181 A Malayan liberation army
Anti-colonial opposition was often divided both ideologically and along ethnic, religious, or other lines. In Malaysia the communist party membership was primarily Chinese, and the same held true for the communist Malayan Peoples’ Liberation Army that waged guerrilla warfare during the Emergency proclaimed in 1948. One of the ten MPLA regiments, however, consisted largely of Malaysians. The British were particularly harsh toward this Tenth Regiment, hoping this approach would restrict participation in the battle to the Chinese population.