Boudien de Vries De roman Lidewijde en de burgerlijke leescultuur. Lezers en leesgezelschappen in de negentiende eeuw
Willemijn Ruberg `Je n'écris qu'en vue de m'amuser'. Over sekseverschillen in negentiende-eeuwse autobiografieën en dagboeken
Betty de Hart Maria Toet en andere verhalen. De nationaliteit van de gehuwde vrouw en de constructie van de natiestaat
Yves Segers De huishuren in België, 1800-1920. Constructie en analyse van een nationale huurprijsindex
de Vries De roman Lidewijde en de burgerlijke leescultuur. Lezers
en leesgezelschappen in de negentiende eeuw
Reading societies were a wide spread phenomenon in all Westeuropean countries from the late 18th century till the beginning of the 20th century. This article discusses the development and function of these bourgeois forms of sociabiltity, and the reasons why almost all of them disseappered around the turn of the century. Research shows that the membership mainly consisted of intellectuals and leading politicians rather than well-to-do entrepreneurs and merchants. Unique source material of one reading society, i.e. the borrowing records of the Haarlem Leesmuseum between 1868 and 1914, allows us to draw some general conclusions about what was actually read. Novels were the most popular genre, especially novels of now forgotten authors. The masterpieces of 19th C literature were less in favour with the ordinary reading audience than one might expect.
Ruberg `Je n'écris qu'en vue de m'amuser'. Over sekseverschillen
in negentiende-eeuwse autobiografieën en dagboeken
The first part of this article offers a survey of theories on gender-differences in autobiographies and diaries. It argues against the image of the autobiography being a `typically male' genre, and the diary being a `typically female' genre, because that image is based on narrow definitions of those two genres. Besides, the notions of `male' and `female' are differently defined in different periods. Furthermore, comparison of writings by men and women is vital before conclusions can be drawn on what would be `typical' for either sex to write about. Actual comparisons between nineteenth-century Dutch autobiographies and diaries written by men and women of the higher classes show that men write more about the public sphere than women, but that both men and women often write about their families. It is also plausible that nineteenth-century ideology seems to have had an influence on the themes of these writings: women write less often about sexuality and controversies, and claim they write to `amuse themselves'. Writing in French by women is probably connected with this last theme.
de Hart Maria Toet en andere verhalen. De nationaliteit van de gehuwde
vrouw en de constructie van de natiestaat
Until 1964 Dutch women marrying a foreigner automatically lost their Dutch nationality. Foreign women derived Dutch nationality from marrying with Dutch husband until 1985. Only since 1985 Dutch women can pass on their nationality to their children. This article explores the arguments used by Dutch government and in parliament for upholding gender inequality in nationality law, by analysing discussions over law reforms. Women not only lost their nationality because they were not considered as equals of men, but also because they did not belong any longer as members of the Dutch nation-state. Restrictive immigration policy, especially the fear of ‘bogus marriages’ determined the way in which formal equality was reached in 1985.
Segers The rent for houses in Belgium, 1800-1920. Construction and analysis
of a national index
On the basis of several city and centre of public welfare archives (OCMW) a large dataset was collected about private spending on rent for the 1800-1920 period in eight Flemish and Walloon cities: Antwerp, Bruges, Brussels, Ghent, Kortrijk, Leuven, Luik and Namen. These data were used to calculate an individual rent index for each city, using the chain index method, and finally to present a national rent index. In general, Belgian rents rose more than four times in the period under study. This growth was due to demographic pressure, economic development and inadequate building activity, more significant in the larger towns. The rent level doubled between 1800 and 1860 and further peaked till 1880. After two decades of stabilization and even declining, prices increased again since 1900. In the smaller cities rents increased more progressively.
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