87 Mensheviks

In 1903 the Russian social-democratic movement broke up into Mensheviks and Bolsheviks, auguring the future differences between social democrats and communists in various respects. Here, three Mensheviks appear in exile in 1927: Vladimir Voytinsky (1885-1960), Pavel Axelrod (1850-1928), and Boris Sapir (1902-1989). Axelrod, who with Georgi Plekhanov was among the first Russian Marxists, had published the well-known journal Iskra together with Vladimir Lenin and others. In 1936 Sapir became head of the Russian cabinet at the IISH.

Vladimir Vojtinskij, Pavel Aksel’rod, and Boris Sapir

Vladimir Vojtinskij, Pavel Aksel’rod, and Boris Sapir
Berlin, 1927
Photograph, 11 x 8
(from Karl Kautsky Papers)



Voytinsky and Axelrod Papers

Sapir Papers

On Boris Sapir and his papers, see Stephen Corrsin, Marc Jansen and Ellen Scaruffi, Boris Moiseevich Sapir: menshevik and social historian: an introduction to his life, an inventory of his archives at the Bakhmeteff Archive, Columbia University, New York, and a bibliography of his publications, Amsterdam: Stichting Beheer IISG, 1997, IISH call number PUB K 32.