Nation peoples and to foster their assimilation to the dominant society.
Aguilar, Mario I. A Social History of the Catholic Church in Chile. Vol. I. The First Period of the Pinochet Government 1973-1980. [Latin American Studies, Vol. 24.] The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, New York [etc.] 2004. xiv, 224 pp. $109.95; £69.95.
Dr Aguilar has written this history from the perspective of the church and its leadership. The outcome of the Second Vatican Council transformed the church from a defender of established interests into an advocate of human rights. After 11 September 1973, the church ended up in a precarious situation. By 9 October 1973, under the aegis of Archbishop Silva Henríquez, the church had already established the Comité Pro Paz (which supplied aid to Pinochet's victims) and became a sanctuary for the persecuted. When the committee was disbanded due to pressure from the regime, the Vicaría de la Solidaridad took over this work. The author has used material from several interviews in addition to written sources.
Appelbaum, Nancy P. Muddied Waters. Race, Region, and Local History in Colombia, 1846-1948. [Latin America Otherwise: Languages, Empires, Nations.] Duke University Press, Durham [etc.] 2003. xvii, 297 pp. Ill. $79.95. (Paper: $22.95.)
The town of Riosucio, located at an altitude of 1,800 metres on the eastern slopes of Colombia's Western Andes, is a coffee town that was established in the early nineteenth century. The author reviews the stories of the different groups of migrants: the dominant white narrative in addition to those of the blacks and the indigenous people. The racialized story about the region (and Colombia) has been an ongoing subject of debate. The self-definitions of blacks and indigenous people ensure their inclusion in the dominant account that associates "white" with "progress". Riosucio figures as a subject of a "microhistory" from a pronounced ethnic perspective for analysing post-colonial Colombia as an interplay of the "region" and "race" constructs.
Haydée Santamaría. Ed. by Betsy Maclean. [Rebel lives]. Ocean Press, Melbourne [etc.] 2003. 125 pp. £8.95.
This little book, one of the first volumes in the new Rebel Loves series, which brings together selected works by and about remarkable radicals, presents selected writings by and on Haydée Santamaría (1922-1980), a Cuban revolutionary and one of two women participating in the July 26 movement that sparked the Cuban Revolution, and who later became founder and director of the renowned literary institution Casa de las Américas. In addition to Santamaría's own account of the Moncada Garrison attack and writings on her cultural internationalism, reflections by individuals such as Alicia Alonso, Ariel Dorfman, Melba Hernández, Roberto Fernández Retamar and Silvio Rodríguez are included.
Grandin, Greg. The Last Colonial Massacre. Latin America in the Cold War. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago [etc.] 2004. xviii, 311 pp. Ill. $22.00; £15.50.
Using the history of Guatemala since 1944 as a case study, the author describes how Latin American society evolved as a struggle between two views of political freedom. After 1944 hope arose that Latin America might pursue an indigenous, social reformist, democratic policy. Rising international tensions led the United States to intervene on the side of the ruling elite, due in part to the absence of moderate allies within Latin America. Democratization in the 1990s revealed a side of democracy compatible with the dominance of neo-liberalism. In addition to archives and libraries, the author uses over 100 interviews.
Dubois, Laurent. Avengers of the New World. The Story of the Haitian Revolution. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 2004. viii, 357 pp. Ill. £19.95.
This monograph offers an account of the complicated history of the uprising and revolution on Saint-Dominge. In 1791 the slaves rebelled. Analogous to the course of events in revolutionary France, political battles erupted in the colony. The promise of emancipation was used in this struggle. In 1793 England and Spain intervened. The former slave Toussaint Louverture united the rebels and prevailed, on behalf of the French, against the invasion. In 1794 the slaves on Saint-Dominge obtained freedom and civil rights. The semi-independence that Louverture achieved led Napoleon to restore the authority in 1801. Fear of the return of slavery and French atrocities were, according to the author, the factors underlying the victory of the black independence movement.
Ouweneel, Arij. The flight of the shepherd. [CEDLA Latin American Studies (CLAS) Series.] Aksant, Amsterdam 2005. 255 pp. € 28.50.
This study places the uprising of Antón Pérez, known as the Shepherd in Mexico in 1759-1760, in the theoretical discourse of microhistory, adopting an anthropological and psychological perspective. The dream experiences of Antón Pérez, his journey to purgatory and his experience with having two bodies, are analysed in a semiosic process. Dr Ouweneel allows "culture" to prevail. The phenomenon that he describes as "Order Envy" is of major importance in a political-social context. In addition to the tensions between the Spaniards and the indigenous people, the transition in Mexico at the time from a regular to a secular Catholic clergy was essential.
Sullivan, Paul. Xuxub Must Die. The Lost Histories of a Murder on the Yucatan. [Pitt Latin American Series.] University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, 2004. 260 pp. $29.00.
In October 1875 the Xuxub sugar plantation in Northeast Yucatan, Mexico, was attacked and occupied by indigenous people. The American manager and other workers were killed by the occupying forces. Sullivan, an anthropologist, describes the case in the style of in-depth investigative reporting. He reveals an area that was still very much a frontier in 1875. The Mayas were not yet fully pacified, entrepreneurs used underhanded measures to compete, workers were bound to the plantations by debts, and the Mexican government was hardly willing or able to intervene. The author compares the narratives of the different parties: ultimately, each participant in the drama has his own truth.
United States of America
American Labor: A Documentary Collection. Ed. by Melvyn Dubofsky and Joseph A. McCartin. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke [etc.] 2004. vi, 320 pp. £50.00.
This source collection aims to offer an up-to-date introductory documentary history survey of American labour history from the eighteenth to the late twentieth centuries. Integrating institutional labour history with aspects of social and cultural history, professors Dubofsky and McCartin have divided the volume into six chronological periods, with each period grouped according to thematic sub-sections, introduced by brief notes, identifying selected documents. The documents selected cover household as well as industrial relations; women as domestic workers, unpaid household labour and factory workers; African American, Hispanic American (especially Mexican and Mexican American), Asian and white workers.
Carrigan, William D. The Making of a Lynching Culture. Violence and Vigilantism in Central Texas, 1836-1916. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2004. xi, 308 pp. Ill. $35.00.
In this study of lynching and mob violence in Central Texas from the early nineteenth century to 1916, when the notorious lynching of Jesse Washington took place, Professor Carrigan explores a broader culture of extralegal violence in the region, including civilian violence against Native Americans and vigilante executions of Anglo-Americans. He focuses in particular on the role of historical memory of vigilantism, lynching and murder in Central Texas in shaping a culture of violence. See also Stewart Tolnay's review in this volume, pp. 133-136.
Delano, Sterlin F. Brook Farm. The Dark Side of Utopia . The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 2004. xvii, 428 pp. Ill. £19.95.
The historical image of Brook Farm, the famous utopian community in Massachusetts, is a very positive, nostalgic one of an Arcadian adventure. In this study, Professor Delano aims to reveal the negative, "darker" side of this community, showing that Brook Farm's founder, George Ripley, soon proved unprepared and unsuited to lead it. Three years after the start of the community, it was transformed from an agrarian society into an industrial phalanx, many original members departed, and financial difficulties and a fire eventually led to its demise.
Fogel, Robert William. The Slavery Debates, 1952-1990. A retrospective. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge 2003. 106 pp. £15.50.
In the three essays in this volume, based on the 2001 Fleming Lectures in Southern History, Professor Fogel reflects on the debates on American slavery that emerged from the early 1950s onward, when the standard views on the history of slavery in the United States were revised. The author offers a personal account of the role of cliometrics in this revisionism, especially through the book he co-authored with Stanley Engerman, Time on the Cross (1974), and notes the fierce criticism that his work instigated.
Helen Keller. Ed. by John Davis. [Rebel lives]. Ocean Press, Melbourne [etc.] 2003. 88 pp. £8.95.
This small book, one of the first volumes in the new Rebel Loves series, which brings together selected works by and about remarkable radicals, presents selected writings by Helen Keller (1880-1968), American socialist activist, commonly remembered as a blind activist for the disabled. In order to restore the historical image of her, the editor has gathered some of her texts, on topics ranging from her analyses of the social causes of blindness, through her socialist involvement, women's liberation and on her antiwar campaigning immediately before the United States entered World War I.
Jensen, Laura. Patriots, Settlers, and the Origins of American Social Policy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2003. xii, 244 pp. £40.00; $60.00. (Paper: £15.95; $20.00.)
Contrary to the standard historiography of early America, the author of this study argues that national social policies, in particular in the form of pensions and entitlements, were a major instrument for nation-building in the young American republic. Professor Jensen examines how from the founding of the American republic in 1776, federal pensions and land entitlements were important instruments for the government to consolidate and expand the country and to incorporate a diverse citizenry.
Kirk, John A. Redefining the Color Line. Black Activism in Little Rock, Arkansas, 1940-1970. [New Perspectives on the History of the South.] University Press of Florida, Gainsville [etc.] 2002. xx, 243 pp. Ill. £32.95.
The Little Rock school crisis of 1957, when nine black students entered the Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, is regarded as one the most significant events in the civil rights struggle in the United States. This study reconsiders these incidents and the context in which they evolved. Dr Kirk argues that a complete understanding of black activism and the civil rights struggle requires taking the groundwork laid by activists at the grassroots level in the 1940s and 1950s and internal differences within black organizations into consideration.
Kurtz, Sharon. Workplace Justice. Organizing Multi-Identity Movements. [Social Movements, Protest, and Contention.] University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, [etc.] 2002 . xxxvii, 290 pp. $68.95. (Paper: $22.95.)
Using the successful campaign for workplace justice launched by the clerical union at Colombia University in 1991 as a case study, Professor Kurtz examines in this book how labour movements with memberships comprised largely of women and people of colour use identity politics to address race and gender injustices, avoid schisms and maintain the necessary unity. Developing the concept of identity practices, the author, herself an experienced union activist, argues that identity politics can be valuable for mobilizing groups, provided that they are reframed as multi-identity politics.
Needleman, Ruth. Black Freedom. Fighters in Steel. The Struggle for Democratic Unionism. ILR Press, an Imprint of Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 2003. xi, 305 pp. Ill. £11.95; £28.95.
Focusing on the lives and experiences of five African American steelworkers who migrated from the South to Northwest Indiana in the first half of the twentieth century to work in the steel industry in the Calumet region, this study explores the rise of democratic unionism at a grassroots level in one of the worst work environments at the time. Professor Needleman aims to show how these men challenged the double barriers of race and class and adopted organizational and coalition-building strategies to establish a foundation for interracial and democratic unionism.
Newman, Simon P. Embodied History. The Lives of the Poor in Early Philadelphia. [Early American Studies.] University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 2003. x, 211 pp. Ill. $47.50; £33.50
Based on records from almshouses, prisons and hospitals, as well as on notices of runaways, death certificates and other relevant documents, this study explores the material circumstances of the Philadelphia poor in the first decades of the United States, from the perspective of the physical details of the lower classes. Professor Newman examines how, in a period when the population of urban poor grew rapidly, the middling and elite citizenry tried to control, correct and discipline poor bodies, in order to preserve traditional notions of deference, hierarchy and social order.
Pierson, Michael D. Free Hearts and Free Homes. Gender and American Antislavery Politics. [Gender and American Culture.] University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 2003. 250 pp. £37.95. (Paper: £14.95.)
In this study, Professor Pierson explores the role of gender ideologies in American antislavery politics in the decades preceding the Civil War. From its origins in 1840, the Liberty party and other antislavery parties used gender ideologies to distinguish themselves from electoral rivals. The author aims to show that within the antislavery camp, the degree of reform in gender relations differed substantially: while many abolitionists supported a radical women's rights position, antislavery moderates often endorsed more limited reforms.
Reutter, Mark. Making Steel. Sparrows Point and the Rise and Ruin of American Industrial Might. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2004. 533 pp. $55.00. (Paper: $21.95.)
Originally published in 1988, this is the revised and enlarged paperback edition of a classic study of American steel industry, focusing on the world's once-largest steel mill at Sparrows Point, Maryland. Mr Reutter chronicles the history of Sparrows Point from its beginnings in the late 1880s, through its years of expansion to accommodate the armament industry in World War I, the New Deal and the years of prosperity in the 1940s and 1950s, to the decline from the 1960s onward. In a new chapter to this 2004 edition, he describes the culmination of the long-term mismanagement in the bankruptcy of Bethlehem Steel in early 2004.
Roscigno, Vincent J. and William F. Danaher. The Voice of Southern Labor. Radio, Music, and Textile Strikes, 1929-1934. [Social Movements, Protest, and Contention, vol. 19.] University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis [etc.] 2004. xxviii, 177 pp. $59.95.
The strikes by textile workers in the US South in 1929 and 1934 remain among the largest collective mobilizations of workers in American history. In this study, professors Roscigno and Danaher chronicle the lives and experiences of Southern textile workers, and examine how such great numbers could be mobilized to strike. Special attention is devoted to the music the workers listened to, especially by musicians who were once mill workers, reflecting the workers' grievances, solidarity and innate radicalism, and to the role of radio broadcasts in mobilizing textile workers. See also Cliff Brown's review in this volume, pp. 136-138.
The Samuel Gompers Papers. vol. 9. The American Federation of Labor at the Height of Progressivism, 1913-17. Eds: Peter J. Albert [and] Grace Palladino. Ass. Eds: Marla J. Hughes [and] Mary C. Jeske. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, [etc.] 2003. xxvi, 615 pp. $100.00.
This ninth volume in a projected twelve volume series offers a rich selection of documents by and about Samuel Gompers (1850-1924), co-founder and president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) for almost four decades (see also IRSH, 45 (2000), p. 141). During the period covered in this volume (September 1913-January 1917), the AFL experienced significant growth, legislative triumphs and increasing influence in the field of labour politics in the United States and also supported trade-union organizing efforts internationally. But AFL unions suffered dramatic defeats during this period as well, such as the unsuccessful 1913-1914 miners' strike in Colorado, and Gompers' leadership was challenged in heated debates about the course of the AFL.
Schubert, Günter. Der Fleck auf Uncle Sams weisser Weste. Amerika und die jüdischen Flüchtlinge 1938-1945. Campus, Frankfurt am Main [etc.] 2003. 283 pp. € 29.90; S.fr. 49.80.
In July 1938, an international conference was held in Évian, France, initiated by the United States, to discuss the problem of the Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany at an international diplomatic level. This study explores the background to this conference, which resulted in a diplomatic farce and proved symptomatic of the US policy towards Jewish refugees. Dr Schubert follows the course of the American refugee policy and its internal government context up to 1945. In the annexes, he publishes for the first time in German memos from 1942, including some to President Roosevelt reporting on the imminent genocide of the Jewish people.
Skrentny, John D. The Minority Rights Revolution. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 2002. xiv, 473 pp. £22.95.
With the evolution of the black civil rights movement in the United States, other disadvantaged minority groups (Latinos, women, Asian Americans and the disabled) started to pursue improvement of their position as well. According to Professor Skrentny, this resulted from the early 1970s onward in what he describes as a "minority revolution": minority groups striving for and becoming beneficiaries of new laws, regulations and policies. In this study he explores the background and result of this minorities revolution, analysing why some groups were more successful than others, and concludes that conservative politicians were often among the strongest advocates of civil rights policies.
Smith, Robert Michael. From Blackjacks to Briefcases. A History of Commercialized Strikebreaking and Unionbusting in the United States. Ohio University Press, Athens 2003. xviii, 179 pp. Ill. £12.95.
Since the start of the Industrial Age in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century, employers confronted with strikes and workers' militancy, have often hired agencies specialized in breaking strikes and have resorted to various violent and secretive activities to break unions. Observing the rise of notorious agencies of Pinkerton, James A. Farley, Pearl Bergoff and many others, Professor Smith aims to offer an accessible study of the inner workings of what quickly became an anti-union industry, which remains active to this day in different forms.
Oakley, Sheila. Labor Relations in China's Socialist Market Economy. Adapting to the Global Market. Quorum Books, Westport (Conn.) [etc.] 2002. viii, 231 pp. $91.95.
This study investigates the effects on labour relations of the economic reforms in China since the 1980s, known as the emergence of the socialist market economy. Dr Oakley analyses the causes, methods of resolution and arbitrated outcomes of labour disputes in the period between 1987, when the Interim Provisions on the Handling of Labour Disputes in State Enterprise were issued, and the end of 1996. Focusing on the labour disputes at individual enterprise level, she aims to assess the extent to which labour relations in post-reform China can be understood as a variant of market labour relations.
AUSTRALIA AND OCEANIA
Sites of Gender. Women, Men and Modernity in Southern Dunedin, 1890-1939. Ed. by Barbara Brookes, Annabel Cooper and Robin Law. Auckland University Press, Auckland 2003. xiii, 434 pp. Ill. $44.99.
Based on the well-known "Caversham Project", the twelve contributions in this collection focus on the suburbs of Southern Dunedin in the period 1890-1939 to explore changes in gender relations and in femininity and masculinity in New Zealand in this period. The contributors deal with a series of "sites" where such changes took place: work, education, consumption, mobility and transport, health and religion.
Charnon-Deutsch, Lou. The Spanish Gypsy. The History of a European Obsession. Pennsylvania State University, University Park (Penn.) 2004. xi, 286 pp. Ill. $39.95.
The Spanish gypsy has been a powerful icon associated with freedom, passion and unconventionality from the middle of the eighteenth century onward, in Spain and other European national cultures alike. This study traces the origins and rise of the trope of the Gypsy, starting in the Middle Ages, using historical and sociological studies as well as re-interpretation of literature. Contrasting the cultural image and actual social position and acceptation, Professor Charnon-Deutsch concludes that the “history of the European Roma is a history of social exclusion and physical oppression, while the aesthetic landscape of the Gypsy is one of inclusion and privilege”.
Lucassen, Leo. The Immigrant Threat. The Integration of Old and New Migrants in Western Europe since 1850. [Studies of World Migrations.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana, [etc.] 2005. xii, 277 pp. $16.99.
Starting from the question of whether the integration process over multiple generations of new immigrants in Western Europe from Muslim countries is likely to differ fundamentally from those experienced by similar immigration groups in the past, Professor Lucassen explores the history of the integration process of the Irish in the United Kingdom, the Poles in Germany and the Italians in France over the last century and a half. He observes structural similarities in the integration of these groups and concludes that contemporaries tend to overestimate the threat of each successive wave of immigrants. See also Richard Alba’s review in this volume, pp. 117-120.
Marx, Anthony W. Faith in Nation. Exclusionary Origins of Nationalism. Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 2003. xiii, 258 pp. £10.99.
Going against a historical consensus on the origins of nationalism, Professor Marx argues in this essayistic study that European nationalism emerged not in the eighteenth and nineteenth but in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as a form of mass political engagement based on religious conflict, intolerance and exclusion. Focusing on the cases of early modern France, England and Spain, he aims to show that European state-builders created a sense of national solidarity not through inclusive tolerance but through promoting religious intolerance and other exclusory policies. Thus, liberal, secular Western political traditions in fact arose from illiberal, intolerant origins.
Moch, Leslie Page. Moving Europeans. Migration in Western Europe since 1650. [Interdisciplinary Studies in History.] Indiana University Press, Bloomington [etc.] 2003. xvii, 273 pp. £18.95.
This is a second, revised edition of what has become one of the standard references in the field of migration history (the first edition was reviewed in IRSH, 39 (1994), pp. 460-463). Professor Moch has rewritten the last chapter, which deals with migration in the twentieth century, to include changes in migration patterns and policies in the 1990s, trends often associated with globalization. This edition also contains an expanded bibliography indicating the vast amount of new research in the field.
Eire - Ireland
Rivlin, Ray. Shalom Ireland. A Social History of Jews in Modern Ireland. Gill & Macmillan, Dublin 2003. x, 302 pp. Ill. € 29.99.
This study aims to offer an account for the general reader of the social life of Irish Jews from the late nineteenth century to the present day. Only a small number of Jews lived in Ireland until the last decades of the nineteenth century, when a major influx of Jewish immigrants from Tsarist Russia arrived, settling mostly in Dublin. Mrs Rivlin examines the reception of the Jews by the established Jewish community and the wider Irish population, their great influence in the fields of Medicine, Law and Politics and the various reasons for the eventual decline of a distinct Jewish culture in Ireland.
Les acteurs de l’histoire du droit du travail. Sous la dir. de Jean-Pierre Le Crom. [L’Univers des normes]. Presses Universitaires de Rennes, Rennes 2004. 413 pp. € 22.00.
The 26 contributions to this volume, based on papers presented at a colloquium organized in Nantes in September 2003, deal with the various participants in the development of labour law in France in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and their mutual relations and disparate roles and aspirations in this process. Contributions deal with variations in doctrines around labour legislation; ideas pertaining to labour legislation in various political movements; the role of the state and that of trade unions and employers in the development of labour law; and the mutual relations between the parties involved.
Baubérot, Arnaud. Histoire du Naturisme. Le mythe du retour à la nature. [Collection “Histoire”.] Presses Universitaires de Rennes, Rennes 2004. 348 pp. Ill. €23.00.
In the final decades of the nineteenth century, in France, as in the rest of Europe, ideologies and related associations emerged that propagated a return to nature as a reaction to the alleged decadence and degeneration of modern mankind. This study explores the origins and early development of naturist ideologies and organizations in France between the Belle Époque and the 1930s. Dr Baubérot deals consecutively with the rise of naturism in French medicine, its relation to hygiénisme, anarchism and esoteric groups and the role of naturism in leisure, including nudism.
Cross, Máire F. Flora Tristan’s diary. The Tour of France 1843-1844. Transl., annotated and introduced by Máire Fedelma Cross. Peter Lang, Oxford [etc.] 2002. 431 pp. € 65.90.
Almost thirty years after the publication in French, this is the first complete English translation of Flora Tristan’s Le Tour de France, the diary she kept during her campaign through France, beginning in February and ending with her sudden illness and death in November 1844. The editor provides an analytical introduction to Flora Tristan (1803-1844), the many obscurities surrounding her personal life, the origins of her socialist and feminist militancy and her career as prolific publicist.
Dittmar, Gérald. Les Francs-Maçons et la Commune de 1871. Éditions Dittmar, Paris 2003. 149 pp. Ill. € 35.00.
This volume offers a concise review for general readers of the role of Freemasons in the Paris Commune of 1871. The author argues that political and ideological factors have curtailed interest in the role of Freemasons. The volume features portraits of Freemasons active in the revolt, images of the destruction resulting from the recapture of the city by the national government, a listing of known Freemason communards, a selection of source documents, short biographical sketches of the main protagonists and a chronology of the events around the Commune.
Jacquot, Lionel. L’expérience du travail à l’épreuve de la modernisation. Rationalisation du modèle de production dans l’industrie textile vosgienne. [Forum IRTS de Lorraine.] L’Harmattan, Paris [etc.] 2003. 314 pp. € 26.50.
This study of the development of production models in the textile industry in relation to processes of rationalization and informatization focuses on the textile industry in the Vosges from its origins as a cottage industry in the eighteenth century to the present. The central question that Mr Jacquot addresses is how the textile industry in this region has adapted to the changing circumstances of rationalization, globalization and informatization, and how the production model chosen has affected industrial relations in the industry and in particular the position of labour in relation to capital.
Jahan, Sébastien, avec Emmanuel Dion. Le Peuple de la Forêt. Nomadisme ouvrier et identités dans la France du Centre-Ouest aux Temps Modernes. [Histoire.] Presses Universitaires de Rennes, Rennes 2002 . 274 pp. Maps. € 20.00.
This study aims to explore the everyday lives of the travelling lumberjacks and charcoal burners and their families in the regions of Poitou and Berry in west-central France in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. These nomadic workers have traditionally had a reputation for being unruly and rude, based on perceptions by the authorities of the workers’ nomadic culture. Using research of parish records, the authors aim to offer a less biased impression of this occupational group and their relation to the rest of ancien regime society.
Leroy, Géraldi. Batailles d’écrivains. Littérature et politique, 1870-1914. Armand Colin, Paris 2003. 346 pp. € 26.00.
Although French literary authors during the fin-de-siècle era are known to have been involved with politics, this interest is generally considered by literary theorists to have remained marginal to their authorship. Professor Leroy aims to show in this study that this political involvement was actually central to their literary metier. He deals with major political issues of the time in which writers were involved, including relations with Germany, the Paris Commune and the social question, the Dreyfus Affair, and republicanism and the modern nation state.
Lyon et l’esprit proudhonien. Actes du Colloque de Lyon, 6 et 7 décembre 2002. Sous la direction d’Alain Pessin et Mimmo D. Pucciarelli. Atelier de Création Libertaire [etc.], Lyon [etc.] 2003. 217 pp. € 14.00.
The ten contributions in this collection, based on a colloquium with the same name held in Lyon in December 2002, explore the connections between the ideas of the nineteenth-century anarchist Pierre Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865) and the working-class history of the city of Lyon. The contributors deal with subjects including the influence of the revolts of the canuts in 1831 and 1834 on Proudhon’s ideas, his atypical views regarding the Revolution of 1848, his ideas on mutualism as an alternative to socialism and liberalism and the significance of Proudhon’s ideas for anarchist activism in the twenty-first century.
La main-d’oeuvre française exploitée par le IIIe Reich. Actes du colloque international, Caen, 13-15 décembre 2001. Textes rass. Et éd. par B. Garnier et J. Quellien. Centre de Recherche d’Histoire Quantitative, Caen 2003. 704 pp. € 35.00.
The thirty-eight contributions in this collection are the proceedings of an international colloquium organized in Caen in December 2001 on the exploitation of French labour by the Third Reich. Forced labour and voluntary labour, as well as labour in French factories, workshops and building sites serving the Nazi forces of occupation, are covered. Regional, national and comparative approaches are combined, and both the social and the political impact is explored. In the last section, six contributors – and seven personal testimonies from former forced labourers – deal with the present-day remembrance of forced labour and the role of personal memories in that respect.
La naissance de Force Ouvrière autour de Robert Bothereau. Sous la dir. de Michel Dreyfus, Gérard Gautron et Jean-Claude Robert. Presses Universitaires de Rennes, Rennes 2003. 266 pp. € 18.00.
Based on the papers presented at a colloquium organized by the Centre d’histoire sociale du XXe siècle (CNRS) in Paris in October 2001, the fifteen contributions to this volume explore the origins and foundation of the Confédération Générale du Travail-Force Ouvrière (CGT-FO) and the role of the main founder and first secretary general Robert Botherau (1901-1985). Biographical contributions are combined with essays on the causes of the scission between the CGT and the CGT-FO in 1947, on the membership of the CGT-FO, the CGT-FO’s relationship with the Christian labour movement and its international relations and on the memoirs of André Bergeron, Botherau’s successor.
Oriol, Philippe. Bernard Lazare. Stock, Paris 2003. 456 pp. €22.00.
This is a comprehensive biography of Bernard Lazare (1865-1903), anarchist journalist, who was the first to draw public attention to the Dreyfus affair, before Zola and many others spoke up in defence for the army captain who was falsely convicted of high treason. The author sketches Lazare’s career: starting out as a symbolist, he was at first a Jewish anti-Semite, like many fin-de-siècle anarchists, and later became an ardent supporter of Herzl’s Zionist movement and was subsequently one of the main spokesman for the rehabilitation of Dreyfus.
Riviale, Philippe. Mythe et violence autour de Georges Sorel. Avec des textes de L’Humanité nouvelle, 1898-1903. [À la recherche des sciences sociales.] L’Harmattan, Paris [etc.] 2003. 287 pp. € 23.20.
This study aims to analyse the contribution of Georges Sorel (1847-1922) to the ideology of anarcho-syndicalism. In the first part of the book, the author examines, based in particular on his numerous contributions to the journal L’Humanité nouvelle, the development of Sorel’s ideas about the role of myths and violence in the struggle of the working class, elaborated in his best-known work Réflexions sur la violence (1908). In the second part, Mr Rivale sketches the historical context of the developments within the broader socialist movement that formed the background to Sorel’s writings.
Riviale, Philippe. Sur la Commune. Cerises de sang. [Questions contemporaines.] L’Harmattan, Paris [etc.] 2003. 370 pp.€ 29.00.
In this history of the Paris Commune, Mr Riviale argues that the Commune has often been wrongfully interpreted as a blueprint for a future working-class government and has instigated many conspiracy theories. Although many interpretations have been given for the broader meaning of the revolt, the Commune was in fact primarily, he argues after exploring both primary and secondary sources, a breakthrough of republicanism and a patriotic resistance movement.
Les sources de l’histoire de la Commune de Paris et du mouvement communaliste (1864-1880). Actes de la journée d’études du 10 avril 2002 à l’auditorium de l’Hôtel de ville de Paris. Ed. by Odette Christienne. Direction des Archives de France, Paris 2004. 104 pp.€ 10.00.
These are the proceedings of a symposium on the sources of the history of the Paris Commune and the Communalist movement between 1864 and 1880, held in Paris in April 2002. The contributors discuss the variety of sources available in administrative archives, at both local and central national levels, in military, judicial and prison archives, as well as in private collections and in bibliographical collections.
Brandt, Willy. Berlin bleibt frei. Politik in und für Berlin 1947-1966. Bearb. von Siegfried Heimann. [Berliner Ausgabe, Band 3.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachf. GmbH, Bonn 2004. 702 pp. € 27.60.
This Volume 3 in a projected ten-volume series of the “Berlin Edition” of the writings of Willy Brandt (1913-1992) (see IRSH, 47 (2002), p. 157 and 49 (2004), p. 341 for previously published volumes) covers the period (1947-1966) in which Brandt worked in and for Berlin, first as representative of the city in the Bundestag and from 1957 to 1966 as mayor. In the nearly 120 documents included in the volume, as well as in the editor’s historical introduction, Brandt’s “policy of the small steps” with regard to the Ostpolitik is the common element.
Epstein, Catherine . The Last Revolutionaries. German Communists and Their Century. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 2003. 322 pp. Ill. £19.95.
This is a collective biography of eight prominent German veteran communists: Franz Dahlem, Gerhart Eisler, Erich Honecker, Emmy Koenen, Fred Oelsser, Karl Schirdewan, Fritz Selbmann, and Walter Ulbricht. Following their paths from their entry into the KPD before the Nazi period, through their resistance activities, their captivity under Hitler or under Stalin, to their leading roles in the communist dictatorship of the GDR, Professor Epstein aims to reveal the similarities in political convictions and ideology that drove their actions. Included are victims of purges in the 1950s, as well as the GDR leaders Ulbricht and Honecker.
"Freiheit wollen wir!" Der 17. Juni 1953 in Brandenburg. Eine Dokumentenediton. Hrsg. von Burghard Ciesla. Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin 2003. 255 pp. € 19.90.
This source edition brings together a broad selection of documents, including police and intelligence reports, police interview protocols, verdicts, press clippings and photographs, about the massive popular uprising in the GDR on 17 June 1953. The volume deals in particular with the events in the Brandenburg districts of Cottbus, Frankfurt am Oder and Potsdam. In the historical introduction, the editor describes the motives and causes of the mounting protest, the events surrounding 17 June and the long-term consequences for participants and East German society as a whole.
Grau, Ute und Barbara Guttmann. Fahnensticken, patriotisches Einkaufen und der “weibliche Terrorismus”. Frauen in der Revolution von 1848/1849 in Baden. Edition Isele, Eggingen 2002. 234 pp. € 17.50.
Based on legal documents, this study aims to inventory the role of women in the Revolution of 1848/1849 in the German Land of Baden. After a general analysis of the representation of women in various criminal records and their social origins, the author addresses the involvement of women in the revolutionary events in the cities of Karlsruhe, Mannheim, Heidelberg and several smaller towns in Baden and the relation between political and religious dissent among women in this period.
Henning, Friedrich-Wilhelm. Deutsche Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts. Teil I: Deutsche Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte im Ersten Weltkrieg und in der Weimarer Republik, 1914 bis 1932. [Handbuch der Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte Deutschlands, Band 3/I.] Ferdinand Schöning, Paderborn [etc.] 2003. x, 687 pp. Ill. € 98.00.
This book is the first part of Volume 3 in a four-volume reference work on the economic and social history of Germany from prehistory until the present (see IRSH 37 (1992), p. 124, and 42 (1997), p. 506, for the previous two volumes). Volume 3 is divided into two chronologically arranged parts: the present book covers World War I and the Weimar Republic, while the second part of Volume 3 deals with the Nazi Era. Topics covered include the economy and society during World War I, the hyperinflation in the early 1920s and the “golden” years in the mid-1920s and the Great Depression as the trailblazer of National Socialism. The index to both parts of Volume 3 will be included in the second part.
Jarausch, Konrad H. and Michael Geyer. Shattered Past. Reconstructing German Histories. Princeton University Press, Princeton, [etc.] 2003. xi, 380 pp. £13.95.
The authors of this study, both German historians teaching in the United States, aim to reconsider German history in the twentieth century. Professors Jarausch and Geyer begin with a review of the current state of historiography, which they characterize by the eclipse of the dominant national, Marxist and progressive master narratives. Subsequently, they take seven historical themes (war and genocide; German attitude towards totalitarianism; German imperialism; mobility and migration; national identities; position of women; and consumption, mass culture and consumerism) to demonstrate how new histories might be written. Finally, they reflect on the singularity of Germany’s role in the twentieth century.
Karl, Michaela. Sozialrebellen in Bayern. Matthäus Klostermair, Michael Heigl, Mathias Kneissl. Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2003. 207 pp. Ill. € 22.00; S.fr. 38.10.
This study explores the lives, fates and popular fame of three notorious brigands from eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Bavaria: Matthäus Klostermair (1736-1771), Michael Heigl (1816-1857) and Matthias Kneissl (1875-1902). Dr Karl uses a “history from below” perspective to show how these bandits may be viewed as social rebels and their activities interpreted as a specific form of social protest and resistance on behalf of the poor rural populace.
Katholiken und Gewerkschaftsbewegung 1890-1945. Hrsg. von Herbert Hömig. [Beiträge zur Katholizismusforschung. Reihe A. Quellentexte zur Geschichte des Katholizismus, Band 19.] Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn [etc.] 2003. 171 pp. € 19.80.
The selection of documents in this source edition aims to recount the course of discussions within German Catholicism about workers’ representation and trade unionism from the early nineteenth century to the end of World War II. Themes covered include the role of the Catholic workers’ association within the growth of the larger Christian trade union movement, the struggle with the socialist trade union movement, the Christian trade union movement during the Weimar Republic and in the Third Reich and the relation to the corporatist movement.
Kowalczuk, Ilko-Sascha. Geist im Dienste der Macht. Hochschulpolitik in der SBZ/DDR 1945 bis 1961. [Forschungen zur DDR-Gesellschaft.] Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin 2003. 604 pp. € 24.90; S.fr. 42.30.
In the early GDR state, the higher education policy was pivotal in the new regime. This dissertation (University of Potsdam, 2002) aims to give a comprehensive analysis of the ways in which the socialist administration reconstructed and developed higher education in order to form a loyal, socialist intelligentsia, which was deemed essential for a socialist German society to evolve. Dr Kowalczuk explores both the basic theoretical and ideological concepts of the intelligentsia policy of the GDR and the practical implementation, the transformation of academia and the mechanisms of social privileging, ideologization and militarization of intellectuals.
Kuhn, Anja und Thomas Weiss. Zwangsarbeit in Hattingen. Landschaftsverband Westfalen-Lippe, Dortmund 2003. 168 pp. Ill. Maps. € 9.90.
Since 1999 the history of forced labour in Nazi Germany has taken centre stage in German historiography, especially in the wealth of local histories of forced labour during World War II. This study deals with forced labour in the war economy in the Westphalian city of Hattingen, an industrial town on the Ruhr River, with a large steel plant inside its limits. At the end of World War II, one of every four inhabitants was a foreign labourer. The author documents the employment of foreign forced labour and the working and living conditions of these individuals, both inside the steel industry and in other sectors of the economy.
Langkau, Götz and Hans Pelger. Studien zur Rheinischen Zeitung und zu ihrer Forderung nach Handelsfreiheit und Grundrechten im Deutschen Bund. Mit einem Brief von Karl Marx an Hermann Müller-Strübing (1843). [Schriften aus dem Karl-Marx-Haus, Band 51.] Karl-Marx-Haus, Trier 2003. 401 pp. € 27.00.
This documentary study originates from the discovery of a hitherto unknown letter of Karl Marx to Hermann Müller-Strübing from 1 January 1843, when the 24 year-old Marx was editor of the Rheinischen Zeitung. Apart from the letter, the authors offer a richly commented and annotated selection of newspaper articles, correspondence and documents pertaining to the liberal democratic pursuit of free trade and freedom of speech and press, as expressed, for example, in the Rheinischen Zeitung, the ensuing response from the Prussian government and the Russian tsarist’s and Austrian-Habsburg interference with the Prussian press policy.
Mommsen, Hans. Alternatives to Hitler. German Resistance under the Third Reich. Tauris, London [etc.] 2003. 313 pp. £25.00.
This is the English translation of the original German edition from 2000, which was annotated in IRSH, 46 (2001), p. 508. As Professor Jeremy Noakes mentions in his introduction to this English edition, the author demonstrates in his elaborate work on the subject of the history of German resistance to Hitler that many of the ideas and plans of individuals and groups within the resistance had little in common with the values and notions of Western liberal democracy and open society.
Müller, Thomas. Zwangsarbeit in der Grenzzone. Der Kreis Aachen im Zweiten Weltkrieg. [Aachener Studien zur Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte, Band 1.] Shaker Verlag, Aachen 2003. 220 pp. Ill. € 19.80.
In this study of the employment of forced labour in the German-Belgian-Dutch border region of the city of Aachen, Mr Müller aims to show how forced labour employment and conditions differed from other regions in Germany during World War II. He argues that employment of forced labour conformed in part to existing traditions of labour migration in the region, resulting in various transitional models from voluntary to forced labour. The repressive border regime further affected conditions for forced labour in this region.
Nach der Revolution 1848/49. Verfolgung, Realpolitik, Nationsbildung. Politische Briefe deutscher Liberaler und Demokraten 1849-1861. Bearb. von Christian Jansen. Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 2004. lxv, 813 pp. € 98.00.
This source collection features over 400 political letters, together with annotations and commentaries, from revolutionaries from 1848/1849 in the postrevolutionary period. The editor aims to offer insight into the persecution and political reorientation of the revolutionaries, as well as into the political emergence of the German states, the rise of a new generation of oppositional politicians and the international political context. In addition to the bourgeois liberal opposition, more radical currents, such as the Communist League, are included.
Niedrig, Heinz. Die Arbeiterwohlfahrt in der Zeit von 1933 bis 1945. Spurensuche. Aufbau, Verfolgung, Verbot, Widerstand, Emigration. Hrsg. vom Arbeiterwohlfahrt Bundesverband e.V. Schüren, Marburg 2003. 218 pp. Ill. € 14.80; S.fr.26.00.
The Arbeiterwohlfahrt (AWO), founded in 1919 as part of the SPD party apparatus as an organization for social welfare and poor relief, figured prominently in the struggle against the rise of National Socialism before 1933. This study explores the development of the AWO before 1933 and the fate of the organization and its members in 1933 after Hitler’s rise to power. The author, who was active within the postwar AWO, also reviews the persecution and forced emigration of AWO members under the Nazi regime and the members’ role in the German resistance. Short biographies of 33 prominent AWO members are included.
Paraïso, Jean-Yves. Catholicisme et socialisme en Allemagne [1848-1933] aux origines du catholicisme de gauche. [Allemagne d’hier et d’aujourd'hui.] L’Harmattan, Paris [etc.] 2003. 406 pp. € 32.00.
In this study of the relation between Catholic social thought and socialism in Germany between 1848 and the beginning of the Third Reich, the author focuses mainly on the minority of Catholics who joined socialist ideology in its anti-capitalism. After sketching the origins of anti-capitalism within early Catholic social thought through the popularity of the ideas of Ferdinand Lassalle amongst German Catholics, Mr Paraïso discusses the rise of religious socialism between 1918 and 1933 and the rapprochement between Catholic social thought and socialism under the Weimar Republic.
Reuter, Ursula. Paul Singer (1844-1911). Eine politische Biographie. [Beiträge zur Geschichte des Parlamentarismus und der politischen Parteien.] Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 2004. 674 pp. Ill. € 74.00.
This revised edition of a dissertation (University of Cologne, 2002) offers a political biography of Paul Singer (1844-1911), a leading figure in German social democracy as a member of the SPF party leadership and from 1890 onwards as party chairman until his death. Through the study of Singer’s multifaceted activities: as a Jewish garment manufacturer; as a bourgeois “boarder” in the political labour movement, as a social reformer and as a career politician, Dr Reuter aims to convey a comprehensive impression of the leading circles of German social democracy in this period and their political culture.
Rieker, Yvonne. "Ein Stück Heimat findet man ja immer". Die italienische Einwanderung in die Bundesrepublik. Klartext, Essen 2003. 203 pp. € 19.90.
In 1992 over sixty per cent of the migrants living in Western Germany originated from countries where Germany had recruited guest workers from 1955 onwards. As Italy was the first country to enter into a labour recruitment agreement with Germany, this study explores the case of the Italian labour migration and the German guest worker policy involved. In addition to studying the political and organizational aspects involved, Dr Rieker deals with the experiences of Italian labour migrants based on biographical interviews with thirty Italian labour migrants living in Germany.
Scheibe, Dietrich and Margit Wiegold-Bovermann. "Morgen werden wir die Gewerkschaftshaüser besetzen". Die Zerschlagung der Gewerkschaften in Rheinland-Westfalen-Lippe am 2. Mai 1933. Klartext, Essen 2003. 392 pp. Ill. € 19.90.
Within a few months after Hitler sized power, the Nazi regime began prohibiting and eliminating most trade-union activities. This volume documents the process and the responses from trade-union activists in the Rhineland-Westphalia-Lippe region, where suppression of the trade unions peaked on 2 May 1933. The authors review the run-up from Hitler’s appointment as Reichskanzler to 2 May and its aftermath in chronological sequence and have included a wealth of source materials. The volume is written for a general readership and is intended for use in trade-union training programmes.
Weyrather, Irmgard. Die Frau am Fliessband. Das Bild der Fabrikarbeiterin in der Sozialforschung, 1870-1985. Campus, Frankfurt am Main [etc.] 2003. 422 pp. € 45.00; S.fr. 75.20.
From the end of the nineteenth century, social research studies addressed the living and working conditions of women industrial workers in increasing measure. This study explores how in Germany in the period 1870-1985 social science studies on women workers conveyed a wide variety of images of female industrial workers. Dr Weyrather aims to show how the images presented varied depending on the political or social intent and context of the research concerned, such as promoting legislation on working conditions and safety or criticizing the moral implications of female employment.
Zwangsarbeit und Kriegswirtschaft im Lande Braunschweig 1939-1945. Hrsg. von Gudrun Fiedler und Hans-Ulrich Ludewig. [Quellen und Forschungen zur Braunschweigerischen Geschichte, Band 39.] Appelhans, Braunschweig 2003. 511 pp. Ill. €22.00.
The present volume is another example of the manifold local studies of forced labour during World War II that recently have been published. It deals with forced labour in the war economy of Braunschweig, a pivotal region in the German armament industry. The contributors sketch the war economy of the region, the role and importance of forced labour in it and the involvement of Jewish forced labour. Chapters on the memories of former forced labourers from Eastern Europe, German contemporaries and Jewish workers are included.
Factory Production in Nineteenth-Century Britain. Ed. by Elaine Freedgood. [The Victorian Archives Series.] Oxford University Press, New York [etc.] 2003. xiv, 321 pp. $27.95.
This volume brings together primary texts on factory production and the advent and establishment of the factory system in nineteenth-century Britain, intended for use by undergraduate and graduate students. Except for a few familiar texts by authors such as John Ruskin, Thomas Carlyle and William Morris, the majority are less well-known selections by factory tourists, inspectors, critics and workers. The general topics covered here include contemporary observations about the factories and the factory system, technology and management, working conditions and the position of manual labour. The book also comprises a chronology and brief biographies of the selected authors.
Finn, Margot C. The Character of Credit. Personal Debt in English Culture, 1740-1914. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2003. xii, 362 pp. Ill. £50.00; $70.00.
In this social history of personal debt and credit in England from the middle of the eighteenth to the early twentieth century, Professor Finn aims to show how the ability to engage in credit contracts correlated strongly with social status. The author (who published previously on radical politics in England after 1848 (see IRSH, 39 (1994), p. 140) examines the role of credit in the English consumer culture from the perspective of the representation of debt in novels, diaries and memoirs; the transformation of imprisonment for debt; and the use of small claims courts to mediate between debtors and creditors.
Schwarzkopf, Jutta. Unpicking Gender. The Social Construction of Gender in the Lancashire Cotton Weaving Industry, 1880-1914. [Studies in Labour History.] Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2004. xi, 228 pp.
This study explores the social construction of gender in the context of the Lancashire cotton weaving industry in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. By examining how the extent and conditions of their employment in the industry and the gender inequality they encountered in the industries formed women weavers' identities, Dr Schwarzkopf aims to show how the women weavers took collective action for women's suffrage from a gender-specific subjectivity that encompassed the allegiance to gender and class alike and subsequently devised their own version of working-class femininity.
Sewell, Rob. In the Cause of Labour. History of British Trade Unionism. Wellred, London 2003. 476 pp. Ill. £14.99, € 22.00.
This historical overview of the development of the British labour and trade union movement over the last two centuries is presented as "a socialist history, which draws on the arsenal of Marxism to illuminate the lessons from the rich struggles of the working class in Britain". Writing from a Trotskyite perspective, Mr Sewell describes influential struggles, strikes and conflicts between workers and employers from the end of the eighteenth century to the present day.
Shakesheff, Timothy. Rural Conflict, Crime and Protest. Herefordshire, 1800 to 1860. The Boydell Press, Woodbridge [etc.] 2003. viii, 230 pp. £55.00; $99.00.
Focusing on the rural county of Herefordshire, in the West of England, this study aims to analyse the concept of social crime in relation to petty crime and protest between 1800 and 1860. Dr Shakesheff deals primarily with rural crime and conflicts between agricultural workers and their employers, which were far rarer than between industrial labourers and employers, as the power the county's landed elite wielded over the rural labourer and his family often prevented overt displays of discontent or resistance.
Stradling, Robert. Wales and the Spanish Civil War. The Dragon's Dearest Cause? University of Wales Press, Cardiff 2004. xvi, 253 pp. Ill. £25.00; $14.99.
This study deals both with the role of people from Wales in the Spanish Civil War as International Brigadiers and with the resonance of the Spanish Civil War in Wales, during the war and in national memory afterwards. Dr Stradling critically analyses the special significance that the Spanish Civil War retained for Wales, arguing that the surrounding myth strengthened notions of ideological and ethical rectitude, as well as those of Welsh national character and identity. The author recently published on the Irish involvement in the Spanish Civil War and on the historiography and mythologization of the International Brigades (see IRSH, 46 (2001), p. 126, and 50 (2005), p. 547).
Taylor, Andrew. The NUM and British Politics. Vol. 1. 1944-1968. [Studies in Labour History.] Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2003. xiv, 269 pp. £45.00.
Taylor, Andrew. The NUM and British Politics. Vol. 2. 1969-1995. [Studies in Labour History.] Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2005. xiv, 357 pp. £55.00.
This two-volume set examines the origins, rise and decline of the National Union of Mineworkers in the period from its formation in 1944 to its demise following the defeat in the strike of 1984-1985. Based on union material, party and government archives, as well as on oral testimonies, Professor Taylor concentrates on the national energy and labour politics and the relationship between the NUM, the government and the National Coal Board, challenging broadly accepted notions surrounding the NUM's strength, militancy and cohesiveness.
Toye, Richard. The Labour Party and the Planned Economy 1931-1951. [Studies in History: New Series.] Royal History Society [etc.], London [etc.] 2003. xi, 268 pp. £45.00; $75.00.
This study examines the origins and fate of the Labour Party's pledge to create a planned socialist economy in Great Britain. Dr Toye traces the origins of the British ideas back to the popularity of Soviet planning, shows the pivotal role of the 1931 political crisis and MacDonald's "Great Betrayal" in securing the popularity of "plan socialism" within the Labour Party and then evaluates efforts to implement economic planning under the Attlee government (1945-1951) and the reasons behind the failure of the aspiration to create a fully planned economy.
Gestri, Lorenzo. Storie di socialisti. Idee e passioni di ieri e di oggi. A cura di Laura Savelli. BFS edizioni, Pisa 2003. xxxiv, 263 pp. € 18.00.
This collection comprising eight articles by Lorenzo Gestri (1943-2002) was published as a tribute to the author, who taught labour and trade union history at the University of Pisa. His research was focused on heretical currents and traditions in the labour movement. In the introduction, Laura Savelli places the texts selected in a biographical and historiographic context. The articles cover e.g. Alceste de Ambris; a manifesto by Malatesta from 1884 commemorating the Paris Commune; strikes by farm labourers and literature about the turn of the previous century. A bio-bibliographical note by Franco Bertolucci concludes the book. The book also comprises a bibliography of publications by Gestri.
Giulietti, Fabrizio. Il movimento anarchico italiano nella lotta contro il fascismo 1927-1945. [Società e Cultura, 32.] Piero Lacaita Editore, Manduria [etc.] 2003. 445 pp. € 18.00.
This study about the anarchist resistance to Italian fascism fills, according to the introduction, a gap in historiography about Italian anti-fascism. Dr. Giulietti traces all stages in the movement in the period following the murder of Matteotti (1924): the efforts to close the ranks, contacts with other anti-fascist movements, attacks on Mussolini, participation in the Spanish Civil War and the armed resistance from 1943 until 1945. The author has used the central state archive, as well as the anarchist press and leaflets. The appendix comprises several texts from the anarchist press, two transcripts of interrogations and a list of publications about the resistance.
Guida alle fonti per la storia dei movimenti in Italia.(1966-1978). A cura di Marco Grispigni and Leonardo Musci. [Pubblicazioni degli Archivi di Stato: Strumenti 167.] Ministero per i beni e le attività culturali, Roma 2003. 298 pp. € 6.90.
This is a guide of sources in Italy on the youth and student movement from the 1960s and 1970s and more generally on the modern social movements since those years, including the women's movement. The guide, which has been compiled by a group of historians and archivists associated with the Fondazione Lelio e Lisli Basso, lists 167 centres, including public archives and documentation centres, as well as private ones. Some feature the private collections of photographers. The volume also comprises indices of institutions according to place name and descriptors and a register of names.
L'Italia delle migrazioni interne. Donne, uomini, mobilità in età moderna e contemporanea. A cura di Angiolina Arru e Franco Ramella. Donzelli Editore, Roma 2003. xxii, 390 pp. Maps. € 32.00.
The massive emigration from Italy abroad between the unification and the economic boom long obscured the pattern of domestic migration from scholars in migration history. In this book, such mobility is depicted as a possible vantage point for examining essential features of the profile of a society. The eleven studies included in this collection cover the period from the ancien regime to the 1960s and review cities such as Rome, Naples and Turin, focusing on the occupational groups concerned, family establishment and social and economic integration.
Labriola, Antonio. Del socialismo e altri scritti politici. Introd. e cura di Marzio Zanantoni. [Biblioteca di storia contemporanea/Testi.] Edizione Unicopli, Milano 2004. 107 pp. € 10.00.
This booklet was published in recognition of the centenary of the death of Antonio Labriola (1843-1904) and features his article "Del socialismo", from 1889, which, like the other political writings from before his Marxist period, is difficult to obtain. In this text, Labriola "confesses" his conversion to socialism and describes the value that he attributed to the role of school and culture as vehicles of progress. Four other brief texts are included from the period 1886-1890. Mr Zanantoni has written an introduction, in which he reviews the historical philosophy and political involvement of Labriola during the years 1870-1890.
Matteotti, Giacomo. Scritti giuridici. A cura di Stefano Caretti. 2 Vols. Nistri-Lischi, Pisa 2003. 839 pp. € 45.00.
Giacomo Matteotti (1880-1924) abandoned his initial academic calling as a scholar of law to become politically active for the Italian socialist party. Matteotti published about law between 1910 and 1911 and between 1917 and 1919, when he was less occupied with political campaigns. These two volumes comprise the original text of his final university dissertation (tesi di laurea) about recidivism (1907) and ten articles published in various legal journals, e.g. about reforming the criminal justice system and the penal procedure (Volume 1). The second volume consists entirely of a revised and amended edition of his dissertation, which was published in 1910 as La recidiva. Saggio di revisione critica con dati statistici.
Ragusa, Andrea. Il gruppo dirigente comunista tra sviluppo e democrazia. 1956-1964. Tre capitoli sul centro-sinistra: dalle carte della direzione del PCI. [Società e Cultura, 35.] Piero Lacaita Editore, Manduria [etc.] 2004. 163 pp. € 18.00.
This study is based on the minutes of the Direzione, which was the decision-making body of the Italian communist party (PCI). These minutes are kept at the archive of the Fondazione "Istituto Gramsci". The author elaborates on a study in progress about the role and importance of the PCI in the waves of modernization that Italy experienced following World War II. The PCI was also compelled to reconsider its conceptual framework to reflect the modernity among the European left during those years. The sources reveal the debates between the different political and cultural movements within the party (see also IRSH, 50 (2005), p. 149).
L'uomo dell'altipiano. Riflessioni, testimonianze e memorie su Emilio Lussu. A cura di Eugenio Orrù e Nereide Rudas. Tema, Cagliari 2003. 557 pp. € 25.00.
This collection of 78 contributions is based on the colloquium Lussu today, held in Cagliari on Sardinia in 2000. Some were submitted afterwards. The book consists of two parts: the first features papers, articles and essays, interspersed with characteristic passages from texts by Lussu, and the second contains documents, recollections and testimonies, which together are intended to convey an impression of Emilio Lussu (1890-1975). The contributions are arranged by theme: his Sardinian heritage, his federalism, socialism and anti-fascism, his work as an author and his experiences during World War I. The title refers to his book Un anno sull'altipiano (1938) about his experiences during World War I.
William Morris in Nederland. Een bibliografie. Geschriften van en over William Morris verschenen in het Nederlands taalgebied, 1874-2000. Samenst. Lieske Tibbe, Wim Gerlagh [en] Sjaak Hubregtse. Primavera Pers, Leiden 2003. 64 pp. Ill. €14.90.
This bibliography offers a comprehensive overview of the writings of William Morris (1834-1896) and writings on him that have been published in Dutch-speaking areas between 1874 and 2000. Morris' influence on Dutch socialist thought has remained limited to the early period of Dutch socialism; his influence on applied visual arts and industrial art has persisted far longer in the Netherlands. A short historical introduction on Morris' influence in the Netherlands and a chronology of his life are included.
Żarnowska, Anna. Workers, Women, and Social Change in Poland, 1870-1939. [Variorum Collected Studies Series: Studies in East-Central Europe.] Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2004. xviii, 316 pp. £59.50.
The present book contains sixteen articles in English (12), German (3) and French (1), published by the author in different journals over the last forty years. The articles deal with the period from the industrial revolution in Poland until the beginning of World War II and are grouped around three subjects: working class and social change, political culture in the early twentieth century, and working-class families and the socio-cultural position of women.
Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Ascher, Abraham. The Revolution of 1905. A Short History. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California 2004. xiv, 229 pp. £35.50.
This book is essentially a précis of the two-volume The Revolution of 1905. Russia in disarray and Authority restored (1988-1992) by the same author (see also IRSH, 48 (2003), pp. 151f. for his biography of the Russian statesman Petr Arkadevich Stolypin). Beginning with the war with Japan in 1904, the author describes the revolutionary events in 1905 ("Bloody Sunday", the general strike and the armed uprising) and devotes ample attention to the subsequent political course of events until the dissolution by Stolypin of the Second Duma in 1907. The author argues that the 1905 revolution was a critical juncture that opened several possible paths for Russia's future, rather than a "dress rehearsal" for 1917.
Barnett, Vincent. The Revolutionary Russian Economy, 1890-1940. Ideas, debates and alternatives. [Routledge Explorations in Economic History.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2004. xii, 144 pp. £55.00.
This book is devoted to Russian economic development between 1890 and 1940, especially manifestations of human behaviour in terms of economy, as conceived by economic theorists at the time. The author discusses the tsarist, revolutionary, Bolshevik and Stalinist economies from the perspectives of orthodox economics, Marxist theory and institutional economics. Contributions of Russian economic theorists, such as Tugan-Baranovsky, Kondratiev and Bukharin, are considered at length.
Bukharin, Nikolai. Philosophical Arabesques. Transl. by Renfrey Clarke with ed. assistance by George Shriver. Monthly Review Press, New York 2005. 407 pp. $49.95.
This book contains forty articles on philosophical questions from the point of view of dialectical materialism. Bukharin based himself on the Philosophical note books of Lenin. He wrote the texts in the Lubyanka prison in Moscow awaiting his trial and execution in 1938. Only after more than fifty years were the manuscripts handed over to his widow from the Kremlin archives. The Russian original was published in 1996 as the two-volume Tiuremnye rukopisi (Prison manuscripts).
The Demise of Marxism-Leninism in Russia. Ed. by Archie Brown. [St Antony's Series]. Palgrave (in assoc. with St Antony's College, Oxford), Basingstoke [etc]. 2004. xvi, 233 pp. £17.99.
This collection of seven articles appeared as a successor volume to New Thinking in Soviet Politics (1992), from which chapters by the late Alexander Dallin and Alec Nove (on Soviet foreign policy and non-Leninist economic theories, respectively) have been taken with minor changes. The other contributions, which are new, deal with the course of liberal thought after 1985 (Igor V. Timofeyev), non-Leninist ideas about the political system (Archie Brown) and the "national question" (Gail W. Lapidus). T.H. Rigby has written the concluding chapter, in which he discusses the moral dimension of new economic ideas in Russia.
Hessler, Julie. A Social History of Soviet Trade. Trade Policy, Retail Practices, and Consumption, 1917-1953. Princeton University Press, Princeton [etc.] 2004. xvi, 366 pp. Ill. $42.00; £26.95.
This book traces the invention and evolution of socialist trade in the Soviet Union, exploring the relationship of trade to the cyclical pattern of crisis and normalization that resulted from the tensions between the goals, set by Lenin and Stalin, of modernization of retailing and the elimination of most private transactions and, on the other hand, the economic dynamics that led to shortages and the government's bureaucratic and repressive political culture. The author also provides information about private shops during the NEP and the remnants of private trade in subsequent years.
Jahrhundertschicksale. Frauen im sowjetischen Exil. Hrsg. von Simone Barck, Anneke de Rudder und Beate Schmeichel-Fallkenberg. [Schriften der Gedenkstätte Deutscher Widerstand. Reihe A: Analysen und Darstellungen, Band 5.] Lukas Verlag, Berlin 2003. Ill. 275 pp. € 20.00.
The sixteen contributions to this collection are based on the conference of the same name organized in 1998 in Berlin by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Frauen im Exil, together with the Gedenkstätte Deutscher Widerstand. The volume is about the fates of German women who as communists, socialists, leftist intellectuals and artists and consequently opponents of National Socialism had to flee Germany and sought a safe second homeland in the Soviet Union. There they encountered persecution again, and many were sent the GULAG camps.
Marie, Jean-Jacques. Lénine. Biographie. Éditions Balland, Paris 2004. 503 pp. € 25.00.
The author, who wrote previously about Trotskyism (Le trotskysme et les trotskystes (2002), see IRSH, 49 (2004), pp. 279-292, 325) and has published biographies of Trotsky and Stalin as well, aims in this biography to refute both positive and negative caricatural aspects in images of Lenin and to broaden the scope beyond Lenin's writings and actions. He also attempts to portray Lenin as an individual, even though Lenin's continuous careful seclusion of his privacy greatly complicates this effort.
Minahan, James. The Former Soviet Union's Diverse Peoples. A Reference Sourcebook. [Ethnic Diversity within Nations Series.] ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, Calif. [etc.] 2004. xvii, 389 pp. Ill. £37.50.
This sourcebook in the Ethnic Diversity Within Nations series examines the interactions of Russians with other national groups over the centuries. It aims to highlight the historical evolution of the many ethnicities and ethnic relations within the successor states. Each of the ten chronologically ordered chapters, from prehistoric times until after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, includes a time line, a list of "significant people, places and events", and bibliography.
Modernizing Muscovy. Reform and Social Change in Seventeenth-Century Russia. Ed. by Jarmo Kotilaine and Marshall Poe. [RoutledgeCurzon Studies in the History of Russia and Eastern Europe]. RoutledgeCurzon, London [etc.] 2004. vi, 489 pp. £70.00.
The twenty-two contributions to this collection aim to give a comprehensive account of the socio-economic and state history of seventeenth-century Russia. Most contributors emphasize the crucial importance of reforms in the period before Peter the Great for Russia's emergence as one of the great powers and argue that many modernizing trends started well before his reign. Themes covered are the sixteenth-century background; the state and the changing relation to its subjects; economic developments; military and international relations; religion and culture; and the arts and sciences. See also Valerie Kivelson's review in this volume, pp. 114-117.
Murphy, Kevin. Revolution and Counterrevolution. Class Struggle in a Moscow Metal Factory. [International Studies in Social History.] Berghahn Books, New York [etc.] 2005. xi, 234 pp. £45.00.
Focusing on the Hammer and Sickle metal factory in Moscow, Professor Murphy explores in this study the industrial relations and the working-class life and shopfloor activism in the period between the Russian Revolution and the establishment of the Stalinist system with the introduction of the first Five Year Plan in 1928. The author aims to explain how the strongly activist and politicized group of workers came to tolerate the rise and establishment of the Stalinist system, which, according to the author, proved antagonistic to working-class interests. See also Andrei Markevich's review in this volume, pp. 130-133.
Read, Christopher. Lenin. A Revolutionary Life. [Routledge Historical Biographies.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2005. xii, 311 pp. £12.99.
This biography of Lenin appeared in the Routledge Historical Biographies series after, for example, biographies of Stalin and Trotsky. In the introduction to the book Professor Read states that his primary aim is to understand Lenin and to highlight Lenin's statements and actions to this end. His most prominent sources are Lenin's supposedly minor articles and letters, as well as comments made about him around that period. Lenin's wife Krupskaia's memoirs are used extensively here.
Smith, Jeremy. The Fall of Soviet Communism 1985-91. [Studies in European History.] Palgrave, Basingstoke [etc.] 2005. xi, 130 pp. £12.99.
This book is a survey of opinions and interpretations of the final years of the Soviet Union, from Gorbachev's appointment as General Secretary of the CPSU in 1985 until his resignation as president and the formal dissolution of the USSR in 1991. The author focuses on historical research and discusses works in English only. The main areas of emphasis are the economy, Gorbachev's policies and nationalism. The book features a chronology and a bibliography.
Social'naia istoriia. Ezhegodnik, 2004. Ed. by K.M. Anderson [and] A.K. Sokolov. (Social history. Yearbook, 2004). ROSSPEN, Moscow 2005. 464 pp. $30.00.
The yearbook is dedicated to new tendencies and to the results of interdisciplinary and comparative methods in social history research in Russia and other countries. This sixth issue contains sixteen articles. The subjects include methodological and historiographic problems of labour history and its future in contemporary Russia and different aspects of history of everyday life.
Walker, Barbara. Maximilian Voloshin and the Russian Literary Circle. Culture and Survival in Revolutionary Times. Indiana University Press, Bloomington [etc.] 2005. xiv, 235 pp. Ill. $39.95.
This book is about culture and society of the Russian intelligentsia, especially the literary intelligentsia. The author examines "kruzhok culture" as a form of social organization and more specifically the literary kruzhok (circle), formed by the poet Maximilian Voloshin in the Crimea seaside village of Koktebel' in 1911. The circle continued to exist during the Soviet era until Voloshin's death in 1932.
White, Anne. Small-Town Russia. Postcommunist livelihoods and identities. A portrait of the intelligentsia in Achit, Bednodemyanovsk and Zubtsov, 1999-2000. [BASEES/RoutledgeCurzon series on Russian and East European studies, vol. 12.] RoutledgeCurzon, London [etc.] 2004. xviii, 275 pp. £65.00.
This study examines the impact, since 1991, of social and economic change and of unemployment and falling wages on people's concepts of identity and on their survival strategies. The book is based on field work in three small towns (of around 7,000 inhabitants). The 141 interviews with professionals are complemented by information from local institutions, such as schools and hospitals, and local statistics.
Actas del I Simposium Internacional Félix Martí Ibáñez. Medicina, Historia e Ideología. Ed. de José Vicente Martí Boscà, [and] Antonio Rey González. Generalitat Valenciana, Valencia 2004. 269 pp. € 12.00.
This book comprises the twelve contributions to an international symposium held in Valencia in 2004 about the physician Félix Martí Ibánez (1911-1972). From 1933 until the end of the Spanish Civil War, he published about topics related to sexuality, among others in the anarchist cultural journal Estudios. Some of the contributions in this book cover his publications about homosexuality, eugenics and psychiatry. Other topics include the role of science in the labour movement; and health and anarchism during the Spanish Civil War. The book comprises a bibliography of his articles and accompanies the separately published work Antología de textos de Félix Martí Ibáñez.
Castilla-La Mancha en el Franquismo. Coord.: Manuel Requena Gallego. [Por] José Manuel Sabín, Angel L. López Villaverde, Francisco Sevillano Calero [y.o.] [Biblioteca Añil.] Manifesta, Ciudad Real 2003. 317 pp. € 16.00.
This collection comprises 11 contributions from researchers in the Castilla-La Mancha region, which encompasses Toledo, Cuenca, Ciudad Real and Albacete. Like elsewhere in Spain, historical research about the Franco period was launched in this area from the early 1990s. The book is divided according to four themes: politics, where most contributions are dedicated to repression and resistance and the role of the church; demographics, economics and labour relations; art and culture; and a bibliographic essay on archive files relevant for this research, as well as a selective bibliography concerning the above themes.
Ginard, David. Les Baléares sous le régime franquiste. [Recherches et documents : Espagne.] L'Harmattan, Paris [etc.] 2002. 197 pp. € 17.00.
This study aims to give a comprehensive overview of the social and economic history of the Balearic Islands under the Francoist regime and of anti-Francoist resistance, in particular on the island of Majorca. The author concludes, for example, that anti-Francoist resistance arose largely from the working-class movement on the islands; that the organizations involved remained strongly inspired by the resistance movement on the mainland; and that on Majorca the resistance remained a minority movement.
Monereo Pérez, José Luis. La Reforma Social en España. Adolfo Posada. [Colección Historia Social, Núm. 36] Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales, Madrid 2003. 515 pp. € 27.00.
This study is about the sociopolitical ideas of the scholar of law Adolfo González Posada y Biesca (1860-1944) and the work of the Instituto de Reformas Sociales, which was established in 1903. Posada was part of the group that ran this institute. He belonged to the Krausismo school of philosophy, which pursued social and intellectual innovation in Spain. The author of the book reviews Posada's perception of the state, the crisis in doctrinary liberalism around the turn of the century and both the theory of progressive liberalism, which advocated social reforms to solve the social issue, and the implementation of these ideas in practice.
Navarro Navarro, Javier. A la revolución por la cultura. Prácticas culturales y sociabilidad libertarias en el país Valenciano (1931-1939). Universitat de València, València 2004. 406 pp. € 23.00.
This is the second volume of the commercial edition of the dissertation La cultura libertaria en el país Valenciano (1931-1939): sociabilidad y prácticas culturales, which the author defended at the University of Valencia in 2000. The first volume, Ateneos y Grupos Ácratas. Vida y Actividad cultural de las Asociaciones Anarquistas Valencianas durante la Segunda República y la Guerra Civil, was annotated in IRSH, 48 (2003), p. 538. This volume features a more detailed analysis of the different cultural customs devised by the libertarian militants. He bases his analysis on the themes speech; rationalist schools; printed discourse, in libraries as well as in the propagandist and the educational press; and leisure pursuits at theatre and cinema and amid natural surroundings.
Nowak, Karin. Spanien zwischen Diktatur und Republik. Korporatismus, organisierte Interessen und staatliche Sozialpolitik 1919-1936. [Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für soziale Bewegungen. Schriftenreihe A: Darstellungen, Band 29.] Klartext, Essen 2004. 344 pp. Maps. € 39.00.
This revised and abridged version of a dissertation (Ruhr University Bochum, 2001) explores how Spanish governments with various political persuasions between 1919 and the beginning of the Spanish Civil War tried to defuse conflicts in relations between workers and employers. Dr Nowak considers how social policy and labour legislation was alternately used to integrate or suppress the organized labour movement, aiming to identify important elements in the history of the preamble to the Civil War. See also Sören Brinkmann's review in this volume, pp. 128-129.
Richmond, Kathleen. Women and Spanish Fascism. The Women's Section of the Falange 1934-1959. [Routledge / Cañada Blanch studies on contemporary Spain, 6.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2003. x, 182 pp. Ill. £55.00.
The Sección Femenina (SF), the Women's Section of Franco's Nationalist Movement, founded in 1936, did much to proliferate the right-wing moral and political values of Franco's regime. This study explores the ideological base of the SF and its elite membership and their activities. Dr Richmond also deals with the contribution of the SF to the legislation, economic prosperity and social fabric of Spain under Franco and aims to explain the paradox of how the organization could be a loyal supporter of Francoism whilst at the same time challenging the class and social base of the regime.