Volume 51 part 3 (December 2006)


General Issues
Continents and Countries

Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.

General Issues

Ives, Peter. Language and Hegemony in Gramsci. [Reading Gramsci.] Pluto Press [etc.], London [etc.] 2004. xiii, 204 pp. £16.99.
In this study the author aims to relate the social and political ideas of Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937) to his interest in languages and linguistics and to language philosophy and the work of Ferdinand de Saussure and Ludwig Wittgenstein. Gramsci studied linguistics, and the central thesis of Professor Ives is that knowledge of the linguistic underpinnings of Gramsci's social and political theory is crucial in his well-known but often misunderstood concepts, such as hegemony, organic intellectuals, passive revolution and subalternity. The author shows that Gramsci's theorization of power and language are reflected in the work of post-structuralists such as Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida and Ernesto Laclau.

Lacroix, Jean-Yves. Utopie et philosophie. Un autre monde possible? [Philosophie présente.] Bordas, Paris 2004. 317 pp. € 19.00.
This book offers a philosophical analysis of the concept of utopia and its origins in Thomas More's Utopia (1516) and the manifold ways in which utopian ideas have been elaborated within philosophy, literature, social movements and politics. Professor Lacroix explores utopian origins in Platonic philosophy and Judaeo-Christian and Islamic traditions, the various philosophical and literary applications of Utopia and the relation of the various ideological and political movements to the utopian concept.

Lie John. Modern Peoplehood. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 2004. x, 384 pp. £32.95.
Connecting the development of social identity and ideas of race, ethnicity and nationality with the rise of the modern state, the industrial economy and Enlightenment views, Professor Lie explores in this study the origins of "modern peoplehood". The author argues that this notion of peoplehood is a current phenomenon, according to which the modern state nurtures racial, ethnic and national sentiments that have given rise to racial and ethnic conflict and ultimately even to genocide.

McCullagh, C. Behan. The Logic of History. Putting Postmodernism in Perspective. Routledge, London [etc.] 2004. viii, 212 pp. £18.99.
In this introductory textbook, Dr McCullagh aims to explain the rational theories underlying historians' descriptions, interpretations and explanations of past events. Engaging with recent postmodern critiques of history and historiography, the author argues that the historical scholarship is more reliable than acknowledged by these critiques, because historians generally make their accounts of the past as fair as possible to avoid misleading their readers.

MacRaild, Donald M. and Avram Taylor. Social Theory and Social History. [Theory and History.] Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke [etc.] 2004. xi, 203 pp. £12.99.
In this textbook, the authors aim to provide a comprehensive introduction into the relationship between social theory and social history. After an introductory overview of the twentieth-century development of social history, with an emphasis on Britain, Drs MacRaild and Taylor deal consecutively with the foundations and developments of historical sociology, the various strands of systemic and comparative approaches to social history, the issue of social structure and human agency and the relationship between social and cultural history, as well as the development of postmodernism and poststructuralism.

Markets in Historical Contexts. Ideas and Politics in the Modern World. Ed. by Mark Bevir and Frank Trentmann. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2004. ix, 257 pp. £45.00; $70.00.
In the eleven essays in this volume, historians and social scientists discuss the changing meaning and social contingency of markets in different historical settings in different parts of the world. Challenging essentialist ideas about the market, the contributors argue that markets are always embedded in distinctive traditions and practices. The contributions address, for example, the shift in norms about the market in the great transformation from a rural to an industrial society in Britain; guild theories and organization in nineteenth-century France and Germany; progressive social thought and the interventionist state in the United States since the 1880s; market and ideology in Indian political economy; and global capital markets, such as electronic markets.

Le parole di Gramsci. Per un lessico dei Quaderni del carcere. A cura di Fabio Frosini e Guido Liguori. [Per Gramsci, 3.] Carocci editore, Roma 2004. 271 pp. € 20.20.
This collection comprises 13 essays that are the outcome of a seminar conducted in Rome between 2000 and 2003 at the initiative of the Italian department of the International Gramsci Society. The objective was to define various terms from the lexicon of the Quaderni del carcere. Each essay addresses one or more lemmata and has a fixed structure: faithful to the text, with consideration for the diachronic emergence of the concept in the work, and with a critique of the state of the art on that subject. Examples of lemmata are: dialectics, structure - superstructure, school and education, state and civil society, philosophy of practice, hegemony and ideology.

Ringer, Fritz. Max Weber. An Intellectual Biography. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago [etc.] 2004. 307 pp. $19.00.
With this intellectual biography of the German sociologist Max Weber (1864-1920), Professor Ringer aims to give a comprehensive introduction to Weber's ideas and to place Weber in his historical context, relating his ideas to the controversies and politics of his own time. The author, who recently published a collection of his articles on German intellectual history (see IRSH, 47 (2002), p. 323), argues that the unity of Weber's work lies not so much in his methodology, but in his advocacy of liberalism, democracy and fundamental human rights.


Dam'e, Vadim V. Zabytyj internacional. Mezdunarodnoe anarcho-sindikalistskoe dvizenie mezdu dvumja mirovymi vojnami. Tom 1. Ot revoljucionnogo sindikalizma k anarcho-sindikalizmu 1918-1930. Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, Moskva 2006. 904 pp.
This study addresses the history of the international anarcho-syndicalist movement in the interwar period. In this first volume the author investigates the emergence and development of anarcho-syndicalism as an independent movement within the international workers' movement in the period 1918-1930. He describes and analyses the central section of the International Working Men's Association (IWMA), the anarcho-syndicalist International, founded in Berlin in 1922, its congresses, plenary meetings and discussions and reviews in detail the activities of local anarcho-syndicalist movements and the IWMA sections in the individual countries, mostly in Europe and Latin America.

Herbstein, Denis. White Lies. Canon Collins and the secret war against apartheid. James Currey Publishers [etc.], Oxford [etc.] 2004. xxi, 386 pp. £14.95.
This study explores the role played by John Collins, Canon of St Paul's Cathedral in London from 1949 to 1981, in the international campaign to support the struggle against apartheid in South Africa. As founder of the International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) and the Christian Action, Collins provided material and political support and assistance to the ANC leadership and to South-African township and rural activists, often in complete secrecy, through a large international network of volunteers and exiles.

Hobson, John M. The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2004. xiii, 376 pp. £45.00. (Paper: £17.99.)
In this critique of what the author labels as the traditional Eurocentric views of the rise and triumph of the West in world history, Dr Hobson argues that "[...] the West and the East have been fundamentally and consistently interlinked through globalisation ever since 500 CE". His main criticism, then, is that the economic and technological rise of the West would have been inconceivable without the contributions of the East, and he sets out in this study "to trace the manifold Eastern contributions that led to the rise of what I call the oriental West".

Inklusion/Exklusion. Studien zu Fremdheit und Armut von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. Hrsg. Andreas Gestrich [und] Lutz Raphael. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main [etc]. 2004. 579 pp. Ill. € 24.12.
Based on a research seminar at the University of Trier on the historical emergence of forms of social exclusion and inclusion from Antiquity to the twentieth century, the 25 papers in this collection deal with three thematic subject fields: political and civic affiliation rights as means of inclusion and integration of groups of foreigners and the poor; famines and subsistence crises as extreme societal tests; and religion as a motive for inclusion and exclusion. Within every field, case studies are included, from Antiquity to the present and covering Europe and the Middle East.

Knowles, Rob. Political Economy from Below. Economic Thought in Communitarian Anarchism, 1840-1914. [Studies in New Political Economy.] Routledge, New York [etc.] 2004. xv, 432 pp. $90.00.
Exploring the economic writings of utopian socialists and communitarian anarchists such as Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Peter Kropotkin, Mikhail Bakunin, Alexander Herzen, Leo Tolstoy, Elisée Reclus and Jean Grave, Dr Knowles aims to show in this study that communitarian anarchists of the nineteenth century developed an articulated and distinctive tradition of economic thought. Although this tradition largely ended with the outbreak of World War I, he argues that it persists in critiques on the social fragmentation evident in many societies today, especially where a substantial "informal economy" exists.

Manning, Patrick. Migration in World History. [Themes in World History.] Routledge, New York, NY [etc.] 2004. ix, 193 pp. Maps. £13.99.
This textbook by one of the leading migration historians offers a survey of the history of migration worldwide from the earliest history of humanity to the present. Professor Manning presents a chronologically structured overview, starting with the earliest human migrations around 200,000 years ago, through the peopling of northern and American regions, 40,000 years before the present (BP), the development of agriculture (15,000-5,000 BP), the start of commerce, the increase of maritime and overland migration between 1400 and 1700 and the period of imperialism between 1700 and 1900, until the resurgence of migration in the second half of the twentieth century.

Men of Order. Authoritarian Modernization under Atatürk and Reza Shah. Ed. by Touraj Atabaki and Erik J. Zürcher. I.B. Tauris, London [etc.] 2004. 286 pp. £42.00.
The ten essays in this volume compare the "authoritarian modernization" that took place in the 1920s and 1930s in Turkey under Kemal Atatürk with the one in Iran under Reza Shah. Issues addressed by the contributors include the religious impediments facing both rulers; the emergence of arbitrary rule and the role of political parties; cultural modernization and innovations, including language reform; the role of the armies and the development of the respective foreign policies; and the differences between the respective legacies of the two authoritarian leaders.

Origins of the Modern Career. Ed. by David Mitch, John Brown, and Marco H.D. van Leeuwen. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2004. xi, 342 pp. £55.00.
The fifteen contributions to this volume by economists, historians and sociologists consider the historical origins of the modern career in Europe and the Americas in the period from the mid-nineteenth century to the 1950s. Following a general introduction to this new field and contributions on the economic perspective on career formation and the use of event-history analysis in career research, five contributors examine the formal and informal structures involved; two essays deal with the gender aspects of careers; and the last five contributions investigate the influence of industrialization and economic modernization on modern career cycles.

Otterness, Philip. Becoming German. The 1709 Palatine Migration to New York. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York [etc.] 2004. xiii, 235 pp. Ill. Maps. $39.95.
This study examines one of the earliest and largest movements of German-speaking immigrants, the so-called Palatine migration of 1709. Lured by rumours of free passage overseas and overland, some thirty-thousand people from the West of the Holy Roman Empire travelled to London, of whom about one tenth were ultimately sent to New York in exchange for several years of indentured labour. After their arrival, the German immigrants refused to work as indentured servants and finally formed autonomous German communities near the Iroquois in central New York. Professor Otterness aims to show how in their refusal to assimilate to British colonial culture, the Palatines formed a distinctive German identity in America.

Reclus, Elisée. A Voyage to New Orleans. Anarchist Impressions of the Old South. Rev. and Exp. ed. Transl. and ed. by John Clark and Camille Martin. Glad Day Books, Thetford 2004. xi, 112 pp. Ill. $10.00.
The French anarchist and geographer Elisée Reclus (1830-1905), on whose life and ideas the editors of this book recently published a volume (see IRSH, this volume, p. 321), fled from his native France to New Orleans in 1853. This is the first English translation of Reclus' account of his voyage, in which he combines nature writing and travel literature with an incisive social commentary and political critique of the antebellum Southern slave society. The volume also includes a brief introduction to Reclus' life and work, a translation of his letters from Louisiana and a concise survey of his social and political ideas in later years.

"These strange criminals". An Anthology of Prison Memoirs by Conscientious Objectors from the Great War to the Cold War. Ed. by Peter Brock. University of Toronto Press, Toronto [etc.] 2004. xviii, 505 pp. $75.00; £48.00. (Paper: $45.00; £28.00.)
The accounts brought together in this anthology are a sample of prison memoirs of conscientious objectors from Australia, Canada, Great Britain, New Zealand and the United States during the two world wars and the Cold War era. Each of the three periods covered is introduced separately by the editor, sketching the various national contexts of the peace, antiwar and conscientious objectors' movements. In the appendix, the memoir is included of a conscientious objector from the GDR imprisoned in the early 1980s.


Bolt, Christine. Sisterhood Questioned? Race, Class and Internationalism in the American and British Women's Movements, c. 1880s-1970s. Routledge, London [etc.] 2004. xi, 260 pp. £17.99.
In this study Professor Bolt explores the nature and impact of divisions within the women's movement in the United States and Britain in the twentieth century. She aims to show that until the end of World War I, American and British feminists were strongly united in the struggle for suffrage and the women's peace movement, but that after 1920 the American and British women's movements drifted apart, as British women became more conscious of the financial strength of the American women's movement, as well as of its opposition to the existence of the British colonial empire. See also Rebecca Gumbrell-McCormick's review in this volume, pp. 485-488.

Fascismo y franquismo. Cara a cara. Una perspectiva histórica. Eds.: Javier Tusell Gómez, Emilio Gentile, [y] Giuliana Di Febo. Coord.: Susana Sueiro. [Historia Biblioteca Nueva]. Biblioteca Nueva, Madrid 2004. 174 pp. € 13.00.
This collection comprises 12 amended and expanded contributions to the first workshop about fascism and Francoism, held in Rome in 2001. The purpose of the articles is to demonstrate the similarities and differences, especially the differences between fascism and Francoism as political systems and organizations based on mythical ideas and ritual language. The analyses examine how the two political systems became institutionalized, the relationship between the military and the regime, as well as the one between the Catholic Church and the regime. Political rituals based on religious practices are examined as well.

Pfau-Effinger, Birgit. Development of Culture, Welfare States and Women's Employment in Europe. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2004. 217 pp. £49.95
This study compares cross-national differences in the extent and forms of labour market integration of women in the three European countries of Finland, West Germany and the Netherlands, from the 1950s to 2000. Dr Pfau-Effinger relates cultural change to the rise of welfare states, labour markets, the family and social movements and concludes that differences were based on deeply rooted historical variations in family ideals.


Information Technology and the World of Work. [Ed. by] Daphne G. Taras, James T. Bennett and Anthony M. Townsend. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, New Jersey [etc.] 2004. vi, 264 pp. £22.95.
In discussions about the effects of information technologies on the economy, the impact of these new technologies and related work processes on workers receives little consideration. The fourteen essays in this collection, of which all but one were previously published in the Journal of Labor Research in 2002-2003, address three topical areas within the broader field of workers' experiences with new information technologies. First, how workers' unions are affected; second, how individual workers are affected in terms of employees' sense of power and identity; and third, policy and privacy issues that have emerged with these new information technologies.




Simon, Jacques. Novembre 1954. La révolution commence en Algérie. [CREAC-histoire.] L'Harmattan, Paris etc. 2004. 285 pp. € 24.20.
This is a study of the origins and course of the Algerian war of independence and the role played in this war by Ahmed Messali Hadj (1898-1974), the revolutionary Algerian nationalist leader and founder of the Mouvement pour le Triomphe des Libertés Démocratiques (MTLD) and the Mouvement National Algérien (MNA). Dr Simon, who recently published a biography of Hadj (see IRSH, 45 (2000), p. 518) sketches, for example, the rivalry between the MTLD/MNA and the more radical Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) and the role of Hadj and the MTLD/MNA in the first year of the Algerian war of independence.


Kanogo, Tabitha. African Womanhood in Colonial Kenya 1900-50. [Eastern African Studies.] James Currey [etc.], Oxford [etc.] 2005. x, 268 pp. Ill. £45.00. (Paper: £16.95.)
The colonization of Kenya by the British (1895-1963) wreaked major havoc on the indigenous social structure. New institutions such as wage labour, plantations, Christianity, migrancy and Christian missionary schools gave rise to a complex and dynamic society. Conceptions of "womanhood" were often deeply controversial in this complex. Colonial expansion sometimes meant freedom for women (if they escaped to missionary schools to avert a clitoridectomy or forced marriage). In an equal number of cases, however, the colonial authorities relied on patriarchal elders, which was not to the advantage of women. Formal schooling sowed the seeds of individuality, often leading individuals to be excluded by their group.


Campbell, Gwyn. An Economic History of Imperial Madagascar, 1750-1895. The Rise and Fall of an Island Empire. [African Studies Series, Vol. 106.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2005. xvii, 413 pp. Ill. Maps. £55.00; $90.00.

This study situates pre-colonial Madagascar in the broader context of the Indian Ocean. The author analyses the period prior to the French conquest in 1895 from the perspective of the growth of British forces in Indian-Ocean Africa and the shortcomings of the Merina Empire arising from internal factors. Professor Campbell starts by describing the rapid rise of the Merina Empire on Central and East Madagascar because of the slave trade with Réunion and Mauritius. When the British subsequently opposed the slave trade in the early nineteenth century, Merina resorted to autarchy. This regime, based on forced labour and state monopolies, gave rise to frictions with subjugated peoples and economic decline.


Achebe, Nwando. Farmers, Traders, Warriors, and Kings. Female Power and Authority in Northern Igboland , 1900-1960. Heinemann, Portsmouth, NH 2005. xii, 274 pp. Ill. Maps. $29.95; £16.99.

This study of women and the female principle in the Nsukka Division region in the North of the Nigerian Igboland is intended to rewrite history from a feminist perspective. In addition to literature sources, the author has examined oral history sources in detail. Before the English arrived in this region in 1920, women played a strong, variegated role in this complex gendered society. Their position weakened during the colonial era, and by 1929 the women protested this deterioration of their status. The author also addresses the syncretic aspects of the feminine indigenous religion and the rise of Christianity after 1920.

South Africa

Roos, Neil. Ordinary Springboks. White Servicemen and Social Justice in South Africa, 1939-1961. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2005. xvi, 231 pp. £45.00.

In this ethnographic study of the c. 200,000 white South African volunteers who served during World War II, Dr Roos looks at the comradeship and views of social justice that prevailed among these soldiers and explores the contradictory outcome of their expectations of postwar social justice in the segregated colonial society. He shows that while the majority of white veterans used the memory of voluntary service to negotiate a better position for themselves, a small group of radical white veterans challenged the racism in South African society and figured in the struggle against apartheid during the 1950s and 1960s. See also Lucien van der Walt's review in this volume, pp. 501-504.


Schmidinger, Thomas. ArbeiterInnenbewegung im Sudan. Geschichte und Analyse der ArbeiterInnenbewegung des Sudan im Vergleich mit den ArbeiterInnenbewegungen Ägyptens, Syriens, des Südjemen und des Iraq. [Europäische Hochschulschriften, Reihe XXXI, Politikwissenschaft, Band 481.] Peter Lang, Frankfurt/M. [etc.] 2004. 269 pp. € 42.50.

This study examines the origins and rise of the labour movement in Sudan, from its earliest beginnings as part of the national independence movement until its defeat in the early 1970s by the military regime of general Numayri. The author sketches the considerable communist influence on the labour movement and the important role of the movement in the early development of the independent Sudanese state and in gender relations reform in Sudan. In the last part of the book, the author compares the course of events in Sudan in this period with the ones in Egypt, Algeria, Syria, South Yemen and Iraq.


Burton, Andrew. African Underclass. Urbanisation, Crime and Colonial Order in Dar es Salaam. [Eastern African Studies.] Currey [etc.], Oxford [etc.] 2005. xviii, 301 pp. Ill. £50.00. (Paper: £16.95.)
During the period under British colonial rule, the population of Dar es Salaam grew from 24,600 (1921) to 128,742 (1957). African immigration was a source of anxiety. The municipal authorities enacted a range of new laws to stem the tide. These efforts were unsuccessful and in fact created an additional category of violations. The immigrants, mostly young men, came to the colonial metropolis, despite the unemployment and slum housing conditions, to be free from tribal elders and the colonial administration alike. After World War II administrative changes intended to improve their plight promoted advancement of Africans in the city, although the massive growth of the Wahuni, as the underclass was called, doomed the effort. In 2002 Dar es Salaam had 2.5 million inhabitants.

Giblin, James L. A History of the Excluded. Making Family a Refuge from State in Twentieth-Century Tanzania. [Eastern African Studies.] James Currey [etc.], Oxford [etc.] 2005. xii, 304 pp. £50.00. (Paper: £16.95.)
This study of the Njombe district in the highlands of Southwest Tanzania relates a social history from the perspective of the rural population. The formal historical chronology of German colonial rule and resistance to it, the Maji Maji Revolt (1905), the British takeover during WW I, labour migration to the sisal plantations during the interbellum, decolonization and Nyerere's collectivization policy (Ujamaa) does not appear to have been decisive for the excluded. Increasingly, they secluded themselves from the outside world in histories told in private and family settings, where they cultivated their moral autonomy as individuals, opposing the British and the nationalists alike.


Beyond Bondage. Free Women of Color in the Americas. Ed. by David Barry Gaspar and Darlene Clark Hine. [The New Black Studies.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2004. xi, 329 pp. $50.00. (Paper: $25.00.)
The fourteen contributions to this volume explore the lives and experiences of women of colour who were not held in full legal bondage in slave societies in the antebellum South, New Orleans, colonial Spanish America, the French, Dutch and British Caribbean and Brazil from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth centuries. The first seven essays deal with the range of conditions under which women of colour achieved freedom and with the strategies and manoeuvres they deployed to preserve their freedom. The essays in the second part deal with the economic, social and cultural challenges that free women of colour faced.

Honor, Status and Law in Modern Latin America. Ed. by Sueann Caulfield, Sarah C. Chambers [and] Lara Putnam. Duke University Press, Durham [etc.] 2005. viii, 331 pp. £67.00. (Paper: £16.95.)
The fourteen essays in this collection examine how concepts of honour, status and modernity in Latin America have been reflected in the law from the era of political independence at the beginning of the nineteenth century to the rise of nationalist challenges of liberalism in the 1930s. The themes covered include the rise of liberal ideologies about public and private spheres, the increase of state intervention in defining and arbitrating individual reputations, the enduring role of patriarchy and the continuing male control over women and women's sexual propriety and the crucial new role of honour after independence.

Pritchard, James S. In Search of Empire. The French in the Americas, 1670-1730. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2004. xxvii, 484 pp. Ill. £55.00; $75.00.
This study examines the history of the French colonies in the Americas in the formative period between 1670 and 1730. Professor Pritchard describes how a growing number of French settlers came to the Caribbean, French Guiana, Louisiana and Canada, and how together with many thousands of African slaves and Amerindians they constructed settlements and produced and traded commodities for export. He explores how the newly constructed French colonial societies differed greatly across the various settlements, and how they dealt with the rising international violence in the Atlantic world.

Slavery in the Development of the Americas. Ed. by David Eltis, Frank D. Lewis [and] Kenneth L. Sokoloff. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2004. ix, 372 pp. £50.00. $75.00.
In this Festschrift for one of the leading historians of slavery, Stanley L. Engerman, fellow historians and economic historians of slavery cover in eleven contributions recent progress in this field of research. Looking at the role of slavery in the development of the southern United States, Brazil, Cuba, the French and Dutch Caribbean and elsewhere in the Americas, contributors explore the emergence of the slave system, the operation of slave economies, slave markets and prices, the efficiency and distributional aspects of slavery and the transition from slavery.


Beckles, Hilary McD. Chattel House Blues. Making of a Democratic Society in Barbados. From Clement Payne to Owen Arthur. Ian Randle Publishers, Kingston; James Currey Publishers, Oxford 2004. xv, 230 pp. $22.95.
This is the third volume in a trilogy on the history of Barbados. Starting with the rebellion initiated in 1937 by the trade union leader Clement Payne, Professor Beckles describes the struggle for independence and democracy as originating in the working-class demands for freedom, justice and economic democracy. He argues that the achievement of universal suffrage in 1951 and of independence in 1966 is just the beginning, and that the issue of popular economic democracy is the next hurdle.


Mothers of the Municipality. Women, Work, and Social Policy in Post-1945 Halifax. Ed. by Judith Fingard and Janet Guildford. University of Toronto Press, Toronto [etc.] 2004. viii, 318 pp. Ill. £42.00; $65.00.
The ten essays in this collection on changes in the position of women towards wage work and social policy in the Canadian town of Halifax and the surrounding region in the postwar period cover four overlapping themes: women's activism; the role of the state; the secularization of social services; and the influence of the Cold War. Taking a community-based approach, the editors argue, enables a more detailed analysis of the rise of women's activism in the period between the first and second wave of feminism.

Pathy, Alexander C., with Marianne Dufour and Curtis Fahey. Waterfront Blues. Labour Strife at the Port of Montreal, 1960-1978. University of Toronto Press, Toronto [etc.] 2004. xviii, 328 pp. Ill. $50.00; £32.00.
The port of Montreal, Canada, experienced fierce labour struggles in the 1960s and 1970s, when technological change instigated a series of strikes followed by government interventions. This study explores the underlying causes of the labour unrest and the respective roles of the management, the labour movement and the government in the labour crisis and its resolution in 1979, when a collective agreement was reached that ended the unrest. The author draws in part on his own experiences as a management representative in the negotiations.

Sisters or Strangers? Immigrant, Ethnic, and Racialized Women in Canadian History. Ed. by Marlene Epp, Franca Iacovetta [and] Frances Swyripa. [Studies in Gender and History.] University of Toronto Press, Toronto [etc.] 2004. xi, 418 pp. Ill. $65.00; £42.00. (Paper: $29.95; £20.00.)
The seventeen essays in this volume explore the lives of immigrant, ethnic and racialized women in Canada from the late eighteenth to the late twentieth century. Covering a variety of ethnic descents and social groups and using various theoretical approaches, the contributors explore discourses of race in the context of nation-building, encounters with state and public institutions, symbolic and media representations of women, familial relations, domestic violence and racism and analyses of history and memory.


Cuban Socialism in a New Century. Adversity, Survival, and Renewal. Ed. by Max Azicri and Elsie Deal. [Contemporary Cuba]. University Press of Florida, Gainesville [etc.] 2004. xx, 363 pp. £48.50.
This collection of sixteen essays inventory the current state of Cuban society, looking at what Cuba has done to keep the socialist revolution alive after the demise of the Soviet Union and at what cost. Four essays examine major changes in society and their impact on the daily lives of Cubans. A separate section is devoted to the changing role of religion on the island. Economic developments and performance are the subject of two essays. Others issues dealt with are the political situation, the role of the military, migration to the United States and the regime's international relations.


Butler, Matthew. Popular Piety and Political Identity in Mexico's Cristero Rebellion. Michoacán, 1927-29. Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 2004. xx, 251 pp. € 40.00.
In post-revolutionary Mexico President Calles tried to enforce the anti-clerical paragraphs of the 1917 constitution. His effort met with serious resistance. Between 1926 and 1929 a civil war known as "the Cristero Revolt" raged in West and Central Mexico. The state, assisted by agraristas, farmers that benefited from the land reforms, intervened deeply in the religious life in the countryside. The author argues that the decision to support or oppose the cristeros was a religious one. The events, according to the author, cannot be attributed entirely to material factors. Ideological-religious motives determined where the agraristas stood in the struggle as well.

Kourí, Emilio. A Pueblo Divided. Business, Property, and Community in Papantla, Mexico. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif. 2004. xiii, 389 pp. Ill. Maps. £40.95.
The demise of communal landholding in Mexico at the end of the nineteenth century is often regarded as one of the causes of the Revolution of 1910. In this study of the violent privatization of communal land in the Mexican Indian village of Papantla, Professor Kourí describes the commercial, political, demographic, fiscal and legal pressures that led to social struggle, rebellion and finally parcelling of communal lands. He argues that the indigenous villagers were less passive participants in this process than is often assumed and in fact played a crucial role in the subdivision of communal lands.

United States of America

Bender, Daniel E. Sweated Work, Weak Bodies. Anti-Sweatshop Campaigns and Languages of Labor. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey [etc.] 2004. x, 272 pp. Ill. $62.00. (Paper: $23.95.)
The appalling working conditions of predominantly Jewish immigrant workers from Eastern Europe and Russia who in the first decades of the twentieth century populated the emerging garment industry in New York's Lower East Side sweat shops soon generated the first anti-sweatshop campaign in Progressive Era America. Professor Bender explores in this study the origins of this campaign, focusing on the terminology used by the various actors involved. He aims to show how this terminology defined not only the sweatshop but also the gender, class, race and ethnicity divisions involved and continues to influence our current understanding of the sweatshop. See also Nancy Green's review in this volume, pp. 488-490.

Brøndal, Jørn. Ethnic Leadership and Midwestern Politics. Scandinavian Americans and the Progressive Movement in Wisconsin, 1890-1914. Norwegian-American Historical Association, Northfield, Minnesota 2004. xi, 379 pp. $40.00.
This dissertation (University of Copenhagen, 1999) investigates the role of Scandinavian Americans and more specifically of Norwegian Americans in Wisconsin politics and in particular in the emergence of the Wisconsin version of progressivism in the period 1890-1914. Professor Brøndal focuses on the political leadership to show how politicians in Wisconsin deliberately cultivated a sense of collective ethnic identity based on national or pan-Scandinavian attachments in order to mobilize public support for their reform agenda.

Cobble, Dorothy Sue. The Other Women's Movement. Workplace Justice and Social Rights in Modern America. [Politics and Society in Twentieth-Century America.] Princeton University Press, Princeton, [etc.] 2004. xiv, 315 pp. Ill. $29.95; £18.95. In this study, Professor Cobble examines a tradition in American feminism other than the struggle for individual rights of women: labour feminism. She aims to retrieve the struggle for workplace justice and social rights for working women that emerged during the union upsurge of the 1930s and 1940s and formed a socially and ethnically diverse movement that spread from the factory floors to the domain of service sectors. The author argues that the reform agenda of this movement - an end to unfair sex discrimination, equal pay and the right to combine wage work and care - launched a revolution in employment practices that has persisted to this day.

Dublin, Thomas and Walter Licht. The Face of Decline. The Pennsylvania Anthracite Region in the Twentieth Century. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 2005. viii, 275 pp. Ill. $65.00; £33.95. (Paper: $24.95; £12.95.)
This study aims to give a comprehensive overview of the history of the Pennsylvania anthracite region, one of the major coal-mining regions in the United States. Mapping the anthracite industry's rise and decline over the course of the twentieth century, Professors Dublin and Licht combine business and labour history with an examination of the grassroots ethnic life and labour activism, efforts to revive the economy and the varied impact of the de-industrialization process across generations of mining families. See also Gregory Wilson's review in this volume, pp. 496-499.

Gender and the Civil Rights Movement. Ed. by Peter J. Ling and Sharon Monteith. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey [etc.] 2004. 276 pp. £15.50.
The nine essays in this collection use the gender perspective to explore the history of the civil rights movement in the United States from the 1950s to the 1990s. Examining how sexual roles and values helped shape the strategy, tactics and ideology of the civil rights movement, the contributors examine topics such as the 1957 Little Rock school crisis, the role of sexual politics in black music, the role of gender in the 1955 Montgomery bus boycott and gender and leadership in civil rights organizations and actions.

Greenbaum, Joan. Windows on the Workplace. Technology, Jobs, and the Organization of Office Work. Monthly Review Press, New York, NY 2004. 170 pp. Ill. $17.00.
In this second, expanded edition of a study originally published in 1993, Professor Greenbaum explores the changes in management policies, work organization and the information system designs and the effects of these changes on office work and the position of office workers from the 1950s to the present. She argues that the most important result of the information revolution from the previous decade has been the flexibilization of labour and the concomitant insecurity for workers.

Hapgood, Hutchins. The Spirit of Labor. Introd. and notes by James R. Barrett. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2004. liii, 441 pp. $25.00.
This is a new edition of a classical narrative of the radical labour movement and anarchist culture in Chicago around the turn of the previous century. In this book Hutchins Hapgood (1869-1944), radical journalist and novelist, presents the story of the anarchist carpenter Anton Johannsen to depict the world of unionists, socialist and anarchists and the struggles inside Chicago's militant labour movement. Professor Barrett provides a historical context in the introduction.

Hensel, Silke. Leben auf der Grenze. Diskursive Aus- und Abgrenzungen von Mexican Americans und Puertoricanern in den USA. [Forum Ibero-Americanum. Acta Coloniensia, Band 3.] Vervuert Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2004. 426 pp. Ill. € 48.00.
Race and ethnicity are important factors in the historical development of collective identities, especially in the case of migrants. In this study, the author explores the formation of collective identities among Mexican and Puerto Rican immigrants in the United States and the role of racial and ethnic attributes in the historical discursive establishment of social and cultural boundaries. Dr Hensel concludes that in both cases discursive constructs of racial and ethnic attributes have been used by the host society to bring about social and cultural exclusion and to label the immigrants a second-class members of society.

The Human Tradition in American Labor History. Ed. by Eric Arnesen. [Human Tradition in America, nr 19.] Scholarly Resources Inc., Wilmington (Delaware) 2004. xvi, 258 pp. $21.95.
The thirteen essays in this volume depict a heterogeneous group of individuals who were involved in the American labour movements, covering a chronological range from colonial times until the mid-twentieth century and dealing with people from a broad variety of working-class origins. Contributors focus on women and men who were well-known local or regional activists in their day but have been largely ignored by national historiography, as well as on people who achieved lasting national and international fame, such as Eugene V. Debs and Walter Reuther.

Luce, Stephanie. Fighting for a Living Wage. ILR Press, Ithaca, New York, [etc.] 2004. xi, 266 pp. $18.95.
In the mid-1990s, grassroots coalitions of community and labour movements arose in the United States to lobby for the establishment of a legal framework for the minimum wage, leading to up to 120 local living wage ordinances. In this study, Professor Luce assesses the measure of success in implementing these ordinances and analyses the reasons for the success or failure of their implementation.

Martin, Jonathan D. Divided Mastery. Slave Hiring in the American South. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 2004. 237 pp. £25.95.
This study deals with a hitherto often neglected practice in the history of American slavery: the rental of slaves. Dr Martin examines slave hiring and its effects on both slaves and the institution of slavery in the American South. He concludes that slave hiring had a paradoxical effect. It facilitated growth of the slave system by democratizing access to slave labour and by promoting both production and speculation with slave capital, while at the same time it enabled slaves to use hiring to their own advantage.

Moses, Wilson Jeremiah. Creative Conflict in African American Thought. Frederick Douglass, Alexander Crummell, Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois, and Marcus Garvey. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2004. xviii, 308 pp. $65.00; £45.00. (Paper: $23.99; £17.95.)
Professor Moses gathers in this volume fifteen essays, some of which were published previously, on five major African-American intellectuals: Frederick Douglass, Alexander Crummell, Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois and Marcus M. Garvey. Analysing the intellectual struggles and contradictions of these leading African-American personalities, he aims to show what they contributed to self-improvement strategies of African Americans and places their ideas in the context of other American and, more broadly, Western intellectual currents.

Pitti, Stephen J. The Devil in Silicon Valley. Northern California, Race, and Mexican Americans. Princeton University Press, Princeton [etc.] 2004. xiv, 297 pp. Ill. £12.95.
This study explores the history of Mexican Americans in the San José Valley, the region of Northern California known as Silicon Valley today. Tracing labour and race relations back to the early nineteenth century, Professor Pitti aims to show how through the various phases of development of the Valley - including the Gold Rush, the discovery of the world's largest mercury mines and the cultivation of perishable cash crops - Latinos have been crucial in the region's economic development, a role mostly unrecognized due to the deeply embedded racism.

Rees, Jonathan and Jonathan Z.S. Pollack. The Voice of the People. Primary Sources on the History of Labor, Industrial Relations and Working Class Culture. Harlan Davidson, Wheeling, Ill. 2004. xiv, 246 pp. Ill. $17.95.
This textbook features excerpts from 54 primary sources on the history of labour, industrial relations and working-class culture from the colonial era to the present. The selected sources are organized chronologically in four parts (from the colonial period to 1877; 1877-1914; 1914-1945; and 1945 to the present), each dealing with the themes of work and labour-management relations; the trade-union movement; and working-class culture. An historical introduction is given for all four periods covered.


Labour in Southeast Asia. Local processes in a globalised world. Ed. by Rebecca Elmhirst and Ratna Saptari. [Changing Labour Relations in Asia]. RoutledgeCurzon [etc.], London [etc.] 2004. 412 pp. £70.00.
Labour issues are central in responses to the major transformations of economic development, globalization and economic and political crises that have taken place in Southeast Asia over the past century. The fifteen contributions to this collection feature empirical studies of labour throughout both the colonial and postcolonial periods, in a myriad of economic sectors, labour processes and social contexts. Clustered around the themes of labour regimes, labour processes, labour mobility and labour communities, the contributors aim to show how economic development is shaped not only by market forces but also through the specificity of culture and locality in Southeast Asia.


Lawrance, Alan. China since 1919 - Revolution and Reform. A Sourcebook. Routledge, London [etc.] 2004. xxvi, 285 pp. £17.99.
This collection of source documents brings together over 150 extracts from a variety of political statements, correspondence, speeches, memoirs and poems to illustrate the twentieth-century history of China. Including both classic documents and less accessible texts, the collection covers the main stages in modern Chinese history from the cultural renaissance of the early twentieth century and the rebellion against Western and Japanese imperialism after 1919 to the period of economic reform after the Mao Zedong regime and the calls for political freedom culminating in the Tiananmen protest of 1989. In the final chapters the present problems facing China are addressed.


Mukherjee, Mridula. Peasants in India's Non-Violent Revolution. [Sage Series in Modern Indian History.] Sage Publications, New Delhi [etc.] 2004. 577 pp. £47.50.
This study aims to contribute to the theoretical debates regarding the role of peasants in revolutionary transformations in the twentieth century. In the first part of her study Professor Mukherjee focuses on the political role and socioeconomic position of peasants in the Indian province of Punjab during the anti-colonial national revolution in the first half of the twentieth century. In the second part, she examines whether the myriad theoretical models used for analysing peasant consciousness and behaviour offer adequate theoretical and methodological explanations.


Kurzman, Charles. The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. [etc.] 2004. ix, 287 pp. £18.95.
This study analyses the political situation, circumstances and events that led to the Islamic Revolution in Iran in February 1979. Based on interviews and eyewitness accounts, Professor Kurzman documents the strong sense of confusion that prevailed in the build-up to the revolution and argues that mass revolutionary movements such as the one in Iran on the eve of the revolution of 1979 can become viable very suddenly and, moreover, unpredictably, when a growing number of people start to believe in their potential success.

Reformers and Revolutionaries in Modern Iran. New Perspectives on the Iranian left. Ed. by Stephanie Cronin. [RoutledgeCurzon / IPS Persian Studies Series]. RoutledgeCurzon, London [etc.] 2004. xii, 316 pp. £55.00.
The thirteen contributions to this volume offer recent work on the history of the Iranian left and leftist activism from its origins in the first years of the twentieth century to the present. Included are essays on the Iranian left in international perspective (Fred Halliday); the First Congress of Peoples of the East and the Iranian Soviet Republic of Gilan in 1920-1921 (Pezhmann Dailami); Abulqasim Lahuti and the Tabriz insurrection of 1922 (the editor); and Iranian revolutionaries in the Soviet Union in the period 1921-1939 (Touraj Atabaki). The last five contributions deal with the relation of the Iranian left and the Islamic Republic from 1979 onward.


Anderson, Benedict. Under Three Flags. Anarchism and the Anti-Colonial Imagination. Verso, London [etc.] 2005. ix, 255 pp. Ill. Maps. £14.99; $25.00.
This study explores the personal, intellectual and cultural transnational connections between international anarchism, radical anticolonialism and nationalism in the final decades of the nineteenth century. Professor Anderson centres his story around the remarkable lives of three prominent Filipino patriots born in the early 1860s: novelist and national hero José Rizal, pioneering anthropologist, journalist and militant trade-union organizer Isabello de los Reyes and militant organizer and revolutionary agent Mariano Ponce. See also Patricio N. Abinales' review in this volume, pp. 499-501.


Quataert, Donald. Miners and the State in the Ottoman Empire. The Zonguldak Coalfield, 1822-1920. [International Studies in Social History, Volume 7.] Berghahn Books, New York [etc.] 2006. xii, 257 pp. Ill. Maps. $80.00; £50.00. (Paper $25.00; £15.00.)
In this richly illustrated study of coal mining in the Zonguldak Coalfield, the first and largest coal mining industry in the Ottoman Empire, from its origins in the 1820s to the end of the Ottoman Empire, Professor Quataert focuses on the workforce and its relation with the Ottoman state. Comparing the labour regime and working conditions of the Zonguldak Coalfield with those of mining industries in Europe and North America, the author aims to demonstrate that the specific labour recruitment system, in which free labour co-existed with various forms of compulsory labour, failed to help the Ottoman state achieve its objective of increasing coal production. See also Mustafa Erdem Kabadayi's review in this volume, pp. 490-492.


New Zealand

Lenin's Legacy Down Under. New Zealand's Cold war. Ed. by Alexander Trapeznik and Aaron Fox. University of Otago Press, Dunedin 2004. 247 pp. £44.95.
Defining the term Cold War in its broadest possible sense - as the ideological confrontation between democratic capitalism and totalitarian socialism as it developed between the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989 - this collection of ten essays explores various aspects of the international New Cold War historiography in the New Zealand context. Contributors re-evaluate the impact of the Cold War on New Zealand's foreign policies as well as on its domestic affairs. Included are essays on New Zealand's defence policy, the Communist Party of New Zealand and the Comintern, the relation of the labour movement and international communism, and New Zealand-China relations.


Kochan, Lionel. The Making of Western Jewry, 1600-1819. PalgraveMacmillan, Basingstoke [etc.] 2004. x, 390 pp. £60.00.
In this overview of the history of Jewry in western and central Europe in the early modern period, Professor Kochan relates how Jews experienced a period of relative stability. He describes how Jews restored old communities and established new ones, with Sephardi Jews in particular as pioneers in the emergence of cities such as Hamburg, Amsterdam, London and Bordeaux as centres in the developing Atlantic economy. At the same time, the author shows, friction arose, both between Jews and the Christian surroundings and between rich and poor Jews. At the end of the period, Jewish communities had to face the new challenges of political freedom, intellectual change and rising anti-Semitism.

Le Tallec, Cyril. Les écoles de service social 1910-1940. L'Harmattan, Paris [etc.] 2004. 194 pp. € 17.00.
Whereas social workers in France were not required to complete any officially accredited course of education or obtain certification until the early 1930s, a formal training programme and diploma for social work assistant were introduced in 1932, following pressures resulting from the Great Depression. This study explores the development of social work and the professionalization of social workers in the period 1910-1940 and considers the different types formal education developed in various parts of France and Belgium.

Niederhauser, Emil. The Emancipation of the Serfs in Eastern Europe. Transl. by Paul Bödy. [Atlantic Studies on Society in Change, No.119.] Social Science Monographs [etc.], Boulder (Colorado) [etc.] 2004. ix, 403 pp. £39.00.
The original Hungarian edition of this study was published in 1962. In his preface to this English edition, Professor Niederhauser explains that in his view the original arguments need not be updated, and that he has left intact his conclusions about the role of the emancipation of serfs in social transformation in Eastern Europe. Covering Prussia and Mecklenburg, the Habsburg and Russian empires and Romania, he deals in this study with the various forms that emancipation of serfs took in Eastern European countries from the end of the eighteenth century to the 1860s. More recent literature on the subject has not been taken into account.

Pogány, István. The Roma Café. Human Rights and the Plight of the Romani People. Pluto Press, London [etc.] 2004. viii, 198 pp. Ill. £13.99.
This study analyses the various problems facing gypsies in Central and Eastern Europe since the end of state communism in 1989. Professor Pogány examines the individual lives of the Roma in Hungary and Romania, where as a result of the economic transformation from state communism to open markets, Romani have experienced mass unemployment, poverty and lack of education, as well as widespread discrimination and inadequate legal protection.

Popular Protest in Late Medieval Europe. Italy, France, and Flanders. Selected sources translated and annotated by Samuel K. Cohn, Jr. [Manchester Medieval Sources Series.] Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 2004. xiv, 389 pp. Maps. £16.99.
This volume offers excerpts from and complete source documents on popular protest in Italy, France and Flanders for the period between 1245 and 1423, with an emphasis on the years from 1355 to 1382, when in the wake of the plague a "contagion of rebellion" swept through Europe. Included are a wide variety of sources, such as chronicles, songs, poems, ordinances, laws and deliberations of city councils, royal remissions of grace, court records and family diaries, covering a broad range of popular protests in different social, political and economic settings, involving revolutionaries, aristocrats, merchants and churchmen.

Social control in Europe. Volume 1, 1500-1800. Ed. by Herman Roodenburg, Pieter Spierenburg. [History of Crime and Criminal Justice Series.] Ohio State University Press, Columbus 2004. vii, 381 pp. Ill. $59.95. Social control in Europe. Volume 2, 1800-2000. Ed. by Clive Emsley, Eric Johnson, and Pieter Spierenburg. [History of Crime and Criminal Justice Series.] Ohio State University Press, Columbus 2004. vii, 445 pp. Ill. $59.95.
This two-volume collection of essays aims to provide a comprehensive review of the idea of social control in early-modern and modern Europe. The guiding principles in these volumes are that, first, social control is to be explored comparatively at various levels, including the police, the church and the guilds, as well as through less formal institutions such as shaming; and, second, that social control is understood as a reciprocal process, where the individuals and groups that are controlled necessarily participate and thus shape the manner in which they are regulated. In Volume 1, the sixteen essays focus on the interplay of ecclesiastical institutions and emerging states in the early modern period. The eighteen contributions in the second volume explore the various ways in which communities in Europe in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries were subjected to forms of discipline, and how they generated their own forms of control. In the second part of the volume, contributors investigate various policing institutions, examining how liberal and totalitarian regimes differed in their styles of control, repression and surveillance.


Sartorius, Francis. Tirs croisés. La petite presse bruxelloise des années 1860. Du Lérot, Tusson 2004. 430 pp. Ill. € 55.00.
In the decades following the 1840s, an outspoken liberal press thrived in Belgium and France. In addition to the daily newspapers, several small, peripheral periodicals emerged, often representing radical political views. This study is an inventory of the Belgian small press of those years and analyses the broad range of political, social and cultural groups and individuals behind them, from Bonapartists and secret agents to social reformers, free thinkers and future Communards.

Eire - Ireland

Hearn, Mona. Thomas Edmondson and the Dublin Laundry. A Quaker businessman, 1837-1908. Irish Academic Press, Dublin [etc.] 2004. xi, 236 pp. Ill. £17.50, $26.50, € 24.50 paper; £39.50; $57.50; € 50.00.
This is a study of Ireland's largest laundry, the Dublin Laundry, set up in 1888 by the Quaker businessman Thomas Edmondson. The author describes how the company expanded rapidly, under the paternalistic leadership of its founder, who was inspired by his Quaker beliefs to provide working and housing conditions for his employees that were exceptional. Ms Hearn also deals with the effects of the Dublin lockout of 1913, the unionization of the laundry trade in 1917, the war of independence and the changing role of women for the company.

Newsinger, John. Rebel City. Larkin, Connolly and the Dublin Labour Movement. The Merlin Press, London 2004. x, 182 pp. £14.95.
The Dublin Lockout of 1913-1914, when 20,000 workers were locked out by 400 employers for six months, inspired an important solidarity movement among British trade unionists. This study examines the origins and course of this major labour dispute and its repercussions in Britain. Focusing on the rise of the Irish Transport Union, Dr Newsinger explores the relation between the labour revolt and Irish nationalism, describing how it was propagated by James Larkin and the Marxist revolutionary Jim Connolly.


Castagnez, Noëlline. Socialistes en République. Les parlementaires SFIO de la IVe République. Presses Universitaires de Rennes, Rennes 2004. 413 pp. € 21.00.
This is a collective biography of the members of French parliament during the Fourth Republic from 1946 and 1958, belonging to the SFIO, the French socialist party. The author explores the renewal of the parliamentary personnel of the SFIO at the end of World War II, tracing each person's itinerary in socialist militancy. She examines the political culture among the socialists, and the ways it has been forged by experiences of World War I, the schism of Tours in 1920 and the resistance during World War II, and concludes that parliamentarians had difficulty maintaining a working-class image towards their grassroots supporters.

La Commune de 1871. L'événement, les hommes et la mémoire. Actes du colloque organisé à Précieux et à Montbrison les 15 et 16 mars 2003 sous la présidence de Michelle Perrot et Jacques Rougerie. Textes rass. et publ. sous la dir. de Claude Latta. Publications de l'Université de Saint-Étienne, Saint-Étienne 2004. 412 pp. € 23.00.
These are the proceedings of a colloquium on the history of the Paris Commune, held at two locations in the Loire region in March 2003. The first eleven contributions deal with the various political and social groupings active within the Commune, various renowned personalities of the period and regional revolutionary movements outside Paris. Jacques Rougerie and Robert Tombs explore contemporary reflections on the Commune. The rest of the contributors focus on the aftermath of the Commune: the repression and exile and amnesty of the Communards, their memoirs and the early historiography and the impact of the events on Jaurès' ideas and on French literature.

Dalotel, Alain. André Léo (1824-1900). La Junon de la Commune. [Cahiers du Pays Chauvinois, 29.] Association des Publications Chauvinoises, Chauvigny 2004. 199 pp. € 18.00.
This is a biographical study of the French feminist writer and journalist André Léo, pseudonym of Léodile Béra (1824-1900). Starting as a novelist, Léo supported the republican cause and the Paris Commune, where she led the journal La Social, as a cooperative effort with Louise Michel. The author of several novels (including Un marriage scandaleux (1853) and La femme et les moeurs (1869)), she became one of the main advocates of nineteenth-century French feminism. Mr Dalotel offers a chronological overview of the life and works of Léo. In an annex, the lecture "La Guerre Social", delivered by Léo at the Congrès de la paix de Lausanne in 1871, is reproduced in full.

Dhoquois, Guy et Régine. Le militant contradictoire. Préf. de Stéphane Hessel. L'Harmattan, Paris [etc.] 2004. 186 pp. € 17.00.
Guy Dhoquois, historian and sociologist, and Régine Dhoquois-Cohen, scholar of law and sociologist, have both been leftists activists in France for the past four decades, both as militants in protest movements and as theorists in their respective writings, for example on social exclusion and on capitalist labour law. In this volume, they reflect on their shared lives and activities as militants and theorists of the French left, describing themselves as recalcitrant militants, who most of the time had misgivings about the ephemeral ideological issues of the day.

Guilbaud, Sarah. Mai 68 Nantes. Coiffard Édition, Nantes 2004. 213 pp. Ill. € 35.00.
This is a richly illustrated history of the May 1968 events in the city of Nantes, written for a general readership. Following a violent student demonstration at the city's Prefecture on 13 May, a sit-down strike and factory occupation at the Sud-Aviation plant sparked the nation-wide wave of strikes that gave May 1968 its historical fame. Ms Guilbaud offers a chronological account of the events in the two and a half weeks following the student's demonstration, laced with numerous photographs and reproductions of newspaper clippings, pamphlets and posters.

Habiter l'utopie. Le familistère Godin à Guise. Sous la dir. de Thierry Paquot [et] Marc Bédarida. Éditions de la Villette, Paris 2004. 311 pp. Ill. € 18.50.
This volume offers nine original essays on the Familistère, the community settlement in Guise established in 1859 by the French industrialist and utopian Jean-Baptiste André Godin (1817-1888). Three contributions deal with the life and work of Godin and his connection with Fourier and other utopians; four essays explore the history of community settlement and its background; and two contributions analyse the building and architecture of this famous settlement. Included are also six contemporary reports on the Familistère, including an essay by Emile Zola (1901) and a series of contemporary and modern photographs of the settlement, which now is a museum.

Hohl, Thierry. À Gauche! La Gauche socialiste, 1921-1947. [Collection Sociétés]. Editions Universitaires de Dijon, Dijon 2004. 327 pp. € 20.00.
This study examines the socialist left within the SFIO, the French socialist party, between the rift after the congress of Tours in 1920 and 1947, when one of the socialist left's main representatives, Guy Mollet, became secretary-general of the resurrected postwar SFIO. Professor Hohl explores the socialist left's relations with the other political movements in French socialism (the socialist right and the communists) and with the rest of the French and international labour movements, as well as its place and role in the French political system in this period.

Karnaouch, Denise. La presse corporative et syndicale des enseignants 1881-1940. Répertoire. L'Harmattan, Paris [etc.] 2004. 358 pp. € 30.00.
This analytical repertory offers an overview of the richness of the corporative and trade-union press in the educational sector in France in the period 1881-1940. Included are all bulletins, journals and periodicals devoted entirely or in part to the interests of primary school teachers.

Le Sueur, Bernard . Mariniers. 1. Histoire et mémoire de la batellerie artisanale. Chasse-Marée, Douarnenez 2004. 223 pp. Ill. € 46.55.
This richly illustrated, large-sized volume is the first of two volumes on the history of inland shipping and cargo trade in the North and East of France from the 1770s to the present. This volume addresses the more technical aspects, such as construction of the boats and barges used, modes of traction, development and maintenance of canals and rivers, the rise of the transport market and problems concerning navigation.

Maurey, Gilbert. La Commune et l'officier Louis-Nathaniel Rossel. Éditions Christian, Paris 2004. 281 pp. € 24.00.
During the brief existence of the Paris Commune, one of its main military leaders was an imperial army officer, who refused to accept the French defeat by the Prussian army in March 1871 and sided with the Communards in Paris. This is a biographical study of this officer, Louis-Nathaniel Rossel (1844-1871), who as chef d'état major became one of the main organizers of the military defence of the Commune. Mr Maurey describes how in early May Rossel resigned from his command out of discontent with the course of events but remained in Paris and was arrested, tried and sentenced to death after the fall of the Commune.

Mejri, Abdelkrim. Les socialistes français et la question marocaine (1903-1912). [CREAC-Histoire.] L'Harmattan, Paris [etc.] 2004. 276 pp. €24.00.
This study examines the three views that prevailed among French socialists at the beginning of the twentieth century towards French colonization of Morocco: Jaurès' opinion that peaceful colonization would give the Moroccan people the benefits of French civilization; the Guesdists' rejection of French imperialism according to the policy of the Socialist International; and the principal anti-militarism of Gustav Hervé. The author describes how the various opinions resulted from the political situation and shows how all groups agreed that any military colonial intervention of France in Morocco would be to the disadvantage of the French proletariat.

Mencherini, Robert. Midi rouge, ombres et lumières. Une histoire politique et sociale de Marseille et des Bouches-du-Rhône 1930 à 1950. 1. Les années de crise, 1930-1940. [Collection Histoire: enjeux et débats.] Éditions Syllepse, Paris 2004. 231 pp. € 17.00.
This is the first volume of a trilogy on the political and social history of the city of Marseille and the Rhone delta between 1930 and 1950. This volume covers the period 1930-1940, which Professor Mencherini characterizes as a period of crisis. He describes the region's political heritage of the nineteenth century as a red region, analysing how the dominant socialist party was pushed aside by the communists in 1936, while at the same time right-wing extremism flourished. Other issues dealt with include the effects of the Spanish Civil War and the rise of Nazism in Germany, with the region becoming a place of refuge for many.

Moissonnier, Maurice. Le mouvement ouvrier rhodanien dans la tourmente, 1934-1945. Tome 1. Le Front populaire. Tome 2. Déclin et mort du Front populaire. Aléas, Lyon 2004-2005, pp. 595, pp. 668. Ill. € 30.00 per vol.
These two volumes are the first part of a series on the history of the labour movement in Lyon and the Rhone region in the years 1934-1945. These volumes cover the period of the origins of the Popular Front in the economic crisis of the early 1930s, the formation of the Popular Front in 1935 and the government of Léon Blum in 1936, its relations with trade unions in the region, the labour struggles and general strike in 1936 and the gradual deterioration of the working-class and trade union support for the Popular Front in the Rhone region and nationally towards the end of 1938.

Race in France. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the Politics of Difference. Ed. by Herrick Chapman and Laura L. Frader. Berghahn, New York [etc.] 2004. v, 266 pp. $75.00; £45.00. (Paper: $25.00; £15.00.)
This collection of eleven essays - all previously published between 2000 and 2002 in the journal French Politics, Culture & Society - examine the contradiction between the French republican tradition denying the legitimacy of acknowledging racial difference and the historical and contemporary reality of racial prejudice in the popular view about foreigners, Jews, immigrants and people from the colonies. Combining perspectives from history, sociology, anthropology, political science and legal studies, the contributors consider the historical republican foundations and practices of "colour-blindness", the changes since the 1960s and new directions in contemporary French politics.

Rossi, Roberto. La presse satirique radicale à Marseille. Face à la République monarchiste 1871-1879. Via Valeriano bis, Marseille 2004. 253 pp. Ill. € 21.00.
This study examines the radical satirical press in Marseille in the early period of the Third Republic. As one of the centres of radical Republican politics and ideas, Marseille was the place of origin of a considerable number of radical, Republican journals, in which socialist and libertarian ideas prevailed, and the monarchist reaction was the main aim of attack. The author aims to show how the satire used was often inspired by the popular culture of the city.

Silverstein, Paul A. Algeria in France. Transpolitics, Race, and Nation. [New Anthropologies of Europe.] Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN [etc.] 2004. xi, 284 pp. Ill. $49.95. (Paper: $22.95.)
This study of Algerian immigration in modern French society examines how the position of Algerian immigrants became a subject of heated debates from the economic downturn in the 1970s onward. Professor Silverstein relates a range of social and cultural manifestations to Algerian immigration to show how the discourse on immigration has shifted from unemployment to multiculturalism to Islam and terrorism. Considering the interconnections between the rise of anti-immigrant racism and the rise of Islamist and Berberist ideologies among the second generation of Algerian immigrants, he argues that embracing these ideologies signifies alternating between transnational political loyalties.


Grobmann, Ralph. Gefühlssozialist im 20. Jahrhundert. Leonhard Frank 1882-1961. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main [etc.] 2004. 447 pp. € 64.00.
This dissertation (Free University, Berlin, 2003) offers a biographical study of the life and works of the German socialist literary writer Leonhard Frank (1882-1961). Adopting a literary-sociological perspective, Dr Grobmann reviews the origins of his major literary works in the historical context of Frank's explicit political position as a "Gefühlssozialist" (an instinctive socialist) and focuses, for example, on Frank's postwar position, when he refused to take sides against the GDR and became one of the most acclaimed novelists in East Germany, despite living in West Germany.

Hüls, Elisabeth. Johann Georg August Wirth (1798-1848). Ein politisches Leben im Vormärz. [Beiträge zur Geschichte des Parlamentarismus und der politischen Parteien.] Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 2004. 609 pp. Ill. € 78.00.
This dissertation (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, 2001) offers a comprehensive biography of Johann Georg August Wirth (1798-1848), a journalist and publicist who was one of the leading members of the liberal opposition in the German Vormärz. Dr Hüls aims to place Wirth's life and career in the broader historical context of the emerging bourgeois liberalism of the Vormärz and its oppositional networks, as well as in that of political publishing and the experience of exile and imprisonment.

125 Jahre Sozialistengesetz. Beiträge der öffentlichen wissenschaftlichen Konferenz vom 28.-30. November 2003 in Kiel. Hrsg. von Heidi Beutin, Wolfgang Beutin, Holger Malterer [u.a.] [Bremer Beiträge zur Literatur- und Ideengeschichte, Band 45.] Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main [etc.] 2004. 264 pp. € 37.20.
These are the proceedings of the conference organized in Kiel, Germany, in November 2003 in honour the 125th anniversary of the Sozialistengesetze, the Anti-Socialist Laws, that were intended to curb the growth of the SPD and remained in effect from October 1878 to September 1890. The thirteen papers deal with both the origins and effects of and the reactions to the laws at the time and with their long-term consequences for German politics and society.

Kiehnbaum, Erhard. "Bleib Gesund mein liebster Sohn Fritz ..." Mathilde Franziska Annekes Briefe an Friedrich Hammacher 1846-1849. [Berliner Verein zur Förderung der MEGA-Edition e.V.; Wissenschaftliche Mitteilungen, Heft 4.] Argument, Berlin 2004. 115 pp. Ill. € 9.90.
In this booklet thirty letters are published from the German-American journalist and activist in the mid-nineteenth century women's movement, Mathilde Franziska Anneke (1817-1884). The correspondence with fellow revolutionary activist Friedrich Hammacher (1824-1904) originates from the period 1846-1849, the years in which Anneke, shortly after the end of her first marriage, met the socialist revolutionary Friedrich Anneke. In his historical introduction the editor sketches her life and career, as well as how Mathilde, together with Friedrich Anneke, founded the Kölnische Arbeiterverein and started publishing the Neue Kölnische Zeitung before they emigrated to Switzerland and later on to the United States.

Klein-Zirbes, Arnd. Der Beitrag von Goetz Briefs zur Grundlegung der Sozialen Marktwirtschaft. [Europäische Hochschulschriften: Reihe 22: Soziologie, Band 400.] Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main [etc.] 2004. 159 pp. € 31.80.
This dissertation (University of Bonn, 2004) is an intellectual biography of Götz Briefs (1889-1974), a German Catholic political economist and social theorist who emigrated in 1934 to the United States and may be considered one of the founding fathers of the concept of the Soziale Marktwirtschaft (the social market economy), the leading political economic concept of the West-German economic resurgence after 1945. Dr Klein-Zirbes describes how Briefs' political economy had its roots in the Ordoliberalismus and Christian social doctrine. Briefs devised, for example, an economic theory of trade unions that remains topical to this day, according to the author.

Köcher, Thomas. "Aus der Vergangenheit lernen - für die Zukunft arbeiten!"? Die Auseinandersetzung des DGB mit dem Nationalsozialismus in den fünfziger und sechziger Jahren. Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster 2004. 234 pp. € 24.80.
The Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund (DGB), the West-German trade union confederation founded in 1949, publicly exhibited great sensitivity to the dark past of national socialism and was actively involved in the process of Vergangenheitsbewältigung in the 1950s and 1960s. This study examines the actual position of both leading officials and the rank-and-file of the DGB and considers the issues of denazification, restitution, the position of the DGB towards postwar right-wing extremism and anti-Semitism and towards Israel and the Israeli trade union and its appreciation of German resistance in the Third Reich.

Oberpriller, Martin. Jungsozialisten. Parteijugend zwischen Anpassung und Opposition. Dietz, Bonn 2004. 390 pp. € 24.00.
This study aims to offer a general overview of the history of the German social democratic youth movement from the founding of associations of Jungsozialisten (Jusos) in 1904 to the present. Mr Oberpriller sketches the development of the Jusos in the period before 1945 in the first chapter and then focuses on the revival of the organization after 1945 and the rise of the socialist youth movement as a series of generational shifts that reflect the continuities and ruptures in postwar German society, including the shift to the left in 1968 and the rediscovery of Marxism in the 1970s.

Schafft, Gretchen E. From Racism to Genocide. Anthropology in the Third Reich. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2004. xiv, 297 pp. Ill. $36.00.
This study examines the major role of anthropologists in Nazi Germany in justifying racism, devising practical applications of racist theory and eventually in actively participating in the planning and execution of the Holocaust. Dr Schafft describes the rise and institutionalization of German anthropology and its ideological background before 1933, Hitler's early embrace of anthropology as a means of substantiating his racism and the involvement of leading anthropologists in Nazi euthanasia programs and the Endlösung. She also reveals that the United States contributed professional and financial support to German racial research as late as 1938.

Schönhoven, Klaus. Wendejahre. Die Sozialdemokratie in der Zeit der Grossen Koalition 1966-1969. [Deutsche Sozialdemokratie nach 1945.] Dietz, Bonn 2004. 734 pp. Ill. € 58.00.
This extensive study of the German social democratic party in the three years from 1966 to 1969 of the Great Coalition of the CDU/CSU and the SPD conveys how this period was a turning point in the development of both the Federal Republic and of the SPD. Professor Schönhoven analyses how the SPD redirected its policies towards a people's party on the left, with a political programme already echoing the main themes of the social democratic-liberal coalition that was to follow. Despite the fierce competition between the political partners in the coalition, important reform projects were realized.

Zwangsarbeit im Ruhrbergbau während des Zweiten Weltkrieges. Spezialinventar der Quellen in nordrhein-westfälischen Archiven. Bearb. von Holger Menne [und] Michael Farrenkopf. [Veröffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Bergbau-Museum Bochum, Nr. 123; Schriften des Bergbau-Archivs, Nr. 15]. Deutsches Bergbau-Museum, Bochum 2004. 224 pp. € 12.00.
This inventory of archival sources on the history of forced labour in the mining industry in the Ruhr region during World War II focuses on local and regional sources. Special attention is devoted to the available source material in economic and business archives. The historical introduction includes a brief review of the history of the employment of foreign forced labour in the Ruhr mining industry.

Great Britain

Binfield, Kevin. Writings of the Luddites. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 2004. xxviii, 279 pp. $49.95.
This volume comprises a broad range of texts written by Luddites and their sympathizers between 1811 and 1816. Included are threatening letters, petitions and proclamations, poems and songs. The documents are arranged according to the three major geographic regions of Luddite activity: the Midlands, Yorkshire, and North-western England. In his introduction the editor provides a historical overview of the Luddites and examines the rhetorical strategies used and the literary contexts of their writings. He concludes, for example, that the Luddites were well aware of the recent political revolutions in France and America.

The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain. Ed. by Roderick Floud and Paul Johnson. Vol. I. Industrialisation, 1700-1860. Vol. II. Economic Maturity, 1860-1939. Vol. III. Structural Change and Growth, 1939-2000. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2004. viii, 536 pp.; xix, 552 pp.; xix, 472 pp. £70.00; $100.00.
This three-volume textbook series aims to give a comprehensive survey of the economic history of Britain since the industrialization, based on state-of-the-art scholarship on the subject, including quantitative and theory-based research. Volume I covers the period 1700-1860, when Britain was at the vanguard of industrialization; Volume II deals with the period of British economic power at its peak (1860-1939); and Volume III covers the years 1939-2000, when the British economy experienced a decline in manufacturing, expansion of the service economy and a repositioning of external economic activity towards Europe. The 48 chapters cover subjects such as the origins of the Industrial Revolution, demographic history and living standards, agricultural history, labour market developments and industrial relations, household economy, trade, financial and capital markets, technological development, economic policy and international economic relations. In volumes I and II separate chapters are devoted to Scotland.

Clendinning, Anne. Demons of Domesticity. Women and the English Gas Industry, 1889-1939. [Modern Economic and Social History Series.] Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2004. xvii, 352 pp. £57.50.
Professor Clendinning considers in this study the process and means that enabled British women to find work in the English gas industry from the late 1880s through the late 1930s. With the growth of the gas industry, companies actively sought to address domestic issues through home service departments, where women found employment as demonstrators and advisers. Focusing on corporations in London and the Home Counties, the author investigates the reasons behind the expansion of sales careers for middle-class women and finds that women were not passive objects of corporate marketing but had clear ideas about the use of domestic technology.

Hindle, Steve. On the Parish? The Micro-Politics of Poor Relief in Rural England c.1550-1750. Clarendon Press, Oxford [etc.] 2004. xi, 521 pp. £65.00.
In this study of the allocation of poor relief in rural communities of sixteenth, seventeenth and early eighteenth-century England, Professor Hindle analyses the relationships between the various systems of informal support, the expanding range of endowed charity, the emerging system of parish relief under the Elizabethan poor laws and the underlying notions of labour discipline and of entitlement. Adopting the perspective of how the poor relief provisions were experienced among the poor themselves, the author argues that the receipt of a parish pension was only the final, and by no means an inevitable, stage of poor relief in a hierarchy of relief provisions.

Identity and Agency in England, 1500-1800. Ed. by Henry French and Jonathan Barry. Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. xi, 254 pp. £50.00.
Against the background of the recent weakening of the Marxist and other structuralist theories of "class" as a central social identity, the seven essays in this collection, based on a colloquium on social identity, class and status in England between 1500 and 1800, explore the relationships between identities and the social norms that shaped and limited opportunities for self-representation. Included are chapters on the role of the Poor Laws in shaping identity, on the relationship between gender and others forms of identity, on the mutable nature of status identity and on identity in the English corporate system.

Industrial Politics and the 1926 Mining Lockout. The Struggle for Dignity. Ed. by John McIlroy, Alan Campbell and Keith Gildart. University of Wales Press, Cardiff 2004. xiv, 334 pp. Maps. £45.00.
This volume offers a detailed study of one of the major industrial disputes in twentieth-century British history: the seven-month national mining lockout of 1926. The thirteen contributions provide a comprehensive survey of the lockout at national, regional and local levels, consider the economic, social and political contexts of the lockout and examine aspects such as gender and community, policing and public order and the role of the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB). In his concluding chapter, Dr McIlroy discusses the long-term effects of the lockout for British coalmining throughout the rest of the twentieth century.

Kean, Hilda. London Stories. Personal Lives, Public Histories. Rivers Oram Press, London [etc.] 2004. x, 229 pp. Ill. £30.00. (Paper: £12.95.)
Using the history of her own working-class family as a basis, the author combines in this book personal and public history to sketch the everyday life of the London working class in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Apart from the more obvious source materials, such as census records, birth, marriage and death certificates and workhouse minute books, she uses material objects as graveyard stones, photographs, etc. as sources to retrace the everyday life of the London working class in the twentieth century.

Lilleker, Darren G. Against the Cold War. The History and Political Traditions of Pro-Sovietism in the British Labour Party, 1945-89. I.B. Tauris, London [etc.] 2004. vii, 294 pp. € 47.50.
This study focuses on the British Labour MPs who in the postwar period until 1989 were sympathetic to and established ties with the Soviet Union. Dr Lilleker analyses how pro-Sovietism became a tradition within British Labour politics, why these Labour politicians embraced the Soviet Union as model, why they chose the Labour Party as a vehicle through which to change the perception of the Soviet Union against the main current of the Cold War, and what effect they had on the Labour Party and the socialist movement in general.

McIntosh, Marjorie Keniston. Working Women in English Society, 1300-1620. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2005. xiv, 291 pp. Ill. £18.99; $32.99.
This study explores the diversity and development in women's participation in the market economy in England between 1300 and 1620. Professor McIntosh examines women's involvement in the production and sale of goods, service work, credit relationships and the leasing of property. Based on evidence from equity court petitions and microhistorical case studies of five market centres, she argues that the level of women's participation in the market economy fluctuated considerably during this period as a result of demographic, economic, social and cultural change. See also Ariadne Schmidt's review in this volume, pp. 483-485

Morgan, Gwenda and Peter Rushton. Eighteenth-Century Criminal Transportation. The Formation of the Criminal Atlantic. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke [etc.] 2004. xi, 238 pp. £50.00.
Between 1600 and the American Revolution, many thousands of convicted criminals from Britain and Ireland arrived in the American colonies. This study examines the transportation of convicts in the eighteenth century, when this form of punishment became increasingly popular following the 1718 Transportation Act. Focusing on the convicts from the regional courts outside London and the Home Counties, the authors examine how the transatlantic traffic of convicts was organized, and how, thanks to the emerging popular press, it became a source of popular narrative and myths.

Morgan, Kenneth. The Birth of Industrial Britain Social Change, 1750-1850. [Seminar Studies in History.] Pearson Longman, Harlow [etc.] 2004. vi, 171 pp. £11.99.
This textbook aims to give a comprehensive overview of the social consequences of the rising industrial and economic growth in Britain from the mid-eighteenth to the mid-nineteenth centuries. In addition to dealing with the social legislation, the ideas and the activities of major reformers, Professor Morgan focuses on the intensive changes as experienced by the mass of the working class, in work and work practice, leisure, living and health standards, education, religious worship, poor law policy and crime and law.

Newby, Andrew G. The Life and Times of Edward McHugh (1853-1915), Land Reformer, Trade Unionist, and Labour Activist. [Studies in British History, Volume 76.] The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, New York 2004. xiv, 255 pp. $109.96; £69.95.
This is a biographical study of Edward McHugh (1853-1915), an Irish trade-union activist and land reformer, active in the Glasgow-Irish political scene in the 1870s, organizer of the Irish Land League in Scotland and leader of the "New Unionism". Based solely on public sources available, as no private correspondence or diaries remain, Dr Newby explores how McHugh became an ardent supporter of Henry George's Single Tax movement, a cause which brought him both to the United States and to Australia.

Ottaway, Susannah R. The Decline of Life. Old Age in Eighteenth-Century England. [Cambridge Studies in Population, Economy and Society in Past Time, 39.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2004. xiv, 322 pp. £50.00; $70.00.
In this study of old age in eighteenth-century England, Professor Ottaway aims to show that the central concern of ageing individuals in this period was to continue to live as independently as possible into their golden years. She argues that despite traditions of ageing men and women staying closely connected to their families and communities, in relationships characterized by mutual support and reciprocal obligations, the ability of elderly individuals to maintain their autonomy and the support available to them declined considerably in the last decades of the century.

Pickering, Paul A. and Alex Tyrrell. Contested Sites. Commemoration, Memorial and Popular Politics in Nineteenth-Century Britain. With [contrib. by] Michael T. Davies, Nicholas Mansfield and James Walvin. Pref. by Iain McCalman. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2004. xvi, 176 pp. Ill. £45.00.
When in the second half of the nineteenth century the subjects of commemorative sites in Britain broadened beyond the traditional ruling classes to include radicals and reformers, the language and understanding of public statuary changed concomitantly. The seven essays in this volume examine monuments, plaques and tombstones commemorating a variety of popular movements and individual reformers and analyse the role of commemorations in radical public life as statements of public identity and memory and their embedment in complex class, gender and power relations that determine what is remembered or forgotten.

Renton, David. Sidney Pollard. A Life in History. [International Library of Twentieth Century History, 2.] Tauris, London [etc.] 2004. ix, 214 pp. £45.00.
This is a biographical study of the life and work of Sidney Pollard (1925-1998), one of the most prominent British economic and social historians of the postwar period. Thematically organized, Dr Renton first describes Pollard's youth and escape to England in 1938 from Nazi Austria and his early academic career and then explores his political ideas and leftist politics, his work in British labour history, his study of the role of managers in the Industrial Revolution and his ideas about Europe and regional history of industrialization. In his concluding chapter, the author considers his stature as a historian and the reserve he has often exhibited toward the profession.

Roberts, M. J. D. Making English Morals. Voluntary Association and Moral Reform in England, 1787-1886. [Cambridge Social and Cultural Histories, Vol. 2.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2004. xiii, 321 pp. £45.00; $75.00.
This study explores the citizen volunteer networks that were mobilized around a number of campaigns for moral reform - such as antislavery, temperance, charity, cruelty prevention - in England from the late-eighteenth to the late-nineteenth century. Professor Roberts examines these networks' foci of concern, their recruitment patterns and operating methods and the responses they elicited, and analyses them as a distinct tradition of citizens' action. He argues that most middle-class citizens in these networks became increasingly torn between the prospect of accepting a market-oriented society and their discomfort with the cultural and moral consequences of such a society.


Armani, Giuseppe. La forza di non mollare. Ernesto Rossi dalla grande guerra a Giustizia e Libertà. [Società, storia e cultura.] FrancoAngeli, Milano 2004. 168 pp. € 14.00.
This is a biographical essay about the young economist Ernesto Rossi (1897-1967), who rose to prominence in the anti-fascist movement Giustizia e Libertà. The author traces the different stages of his intellectual and personal development: his voluntary participation in World War I, his friendship with Gobetti, Salvamini and the Rosselli brothers, his working relationship with Zanotti-Bianco and his resistance to fascism until he was arrested. The appendix comprises five texts documenting his professional and anti-fascist background.

Bertolino, Simone. Rifondazione comunista. Storia e organizzazione. [Partiti e Sistemi di Partito in Italia; Studi e Ricerche, 524.] Società Editrice il Mulino, Bologna 2004. 379 pp. € 25.00.
After the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, the Italian Communist Party was disbanded and succeeded by a non-communist party. Several members subsequently formed a new party to carry on the communist legacy: the Partito della Rifondazione comunista (Prc), which received a considerable share of the vote. In this preliminary scholarly study of the Prc the author examines the rise of the party and its growth and consolidation. He has also studied the membership of the party and the party electorate, the political culture of the party executives, the party leadership, participation in institutions and relations with civil society. His research is based on interviews, surveys and other primary sources.

Carioti, Antonio. Di Vittorio. [L'identità italiana, 38.] Società editrice il Mulino, Bologna 2004. 170 pp. € 12.00.
This is a biographical essay about the union leader Giuseppe Di Vittorio (1892-1957) based on an examination of the literature. A casual worker from the province of Puglia and self-educated, Di Vittorio became the popular leader of the Confederazione generale italiana di Lavoro (CgiL) after the war. He started by joining the revolutionary-syndicalist Usi following its establishment in 1912. Later he became a member of the Communist Party, where he served as a parliamentary delegate after the war. The Hungarian Uprising led to his break with the party. He aimed to unite the working class and to achieve solidarity between workers in North and South Italy.

Gianni, Emilio. Diffusione, popolarizzazione e volgarizzazione del marxismo in Italia scritti di Marx ed Engels pubblicati in italiano dal 1848 al 1926. Pantarei, Milano 2004. xciii, 444 pp. Ill. € 20.00.
For the first time since the 1962 publication of Gian Mario Bravo's bibliography "Marx e Engels in lingua italiana 1848-1960" a bibliography is now available of Marx and Engels' writings in Italian translation. To make it as comprehensive as possible regarding the period concerned, the author has reviewed, in addition to books and leaflets, 400 periodicals relating to the labour movement. The bibliography ends in 1926 because of the consolidation of fascism in that year. Moreover, the vast press of Italian emigrants was impossible to cover. Following a lengthy introduction, there are three catalogues: a chronological one, a second with the names of publishers and periodicals that have issued the same title; and a third listing the publication in the original language for every text. There are also six indexes: of associations that published the works of Marx and Engels; of places of publication; of publishing houses; of printers; of titles of periodicals; and of persons.

Gramsci, Antonio. La nostra citta future. Scritti torinesi (1911-1922). A cura di Angelo d'Orsi. [Studi storici Carocci, 56.] Carocci editore, Roma 2004. 365 pp. Ill. € 26.00.
This book is an anthology of articles by Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937) from his Turin years from 1911 to 1922 and letters to his father. The articles were published primarily in Avanti, L'ordine nuovo, Il grido del popolo and La Città futura. They come from the works of Gramsci published by Einaudi but do not include the explanatory editorial notes. Angelo d'Orsi has produced a lengthy introduction consisting of eight chapters in chronological sequence describing both the course of events in the city and the corresponding stages in Gramsci's life. The anthology follows the same pattern. A chronology and a detailed bibliography of and about Gramsci's work conclude the book.

Moos, Carlo. Ausgrenzung, Internierung, Deportation. Antisemitismus und Gewalt im späten italienischen Faschismus (1938-1945). Chronos, Zürich 2004. 268 pp. € 29.80.
In the autumn of 1938, the fascist regime in Italy issued a series of anti-Jewish decrees, leading to systematic exclusion of Italian Jews from public life and, following the German occupation in the autumn of 1943, to the inclusion of Italy in the Nazi system of systematic destruction. This study examines the origins of this Italian anti-Semitism and its consequences for Italian Jewry, looking at both the state and party machinery that implemented this policy and the struggle of Italian Jews to cope with the new situation.

Neville, Peter. Mussolini. [Routledge historical biographies.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2004. xiv, 237 pp. Ill. £10.99.
This textbook offers a general biography of Benito Mussolini. Dr Neville aims to re-assess the life of Mussolini, examining the formative influences in his younger years, his break with socialism in 1914, his domestic and foreign policy and his role in the rise of the fascist movement and ideology. The author argues that conservative forces in the Italian establishment and factional struggles in his own Fascist Party prevented Mussolini achieving the fascist Italy that he pursued.

Silei, Gianni. Lo stato sociale in Italia. Stori e documenti. Vol. 1. Dall'unità al fascismo [1861-1943]. [Strumenti e fonti, 28.] Piero Lacaita Editore, Manduria [etc.] 2003. 433 pp. Ill. € 15.00.
This is the first of two volumes about the social state, i.e. the responsibilities of the state in areas such as social insurance, social assistance, healthcare, the non-profit sector, labour market policy and education. This first volume is about the formative period of the social state following the unification of Italy, the Giolitti era, the period following World War I and fascism. Each chapter concludes with an anthology of documents about social policy: texts of laws, contributions to debates about certain social issues, studies, committee proposals and investigations and statistics. In each case an introduction summarizes documents and places them in an appropriate context.

Socialismo, anarchismo e sindacalismo rivoluzionario nel Veneto tra Otto e Novecento. Atti del Convegno, Castello di Monselice, 12 ottobre 2003. A cura di Giampietro Berti. Il Poligrafo [etc.], Padova 2004. 309 pp. € 32.00.
This collection features the 14 contributions to a scholarly gathering convened in October 2003 in Monselice (Veneto) on the history of socialism, anarchism and revolutionary syndicalism around the previous fin de siècle. An introductory article by Maurizio Degl'Innocenti places the local Venetian movement in the international, national and local contexts. The other articles cover the different movements in e.g. Venice, Mestre and Verona, the socialist Venetian weekly Il secolo nuovo, persons such as Angelo Galeno, Luciano Visentin and Francesco Ortore and themes such as emigration, socialist theatre in the province of Padua, the socialist education of Achille Loria and the socialist principles of Giacomo Matteotti.

Togliatti, Palmiro. Sul fascismo. A cura di Giuseppe Vacca. Editori Laterza, Roma [etc.] 2004. clxvi, 244 pp. € 20.00.
This book features the most important writings of the Italian communist leader Palmiro Togliatti (1893-1964) about fascism: "A proposito del fascismo" (1928) and "Lezioni su fascismo" (1935). To document the developments that led to these articles, the editor has also selected the articles that preceded them and are relevant for understanding fascism in its historic context, the relationship between economic change and political developments and the foreign policy of fascism. In his extensive introduction, Giuseppe Vacca relates Togliatti's writings to the contemporary course of events and the international debate about fascism and compares them to texts by Gramsci.


Brás, Rui Manuel. Formas Institucionais e Sistemas de Valores. As Associações de Sapateiros de Lisboa, da Segunda Metade do Século XIX ao Estado Novo. Celta Editora, Oeiras 2004. vii, 132 pp. €13.65.
This study is about organizations among shoemakers in Lisbon from the first mutual aid organization in the mid-nineteenth century until the end of the First Republic (1926) and explores training procedures, conflicts, setting of objectives and the actions of various associations. The author has used a database of persons involved to compile a genealogy of associations. He has also analysed the vernacular of these organizations and has investigated whether the vernacular of the guilds resembles that of modern labour organizations, as well as how these skilled craftsmen instilled a sense of class consciousness among Portuguese workers.

Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Caroli, Dorena. L'enfance abandonnée et délinquante dans la Russie Soviétique (1917-1937). Préf. de Jutta Scherrer. [Pays de l'Est.] L'Harmattan, Paris [etc.] 2004. 366 pp. € 31.00.
In the 1920s and 1930s, the Soviet Union experienced a strong, unprecedented growth of the problem of abandoned and criminalized children. This revised version of a dissertation (EHESS Paris, 1997) explores early Soviet responses to this social problem and the various officials involved. Dr Caroli (who published an article on this subject in IRSH, 48 (2003), pp 27-54) argues that the issue sheds light on the social reforms introduced by the Soviet state and the covert nature of the totalitarian, Stalinist system, as it emerged from the end of the 1920s onwards. See also Nick Baron's review in this volume, pp. 493-496.

Falk, Barbara. Sowjetische Städte in der Hungersnot 1932/33. Staatliche Ernährungspolitik und städtisches Alltagsleben. [Beiträge zur Geschichte Osteuropas, Band 38.] Böhlau, Köln [etc.] 2005. viii, 445 pp. € 49.90.
This book is a study about rationing foodstuffs in the period 1928-1935 and the 1932/1933 famine. Based on a detailed examination of the food situation in the Ukrainian area (oblast') of Kharkov, the author concludes that in addition to the countryside, the cities were seriously affected, and that the famine should not be regarded as specifically Ukrainian or as a catastrophe that was brought about deliberately.

Haimson, Leopold H. Russia's Revolutionary Experience, 1905-1917. Two Essays. With an intr. by David McDonald. Columbia University Press, New York 2005. xxxii, 265 pp. £25.50.
The two essays in this volume examine the issue of power in late imperial Russia. One follows the social and political aftermath of labour unrest in the Lena gold fields in 1912. The other explores the growing differences between Lenin, the future head of the Soviet Union, and Iulii Martov, the leader of the Menshevik Internationalists, in the critical months from April until October 1917. The essays are preceded by an extensive introduction by David McDonald.

Hirsch, Francine. Empire of Nations. Ethnographic Knowledge and the Making of the Soviet Union. [Culture and Society after Socialism.] Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 2005. xviii, 367 pp. Ill. Maps. $59.95; £32.96. (Paper: $27.95; £15.50.)
This book is about the establishment of the Soviet Union. Its main objective is to explain how the Sovietization process formed and changed the individual and group identities of the peoples of the former Russian empire. The author focuses on the role of anthropologists and ethnographers, often former imperial experts, who through a complicated collaboration with state officials produced all-union censuses, opened ethnographic museums and assisted in delineating the USSR's internal borders.

Watson, Derek. Molotov. A Biography. [Studies in Russian and East European History and Society.] Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke [etc.] 2005. xx, 376 pp. Ill. £65.00.
This volume is the first full-scale biography of Vyacheslav Molotov (1890-1986), revolutionary activist and Bolshevik before the 1917 revolution, head of government in the 1930s and foreign minister, who negotiated with Hitler and Ribbentrop, Churchill and Roosevelt, from 1939-1949 and finally fell from grace in the Khrushchev era. The study reflects the range of sources that have become available in recent years.

Yurchak, Alexei. Everything Was Forever, Until It Was No More. The Last Soviet Generation. [Information Series.] Princeton University Press, Princeton [etc.] 2005. x, 331 pp. Ill. £15.95.
This book explores the paradox that the spectacular collapse of the Soviet Union was completely unexpected, even though most people realized immediately that they had actually been prepared for that unexpected change. To this end, the author examines the internal shifts in the Soviet system at the level of everyday life, in discourse, language, ideology and social relations, on which this paradox was predicated. It addresses these issues of late socialism from the perspective of the last Soviet generation.


A los 125 años de la fundación del PSOE las primeras politicas y organizaciones socialistas. Ed. by Carlos Forcadell Álvarez. [Ayer, 54/2004 (2).] Associación de historia contemporánea [etc.] Madrid 2004. 365 pp. € 18.00.
This account, published in honour of the 125th anniversary of the establishment of the Spanish socialist party PSOE, analyses the early stages of socialist organizations in Spain. The articles are about the documentary sources on the history of early socialism in Spain; the influence of labour culture on socialist policy in the early decades of the PSOE; the socialist trade union UGT; the coalition of socialists and republicans that was active at various moments from 1909 to 1933; Spanish socialism and the agrarian issue; the UGT in Catalonia from 1888 to 1923; and socialist culture in Spain from 1879 to 1936.

Actas del I Congreso sobre la historia del PCE 1920-1977. Oviedo 6, 7 y 8 de mayo de 2004. Edita Fundación de Investigaciones Marxistas. FIM, Madrid 2004. CD-ROM. € 6.00.
This CD-ROM contains the five lectures and 86 papers presented at the First Congress about the history of the Spanish Communist Party (PCE), held at the University of Oviedo in May 2004. This congress was organized in part by the Fundación de Investigaciones Marxistas, the research division of the PCE. Participants in the sessions reviewed historiography about the PCE; international relations of the party, especially with the PCF; the history of the party from 1920 to 1939; the PCE under early and late Francoism; image, press and culture of the PCE; testimonies and portraits.

Armengou, Montse y Ricard Belis. Las fosas del silencio. ¿Hay un Holocausto español? Prólogo de Santiago Carrillo. Plaza y Janés [etc.] Barcelona 2004. 286 pp. Ill. € 8.50.
This book arises from a documentary broadcast on Catalan television about the terror under Franco. Based on their review of the literature and eyewitness testimonies, the authors investigate the terror: from the planning prior to the uprising against the Republic; the attempts to cover up the slaughter; the effort to justify it by invoking the red terror; the appearance of legality attributed to the white terror; and coming to terms with the course of events after the transition to democracy.

El Canal de los Presos (1940-1962). Trabajos forzados: de la represión política a la explotación económica. [Por] Gonzalo Acosta Bono, José Luis Gutiérrez Molina, Lola Martínez Macías [y] Ángel del Río Sánchez. Crítica, Barcelona 2004. xlvii, 448 pp. Ill. Maps. € 24.90.
Following the victory of Franco, thousands of republican prisoners were assigned to forced labour on waterworks, primarily in Andalusia. This book by a team comprising an historian, a scholar of law, anthropologists and geographers is about the construction of the irrigation canal of lower Guadalquivir. The operations lasted from 1940 until 1962. The book is divided into three sections covering: the institutions set up to exploit prison labour; the daily lives of the prisoners and the social and symbolic significance of the canal. The annexes include escape stories, brief biographies and the list of prisoners.

Payne, Stanley G. The Spanish Civil War, the Soviet Union, and Communism. Yale University Press, New Haven [etc.] 2004. xiv, 400 pp. £12.99.
This study aims to give a comprehensive overview and analysis of Soviet policy and its relation to the revolutionary process and Civil War in Spain during the 1930s, based partly on the Soviet archives that became available after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Professor Payne, who recently published a comprehensive history of Spanish fascism (see IRSH, 46 (2001), p. 144), sets the communist politics in the context of the international politics of Stalin and the activities of the Comintern, discusses how the communists contributed to the collapse of the Republic and concludes that the position of the Communist Party was not counterrevolutionary.

Sevillano Calero, Francisco. Exterminio. El terror con Franco. Oberon, Madrid 2004. 246 pp. Ill. € 17.00.
In this book the author explores the motives of the parties guilty of participating in the white terror under Franco. The book focuses on the civilian participation in the liquidations and on the responsibility of military insurgents for their organization and execution. Professor Sevillano illustrates his arguments with documents, memoirs and testimonies. He covers the period from the start of the Civil War until 1948.

Sossenko, George. Aventurero idealista. Prólogo de Gabriel Jackson. [La luz de la memoria, no. 3.] Ediciones de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Cuenca 2004. Ill. 159 pp. € 10.00.
These are the memoirs of a volunteer from the Spanish Civil War, who has now joined the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. Sossenko (1918), the son of a Menshevik who emigrated and settled in France with his family in 1926, describes his life in considerable detail throughout the period he went to Spain, which fills half the book. In Spain he joined the anarchist Columna Ortiz at first and later was a member of the International Brigades. This book is part of a series published by the Spanish Documentation Centre about the IBs, Centro de Estudios y Documentación de las Brigadas Internacionales.