The Near and Middle East

Like all scholars from his generation, Posthumus long maintained a Eurocentric perspective, not on principle but in practice. Until the Second World War, he was moreover very busy gathering Dutch and subsequently endangered European archives. While he did obtain colonial documents for the NEHA from the Dutch East and West Indies (now Indonesia and Suriname and the Antilles, respectively), this made little difference; in any case, in the 1970s the NEHA transferred much of this material on loan to the Dutch state. Only in his golden years did Posthumus shift his focus. As the director of Brill publishing company, with its strong Oriental backlist, he launched the Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient in 1957. At age 77 he thus combined two of his previous initiatives, the launch of the NEHA-Jaarboek in 1914 and the International Review for Social History in 1946, in an entirely new field.

At first the IISH was not affected by this. The pronounced focus on Europe long remained visible organizationally as well: only in 1964 were Africa and Asia separated from the Dutch department and assigned to Indonesian-history connoisseur Fritjof Tichelman (together with Anglo-Saxon countries until 1968). In the late 1980s, when the Institute started to revise its collection policy, he was gradually joined by specialists in Turkish, Chinese, Iranian, and Arabic social history. One of the driving forces behind this interest in Arab and Islamic circles was the arrival in Western Europe of what were known as guest workers – in the Netherlands primarily Turkish and Moroccan labour migrants, later followed by their families. The beginning of efforts to collect material about the Near and the Middle East coincided with the attempt to ban Eurocentrism from the history of the labour movement at the Institute’s new research department.

Forced modernization

Convinced that the difference between the West and the Rest derived from economic factors, many political movements outside Europe, just as in the Soviet Union, placed economic growth at the top of the agenda. In doing so, they consistently imposed modernization programmes that complemented economic and political considerations with distinctly social and cultural ones. The struggle to end illiteracy was inevitably a major issue. In most Arab and Islamic countries the proliferation of the printing press, together with the introduction of newspapers and magazines, began only in the late nineteenth century. The IISH collection nonetheless comprises older materials about the area, including incunabula (120).

The new media became very popular among reformist groups, such as the Young Turks in the Ottoman Empire (121-122). Soon afterwards, the Kemalist Turkish Republic became one of the most telling examples of forced modernization of a largely agrarian society, visibly manifested in styles of dress, the introduction of the Latin alphabet, and compulsory schooling for boys and girls (123-126). During the military dictatorship in the 1980s the IISH started building a Turkish collection, securing important materials. The collection soon encompassed the great Turkish migration to Western Europe as well.

Many modernization movements derived inspiration from the Soviet Union but were nonetheless feared as competitors of communist movements in the countries concerned, in part because of their nationalist element. Relations during the Cold War further complicated this tension. In oil-producing Iran, Reza Shah Pahlavi followed a Western course (127-130). Other countries in the region, such as Afghanistan (131), Egypt (132), and Sudan (133-135), eager to achieve comparable economic growth, experimented – in some cases only temporarily – with different versions of forced modernization.

120 The Turk in 1488

In 1453 the fall of Constantinople ushered in an extended period in which ‘the Turk’ was perceived as the Antichrist in Europe. The expansionist Ottoman Empire became a threat to Vienna in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The Chronica Hungariae by Janós Thuróczy (c1435-c1489), an incunable printed in Brno and Augsburg in 1488, features a woodcarving of the Ottoman army. The Janissaries appear in distinctive tall, sleeve-shaped caps. This may be the oldest known depiction of Turks.

Illustrissima Hungariae regum chronica
Janós Thuróczy
Brno, 1488
Book, 31 x 21

Date: 
1488
Number: 
120

121 The Young Turks

At the end of the nineteenth century, efforts to reform the Ottoman Empire led a new generation of Western-educated Turks to oppose Sultan Abdülhamit II (1842-1918). In 1889 the Young Turks established their movement and published their programme in the journal Mechveret (Consultation), issued in Paris. They advocated reinstating the constitution, which had been abolished after the sultan came to power in 1876. In 1908 they teamed up with others and staged a revolution.

Mechveret [Consultation]
Young Turks
Paris, 15 August 1897
Periodical, vol 2, no 41, 26 x 34

Date: 
1897
Number: 
121

Location

'Mechveret' office
12 rue Monge
Paris
France

122 The Balkan Wars

The first Balkan War, which broke out in October 1912, demonstrated the weakness of the Ottoman Empire. The Committee for Unity and Progress, which seized power following a coup in early 1913 and had a strong military component, identified reform of the armed forces as one of its priorities, based essentially on European examples. In May 1913 a German military mission was invited to Istanbul to reorganize the military, and in 1914 the Ottomans formed an alliance with Germany.

Mudafaa-i Millye [National Defense]
Istanbul , 1913
Periodical, vol 3, no 59, 33 x 24

Date: 
1913
Number: 
122

Location

Istanbul
Turkey

123, 124, 125 Turk village institutions

After the First World war, the Ottoman Empire disappeared, and in 1922 the Turkish Republic was proclaimed under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881-1931), who introduced a forceful modernization policy. To improve education in the countryside, village institutes (köy enstitüleri) were set up, based on the ideas of the philosopher and educator John Dewey, who had visited Turkey in 1924. He regarded school as a social community and believed that traditional education should be combined with practical skills that catered to local needs.

Köy Enstitüleri [village institutes]
Late 1930s
Photographs from photo album, 6 x 9

Date: 
1935 - 1939
Number: 
123

Location

Akpinar
Turkey

126 Village schools closed

In 1940 these village institutes became subject to official regulations. In mid-September the school year began. Students received theoretical and practical instruction, enabling them to find work in the villages. The secular, co-educational schools elicited substantial opposition: people were afraid of educating ‘tomorrow’s communists.’ In 1953 the village institutes were closed. Many of the thousands of students who attended these institutions were later active in the teachers’ union Türkiye Ögretmenler Sendikasi.

Köy Enstitüleri [village institutes]
Late 1930s
Photograph from photo album, 12 x 18

Date: 
1935 - 1939
Number: 
126

Location

Akpinar
Turkey

127 A Persian feminist

In the early twentieth century the Constitutional Revolution occurred in Persia, resulting in 1906 in a constitution and allowing modernization to begin in that country. Sédighé Dolatabadi (1882-1962) was a pioneer of the women’s movement in this process. She founded the first school for girls, established organizations promoting women’s participation in politics and cultural affairs, and held various government offices. The IISH holds part of her personal papers, including this letter dated 5 May 1943 about educating children.

Letter to Qamar Taj
Sédighé Dolatabadi
13 May 1935
Manuscript, 13 x 21

Date: 
1935
Number: 
127

128 A women’s magazine

In 1919 in Isfahan Sédighé Dolatabadi launched Zaban-e Zanan (the Voice of Women), the first journal published by women in Persia. Despite resistance from militant mullahs, the journal featured articles on equality for women, women’s rights, and similar topics for two years; from 1921 Dolatabadi continued the journal from Teheran. This photograph on the rear of an issue from that second period shows a conference at one of the schools for girls founded by Dolatabadi in 1935.

Zaban-e Zanan [The Women’s Voice]
Isfahan, 1944
Periodical, no 4, 17 x 22

Date: 
1944
Number: 
128

Location

Esfahan
Iran

129 The Persian oil industry

The beginning of modernization coincided with an important economic fact. In 1908 in southwest Persia the first oil was discovered in the Middle East, after which the Anglo-Persian (later Anglo-Iranian) Oil Company, a predecessor of BP, was established. In 1912 the company opened a refinery in Abadan that remained the largest in the world for a long time. This photograph from around 1920 shows a worker from the Bakhtiari tribe at work in the oil industry in that area.

Worker from Bakhtiara tribe
Southern Iran, ca 1920
Reproduction, from BP Archive, 29 x 20

Date: 
1920
Number: 
129

130 Women working alongside men

At the IISH research is conducted on the history of work in the Iranian oil industry. It covers various themes, such as the daily lives of workers, relations between the workers, the company, and the state, and the rise and development of industrial cities. This image depicts the laundry of an Anglo-Persian refinery around 1930. Putting women to work alongside men was highly innovative.

Women in the cleaning department
Southern Iran, ca 1930
Reproduction, from BP Archive, 20 x 28

Date: 
1930
Number: 
130

131 Afghan reforms

In Afghanistan modernization was propagated from 1911 in Seraj-al-Akhbar (the Torch of the News), published in Kabul by Mahmud Tarzi (1865-1933), who sympathized with the Young Turks and translated Jules Verne. The Persian daily became the focus of a group of nationalists, the Young Afghans, who supported modernization imposed from above. Tarzi, who held high offices until 1929, including minister of Foreign Affairs, pursued causes that included compulsory primary education, also for girls.

Seraj al Akhbar [The Torch of the News]
Mahmud Tarzi (ed.)
Kabul, 1911
Periodical, 26x 36

Date: 
1911
Number: 
131

Location

Kabul
Afghanistan

132 Support for Nasser

Decolonization and the Cold War made the relationship between modernization and communism ever more complicated. In Egypt the communists, who were internally divided, initially opposed the nationalist Gamal Abdel Nasser (1918-1970), who came to power soon after the 1952 revolution. Yet his nationalization of the Suez Canal in 1956 – wholeheartedly supported in Kifah al-Sha‘b (the People’s Struggle) of October – led them to unite behind Nasser and even to merge their forces with him in 1965.

Kifah al-Sha‘b [the People’s Struggle]
Egyptian Communist Party, 1956
Periodical, 17 x 22
Egyptian Communists in Exile, no 122

Date: 
1956
Number: 
132

Location

Suez canal
Egypt

133 Sudanese communists

Nasser became a role model, also in Sudan, independent since 1956, where Gaafar an-Nimeiri (1930-2009) seized power in a coup in 1969. Here too, building the new state was rife with tensions. In response to repressive measures, communist officers performed an abortive coup in July 1971.

Protest against the suppression of the Sudanese Communist Party
Ali Yatta
Casablanca: 29 July 1971
Pamphlet, in Arabic, 21 x 30
Hizb al-Shuyui-al-Sudani Collection, no 168

Date: 
1971
Number: 
133

Location

Casablanca
Morocco

134 Sudanese communists suppressed

The Moroccan communist Ali Yata protested in vain in Arabic and French against the execution of Abd al-Khaliq Mahjub (1927-1971) and other leaders of the Sudanese Communist Party.

Protest against the suppression of the Sudanese Communist Party
Ali Yatta
Casablanca: 29 July 1971
Pamphlet, in French, 21 x 30
Hizb al-Shuyui-al-Sudani Collection, no 168

Date: 
1971
Number: 
134

Location

Casablanca
Morocco

135 A party underground

The Communist Party of Sudan was founded in 1946; both the party and the trade union federation it dominated were among the largest communist organizations in the Middle East. Nimeiri’s coup brought different communists into the government but caused division between supporters and opponents. Following the abortive coup of 1971, Nimeiri tried to implement his modernist agenda, and the communists disappeared underground. Their weekly al-Mourriah (Freedom) glorified Mahjub and condemned his murderers.

Al Hourriah [Liberty]
2 August 1971
Periodical, no 578, 26 x 41
Hizb al-Shuyui-al-Sudani Collection, no 168

Date: 
1971
Number: 
135

Location

Sudan

Resistance to modernization

The modernization movements were coercive, were therefore widely perceived as repressive, and thus elicited resistance from the outset. The ensuing cycle of resistance and oppression might vary in vehemence and duration – from a few years to several decades, as the case of Turkey demonstrates. This resistance might also come from many different sources. In addition to political disputes, economic and cultural ones abounded. Some led to heated conflicts pitching Greeks against Turks, Turks against Armenians (137), or Turks, Arabs, and Kurds against each other (136). The protest might also primarily target what was perceived as serious disregard for social issues – the common argument of leftist political parties and trade unions in the region (138).

While the political arena was long controlled entirely by modernists and communists, the proclamation of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1979 (140-141) gave a new impetus to a religiously inspired opposition movement in large parts of the Islamic world, including Turkey (143). Manifestations of this trend have appeared in the Central Asian former Soviet republics (139). The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood was the most important pioneer (142) in this broad range of movements invoking tradition to turn against existing regimes perceived as corrupt – sometimes focusing largely on politics and at other times dealing mainly with social affairs, in some cases peacefully and in others resorting to violence. Their stand on modernization is ambivalent or in any case difficult to capture in conventional analytical frames of reference. Although many have revivalist features, some groups have created new rallying points, such as in the Rushdie affair and the 9/11 attacks. Traces are visible in the Netherlands as well (144). The IISH has taken a strong interest in these movements.

136 The ideal Kurdistan

From the nineteenth century, modernization coincided with nationalism, with myriad consequences, wherever cultural minorities and ‘stateless peoples’ had their own vision. Plans for an independent Kurdistan after the First World War foundered on the rise of Atatürk’s Turkey, within which two nationalisms now faced off against each other. The Kurds believed that they also had territory in Syria, Iraq, and Iran, as revealed on this map of the Socialist Party of Turkish Kurdistan.

Kurdistan as seen by the Partiya Sosyalist a Kurdistana Tirkiyē
Map, 84 x 70
BG E16/385

Number: 
136

137 Armenia independent

The Ottoman Empire, with its many nationalities, was deeply affected by the rise of nationalism. After the Tanzimat, the mid-nineteenth century reforms, had given the Armenians greater independence, this group demanded still more autonomy. The Congress of Berlin (1878) made the Armenian question international following the Russo-Turkish War, and an Armenian revolutionary movement arose. In 1894-1896 this led to serious repression of Armenians (which was to recur in a far worse form in 1915-1916).

La question arménienne au point de vue de la paix universelle: rapport au congrès sur l’état actuel des Arméniens en Turquie
H. Arakelian
Geneva: Romet, 1901
Pamphlet, 18 x 26

Date: 
1901
Number: 
137

138 Risky satire

Opposition to the modernists came from various sources. In 1946 Turkey stopped being a one-party state, but this did not mean that criticism was automatically tolerated, as discovered by the editors of the leftist satirical periodical Marko Paşa launched that year. After the third issue appeared, Sabahattin Ali (1907-1948) and Aziz Nesin (1915-1995) were arrested. Following their release, Ali was killed while fleeing to Bulgaria. Nesin moved to Bursa, where he continued publishing the periodical until 1951.

Marko Paşa
Istanbul, 1946
Periodical, vol 1, no 1, 31 x 43

Date: 
1946
Number: 
138

Location

Istanbul
Turkey

139 An Islamic alternative

In 1979 the revolution in Iran greatly promoted the proliferation of Islamic alternatives to nationalism and communism. At first, resistance to the modernist Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (1919-1980) led liberal and leftist groups to align with Islamic ones, but the latter seized control. Organizations such as those of the railway workers in Iran, which published the journal Lokomotiv (this issue is from 1980), found fault with the ‘social shortcomings’ of the new government. European-style labour unions were prohibited.

Lokomotiv: nashriyye goruhi az kargaran-e rah-e ahan [Locomotive: a publication of railway workers]
Iran, 1980
Periodical, 12 x 18

Date: 
1980
Number: 
139

140 Orthodox Khomeinists

The IISH aims to document the different political movements within Iran. Ya-Lesarat al-Hossein (Hossein’s Avengers, the issue is dated 2 September 1999) is the weekly of Ansar-e Hezbollah (Helpers of the Party of God), one of the most orthodox-Khomeinist organizations in the country, which has been described as the paramilitary branch of the less structured Hezbollah movement. During the Revolution of 1979 and afterwards Hezbollah members formed unregulated units that intimidated Khomeini’s opponents and purged institutions.

Ya-litarat al Husayn [The Avengers of Husayn]
Teheran, 1999
Periodical, 44 x 59

Date: 
1999
Number: 
140

Location

Teheran
Iran

141 Ruhollah Khomeini

Ruhollah Khomeini (1900-1989) became the face of the revolution upon his return from exile in February 1979 and remained the main source of legitimacy for Iranian leaders after his death as well. Despite the many differences, his position came to resemble that of Atatürk in Turkey, with whom he had in common an emphasis on national unity and support for radical government intervention. The likenesses of the two were omnipresent as well.

Khomeini
Ca 1980
Poster, 50 x 70

Date: 
1980
Number: 
141

142 The Muslim Brotherhood

How complicated relations between Islamism, nationalism, and social-economic reforms could be already became clear with the Muslim Brotherhood formed in Egypt in 1928 by Hassan al-Banna (1906-1949), whose Risala, a volume of political correspondence published in Cairo in 1991, is displayed here. Although Banna aimed to revive the original universal Islam, he stressed its social nature, and Egyptian wellbeing was unmistakably prominent in his ideas.

Risala
Hassan al-Banna
Cairo, 1991
Book, 18 x 25

Date: 
1991
Number: 
142

Location

Cairo
Egypt

143 The Caliphate

Some Islamists aimed to revive the Caliphate, abolished by Atatürk in 1924, as a community of all Muslims. An internationalist or pan-Islamic objective, however, could have divergent political meanings. According to Mohammed Metin Kaplan, the Caliph of Cologne, and his journal Ümmet-I Muhammed (the Nation of Mohammed), the first step in this direction was to establish an Islamic regime in Turkey through revolution. In 2004 Kaplan was extradited to Turkey by Germany and has been imprisoned there ever since.

Ümmet-i Muhammed [the Community of Mohammed]
Düsseldorf, 1994; also published as Asr-i Saadet [Time of Blessedness]
Periodical, vol 5, no 97, 33 x 49

Date: 
1994
Number: 
143

Location

Düsseldorf
Germany

144 The Hofstad Group

Some Islamists in the West also rejected parliamentary democracy, for example because they believed it was part of a broader separation of religion and politics, or that Muslims were being deceived by political parties. This was why some called for boycotts of elections, as in this statement by what was known as the Hofstadgroep, probably from 2003. This group consisting primarily of Moroccans in the Netherlands was accused of being a terrorist organization and has alternately been convicted and acquitted. Shirk means ‘idolatry’

Stemmen is shirk!
Hofstad Groep, ca 2003
Pamphlet, 21 x 30

Date: 
2003
Number: 
144

Location

Den Haag
Netherlands

Zionism and Anti-Zionism

In Europe the first widespread discontinuation of structural discrimination against Jews resulted from the French Revolution and the Dutch equivalent, the Batavian Revolution. During the course of the nineteenth century most European countries followed these examples emanating largely from the Enlightenment (145). The result was that this minority emancipated successfully in fits and starts until the victory of National Socialism in Germany in 1933.

Various circles, however, Jewish and non-Jewish alike, deplored the emancipation. Internally, the Zionist movement advocated preservation of Jewish identity (146). Externally, virulent anti-Semitism attempted to use the emancipation to project all social discontent onto the Jews – attempts that were sometimes government-sponsored, especially in the twentieth century. Stalin provided a remarkable interpretation of the Zionist desire to establish a state for the Jews: in 1934 he founded the Jewish Autonomous District, with its capital in Birobidzhan, in remote Siberia, near the border with Korea and China (147).

After the Second World War, guilt-ridden Europe welcomed the establishment of the state of Israel (148), although this seemed to instigate as many problems as it solved. Anti-Zionism became an argument in the Cold War across the Iron Curtain (149), while to many Arabs, who often regarded the State of Israel as an imperialist anomaly, opposition to and sympathy for the Palestinians remained important elements in politics (150). The IISH tries to document the peace movements that are often critical in politics, among Israelis (151-152) and Palestinians alike (153).

145 Jewish emancipation

In the German states Jewish emancipation was capricious, leading people such as the author Moses Hess (1812-1875), following the Spring of Nations in 1848, to draft a very early ‘Zionist’ programme. As one of the first German socialists, he had previously had a strong influence on Marx and Engels, in part because of his very progressive Die heilige Geschichte der Menschheit of 1837, which this manuscript addresses. The Meister in the title refers to Spinoza.

Heilige Geschichte der Menschheit
Moses Hess
1837
Manuscript, 18 x 22
Moses Hess Papers, no 33

Date: 
1837
Number: 
145

146 Zionists

The Budapest-born journalist Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) concluded toward the end of the nineteenth century that fighting the rising anti-Semitism was pointless, and that only a state of their own would protect the Jews from persecution. He managed to find enough kindred spirits to convene the first congress of the Zionist Organization in Basle in 1897. One of the programme points adopted was the promotion of Jewish settlements in Palestine.

Offizielles Protokoll des Zionisten-Kongresses in Basel
Basle: s.n., 1898
Pamphlet, with contrib by K. Lippe, M. Nardau, T. Herzl, 17 x 24

Date: 
1898
Number: 
146

Location

Stadtcasino
Steinenberg 14
Basel
Switzerland

147 The Jewish Autonomous Oblast

From the late 1920s, the Bolshevist response to Zionism was to allow Jews to settle West of Khabarovsk along the Amur at the Chinese border, in what was known as the Jewish Autonomous Area from 1934. Thousands of Jews went there and sent their children to schools where they learned Yiddish. On the photograph is a column of gymnasts in the capital Birobidzhan at a commemoration of the October revolution, possibly in 1935.

Jewish workers in Birobidžan
Ca 1935
Photograph, 25 x 19

Date: 
1935
Number: 
147

Location

Birobidzhan
Russia

148 The proclamation of Israel

Upon the proclamation of the State of Israel (on 14 May 1948, the day before the British mandate in Palestine expired), the Nederlandse Zionisten Bond convened a national gathering on 16 May 1948. A choir sang at this event from the children’s village Ilianah, set up in July 1947 near Apeldoorn and providing accommodations to 440 Jewish children, most from Romania, pending their departure for Israel in October 1948. On 15 May Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, and Iraq invaded Palestine.

Proclamation of a Jewish state
Nederlandse Zionisten Bond
Amsterdam: De Handel, 1948
Poster, 24 x 51

Date: 
1948
Number: 
148

Locations

Concertgebouw Amsterdam
Netherlands
Israel

149 Russian anti-Zionism

Although the Soviet Union was among the first to recognize Israel in 1948, that same year a domestic anti-Semitic campaign began that continued until Stalin’s death in 1953. The course of events during the Cold War was conducive to a pro-Arab Soviet policy, supported ideologically by the theory that Zionism was a form of racism. Especially after the Six Day War in 1967, a new wave of anti-Zionist propaganda revived many old anti-Semitic arguments.

Zionismus: Lüge von A bis Z
B. Bakanov
Moscow: APN-Verlag, 1974
Pamphlet

Date: 
1974
Number: 
149

150 A stateless people

The emergence of Israel caused massive migration waves: over 700,000 original inhabitants fled Palestine in 1948, and a still greater number of Jewish residents left Arab countries in the years that followed. The political and social problems were perpetuated for over sixty years. Palestinians basically became a ‘people without a state,’ living permanently in temporary facilities. In 1972 the IISH received this undated poster from the Palestinian student organization GUPS, established in Cairo in 1959.

Zionists: Hands off the Palestinian students
General Union of Palestine Students
Ca 1970
Poster, 44 x 59

Number: 
150

151 Palestinians’ rights

In Israel there has been resistance to government policy as well. In 1989 B’Tselem (“in His image,” because all people are created in God’s image) was formed, the Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories. This organization publishes 3-5 reports a year about the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Gaza strip, such as this pamphlet from 2007. It documents Israeli violations of the human rights of Palestinians and gathers information about activities such as illegal construction of settlements.

The Gaza strip: one big prison
B’Tselem
Jerusalem: B’Tselem, 2007
Pamphlet, 27 x 35

Date: 
2007
Number: 
151

Location

Gaza strip
Palestinian Territory

152 Palestinian-Israeli contact

In 1988 the activist Latif Dori was tried in Israel for meeting with a delegation from the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) in 1986. Together with other Israeli activists of Oriental descent, he had spoken about peace, despite a recent law that made meetings with the PLO a punishable offence. The Committee to Save the Peace Dialogue opposed this law. Dori and three others were sentenced to fines and terms of imprisonment.

Request for support of Latif Dori
Committee to Save the Peace Dialogue
Tel Aviv, 14 August 1988
Pamphlet, 22 x 28
Israeli Peace Movement Records, no 42

Date: 
1988
Number: 
152

Location

Tel Aviv
Israel

153 The Gaza Strip

“The continuing noble struggle in Gaza” was the subject of this poster of the late 1960s. The Gaza Strip, which had been occupied by Egypt in 1948, was conquered by Israel in the Six-Day War of 1967. This contributed much to the ascendancy of a properly Palestinian resistance movement, in which Fatah, led by Yasser Arafat (1929-2004), came to play the leading role. The Palestine Liberation Organization faced not just Israel, but often the Arab states as well.

Ma’raka al-karama mustamira Ghaza [The continuing noble fight in Gaza]
Late 1960s
Poster, 71 x 51

Date: 
1965 - 1969
Number: 
153

Location

Gaza strip
Germany