The Conspiracy of the Batavians under Julius Civilis
Claudius (Julius) Civilis and other chiefs of the Batavians solemnly decide to ally against the Romans. Rembrandt van Rijn's painting of 1661 was intended for the new city hall of Amsterdam, but The Conspiracy of the Batavians under Julius Civilis was soon taken down and ended up in the National Museum of Sweden. Men swearing an oath to undertake a covert action would define the image of the secret society. In several cultures, the leader of a band of young men was typically portrayed as one-eyed; according to Tacitus, this characteristic made Civilis compare himself to Hannibal.