Volume 43 part 1 (1998)


General Issues
Continents and Countries

Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.

General Issues


Harding, Neil. Leninism. Macmillan Press Ltd, Basingstoke [etc.] 1996. ix, 346 pp. £42.50.
"This book sets out to examine critically the constitutive elements of Leninism as a world view, as a way of comprehending the economic, social and political realities of the modern world." Contrary to the dominant interpretations of Lenin and Leninism, Professor Harding argues in this study that Leninism was an integrated ideological system of thought which was formulated principally in the period 1914-1917, was a more authentic Marxism and informed Lenin's actions more than is commonly acknowledged. The author concludes that Leninism is best understood as a reaction to World War I.

Kofman, Myron. Edgar Morin. From Big Brother to Fraternity. [Modern European Thinkers Series.] Pluto Press, London [etc.] 1996. viii, 132 pp. £30.00. (Paper: £9.99.)
This is a concise overview of the work of the French cultural philosopher Edgar Morin (1921), a leading éminence grise of the French intellectuals and the founder of the journal Arguments. Morin's Autocritique (1959), became a classic account of the rift with the French Communist Party. According to the author, Morin is the most self-referential thinker in French since Montaigne. The central element in Morin's philosophical work is the concept of self-organization, which connects the natural sciences, the humanities and philosophy, and thus offers an important alternative to post-modernist thinkers like Derrida and Deleuze.

Lawen, Irene. Konzeptionen der Freiheit. Zum Stellenwert der Freiheitsidee in der Sozialethik John Stuart Mills und Michail A. Bakunins. [Schriften zur politischen Ethik, Band 6.] Verlag für Entwicklungspolitik Saarbrücken GmbH, Saarbrücken 1996. 329 pp. DM 52.00; S.fr. 47.00; S 380.00.
Comparing the concept of freedom in the works of John Stuart Mill and Mikhail Bakunin, this study investigates the similarities and differences between freedom as an idealistic, ethically defined value and freedom in its concrete, socio-political framework. The author discerns two main conceptual currents in the concept of freedom: the positive, intrapersonal concept, represented by Rousseau, Marx and Bakunin and the negative, interpersonal concept, reflecting the liberal tradition of Hobbes, Locke, Hume, Bentham and Mill.

Little, Adrian. The Political Thought of André Gorz. [Routledge Studies in Social and Political Thought, 3.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1996. ix, 213 pp. £40.00.
This book is a critical evaluation of the ideas of the Austrian-French philosopher André Gorz (1924). Challenging the conventional interpretation of Gorz's work, Dr Little sees Gorz's originality in his prioritization of individual autonomy against the collectivist tendency in classical Marxism and locates him alongside neo-Marxists, such as Habermas and Offe. According to the author, Gorz has devised an enduring analysis of the labour process, the technical division of labour, class conflict and the ecology question in which the emancipation and self-determination of the individual remain paramount. Remarkably, Dr Little bases himself almost entirely on English translations of Gorz's works.


Ausblicke auf das vergangene Jahrhundert. Die Politik der internationalen Arbeiterbewegung von 1900 bis 2000. Festschrift für Theodor Bergmann. Hrsg. von Wladislaw Hedeler, Mario Keßler [und] Gert Schäfer. VSA-Verlag, Hamburg 1996. 401 pp. DM 39.80.
This Festschrift for the German Marxist labour historian Theodor Bergmann, in honour of his eightieth birthday, brings together 21 contributions that deal with the main themes in Bergmann's work and political involvement: the rise and decline of the Communist International (among others, Friedrich I. Firsow and Peter von Oertzen); anti-Stalinist communism in historical perspective (inter alia Jochen Cerný and Robert V. Daniels); socialism and the Jewish Question (inter alia Jack Jacobs and Mario Keßler); metamorphoses of social democracy (Marcel van der Linden and Mike Jones); agrarian reforms and national liberation (inter alia Reinhard Kößler) and intelligentsia and class. A biographical sketch and a bibliography are included.

Burazerovic, Manfred. Max Nettlau. Der lange Weg zur Freiheit. OPPO-Verlag, Berlin 1996. 212 pp. DM 48.00.
This dissertation (Bochum, 1992) is a biographical study of the well-known historian of anarchism, Max Nettlau (1865-1944). The extensive manuscript of Nettlau's memoirs serves as Dr Burazerovic's basis for sketching the emergence of and continuities in the historian's ideologies and convictions and analyzing and discussing his anarchism.

Dearborn, Mary V. Queen of Bohemia. The Life of Louise Bryant. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston [etc.] 1996. xiii, 365 pp. Ill. £16.99.
This is a comprehensive biography of Louise Bryant (1885-1935), known to many as the wife of John Reed, but an important foreign correspondent and star reporter in her own right, who may be viewed, alongside Reed, as one of the important chroniclers of the Russian Revolution. The emphasis in this biography is on her eventful and often tumultuous personal life, which ended in the tragic tones of divorce, solitude, financial troubles and detoriating health.

Gran, Peter. Beyond Eurocentrism. A New View of Modern World History. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse 1996. xiii, 440 pp. $19.95.
Aiming to devise a new method for studying modern world history, which transcends the dominant paradigm of eurocentrism, Professor Gran identifies four forms of hegemony that emerged from the political crisis following the penetration of capitalism into each nation: the "Russian Road", the "Italian Road", the "Tribal-Ethnic Road" and bourgeois democracy. Questioning established canons of comparative inquiry, he then compares, along the lines of the four forms of hegemony, disparate and distinctive nations, such as Russia and Iraq, Italy, India and Mexico, Belgian Congo, Great Britain and the United States.

The History of the Kibbutz. A Selection of Sources - 1905-1929. Ed. by Avraham Yassour. [University of Haifa], Merhavia 1995. iii, 230 pp. $25.00.
This mimeographed volume offers a selection of documents relating the early history of the Jewish cooperative and communal movement in Palestine in the years 1905-1929, known as the kvuta and kibbutz movement. Selected documents include letters, excerpts from diaries, essays, drafts, programmatic texts, statutes and minutes. Some texts are by forerunners and ideologists of the movement from the 1870s onward, while others relate actual experiments, constitutions and programmes, as well as problems within cooperatives and communes. The editor has supplied a general introduction to the history of the movement. Statistical data and a chronology are appended. Unfortunately, the table of contents lacks page numbers.

Onderlinge Hulpfondsen. Historische en etnografische essays. Onder red. van Marcel van der Linden en Jacqueline Sluijs. Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1996. 180 pp. D.fl. 29.90.
The ten contributions in this collection, largely based on a conference organized in Amsterdam in December 1993, address the origins, development and activities of mutual funds as they arose in nineteenth-century Western Europe and still exist today in many developing countries and among immigrants in West-European and American cities. Apart from two general theoretical contributions (by Abram de Swaan and Marcel van der Linden), essays are included on mutual funds in the Netherlands before 1860 and in contemporary Pakistan, Bolivia and Tanzania, as well as on funds among migrant Turkish and Creole-Surinamese women in Amsterdam. A bibliography on the subject is appended.

Payne, Stanley G. A History of Fascism 1914-1945. UCL Press, London n.d. [1996.] xiv, 613 pp. Ill. £14.95.
In this book Professor Payne, a well-known specialist in the field, offers a comprehensive history of fascism in interwar Europe as well as a survey of fascist theory and postwar fascism. Examining all major fascist movements, as well as other forms of authoritarian nationalism, the author lays the basis for a comparative analysis of authoritarianism. He traces the phenomenon of fascism through the history of ideas, previous political movements and the events of World War I, dealing not only with fascist Italy and Nazi Germany but also with proto-fascist and fascist movements in Rumania, Spain and Japan.

Sous l'œil de Moscou. Le Parti communiste suisse et l'Internationale 1931-1943. [Archives de Jules Humbert-Droz, V.] Sous la dir. d'André Lasserre, éd. par Brigitte Studer. Chronos, Zürich 1996. 909 pp. S.fr. 168.00; DM 200.00.
Eight years after the publication of Volume III, Volume V is the concluding work in the publication of sources based on the personal archive of the Swiss communist Jules Humbert-Droz (1891-1971) (see IRSH, XV (1970), p. 484, XXIX (1984), p. 96 and XXXIV (1989), p. 353). This volume, published before Volume IV, includes 131 documents containing information about the Swiss Communist Party, its role in the Comintern secretariat and its relation with the Comintern leadership in the period 1931-1943.


Banaszak, Lee Ann. Why Movements Succeed or Fail. Opportunity, Culture, and the Struggle for Woman Suffrage. [Princeton Studies in American Politics.] Princeton University Press, Princeton 1996. xv, 291 pp. $19.95.
Switzerland was one of the last democratic countries to enfranchise women: only as late as 1990 did the last Swiss canton adopt female suffrage. Comparing suffrage campaigns in 48 American states and 25 Swiss cantons, Professor Banaszak examines why pro-suffrage activists in the United States and Switzerland had such varying measures of success. Drawing on, among others, interviews with 60 Swiss suffrage activists, the author argues that the Swiss suffrage movement's belief in consensus politics and local autonomy and reliance on government parties for obtaining information limited their tactical decisions in surprising ways.

Dartmann, Christoph. Re-distribution of Power, Joint Consultation or Productivity Coalitions? Labour and Postwar Reconstruction in Germany and Britain, 1945-1953. [Arbeitskreis Deutsche England-Forschung, Veröffentlichung 31.] Universitätsverlag Dr. N. Brockmeyer, Bochum 1996. vii, 398 pp. DM 59.80.
This study compares the rise of labour's participation in controlling and managing industrial undertakings and trade union policies on this issue of co-determination in Germany and Great Britain in the period of postwar economic reconstruction, 1945-1953. Dr Dartmann concludes that the major reasons for the introduction of a system of workers' co-determination in all major heavy industries and in coal mining companies in West-Germany versus the failure of such efforts in Britain lay in the influence of the Marshall Plan and in the ideological, strategic and policy differences between the German and British trade unions.


Das sozialdemokratische Modell. Organisationsstrukturen und Politikinhalte im Wandel. Hrsg. von Jens Borchert, Lutz Golsch, Uwe Jun [und] Peter Lösche. [Reihe Europa- und Nordamerika-Studien, Band 2.] Leske + Budrich, Opladen 1996. 331 pp. DM 48.00.
The twelve contributions from political scientists in this volume, based on the third European-American Conference of the Centre for European and North-American Studies in Göttingen in November 1994, address the present crisis of the European social-democracy and the various initiatives for restructuring the social-democratic parties and their policies in Germany, Great Britain, Italy and the United States. The first six contributions concentrate on social-democratic politics today and prospects for new social-democratic projects to overcome the crisis. In the last six the focus is on organizational reform within the social-democratic parties and social-democratic concepts of general institutional political reform. CONTINENTS AND COUNTRIES



Arnold, Bernd. Steuer und Lohnarbeit im Südwesten von Deutsch-Ostafrika, 1891 bis 1916. Eine historisch-ethnologische Studie. [Europa-Übersee, Band 4.] Lit, Münster [etc.] 1994 [recte 1995]. 415 pp. Ill. DM 78.80.
See Reinhart Kössler's review in this volume, pp. 158-160.


Stinchcombe, Arthur L. Sugar Island Slavery in the Age of Enlightenment. The Political Economy of the Caribbean World. Princeton University Press, Princeton [1996.] xvii, 361 pp. Maps. $45.00; £29.50.
In this comparative study of the political economy of the Caribbean sugar plantation islands in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries Professor Stinchcombe evaluates the persistence of unfreedom and racism from the slave economy of the plantation into post-slavery periods. Scrutinizing Caribbean slavery and emancipation movements from a world-historical perspective, the author finds that the persistence of unfreedom after emancipation varied according to geography, local political economy and the relation to outside powers. He concludes that the labour regime after emancipation often proved a more efficient social control mechanism than slavery.


Weinstein, Barbara. For Social Peace in Brazil. Industrialists and the Remaking of the Working Class in São Paulo, 1920-1964. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] [1977.] xvii, 435 pp. Ill. $59.95. (Paper: $24.95.)
This study is about the origins and development of two essentially private organizations that were established in Brazil in the 1940s and were responsible for rationalization and introduction of scientific management in Brazilian industry: the National Service for Industrial Training (SENAI) and the Industrial Social Services (SESI). Focusing on São Paulo, Dr Weinstein sketches the discourse of rationalization and scientific management in the 1920s as the background to the establishment of the SENAI and the SESI and examines organized labour's role in the process. She concludes that both industrialists and organized labour favoured rationalization as a way of ensuring industrial development and economic growth.


Hard Lessons. The Mine Mill Union in the Canadian Labour Movement. Ed. by Mercedes Steedman, Peter Suschnigg, and Dieter K. Buse. Dundurn Press, Toronto [etc.] 1995. ix, 325 pp. Ill. $24.99.
The 21 contributions to this volume are based on the conference "Where the Past Meets the Future - the Place of Alternative Unions in the Canadian Labour Movement", held in Sudbury, Ontario in May 1993 to celebrate the centennial of the Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers Union of Canada. Themes dealt with include: the historical and present state of the Mine Mill (as the Union is commonly called); the role of dissidents and minorities in Canadian trade unionism; trade unionism and the development of the labour law; health and safety in the workplace; and the influence of technological change on trade unionism.

United States of America

Brundage, W. Fitzhugh. A Socialist Utopia in the New South. The Ruskin Colonies in Tennessee and Georgia 1894-1901. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1996. xi, 263 pp. Ill. $38.95. ($16.95.)
This study examines how several hundred utopian socialists formed a cooperative community (which came to be known as the Ruskin colonies) in the late nineteenth century, first in Tennessee and later in Georgia. Professor Brundage, who recently published a study on lynching in Georgia and Virginia at the turn of the century (see IRSH, 39 (1994), p. 127), gives a comprehensive account of the history of the colonies, which all too quickly ended in a bitter failure for idealistic participants, and places their past in the context of the American utopian socialism of the Gilded Era.

Buckingham, Peter H. Rebel against Injustice. The Life of Frank P. O'Hare. University of Missouri Press, Columbia [etc.] 1996. xii, 276 pp. Ill. £31.95.
Frank P. O'Hare (1877-1960) is primarily known as the husband of the prominent American radical and activist Kate Richards O'Hare. In this biography, Professor Buckingham depicts O'Hare as a radical in his own right, who after his marriage with Kate Richards became a sort of socialist impresario for his wife and Eugene Debs. After the breakup of his marriage in the 1920s, O'Hare remained, according to the author, a familiar sight in his home town of St Louis, where he worked as a radical journalist and was involved in community activism.

Chalmers, David. And the Crooked Places Made Straight. The Struggle for Social Change in the 1960s. Sec. Ed. [The American Moment.] The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 1996. xviii, 232 pp. Ill. $38.50. (Paper: $13.95.)
In this essayistic history of the 1960s in the United States as the decade of major social, cultural and political change, originally published in 1991, Dr Chalmers deals with themes such as the development of the civil rights movement, student protest, counterculture, the Vietnam War as a catalyzing force, the Antiwar movement and the role of the media and women's liberation. He concludes that although the passions of change that characterized the 1960s quickly subsided, many of the transformations effected and the basic issues raised remain.

Gengarelly, W. Anthony. Distinguished Dissenters and Opposition to the 1919-1920 Red Scare. [Symposium Series, Vol. 35.] The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston [etc.] 1996. xxiii, 408 pp. $109.95.
This study details the rise of the libertarian opposition to the "Red Scare", which wafted through the United States in the years 1919-1920. Professor Gengarelly focuses on the awakening of a libertarian consciousness among an elite leadership of intellectuals with high social standing in the years preceding the Red Scare, examines the opposition interests in the preservation of the freedom of speech and other expression (as prescribed in the Bill of Rights) and analyses the development of a concerted libertarian countermovement and its role in the Red Scare's decline.

Graham, Sara Hunter. Woman Suffrage and the New Democracy. Yale University Press, New Haven [etc.] [1997.] xviii, 234 pp. £20.00.
In this study of American woman suffrage and the suffragists' interest group, the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA), the late Professor Graham focuses on the element of pressure politics and the role of the NAWSA as one of the most effective single-issue pressure groups in twentieth-century American politics. She describes how the NAWSA suffragists turned their initially weak organization into a successful mass movement and explores how class and racial pre-conceptions of leading suffragists shaped the movement's constituency and activities. She concludes that the suffrage organization and strategy left an important legacy for the modern feminist movement and for political activism of all kinds.

Green, Max. Epitaph for American Labor. How Union Leaders Lost Touch with America. The AEI Press, Washington (D.C.) 1996. xiii, 207 pp. $24.95.
This general overview of the history of American labour unionism focuses on the period since the 1960s, when, according to the author, American labour became an integral part of the American Left in less than a decade. In the view of Mr Green, who was active in New York City's teachers' union in the early 1980s, this "change of sides" or "capitulation to the Left" and the concurrent loss among the union leadership of faith in the benefits of the free market economy have been decisive in the sharp drop in membership and the decline of political and economic influence since the 1980s and will eventually lead to the union's disappearance.

Harriet Jacobs and Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. New Critical Essays. Ed. by Deborah M. Garfield [and] Rafia Zafar. [Cambridge Studies in American Literature and Culture.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1996. vi, 306 pp. £14.95; $18.95.
This anthology features a compendium of contemporary scholarly analysis of Harriet Jacobs (1813-1897) and her renowned autobiography Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, the most important slave narrative by an African-American woman. Included are contributions from both established Jacobs scholars - such as Jean Fagan Yellin, her biographer and editor of the annotated edition of Incidents - and emerging critics. The authors take on a variety of subjects from Incidents and seek to contextualize both the historical figure of Harriet Jacobs and her autobiography.

Haynes, John Earl. Red Scare or Red Menace? American Communism and Anticommunism in the Cold War Era. [The American Ways Series.] Ivan R. Dee, Chicago 1996. viii, 214 pp. $24.95.
In this concise history of American communism and anticommunism during the Cold War years Mr Haynes aims to make the American anticommunism in the 1940s and 1950s historically explicable. Unlike other historiographers of American anticommunism during this period and based on material from the newly opened Soviet archives, the author - who recently co-edited a document collection on American communism (see IRSH, 42 (1997), p. 121) - argues that evidence exists of a link between the American Communist party and Soviet espionage; that a historical continuity connects post-World War II anticommunism with prewar antifascism; and that the anti-Communist sentiment is broader and more varied - and less irrational - than commonly acknowledged.

Hugill, Peter J. Upstate Arcadia. Landscape, Aesthetics, and the Triumph of Social Differentiation in America. [Geographical Perspectives on the Human Past.] Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., Lanham (Md) [etc.] 1995. xviii, 255 pp. Ill. Maps. $61.50.
This is a social-geographical history of Cazenovia, a Central New York commuter village near Syracuse, from its founding in 1793 to the present. The author starts from the notion "that the landscape is a text, a discourse between social groups". Focusing on local construction development related to changing land ownership and modifications in the social composition and differentiation, the village's history is described in the context of the expansion of the New England culture and, more broadly, the proliferation of European hegemony in the new world.

Sawislak, Karen. Smoldering City. Chicagoans and the Great Fire, 1871-1874. [Historical Studies of Urban America.] The University of Chicago Press, Chicago [etc.] [1996.] xi, 396 pp. Ill. $42.50; £33.95. (Paper: $15.95; £12.75.)
This study reviews the event known as the Great Chicago Fire, in which approximately one third of the city burned down on 8 and 9 October 1871, through careful examination of the resulting debates covering issues ranging from the significance of charity and social welfare, through work and labour relations and definitions of morality to the limitations and nature of political authority and state power. This dramatic episode of the Great Fire and the rebuilding of the city are explored by Professor Sawislak, as a case study of the interworkings of identity and power in an urban community.

"We Are All Leaders": The Alternative Unionism of the Early 1930s. Ed. by Staughton Lynd. [The Working Class in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1996. x, 343 pp. $44.95. (Paper: $17.95.)
The nine contributions in this volume describe the alternative, politically independent, community-based unionism that developed in the United States in the early 1930s. Drawing on interviews, ego-documents and other primary sources the contributors deal with alternative unionism throughout the country and in different crafts and work sites, which shared a value system based on egalitarianism.


Guide to the Asian collections at the International Institute of Social History. Ed. by Emile Schwidder. Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1996. 96 pp. Ill. D.fl. 19.90.
This guide contains a general survey of all collections with a substantial Asian interest and historical materials on Asia in ostensibly Asian collections and others at the International Institute of Social History (IISH). The archives and collections described consist entirely or partly of original documents. The entries are divided into a section on individuals and one on organizations. Each summary of an archive or collection is preceded by a condensed biography or history.


Bergmann, Theodor. Auf dem langen Marsch. Chinas Weg in die sozialistische Marktwirtschaft. VSA-Verlag, Hamburg 1996. 128 pp. DM 24.80.
In this book Professor Bergmann, for whom a Festschrift was recently published (see above), has collected his most important articles and analyses on Chinese communism, which were published from 1982 onward, and has added an introductory chapter. Themes dealt with are: faction struggles within the Chinese Communist Party; agrarian policy and changes in the agrarian structure; economic and social policy; political reform; economic reform and the development of the socialist market economy; and the prospects for socialism in China.

Hemm, Dagmar. Wege und Irrwege der Frauenbefreiung in China. Radikalismus und Idealismus der Frauenemanzipation gesehen in Zeitschriftenbeiträgen aus der Vierten-Mai-Ära (1916-1922). [Sozial- und wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Studien zu Ostasien, Band 3.] Edition Global, München 1996. iv, 250 pp. DM 44.00.
The Chinese reform movement of intellectuals of 1916-1922, which peaked in the May Fourth Incident of 1919, included a visible current of women's emancipation. This study analyses the discussions on women's emancipation, published in the reform movement's journals. The author concludes that, contrary to the trend in later reform movements (where women's emancipation was considered subordinate with respect to general political and social reform), women's emancipation was viewed as an issue in its own right in the May Fourth movement.

Pepper, Suzanne. Radicalism and education reform in 20th-century China. The search for an ideal development model. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1996. ix, 610 pp. £45.00; $59.95.
This is a history of twentieth-century China's radical education reform, which culminated in the educational component of the Cultural Revolution experience, known as the "education revolution". Though hailed by foreign observers, this experiment with radical educational reform had already been disavowed by the Chinese themselves by 1980. From the perspectives of both the international educational experience and China's own educational history and the experiences of actual participants in the education revolution, Mrs Pepper analyzes China's educational revolution of the 1970s as only the most tumultuous episode in a long struggle to adopt Western ways in Chinese society.


Afary, Janet. The Iranian Constitutional Revolution, 1906-1911. Grassroots Democracy, Social Democracy, & the Origins of Feminism. Columbia University Press, New York 1996. xxi, 448 pp. Ill. $40.00. (Paper: $17.50.)
In this study of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1906-1911, Professor Afary explores the roles played by different social, political and religious groups in the revolution. She aims to show how, contrary to the conventional Eurocentric view, a significant grassroots women's movement had emerged in this period and played a decisive role, and how the discourse of ethnicity, class and gender often clashed with the constitutional movement. She concludes that the failure of radical constitutionalists to bring about a separation of state and religion or any meaningful religious reform has had grave repercussions on twentieth-century Iranian society.


Russell, Raymond. Utopia in Zion. The Israeli Experience with Worker Cooperatives. [SUNY Series in Israeli Studies.] State University of New York Press, Albany 1995. ix, 330 pp. $19.95.
This book provides a historical, social and economic analysis of the Israeli urban workers cooperatives, as they have developed since the beginning of the twentieth century. Professor Russell focuses on processes affecting their formation and dissolution, their use of non-member labour and the evolution of their decision-making practices. According to the author, the formation and development of the cooperatives are greatly influenced by utopian social and economic conditions that prevailed in Jewish Palestine in the first half of the twentieth century.



Hearn, Mark and Harry Knowles. One Big Union. A History of the Australian Workers Union 1886-1994. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1996. xvii, 377 pp. Ill. £40.00.
The Australian Workers Union (AWU), which was formed in 1886 as a sheep shearers union and expanded in the first half of the twentieth century by amalgamating with other unions, has been one of the most influential unions in Australia's history, operating in all Australian states and across a wide range of industries. This book offers a comprehensive general history of the AWU from its foundation to 1994, covering the key events and crises in Australian labour history. The authors conclude that one of the main achievements of the AWU has been its role in forging an identity for its members.


After Socialism. Land Reform and Social Change in Eastern Europe. Ed. by Ray Abrahams. [New Directions in Anthropology, vol. 6.] Berghahn Books, Providence [etc.] 1996. ix, 221 pp. £35.00.
The eight papers in this volume focus on a variety of aspects of recent agrarian development following the collapse of communism in seven eastern European countries in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The contributors, all but one sociologists or anthropologists, deal with subjects including land reform and social change in Albania, Bulgaria, Estonia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Hungary and Poland.

Anpassung - Kollaboration - Widerstand. Kollektive Reaktionen auf die Okkupation. Hrsg. von Wolfgang Benz, Johannes Houwink ten Cate [und] Gerhard Otto. [Reihe Nationalsozialistische Besatzungspolitik in Europa 1939-1945, Band I.] Metropol, Berlin 1996. 303 pp. DM 36.00.
This collection of fifteen essays forms the first of a series of publications from a scholarly network (financed by the European Union), which considers the occupation policy of Nazi Germany in World War II from a comparative perspective. This volume aims to reconstruct the fears, expectations, patterns of reactions and attitudes among the population of the occupied countries towards the established occupation regimes. The countries covered are Denmark, Norway, the Benelux countries, France, Serbia, Greece, the Baltic states, Byelorussia, Ukraine, Poland, Czecho-Slovakia, Italy and Hungary.

Crossick, Geoffrey and Heinz-Gerhard Haupt. The Petite Bourgeoisie in Europe 1780-1914. Enterprise, Family and Independence. Routledge, London [etc.] 1995. xi, 296 pp. £45.00.
See Eric D. Weitz's review in this volume, pp. 139-142.

Goertz, Hans-Jürgen. The Anabaptists. Transl. into English by Trevor Johnson. [Christianity and Society in the Modern World.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1996. xviii, 215 pp. £45.00.
This is the English translation of Die Täufer. Geschichte und Deutung (1980), which offers a comprehensive overview of the religious and political significance, the views and the social setting of this radical wing of the Reformation. With a focus on Germany, but also covering Anabaptism in England, Switzerland and the Netherlands, Professor Goertz devotes particular attention to the role of women and "rank-and-file" Anabaptists. This English edition includes a new introduction which considers the book's historiographical context, taking into account the most recent publications on the subject.

Gunst, Péter. Agrarian Development and Social Change in Eastern Europe, 14th-19th Centuries. [Collected Studies Series.] Variorum, Alder- shot; Ashgate Publishing Company, Brookfield (Vermont) 1996. x, 324 pp. £53.50.
This collection comprises twelve essays by the Hungarian scholar Dr Gunst, covering agrarian development and social change in Eastern Europe and especially in Hungary from the fourteenth to the nineteenth centuries. Eight of the chapters address specific Hungarian themes, four papers are published here for the first time. Six of the chapters are in German. All the papers published previously are mimeographed including their original page numbers.

Hahn, Manfred. Archivalienkunde des vormarxistischen Sozialismus. Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 1995. 304 pp. DM 88.00; S.fr. 88.00; S 687.00.
See Ahlrich Meyer's review in this volume, pp. 142-144.

Das Jahr 1956 in Ostmitteleuropa. Hrsg. von Hans Henning Hahn und Heinrich Olschowsky. Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1996. 212 pp. DM 68.00.
This volume, based on a conference with the same title organized in Leipzig in October 1993, brings together nineteen contributions (essays and source publications) covering the major events that took place in Eastern and Central Europe in 1956: Khrushchev's criticism of Stalin, the uprisings in Poland (the "Polish Spring in October") and the Hungarian Revolution. In addition to sketching these major events, the contributors analyze their influence on other communist countries from the perspective of the historical interrelations of the Soviet communist states. In the concluding essay the Polish historian Adam Michnik looks back on the revisionist tendencies in the "Polish Spring in October".

Pfaff, Ivan. Die Sowjetunion und die Verteidigung der Tschechoslowakei 1934-1938. Versuch der Revision einer Legende. [Ostmitteleuropa in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart, Band 21.] Böhlau Verlag, Köln [etc.] 1996. vii, 510 pp. Loose-leaf maps. DM 136.00.
This study deals with the hitherto unanswered historical question of whether the Soviet Union was willing and able to help Czecho-Slovakia in case of an expected attack by Nazi-Germany. The author extends his investigation of this question beyond bilateral diplomatic developments. He concludes that the Soviet Union never truly intended to provide assistance in case of German aggression against Czecho-Slovakia.


La peur du rouge. Ed. par Pascal Delwit et José Gotovitch. [Histoire, économie, société.] Editions de l'Université de Bruxelles, Bruxelles 1996. xxxii, 230 pp. Ill. B.fr. 895; F.fr. 165.00.
The eighteen contributions in this collection deal with the fear of "Red" and of the Left among various social and political groups in Belgium in the second half of the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries. Contributions included focus on, among others, the origins of the anarchist danger in Belgium (Jan Moulaert); the fear of the Left among the self-employed middle calss (Serge Jaumain) and among rural residents (Leen Van Molle) before World War I; and anti-communism in the Socialist Party after World War II (the first editor). In the last section of the book comparisons are made with France and the Belgian colonies.

Polasky, Janet. The Democratic Socialism of Emile Vandervelde: Between Reform and Revolution. Berg, Oxford [etc.] 1995. xi, 303 pp. Ill. £39.95. (Paper: £14.95.)
See André Mommen's review in this volume, pp. 150-152.

Eire - Ireland

Ellis, P. Berresford. A History of the Irish Working Class. Pluto Press, London [etc.] 1996. 372 pp. £40.00. (Paper: £12.99.)
This is a revised, updated edition of a general history of labour and the working class in Ireland, which originally appeared in 1972 (see IRSH, XVII (1972), p. 756). In the preface to this edition the author comments on changes, especially those in Northern Ireland during the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s.


Barry, David. Women and Political Insurgency. France in the Mid-Nineteenth Century. Macmillan, in assoc. with University of Durham, Basingstoke [etc.]; St. Martin's Press, Inc., New York 1996. xii, 213 pp. Ill. £35.00.
This book provides a survey of female insurgency in France from 1789 to 1871, focusing on Paris and the period between 1830 and 1851. Dr Barry concludes that although women's presence in traditional subsistence riots declined in this period, they remained deeply involved in riots where economic issues predominated. Exploring the links between contemporary feminism and insurgency, the author challenges the view that women retreated from popular movements during the nineteenth century and suggests that they developed their own means of public expression.

Cahm, Eric. The Dreyfus Affair in French Society and Politics. Longman, London [etc.] 1996. xvi, 211 pp. £11.99.
This textbook, an adapted and expanded translation of L'Affaire Dreyfus (1994), which was published for the Dreyfus centenary, offers a concise account of the Dreyfus Affair, anchoring it in its social and political context. Dr Cahm highlights the dual nature of anti–Dreyfusianism and the variety of socially and politically discontented groups mobilized by the scandal. A bibliography and chronology are appended.

Cahn, Jean-Paul. Le parti social-démocrate allemand et la fin de la Quatrième République française (1954-1958). [Contacts: Sér.II, Gallo-germanica, Vol. 18.] Peter Lang, Bern 1996. xx, 522 pp. S.fr. 78.00.
This study focuses on the attitudes within the German Socialist Party, the SPD, toward the political developments in France in the period 1954-1958, around the end of the Fourth Republic. With the accession of Mendès France as prime minister in 1954, the SPD had high hopes that the success of a left-wing politician in a neighbouring country would enhance the electoral prestige of its own party. Issues dealt with are the economic policy of the French socialists, the failure of the European Defence Community, the solution for the Saar region under the Mollet government, the deep tensions within the SPD as a result of the French policy in the Algerian crisis and the SPD's concern about De Gaulle's return to power.

César, Marc. La Commune de Narbonne (mars 1871). [Collection Études.] Presses Universitaires de Perpignan, n.p. [Perpignan] n.d. [1996.] 305 pp. F.fr. 120.00.
Paris was not the only city in France to experience a revolution after the Commune's foundation in 1871. In Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse and Narbonne, for example, residents staged similar revolutionary uprisings and followed suit in proclaiming the Commune. This study deals with the origins, development and long-term results of the Commune of Narbonne. The author traces the origins back to the 1848 events and shows that, contrary to the conventional image of a conservative rural population, the Commune of Narbonne found adherence among many villagers and rural residents.

Cubero, José. Nationalistes et étrangers. Le massacre d'Aigues-Mortes. IMAGO, Paris 1996. 252 pp. F.fr. 130.00.
In August 1893, a bloody riot in the Languedoc town of Aigues-Mortes between French and Italian workers in the salt mines resulted in the death of at least eight Italian workers. In this study, the underlying causes, the preceding events and the actual incident are analysed on the basis of press clippings, police reports and court records. The author concludes that rising chauvinism and xenophobia from the end of the Franco-German War in 1870 onward, exacerbated by the Dreyfus affair, formed fertile ground for an attitude in which French workers sought a scapegoat for the deteriorating economic conditions, which they found in the Italian migrant workers.

Elson Roessler, Shirley. Out of the Shadows. Women and Politics in the French Revolution, 1789-95. [Studies in Modern European History, Vol. 14.] Peter Lang, New York [etc.] 1996. x, 275 pp. Ill. S.fr. 65.00.
In this study Dr Roessler demonstrates the important role of women in the French Revolution until repressive legislation was passed in the spring of 1795. She traces the growth of female political awareness and the grassroots involvement in revolutionary action and concludes that women acted as citizens despite being denied the rights of citizenship.

Gullickson, Gay L. Unruly Women of Paris. Images of the Commune. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1996. xiii, 283 pp. Ill. $39.95; £31.50. (Paper: $16.95; £13.50.)
This study of the imagery of women and their role in the Commune of Paris examines contemporary accounts and drawings and analyses the images created in these texts, as well as drawings and paintings of female participants in the Commune. Dr Gullickson argues that the revolutionary struggle of the Commune was perceived and understood in gendered terms. Exploring the origins and development of the variety of images and imageries of women in the Commune, the author concludes that writers and artists have used images of women (such as that of the pétroleuses) to pass and provide a basis for moral judgments about the Commune.

Haine, W. Scott. The World of the Paris Café. Sociability among the French Working Class, 1789-1914. [The Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science, 114th Ser., 2.] The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] 1996. xxiv, 325 pp. Ill. $48.00.
This is a study of the location and function of the café in Parisian working-class life and sociability between the French Revolution and the beginning of World War I. The author argues that the nature of the café as an intermediate and mediating institution provides a unique perspective for the study of working-class sociability. Investigating the café in relation to work, family life, leisure, gender roles and political activity, he concludes that café space and café sociability enabled the emergence of a proletarian public sphere and helped foster a latent class consciousness that on occasion had political consequences.

Halévy, Élie. Correspondance (1891-1937). Textes réunis et prés. par Henriette Guy-Loë et annotés par Monique Canto-Sperber, Vincent Duclert et Henriette Guy-Loë. Préf. de François Furet. Éditions de Fallois, Paris 1996. 804 pp. F.fr. 240.00.
This volume presents the rich correspondence of Élie Halévy (1870-1937), a French historian and philosopher best known for his great work Histoire du peuple anglais au XIXe siècle, published in six volumes between 1913 and 1947 and translated as A History of the English People in the Nineteenth Century. Halévy focused on the rise of nonconformity in England. In his introduction to the correspondence, Professor Furet sketches the background and intellectual development of Halévy (who was born into a family with a deep cultural and intellectual involvement and turned to history after co-founding the successful philosophical journal Revue de métaphysique et de morale) and places his historical magnus opus in its historiographical context.

Hetmeier, Marita. Französische Arbeitermemoiren im 19. Jahrhundert - Zeugnisse einer anderen Kultur. [Text und Welt. Studien zur Literatur und Kultur der Romania, Band 7.] Lit, Münster 1996. 399 pp. DM 58.80.
In this dissertation (Münster, 1994) eight nineteenth-century French working-class memoirs are analyzed according to their social-historical and their literary aspects. Examining the writings of Agricol Perdiguier, Flora Tristan, Suzanne Voilquin and Norbert Truquin for the early, artisanal nineteenth century, Martin Nadaud and Joseph Benoit for the 1848 era, and Victorine Brocher and Louise Michel for the period around the Commune, Dr Hetmeier considers the role of the writing of these memoirs and the use of originally bourgeois literary forms in the social emancipation of the writers themselves and the working-class in general.

Moi, Jules Couasnault, syndicaliste de Fougères. Le combat social dans la capitale française de la chaussure à la "belle époque". Prés. par Claude Geslin. [Collection Moi.] Éditions Apogée, Rennes 1995. 198 pp. F.fr. 118.00.
Using a selection of letters and excerpts from letters by officials of the local bourse de travail (the labour exchange) in the Breton town of Fougères, centre of the French shoe industry, Professor Geslin sketches the courses of the labour relations, labour disputes, syndicalism and the local bourse itself in this industrial branch in the years 1900-1913. He concludes that the militant syndicalism that emerged during this period remained an active social and political force in the region until the shoe industry's demise in the 1970s.

Nord, Philip. The Republican Moment. Struggles for Democracy in Nineteenth-Century France. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 1995. viii, 321 pp. Ill. $49.95.
See Danielle Tartakowsky's review in this volume, pp. 144-147.

Sternhell, Zeev. Neither Right nor Left. Fascist Ideology in France. Transl. by David Maisel. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1996. xxxv, 416 pp. $18.95; £14.95.
This is the second edition of the English translation of Ni droite, ni gauche (1983). In his study of French fascist ideology, Professor Sternhell concludes that fascism was not just a temporary development in Germany and Italy but a significant aspect of French culture as well, which united antibourgeois, antiliberal nationalism and revolutionary syndicalist thought, each of which shared a rejection of the political culture inherited from eighteenth-century France. The publication of the first French edition generated many reactions in France. In his new preface to this edition the author deals with these reactions and notes the need to come to terms with the Vichy past.

Vandervort, Bruce. Victor Griffuelhes and French Syndicalism 1895-1922. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge [etc.] 1996. xix, 278 pp. $50.00.
See Wayne Thorpe's review in this volume, 147-150.


1875-1946. Vereinigungsprozesse in der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung und gesellschaftliche Forderungen. Tatsachen - Wirkungen - Einsichten. [Schriftenreihe der Marx-Engels-Stiftung, 26.] Pahl-Rugenstein Nachfolger, Bonn 1996. 173 pp. DM 28.00; S.fr. 28.00; S 227.00.
This volume, containing the proceedings of the seventh conference of historical research, organized by the historical commission of the Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus (PDS), the German Communist Party (DKP) and the Marx-Engels Foundation Wuppertal, brings together 26 contributions on the theme of processes of association within the German and international labour movement and societal demands in the period 1875-1946. It was published in honour of the fiftieth anniversary of the merger between the KPD and the SPD in 1946 in the Soviet occupation zone into the SED, a merger viewed as one of the most controversial within the German labour movement.

Adel und Staatsverwaltung in Brandenburg im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. Ein historischer Vergleich. Hrsg. von Kurt Adamy und Kristina Hübener. [Potsdamer Historische Studien, Band 2.] Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1996. 421 pp. DM 98.00.
The seventeen contributions in this collection explore the aristocratic governing elite, their functioning, biographies, the history and development of the positions held by the aristocracy and the history of families of aristocrats in the state of Brandenburg, Prussia, compared to other regions in the German Reich in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Regional variations in offices held by members of the aristocratic government elite and the relation to the statal authority and other social groups are compared to the situation in, among others, southern Germany, Saxony and Pomerania.

Akten und Eingaben aus dem kurhessischen Vormärz 1837-1848. Hrsg. und eingel. von Hellmut Seier. Bearb. von Bernd Weber und Hellmut Seier. [Vorgeschichte und Geschichte des Parlamentarismus in Hessen, Band 15.] N.G. Elwert Verlag, Marburg 1996. lxxviii, 608 pp. Ill. DM 150.00.
This source collection documents the political and social developments in the electorate Hesse-Kassel in the period of the Vormärz, the decade before the liberal revolution of March 1848. The selection begins directly after the political downfall of Hassenpflug (the reactionary minister of the interior) in 1837 and ends with the first breakthrough by the revolutionary movement in the Spring of 1848. The 195 documents include government documents (rulings, police reports) and protocols of the Landtag, as well as letters of appeal, petitions etc. from individuals or groups of the population.

"An alle OdF-Betreuungsstellen Sachsen-Anhalts!": Eine dokumentarische Fallstudie zum Umgang mit Opfern des Faschismus in der SBZ/DDR 1945-1953. Hrsg. von Ralf Kessler [und] Hartmut Rüdiger Peter. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main [etc.] 1996. 191 pp. S.fr. 53.00.
This collection comprises 155 documents on the disposition and policy of the German authorities toward the victims and subjects of persecution of the Nazi regime in the East German region of Saxony-Anhalt in the period 1945-1953. In their introduction the editors use Saxony as a regional model for assessing the element of reality in the myth that victims and subjects of persecution by the Nazi regime received proper social care and regained their true homeland only in East Germany. They conclude, among others, that political factors underlay the rising discrimination on ethnic and religious grounds compared to discrimination for political reasons during this period.

Bichler, Barbara. Die Formierung der Angestelltenbewegung im Kaiserreich und die Entstehung des Angestelltenversicherungsgesetzes von 1911. [Münchner Studien zur neueren und neuesten Geschichte, Band 18.] Peter Lang, Frankfurt/M. [etc.] 1997. 258 pp. S.fr. 64.00.
This dissertation (Munich, 1993) deals with the development of the trade-union movement of Angestellten (employees) in Imperial Germany and the precedent to and emergence of the employees social security act of 1911. This act, which provided insurance for white-collar workers covering invalidity, old age and surviving next of kin, is considered a milestone in German social policy. Dr Bichler examines the interests and strategies of political parties, government, employers, employee movement and insurance organizations and concludes that the employee movement not only succeeded in bringing about legislation but also had all major demands met.

Brenner, Michael, Stefi Jersch-Wenzel und Michael A. Meyer. Emanzipation und Akkulturation 1780-1871. [Deutsch-jüdische Geschichte in der Neuzeit, Band II.] Verlag C.H. Beck, München 1996. 402 pp. Ill. Maps. DM 84.00; S.fr. 78.00; S 622.00.
This is the second in a series of four volumes on German-Jewish history from the early modern period to 1945. The series interprets German-Jewish history as the history of German-Jewish relations and as the past of Jews in Germany (see below for the first volume). This volume deals with the period between the start of Jewish emancipation in the 1780s to their attainment of equality before the law in the North German Confederation in 1869, on the eve of the establishment of the German Empire. Professors Jersch-Wenzel and Brenner review the changing legal status of the Jewish minority in this period, while Professor Meyer focuses on the troubled social and cultural integration, as well as on social, cultural and religious trends in German Judaism.

Breuer, Mordechai [und] Michael Graetz. Tradition und Aufklärung 1600-1780. [Deutsch-jüdische Geschichte in der Neuzeit, Band I.] Verlag C.H. Beck, München 1996. 390 pp. Ill. Maps. DM 84.00; S.fr. 80.00; S 622.00.
This volume is the first part of a four-volume series on German-Jewish history from the early modern period to 1945. The series interprets German-Jewish history as the history of German-Jewish relations and as the past of Jews in Germany. In this volume, Professor Breuer outlines the demographic, social and economic developments, as well as the cultural and religious trends within the Jewish community. Professor Graetz deals with the beginnings and subsequent development in the course of the eighteenth century of the Jewish Enlightenment, known as Haskala.

Del Fabbro, René. Transalpini. Italienische Arbeitswanderung nach Süddeutschland im Kaiserreich 1870-1918. [Studien zur Historischen Migrationsforschung, Band 2.] Universitätsverlag Rasch, Osnabrück 1996. 312 pp. Maps. DM 48.00.
This dissertation (European University Institute Florence, 1993) examines the labour migration from the Italian region of Friuli (north of Venice) to the south of Imperial Germany in the period 1870-1914. Dr Del Fabbro considers changes on the labour market and in the broader economic and social environment in Germany as well as in the Friuli region, where an "emigratory system" arose around the turn of the century. One of his findings is that Italian labour migrants did not enter the German agrarian sector at all but were largely employed in either the building trade and its supplier companies or in mining.

Halbherziger Revisionismus: zum postkommunistischen Geschichtsbild. Hrsg. von Rainer Eckert [und] Bernd Faulenbach. Olzog Verlag, München [etc.] 1996. 304 pp. DM 54.00.
The sixteen contributions in this collection offer a critical assessment of the impression of history prevailing in eastern Germany within the PDS, the political successor to the SED. The first eight contributions deal with the communist and post-communist impressions of history as such. In the second part of this volume the practical attitude toward the history of the PDS, as expressed, among others, in programmes and in the party's press is examined. Contributors include Hermann Weber, Bernd Faulenbach, Heinrich Potthoff, Heinrich August Winkler and Wolfgang Thierse, deputy chairman of the SPD, who has written the concluding essay.

Hessisches Hauptstaatsarchiv Wiesbaden. Bearb. von Volker Eichler. [Inventar zur Geschichte der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung in den staatlichen Archiven der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Reihe B: Überlieferungen der Flächestaaten, Band 1.] K.G. Saur, München [etc.] 1996. xxxi, 444 pp. DM 226.00.
This volume in the series of surveys of archives concerning the German labour movement in the period until 1945 (for previous volumes, see IRSH, XXXVII (1992), p. 437 and 38 (1993), p. 433) is the first of the inventories on archives at the regional level of the Länder and other territorial units and contains information on archival materials in Hesse, as contained in the central state archives in Wiesbaden.

The History of Everyday Life: Reconstructing Historical Experiences and Ways of Life. Ed. by Alf Lüdtke. Transl. by William Templer. [Princeton Studies in Culture/Power/History.] Princeton University Press, Princeton 1995. xiii, 318 pp. $49.50; £37.30. (Paper: $18.95; £15.95.)
See Chitra Joshi's review in this volume, pp. 137-139.

Kraushaar, Wolfgang. Die Protest-Chronik 1949-1952. Eine illustrierte Geschichte von Bewegung, Widerstand und Utopie. 2709 pp. (In 4 vols.) Ill. Maps. Rogner & Berhard, Hamburg 1996. DM 120.00.
This series of four large volumes (three of which are richly illustrated) forms a chronicle of protest and protest movements in West Germany in the 1950s, including 1949, the year of the Founding of the Federal Republic of Germany. Protest is interpreted very broadly in this series, comprising social movements, individuals, groups and organizations manifesting some action or intervention to resist the established order or power in social, political, economic or cultural respects specifically intending to achieve change, rectify an injustice or avert an imminent danger. Protest is thus understood as a complex collective concept, as the selection of entries reveals. A great many entries concern international events and developments that affected West-German politics and society. Important themes included are, among others, the events and developments around the Cold War, the occupation of Germany and the progressive disassociation between East and West, the nuclear arms race, and the political discussions about German rearmament and denazification in West Germany. The fourth volume comprises a geographical index, indexes on persons, organizations, periodicals and subjects, as well as a series of maps sketching important developments addressed in the chronicle, such as the demonstrations against the German rearmament, the European movement and activities of former Wehrmacht and SS members and the resulting protests.

Krusch, Hans-Joachim. Irrweg oder Alternative? Vereinigungsbestrebungen der Arbeiterparteien 1945/46 und gesellschaftspolitische Forderungen. Pahl-Rugenstein Nachfolger, Bonn 1996. 269 pp. Ill. DM 38.00.
This documentary collection contains 181 documents, including 46 facsimiles, on the pursuit of unification by the German Socialist Party (SPD), the Communist Party and the trade union movement and their political demands for social and economic reform in the period 1945-1946. The documents, which represent all four occupation zones, comprise pamphlets, draft and final programmatic texts, protocols, correspondence and newspaper articles. In his historical introduction Professor Krusch interprets the course of the pursuit of unification and the common demands for reform according to the central thesis that the ultimate result was not pre-programmed.

Kurz, Thomas. Feindliche Brüder im deutschen Südwesten. Sozialdemokraten und Kommunisten in Baden und Württemberg von 1928 bis 1933. [Berliner historische Studien, Band 23.] Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1996. 509 pp. DM 148.00; S.fr. 131.00; S 1080.00.
This dissertation (Freiburg i. Br., 1994) is a comparative examination of the German Socialist Party (SPD) and Communist Party (KPD) in two Länder, Baden and Württemberg, between 1928 and the end of the Weimar Republic. Dr Kurz shows how the SPD in Württemberg, although it pursued a similar reformist political course to its counterpart in Baden, was excluded from that state's government. He concludes that despite the far more leftist orientation of the KPD in Württemberg, the electoral results in both Länder are remarkably similar. Special attention is paid to the role of Kurt Schumacher in the mobilization of the masses in Württemberg in a futile effort to thwart the rise of the National Socialists.

Lucassen, Leo. Zigeuner. Die Geschichte eines polizeilichen Ordnungsbegriffes in Deutschland 1700-1945. Böhlau Verlag, Köln [etc.] 1996. ix, 276 pp. DM 48.00.
This study examines the origins and development of the concept "gipsy" (Zigeuner) as a way for the police in Germany to stigmatize and control various different nomadic groups of mainly Sinti and Roma in the period 1700-1945. Dr Lucassen, who previously published a dissertation on the so-called gipsies in the Netherlands in the same period (see IRSH, XXXVI (1991), p. 148), aims to show how the concept, in part as a result of a growing professionalization and specialization among the police force from the beginning of the nineteenth century onward, served increasingly as a regulatory category, bearing an ethnic and racist connotation that ultimately led to the persecution of gipsies by the Nazis.

Mallmann, Klaus-Michael. Kommunisten in der Weimarer Republik. Sozialgeschichte einer revolutionären Bewegung. Mit einem Vorwort von Wilfried Loth. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1996. xvi, 552 pp. DM 98.00; S.fr. 99.00; S 765.00
See Eberhard Kolb's review in this volume, pp. 155-157.

Mommsen, Hans [und] Manfred Grieger. Das Volkswagenwerk und seine Arbeiter im Dritten Reich. Econ, Düsseldorf 1996. 1055 pp. Ill. DM 78.00; S.fr. 71.00; S 569.00.
This thick and richly illustrated volume is a comprehensive history of the origins and development of the Volkswagen company and the labour relations and conditions in its factories during the Third Reich. Apart from providing an extensive overview of the ideological background of the Volkswagen project in the national-socialist context, of the company's technical and economic development and its products and of Volkswagen's growing involvement in the German armament industry from 1939 onward, Professor Mommsen and his extensive team of collaborators have focused on the position and the working and living conditions among the many forced labourers put to work in the various Volkswagen plants from the end of 1940 onward: prisoners of war, military criminals, political prisoners and Jewish concentration camp inmates.

Oltmer, Jochen. Bäuerliche Ökonomie und Arbeitskräftepolitik im Ersten Weltkrieg. Beschäftigungsstruktur, Arbeitsverhältnisse und Rekrutierung von Ersatzarbeitskräften in der Landwirtschaft des Emslandes 1914-1918. [Emsland/Bentheim, Band 11.] Verlag der Emsländischen Landschaft e.V. für die Landkreise Emsland und Grafschaft Bentheim, Sögel 1995. 489 pp. DM 48.00.
This dissertation (Osnabrück, 1993) deals with the influence of mass military recruitment on employment in the agrarian sector in Germany during World War I. Focusing on the largely agrarian region of Emsland, Dr Oltmer examines how employers worked closely with the belligerent statal authorities to secure the labour needed to replace the large numbers of workers conscripted in the military by recruiting individuals not previously employed. He concludes that apart from the recruitment of indigenous workers (military on leave, urban women and youth), a large amount of the replacement labour consisted of foreign civilian forced workers and prisoners of war.

Ratz, Ursula. Zwischen Arbeitsgemeinschaft und Koalition. Bürgerliche Sozialreformer und Gewerkschaften im Ersten Weltkrieg. [Einzelveröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission zu Berlin, Band 79.] K.G. Saur, München [etc.] 1994. xii, 574 pp. DM 128.00.
See Jürgen Rojahn's review in this volume, pp. 152-155.

Great Britain

An Atlas of Industrial Protest in Britain 1750-1990. [By] Andrew Charlesworth, David Gilbert, Adrian Randall [a.o.] With contrib. from Jim Phillips, Gillian Rose [a.o.] Cartography by Ed Oliver. Macmillan Press Ltd, Basingstoke [etc.]; St. Martin's Press, New York 1996. xvi, 225 pp. Maps. £12.99.
This book sets out to survey the historical geography of industrial protest in Britain from the 1750s to the present day in 28 case studies of local, regional and national forms of protest. Industrial protest is defined as comprising, besides strikes, more public events (e.g. hunger strikes) and more private ones (e.g. machine breaking). It is restricted to protest with an economic rather than a political focus. Each member of the team of authors has covered a particular period, while Jim Phillips, Gillian Rose, Richard Sheldon and David Walsh contributed to specific case studies.

Blackwell, Trevor and Jeremy Seabrook. Talking Work. An Oral History. Faber and Faber, London 1996. xiii, 208 pp. £15.99.
In a series of more than thirty interviews with workers in a broad variety of occupations and sectors of the economy in Great Britain, as well as with the unemployed, from young to elderly, the authors aim to convey the changes in the experience of work and opinions about class distinctions among working-class people in Britain throughout the twentieth century. In their concluding chapter they argue that the main trend in the experience of work has been a gradual shift away from direct contact with materiality, and that the working class has become a category of origin as a result of its "invisibilizing" as a classification.

British population history. From the Black Death to the present day. Ed. by Michael Anderson. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1996. v, 421 pp. £16.95; $24.95.
This volume includes five studies that survey the trends and debates in British population history from the Black Death in 1348 to 1991, set in a broader Irish and north-west European context. Four of the studies were previously published in Studies in Economic and Social History's Series of pamphlets: John Hatcher's Plague, population and the English economy, 1348-1530 (1972); R.A. Houston's The population history of Britain and Ireland, 1500-1750 (1992); Michael Anderson's Population change in north-western Europe, 1750-1850 (1988); and Robert I. Woods' The population of Britain in the nineteenth century (1992). Michael Anderson contributed an original study on British population history in the period 1911-1991.

Charity, self-interest and welfare in the English past. Ed. by Martin Daunton. [The Neale Colloquium in British History.] UCL Press, London 1996. x, 262 pp. £40.00.
Based on a colloquium organized by the University College London in 1994, this volume contains eleven contributions dealing with provisions for the poor, the infirm and the aged in Great Britain from the early modern period to the present day. The contributors focus on the relationship between welfare and demography and on notions of community, identity and the nature of the state in relation to charity and welfare.

Childers, Joseph W. Novel Possibilities. Fiction and the Formation of Early Victorian Culture. [New Cultural Studies.] University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia [1996.] viii, 218 pp. £31.50.
Focusing on the role of the British social-problem novel of the 1840s, Professor Childers examines the interactions between the novel and a set of texts generated by parliamentary and radical politics, the sanitation reform movement and religion. According to the author, this genre of novels served as a model for important political texts, such as Edwin Chadwick's influential Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain.

Copelman, Dina M. London's women teachers. Gender, class and feminism 1870-1930. Routledge, London [etc.] 1996. xix, 286 pp. Ill. £45.00.
In her study of London's women elementary school teachers in the period 1870-1930 Dr Copelman argues that these women offer a model of gender and class identity that differs from the one constructed by historians of middle-class gender roles and middle-class feminism, known as the "separate spheres" model. She explores the social and professional identities of these women teachers, who came mostly from "labour aristocratic" and lower-middle-class families, and places their story in the context of the developing state education system, metropolitan life and the feminist political movement.

Crime and Punishment in England. An introductory history. [By] John Briggs, Christopher Harrison, Angus McInnes [and] David Vincent. UCL Press, London 1996. viii, 276 pp. Ill. £40.00. (Paper: £12.95.)
This textbook offers a general introductory history of crime and punishment in England from the medieval period to the present day. Surveying the many recent case studies, local material and scholarly debates and issues and discussing notions of control, policing, punishment and retribution, the authors aim to provide a background to current debates on crime. They conclude, among others, that a close connection between alienation - particularly of the youth - and crime rates can be established.

DeGroot, Gerard J. Blighty. British Society in the Era of the Great War. Longman, London [etc.] 1996. xiii, 357 pp. £44.00.
This general history of developments in British society around World War I (1909-1922) challenges the traditional view that the Great War brought about major social change in Britain. Dr DeGroot argues that many social transformations attributed to the war in fact began long before, while others genuinely triggered by wartime conditions proved short-lived. The containment of social change was, according to the author, a matter of national consensus rather than an establishment conspiracy, as many socialist and feminist historians believe.

Emsley, Clive. Crime and society in England, 1750-1900. Sec. Ed. [Themes in British Social History.] Longman, London [etc.] 1996. x, 312 pp. £14.99.
This is a second, revised edition of a synthetic work on crime in eighteenth and nineteenth-century English society (see IRSH, XXXIII (1988), p. 94). In this edition, Professor Emsley has taken account of the latest research and has added a new chapter on crime and gender.

Glynn, Sean and Alan Booth. Modern Britain. An economic and social history. Routledge, London [etc.] 1996. ix, 374 pp. £45.00. (Paper: £12.99.)
This textbook of twentieth-century British economic and social history focuses on the interwar and postwar periods. Themes dealt with are economic growth and relative decline, living standards and social politics, industrial development, labour market and unemployment, economic policy and Britain in the world economy.

Grieco, Margaret. Workers' dilemmas. Recruitment, reliability and repeated exchange: an analysis of urban social networks and labour circulation. Routledge, London [etc.] 1996. xii, 233 pp. £47.50.
Focusing on the women and children seasonal workers who travelled annually from London's East End to work in the hop picking fields of Kent and Hampshire from the 1850s to the 1960s, this study explores the high level of management and occupational skills possessed by the urban poor in their construction of household survival strategies. The author stresses the key entrepreneurial role played by women in this labour market, the complexity of neighbourhood and household organization it required and the importance of the financial support provided by this regular seasonal labour for household survival.

Harrison, Barbara. Not Only the "Dangerous Trades": Women's Work and Health in Britain, 1880-1914. [Feminist Perspectives on the Past and Present.] Taylor & Francis, London [etc.] 1996. xiii, 283 pp. Ill. £39.00. (Paper: £13.95.)
This book examines the relationship of women's work to their health in Britain in the period 1880-1914, including health problems not only in industrial employment but also in other forms of paid work, such as domestic service, office work, nursing and teaching. Issues such as maternity and infant welfare are also discussed, as well as factory legislation and regulation that focused on the protection of women. Professor Harrison argues that, ultimately, factory legislation failed as a preventive health strategy, but that regulation and the encompassing discourse were successful in preserving male power and privileges by ensuring women's material disadvantage and social and political subordination.

Harvey, Charles and Jon Press. Art, Enterprise and Ethics. The Life and Work of William Morris. Frank Cass, London [etc.] 1996. xv, 245 pp. Ill. £35.00. (Paper: £16.00.)
The authors of this volume, who recently published William Morris: Design and Enterprise in Victorian Britain (1991), a study on William Morris's business activities, analyze the combination of elements that made Morris's career among the most colourful and influential in nineteenth-century Britain. They look at Morris's early life and influences; at the system of thought which underpinned his actions; at his finances and business methods; and at his relationship with his customers. Professors Press and Harvey conclude, inter alia, that far more in Morris's socialist ideology came from himself than from the nineteenth-century thinkers who influenced him: Carlyle, Ruskin and Marx.

Poverty and Social Welfare. Sel. and Introd. by David Gladstone. Vol. I. Poverty and the Poor Laws 1820-1899. Vol. II. Public Health 1807-1900. Vol. III. Education 1810-1899. Vol. IV. The Growth of Government. [The Wellesley Series III.] Routledge/Thoemmes Press, London 1996. xix, 425 pp.; xvi, 404 pp.; xviii, 401 pp.; xix, 490 pp. £399.00.
This series consists of collections of nineteenth-century contemporary materials from periodicals on the general theme of poverty and social welfare in Britain. The articles were selected using the Wellesley Index to Victorian Periodicals 1824-1900 and originate from five periodicals: Edinburgh Review, Westminster Review, Contemporary Review, Quarterly Review and Blackwood's Magazine. The series is organized in four volumes corresponding to four sub-themes: (i) poverty and the Poor Laws (1820-1899); (ii) public health (1807-1899); (iii) education (1810-1899); and (iv) the growth of government. Each volume is introduced by the editor, who sketches the general history of the themes dealt with and provides an overview of relevant historiography.


Kertzer, David I. Politics & Symbols. The Italian Communist Party and the Fall of Communism. Yale University Press, New Haven [etc.] 1996. xi, 211 pp. £18.50.
The dissolution of the Italian Communist Party (PCI) in 1990 into a new party, the Democratic Party of the Left (PDS), is the basis for this analysis of the role and use of symbols and rituals in modern politics. Challenging the view that political action results mainly from rational choice, Professor Kertzer interprets symbols and rituals as Durkheimian collective representations. He deals, among others, with the use and manipulation of history and historical myths and the creation of a new party symbol to argue that the party elite uses symbols and rituals to devise a new political identity for the party and its members.

Venturi, Franco. La lotta per la libertà. Scritti politici. Saggi introduttivi di Vittorio Foa e Alessandro Galante Garrone. A cura di Leonardo Casalino. [Gli struzzi, 482.] Einaudi, Torino 1996. lxv, 437 pp. L. 32.000.
This volume brings together for the first time the political writings of the well-known historian Franco Venturi (1914-1994). It features an overview of an important period in his life, in which intellectual and political activity were closely linked. The book is organized chronologically: anti-fascism (1933-1937, mostly articles from Giustizia e Libertà), resistance (1943-1944), the postwar period (1945-1946, articles in the Turin journal G&L) and the Soviet-Union (1953-1956). Leonardo Casalino has written a biographical introduction and appended a bibliography of Venturi's political writings; two essays by the author's friends Vittorio Foa and Alessandro Galante Garrone preface the book.

The Netherlands

Bekkum, Ronald van. Tussen Vraag en Aanbod. Op zoek naar de identiteit van de arbeidsvoorzieningsorganisatie. Sdu Uitgevers, Den Haag 1996. 647 pp. Ill. D.fl. 79.50.
This dissertation traces the history of the Dutch Public Employment Service from the ancien regime to the end of World War II, focusing on the establishment of public placement offices in the Netherlands compared with corresponding developments in Germany, France and the United Kingdom. Using the theoretical concept of "Public Organization of Labour Allocation", Dr van Bekkum distinguishes three consecutive historical phases: the ancien regime; the period 1780-1880, with the dominance of political liberalism; and the period 1880-1980, with the gradual expansion of state participation in labour market organization.

Nieuwe Nederlanders. Vestiging migranten door de eeuwen heen. Red.: Marjolein 't Hart, Jan Lucassen en Henk Schmal. Stichting beheer IISG, SISWO/Instituut voor Maatschappijwetenschappen, Amsterdam 1996. 228 pp. Ill. Maps. D.fl. 39.50.
This collection comprises thirteen contributions based on a conference on settlement and integration of migrants in the Netherlands from the sixteenth century to the present, organized in May 1995 in Amsterdam by the Dutch Stichting Maatschappijgeschiedenis (Foundation for Societal History). General themes in the contributions are, among others, the influence of government measures and the labour market on the opportunities for immigrants to integrate into the Dutch society.


Hicks, Barbara. Environmental Politics in Poland. A Social Movement Between Regime and Opposition. Columbia University Press, New York 1996. xix, 263 pp. $45.00. (Paper: $15.50.)
A 1985 report concluded that Europe's worst ecological destruction was in Poland, where a strong environmental movement emerged in the 1980s in response to the ecological degradation. Covering legislation and institutional issues, public debate and the variety of independent ecological groups and the activist influence in both communist and Solidarity-led governments, Professor Hicks presents a comprehensive view of environmental policies in Poland and analyses the rise of the country's environmental movement and its impact on the political evolution there in general and on the undermining of the communist regime in particular.

Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Altrichter, Helmut. Staat und Revolution in Sowjetrussland 1917-1922/23. [Erträge der Forschung, Band 148.] Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1996. vii, 276 pp. DM 68.00.
This is the second, extended edition of a study of the development of the Soviet state and the state apparatus in the period 1917-1922/1923, which originally appeared in 1981. On the basis of a critical assessment of the extensive Western and Soviet literature on the subject, Professor Altrichter explores the revolutionary and post-revolutionary changes in the economic and social administration and the process of the founding, consolidation and expansion of the state powers and organizations up until the territory's unification in the Union of Soviet Republics. In this second edition a new chapter on the relation between the Bolshevik party and the Soviet state and an epilogue have been added.

Brettin, Michael. Das Scheitern eines unfreiwilligen Experiments: Die sowjetische Nationalitätenpolitik in der "Perestrojka" (1985/87-1991) dargestellt am Beispiel Estlands. Hrsg. von Norbert Angermann. [Hamburger Beiträge zur Geschichte des östlichen Europa, Band 1.] Verlag Dr. Kova , Hamburg 1996. 469 pp. DM 168.00; S.fr. 139.44; S 1176.00.
The nationalities policy was a central element in Gorbachev's "perestrojka", and Estonia was the first of the Soviet Republics to experiment with the relative forms of independence targeted by this nationalities policy. This study examines the experiment with the nationalities policy in Estonia and its ultimate failure, which ushered in the end of the Soviet Union. The author distinguishes four important steps in the process: the concept of economic autonomy from September 1987 onward, the start of the popular movement in April 1988, the historical debates from August 1988 onward on the Molotov-von Ribbentrop pact's legal validity and the constitutional conflict that began in November 1988.

Connor, Walter D. Tattered Banners. Labor, Conflict, and Corporatism in Postcommunist Russia. Westview Press, Boulder 1996. xx, 231 pp. £54.00. (Paper: £13.50.)
This study examines Russia's emergent labour politics in the first five critical years of the post-Soviet period, focusing on the problems Yeltsin encountered in attempting to adopt a "corporatist" solution to the conflicts of interest arising between labour, employers and the state. This corporatist effort has been sabotaged, according to Professor Connor, by the lack of distinct interest groups found in more mature market economies. He concludes with projections of the potential significance of these recent developments for Russian politics and government in the near future.

Dahlmann, Dittmar. Die Provinz wählt. Russlands konstitutionell-demokratische Partei und die Dumawahlen 1906-1912. [Beiträge zur Geschichte Osteuropas, Band 19.] Böhlau Verlag, Köln [etc.] 1996. xi, 509 pp. DM 108.00.
This Habilitationschrift (Freiburg i. Br., 1993) examines the origins, organization, development and electoral campaigns and strategies of the Constitutional Democrats ("Cadets") in five Russian provinces in the vicinity of Moscow between 1905 and 1912. Dr Dahlmann focuses on the activities and political culture of the local organizations of the liberal Cadets during the four elections for the Duma between 1906 and 1912 to explore local social acceptance of the new political organization and the influence of the electoral struggles on the local societies and provincial administrative organization.

Dunn, Walter S., Jr. The Soviet Economy and the Red Army, 1930-1945. Praeger, Westport [etc.] 1995. ix, 256 pp. £47.95.
"The purpose of this book is to relate the Soviet economy of the 1930s to the supply of the Red Army in World War II." Following this investigation the author concludes that "by early 1943 the Red Army had the organization, leadership, and material to defeat the German Army regardless of military action by the West". He argues that the Russians had a superior logistical capability based on economic development begun in the early 1920s.

Harasymiw, Bohdan. Soviet Communist Party Officials. A Study in Organizational Roles and Change. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Commack (NY) 1996. xiii, 227 pp. $79.00.
The subject of this study is the permanent hierarchy of full-time party officials of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), its so-called apparat, which directed the entire administrative network (civilian, military and police) and made policy and practical decisions that affected all of Soviet society in the period 1930-1990. The author focuses on the role of the party officials and their formalization on the local, provincial, republic and state levels and their development over time.

Post-Soviet Puzzles. Mapping the Political Economy of the Former Soviet Union. Ed. by Klaus Segbers [and] Stephan De Spiegeleire. Vol. I. Against the Background of the Former Soviet Union. Vol. II. Emerging Geopolitical and Territorial Units. Theories, Methods and Case Studies. Vol. III. Emerging Societal Actors - Economic, Social and Political Interests. Theories, Methods and Case Studies. Vol. IV. The Emancipation of Society as a Reaction to Systemic Change: Survival, Adaptation to New Rules and Ethnopolitical Conflicts. [Aktuelle Materialien zur Internationalen Politik, Band 40.] Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden 1995. 297 pp., 511 pp., 735 pp., 179 pp. Maps. DM 31.00; 52.00; 70.00; 21.00.
This book brings together 54 contributions on the political, economic and social developments in the former Soviet Union and is the result of a research project of two German research foundations, which aimed to apply new methods and views in political science and other relevant social sciences to assist researchers and observers in the former Soviet Union by working with them and to propose new views to policy makers in both the former Soviet Union and the OECD countries, particularly in Germany. The series is organized in four volumes corresponding to four topical clusters: (i) basic approaches and methods as background to the project; (ii) the regional dimension with emerging geopolitical units; (iii) emerging economic, social and political interests, actors and elites; (iv) the social dimension, i.e. the increasing distance between the society and the state and, consequently, the rise of various forms of survival and adaption as methods of self-regulation.

Reisser, Thomas. Menschewismus und Nep (1921-28). Diskussion einer demokratischen Alternative. [Arbeiten zur Geschichte Osteuropas, Band 2.] Lit, Münster 1996. v, 267 pp. DM 58.80.
Focusing on the origins of the Menshevik model of a New Economic Policy (Nep) as it was drafted and presented in April 1921, this study provides a comprehensive overview of the development of the broader Menshevik ideological concepts and theoretical models of both the right and the left wing and of revolution, economic policy and democracy from the pre-revolutionary period to the early 1930s. Dr Reißer evaluates the socialist alternative the Mensheviks claimed to offer to the Bolshevik communist model and concludes that neither right-wing nor left-wing Menshevik concepts provided a realistic alternative to the Bolshevik policies.

The Unknown Lenin. From the Secret Archive. Ed. by Richard Pipes. With the ass. of David Brandenberger. Basic transl. of Russian documents by Catherine A. Fitzpatrick. [Annals of Communism.] Yale University Press, New Haven [etc.] 1996. xx, 204 pp. Ill. £18.50.
This collection of 113 documents from the Lenin archive (now in the Russian Center for the Preservation and Study of DOCUMENTS of Recent History, RTsKhIDNI) contains letters, telegrams, memos, drafts, notes etc., many published here for the first time. Professor Pipes concludes in his introduction that these documents reveal, in the political field and even more in personal relations, a far more negative and ruthless image of Lenin than generally perceived. The documents show that, among others, Lenin as late as 1922 believed in the imminence of social revolution in the West, had little regard for Trotsky's judgment on important matters and relied heavily on Stalin.


Barruso, Pedro. El movimiento obrero en Gipuzkoa durante la II Republica. Organizaciones obreras y dinámica sindical (1931-1936). Gipuzkoako Foru Aldundia/Diputación Foral de Gipuzkoa, n.p. [Donostia-San Sebastián], n.d. 1996. 410 pp. Maps. Ptas. 1.500.
In this book the author deals with the socio-economic conditions in the Basque province of Guipuzcoa, the different trade unions (socialist, nationalist, communist, anarchist and Catholic) and the actions of trade unions during the Second Republic. He concludes that this region's labour movement was rather moderate, that the socialist UGT and the nationalist STV alternated as the strongest organization, that revolutionary syndicalism was weak and limited to San Sebastian, and that though small in numbers the communist CGTU was quite active.

Girón Sierra, Alvaro. Evolucionismo y anarquismo en España 1882-1914. [Cuadernos Galileo de Historia de la Ciencia, 15.] Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Centro de Estudios Históricos, Madrid 1996. viii, 217 pp. Ptas.
This book studies Spanish anarchism's reception of Darwinism, as influenced by the ideas of Haeckel, Büchner and Spencer and later by Kropotkin's book on mutual aid. The author consecutively addresses the concept of evolution in its relation to the fundamental ideas about Nature that inspired anarchist ideology, anarchist ideas about the place of man in nature and finally with Social Darwinism. As source materials the author made extensive use of the collection of rare Spanish anarchist periodicals from around the turn of the century (the Urales collection) located at the International Institute of Social History.

González Fernández, Ángeles. Utopía y realidad anarquismo, anarcosindicalismo y organizaciones obreras. Sevilla, 1900-1923. Diputación de Sevilla, Sevilla 1996. 481 pp. Ill. Ptas. 2.200.
In this dissertation the author aims to provide an overall assessment of the situation among the urban workers of Seville in the first quarter of the twentieth century and to identify the factors leading them to mobilize and to establish organizations, as well as those motivating them to leave these same organizations. The study begins with the period that the anarchists began to accept syndicalism as a form of action and ends with the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera. The book is subdivided in five periods, each characterized by alternating mobilization and passivity among organized labour and the corresponding rapprochement and rifts between workers and anarcho-syndicalists.

Leseduarte, Pilar. Los pueblos mineros de Vizcaya. Conflictividad social y política municipal en la cuenca minera vizcaína. Beitia, Bilbao 1996. 236 pp. Ill. Ptas. 1.800.
Between 1880 and 1922 the miners in the Basque province of Vizcaya staged many extended strikes, which provoked police and army intervention. This book attributes these strikes to the miserable socio-economic and political conditions prevailing among most of the workers, who suffered under poor local government and harsh employers. The author concludes that the defence strategy of the workers involved establishing trade unions and other workers' organizations.


Arbeite wer kann! Travaille qui peut! Konzept und Gesamtred./Conception et dir.: Chantal Lafontant [und/et] Jacqueline Milliet. Mit Beiträgen von/Avec contributions de: Hana Barraud, Markus Bürli [recte Bürgi], Brigitte Haselböck [u.a./e.a.] Limmat Verlag, Zürich; Editions d'en bas, Lausanne 1996. 168 pp. Ill. DM 32.00; S.fr. 32.00; S 237.00.
This book is published as a catalogue to an exhibition on the history of unemployment in Switzerland in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The contributors, themselves unemployed historians, sociologists, ethnologists and economists, deal - in part from their own personal perspective and experience with unemployment - with the following themes: everyday experience of the unemployed; work programmes; unemployment among women, youth and immigrants; society's views of unemployment.