15 Prosperity and fortune

Ricardo’s intellectual friends included Jeremy Bentham, Thomas Malthus, and James Mill. They developed utilitarianism, an ethical movement, which – unlike Mandeville – held that the wellbeing and happiness of all people were determined by individual actions. The theory was systematically elaborated by John Stuart Mill (1806-1873), the son of James. He took all human beings seriously and did not exclude women, going down in history as the first male feminist.

John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill
E. Hader
Berlin: Sophus Williams, 1884
Photograph of a painting, with autograph, 11 x 17