Volume 48 part 2 (2003)
Continents and Countries
Ivory Coast | South Africa | Tunesia
Argentina | Cuba | Mexico | United States of America
China | India | Iran | Japan | Philippines
Belgium | France | Germany | Great Britain | Italy | The Netherlands | Russia/USSR | Spain
Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.
SOCIAL THEORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE
Herod, Andrew. Labor Geographies. Workers and the Landscapes of Capitalism. [Perspectives on Economic Change.] The Guilford Press, New York [etc.] 2001. xvi, 352 pp. Ill. £18.95.
Professor Herod aims to provide in this book, based in part on previously published work, a comprehensive introduction to the recently developing discipline of labour geography. Combining more theoretical analysis of what labour geography encompasses with a number of more empirical case studies, the author explores the spatial contexts and scales at which workers address particular economic and political problems they encounter under capitalism. The work includes case studies of the reaction of American dockworkers to the process of containerization; the role of US labour in globalization; and US labour's role in local social engineering in Latin America in the context of Cold War anti-Communism.
Rachwa , Tadeusz. Labours of the Mind. Labour in the Culture of Production. [Literary and Cultural Theory, vol. 8.] Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main [etc.] 2001. 165 pp. S.fr. 44.00.
Using the tools of literary and cultural theory, Professor Rachwa examines in this study how notions of labour and production have helped shape human subject and identity in European culture. Analysing a number of conceptualizations of culture, he assesses how labour and production, explicitly or implicitly, become principles in the evaluation of cultures, as well as powerful tools for the ideological constitution and reconstruction of social space.
Walker, David M. Marx, Methodology and Science. Marx's science of politics. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2001. xi, 194 pp. £39.95.
This study analyses Marx's methodology for assessing in what measure the claims of Marxism to being a science are justified. Focusing on the key methodological themes of Marx's work and their elaboration, with particular consideration for the elements of dialectics and materialism, Dr Walker measures Marx's method against four different models of science: positivism, critical rationalism, scientific conventionalism and scientific realism. He concludes that Marx's method is a good example of the latter.
"Arbeit": Geschichte - Gegenwart - Zukunft. Hrsg. von Josef Ehmer, Helga Grebing, Peter Gutschner im Auftrag der Internationalen Tagung von HistorikerInnen der Arbeiter- und andere sozialer Bewegungen (ITH). [ITH-Tagungsberichte 36.] Akademische Verlagsanstalt, Leipzig 2002. 269 pp. 25.00.
This collection brings together sixteen contributions in German, English and French, based on papers presented at the 37th Conference of the Internationale Tagung der HistorikerInnen der Arbeiter- und anderer sozialer Bewegungen, organized in Linz, Austria in September 2001. The conference theme (global history of labour and the future of labour in a globalized economy) is introduced by Helga Grebing. The other contributions deal with history of labour in "classical" industrial societies; cross-chronological themes, such as the history of male breadwinning; labour in non-industrialized and peripheral countries; researching and writing global labour history; and post-industrial labour society.
Beinin, Joel. Workers and Peasants in the Modern Middle East. [The Contemporary Middle East, vol. 2] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. xviii, 207 pp. Maps. £37.50; $54.95. (Paper: £13.95; $19.95.)
Covering the period from the middle of the eighteenth to the end of the twentieth century, this textbook aims to offer a comprehensive survey of the social history of peasants, urban artisans and modern working classes across the lands of the Ottoman Empire and its Muslim-majority successor states, including the Balkans, Turkey, the Arab Middle East and North Africa. Basing himself on the approach of the Indian Subaltern Studies School, Professor Beinin presents a synthetic critical assessment of scholarly work on the social history of this region over the last twenty years.
Burke, Peter. Eyewitnessing. The Use of Images as Historical Evidence. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 2001. 224 pp. Ill. $35.00; £23.50.
In this richly illustrated study, Professor Burke surveys the opportunities, pitfalls and challenges of using visual evidence in writing history. Assessing the methods by which art historians have traditionally analysed images as insufficient to deal with the complexities of visual imagery, the author argues that images should not be considered mere reflections of their time and place but are in fact extensions of the social context in which they were produced. Concentrating on the representation of social groups, he explores stereotypes as well as notions of foreignness and gender in imagery.
Buschak, Willy. Edo Fimmen. Der schöne Traum von Europa und die Globalisierung. Eine Biografie. Mit einem Vorw. von Peter Friedemann. Klartext, Essen 2002. 333 pp. Ill. 22.90.
In this first comprehensive biography of Edo Fimmen (1881-1942), Dr Buschak focuses on his international activities in the International Federation of Trade Unions (IFTU) and the International Transport Workers' Federation (ITF) in the interwar years. The author, who previously published on subjects such as European leftist socialism in the interwar period (see IRSH, 31 (1986), p. 206) and is now the political secretary of the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), portrays Fimmen as a visionary concerning the process of European economic unification and globalization and internationalization of the world economy. See also Sigrid Koch-Baumgarten's review in this volume, pp. 286-287.
Capitein, Jacobus Elisa Johannes. The Agony of Asar. A Thesis on Slavery by the Former Slave, Jacobus Elisa Johannes Capitein, 1717-1747. Transl. with comm. by Grant Parker. Markus Wiener Publishers, Princeton 2001. x, 182 pp. Ill. Maps. £36.50. (Paper: £14.50.)
This is the English translation of an original Latin treatise, written by a former slave, and represents the first scholarly work by an African on the subject of slavery. Jacobus Elisa Johannes Capitein (1717-1747), an orphan, who attained his freedom when taken to the Dutch Republic, was given the chance of a formal education, culminating in a study at the University of Leiden. In this treatise, Capitein analyses the concept of freedom and the compatibility of slavery and Christianity, while providing a genealogy of western thought on slavery. Dr Parker provides an extensive commentary on the text, as well as a survey of African intellectuals in eighteenth-century Europe.
De l'Histoire du mouvement ouvrier révolutionnaire. "Actes" du colloque international "Pour un autre futur". Nautilus/Éditions CNT- Région parisienne, Paris 2001. 302 pp. Ill. 15.25.
The twelve contributions to this volume are the proceedings of an international colloquium, organized by the French section of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT), which covered a broad variety of topics in the history of international revolutionary syndicalism and anarcho-syndicalism. The topics addressed include the origins and development of the Association internationale de travailleurs (AIT) (Marianne Enckell, Rudolf de Jong); anarcho-syndicalism in Spain (Francisco Madrid), Italy (Claudio Venza) and Japan (Philippe Pelletier); revolutionary syndicalism in Italy (Maurizio Antonioli) and France (Daniel Colson); and the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) (Larry Portis).
Dictionnaire des Utopies. [Éd. par] Michèle Riot-Sarcey, Thomas Bouchet [et] Antoine Picon. [Les Référents.] Larousse, Paris 2002. x, 284 pp. 16.80.
This dictionary comprises 116 entries written by nearly seventy authors from various disciplines. While most authors are French, they also include Italians, English and one American. The entries concern historical utopian projects concerning not only politics but also religion, architecture, art and technology. Since the dictionary is not based on one specific definition of utopia, each author received complete discretion in his interpretation of the utopian aspect of his subject. The objective was to relate the utopian project as much as possible to its historical surroundings and to express the changes in its interpretation over the years.
The God That Failed. Ed. by Richard Crossman, with a New Foreword by David C. Engerman. Columbia University Press, New York [etc.] 2001. xl, 273 pp. $16.50; £11.00.
This is a new edition of a classic book, which Professor Engerman, who has contributed the foreword to this edition, describes as a collective autobiography of six prominent writers. Arthur Koestler, Ignazio Silone, Richard Wright, André Gide, Louis Fischer and Stephen Spender sketched their initial attraction to communism and the Soviet Union and their subsequent loss of faith in a way that, upon its publication in 1950, had an enormous and near-instantaneous impact in launching what Professor Engerman labels as the cultural Cold War. In his foreword, he places the book in the context of intellectual radicalism in the mid-twentieth century and sketches the book's contemporary relevance.
Gocharok, Mose. Pepel nasich kostrov. Ocerki istorii evrejskogo anarchistskogo dviñenija (idis-anarchizm). Izdatel'stvo "Problemen", Ierusalim 2002. 309 pp. Ill.
This book is an improved and expanded version of Ocherki po istorii evreiskogo anarkhistskogo dvizheniia (1998) and covers the Jewish anarchist movement from its origins among Russian immigrants in Western Europe and the United States from the 1880s until the 1970s. Separate chapters deal with the national issue, anarcho-Zionism and the history of the anarchist periodical press in Yiddish. Several biographical sketches and a bibliography are included.
Höppner, Joachim [und] Waltraud Seidel-Höppner. Etienne Cabet und seine Ikarische Kolonie. Sein Weg vom Linksliberalen zum Kommunisten und seine Kolonie in Darstellung und Dokumentation. [Schriftenreihe der internationalen Forschungsstelle "Demokratischen Bewegungen in Mitteleuropa 1770-1850", Band 33.] Peter Lang, Frankfurt/M. [etc.] 2002. 840 pp. Ill. 101.20.
This study offers a comprehensive biography of the early utopian communist Etienne Cabet (1788-1856) and his ideas and a review of the "Icarian" colonization movement he led in the United States. The authors base their analysis of Cabet's colonization movement on the findings of correspondence of German members of the "Icarian" colony in Nauvoo, Illinois, a large selection of which is included in this volume. See also Ahlrich Meyer's review in this volume, pp. 278-280.
International Trade Union Organisations. Inventory of the Archive of Social Democracy and the Library of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. Publ. on behalf of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung by: Peter Rütters, Michael Schneider, Erwin Schweißhelm [and] Rüdiger Zimmermann, Bonn 2001. 101 pp. Ill. (Free of charge from FES.)
This inventory offers a condensed list of the large collection of documents and publications of international labour organizations to be found in the Archive and Library of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Bonn. In an introductory contribution, Peter Rütters reviews the origins, development and activities of the International Trade Secretariats. The separate inventories are each preceded by brief, individual histories, containing information about their size, languages, types of documents and publications and specific items.
Italian Workers of the World. Labor Migration and the Formation of Multiethnic States. Ed. by Donna R. Gabaccia and Fraser M. Ottanelli. [Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Centennial Series.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2001. xvi, 248 pp. $35.00.
Focusing on Italian migratory labourers from the end of the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries, the eleven essays in this volume aim to offer an international comparative examination of the rise of international class solidarity and national identity among workers of Italian origin in the United States, Argentina, Brazil and France. Included are contributions on Italian nationalism among migrants in the nineteenth century, on the relation of class, nation and internationalism in the era of proletarian mass migration (1870-1920) and on antifascism as an internal movement.
Le Sueur, James D. Uncivil War. Intellectuals and Identity Politics During the Decolonization of Algeria. Foreword by Pierre Bourdieu. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 2001. xii, 342 pp. Ill. $37.50.
In this study of the role played by French and Algerian intellectuals in one of the most violent and brutal wars of decolonization (the French-Algerian war), Professor Le Sueur focuses on key figures such as Albert Camus, Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Raymond Aron, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Frantz Fanon, Mouloud Feraoun and Pierre Bourdieu. The author argues that in the agony and fierce debates and activism over the Algerian struggle for independence, these intellectuals forged new notions of the nation and nationalism and instigated a politics of identity that continues to influence current debates.
Marx-Engels-Edition und biographische Forschung. [Beiträge zur Marx-Engels-Forschung; Neue Folge 2000.] Argument, Berlin [etc.] 2000. ii, 259 pp. Ill. DM 27.00; S 198.00; S.fr. 27.00.
The twenty contributions to this collection are based on a colloquium in honour of the seventieth birthday of professors Rolf Dlubek and Richard Sperl, who in previous decades have played an important conceptual role in the realization of the new, second series of the Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe, MEGA2. Represented here is a broad range of biographical research in relation to the editorial scholarship of the MEGA2. In their own contributions, the guests of honour discuss a number of principal points of particular relevance to the third section of the MEGA2, the correspondence.
Morell, Antonio. La legitimación social de la pobreza. Prólogo de Carlota Solé. [Autores, textos y temas. Ciencias Sociales, 33.] Anthropos, Rubí (Barcelona) 2002. xiv, 286 pp. 18.50.
This work aims to analyse discourses in the social perception of poverty in the West since the Middle Ages. The author addresses this theme as far as Europe is concerned during the transition from medieval to modern society, the theorization about poverty in Spain in the same period and the ideas of the English liberals at the start of industrial society. He compares the views on poverty in France and Spain in the nineteenth century, analyses the views of Marx and De Tocqueville, deals with the rise of the state social assistance system in Spain and concludes with an analysis of poverty in the welfare state.
Population History and the Family: A Journal of Interdisciplinary History Reader. Ed. by Robert I. Rotberg. [The Journal of Interdisciplinary History Readers.] The MIT Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 2001. viii, 390 pp. £41.50. (Paper: £16.95.)
This volume brings together thirteen articles published in the Journal of Interdisciplinary History between 1976 and 1997 in the field of family and demographic history. Dealing chronologically with the medieval, early modern and modern periods, geographically with Europe, Asia and the Americas and topically with issues such as fertility transitions and their causes, shifting ages of marriage, mean household size differentials and population dynamics, these essays represent, according to the editor, the important contributions that practitioners of family and demographic history have made to interdisciplinary history.
Reddy, William M. The Navigation of Feeling. A Framework for the History of Emotions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. xiv, 380 pp. £45.00; $69.95. (Paper: £15.95; $24.95.)
In this study, Professor Reddy explores the links between emotions and cognition to develop a new theory of emotions and historical change. Aiming to demonstrate how emotions change over time and have an important impact on the course of events, and how different social orders either facilitate or constrain emotional life, he puts his theory to the test in an investigation of sentimentalism and promises of emotional liberty in Revolutionary France.
Socialist Internationals - A Bibliography. Publications of the Social-Democratic and Socialist Internationals 1914-2000. A project by the International Association of Labour History Institutions (IALHI). Comp. by Gerd Callesen. Bibliothek der Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Bonn [etc.] 2001. 167 pp. Ill. Distr.: Ruediger.Zimmermann@fes.de (free of charge).
This bibliography includes publications between 1914 and 2000 of 39 international labour movement organizations, which in one way or another subscribed to social democratic or socialist principles. All 39 organizations are introduced with a brief description, including the year and place of their establishment and location of holdings. The compiler emphasizes that the bibliography is incomplete but may contribute to making a version planned as an electronic database more comprehensive.
Cohen, Deborah. The War Come Home. Disabled Veterans in Britain and Germany, 1914-1939. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 2001. xii, 285 pp. Ill. $50.00; £35.00.
This study aims to offer a comparative analysis of the very different ways in which Germany and Britain cared for their nearly eight million disabled veterans from World War I. Professor Cohen explores the apparent paradox that German veterans were allegedly important in bringing down the Weimar Republic, although they received much better care than their British counterparts, who remained loyal to the nation, and focuses on the interplay between state agencies and private philanthropies on the one hand and the evolving relationship between disabled men and the general public on the other. See also Sabine Kienitz's review in this volume, pp. 283-286.
Fortier, François. Virtuality Check. Power Relations and Alternative Strategies in the Information Society. Verso, London [etc.] 2001. vii, 145 pp. £16.00; $23.00; C$34.00.
In this concise study of the relationship between recent developments in information and communication technologies (ICTs) and contemporary society, Mr Fortier argues that ICTs are currently used mainly in the interests of states and corporate sectors and thus lead to an antidemocratic polarization of economic and political power. The author argues that alternative forms and uses of ICTs have been developed and are promoted by progressive social sectors, which he reviews in the last part of this study.
CONTINENTS AND COUNTRIES
Bassett, Thomas J. The Peasant Cotton Revolution in West Africa. Côte d'Ivoire, 1880-1995. [African Studies Series, vol. 101.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. xix, 243 pp. Ill. Maps. £45.00; $64.95.
Focusing on the case of Côte d'Ivoire, Professor Bassett explores the successful growth of the cotton economy in West Africa in the twentieth century. Resulting from the cumulative effect of decades of incremental changes in farming techniques and social organization, the agricultural intensification was not a case, he argues, of top-down "plantification" but was brought about by tens of thousands of small-scale farmers. The author concludes that local and temporal dimensions of agricultural innovations should receive greater consideration in development policies.
Carstens, Peter. In the Company of Diamonds. De Beers, Kleinzee, and the Control of a Town. Ohio University Press, Athens 2001. xvii, 257 pp. Ill. Maps. $59.95. (Paper: $24.95.)
After the discovery of diamonds in the northwest coastal region of South Africa in 1925, De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd. gained almost complete dominance throughout the region. In this portrait of the company town of Kleinzee, where the company owns all real estate and infrastructure and controls and runs both the town and the industry, Professor Carstens analyses the company's power and hegemonic process associated with that power, resulting in a differentiation and categorization of employees and workers according to occupation and ethnic and other social criteria. He also draws structural parallels with other closed and incomplete social formations, such as military bases.
Sebag, Paul. Communistes de Tunisie 1939-1943. Souvenirs et documents. L'Harmattan, Paris [etc.] 2001. 190 pp. 16.80.
Professor Sebag retraces in this study the daily life within and activities of the Communist Party of Tunisia during the Vichy regime and the German occupation (1939-1943). As an active member of the party at the time, the author is able to describe from the inside the various illegal activities, the emergence of clandestine publications under risky circumstances and the repression by the Nazi and Italian forces of occupation. The appendix features a biographical list of militants active in the communist resistance.
Bauer, Arnold J. Goods, Power, History. Latin America's Material Culture. [New Approaches to the Americas.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. xx, 245 pp. Ill. £35.00; $59.95. (Paper: £11.95; $17.95.)
In this overview of the development of material culture in Latin America from the pre-Columbian period through the European invasion from the sixteenth century to the present, Professor Bauer focuses on the core items of material life: food, clothing, shelter and the organization of public space, in both their rudimentary and their elaborate manifestations. Four main interwoven explanatory schemes appear throughout the book: supply and demand, or relative price; the relationship between consumption and identity; the importance of ritual, both ancient and modern, in consumption; and the idea of "civilizing goods", referring to the relationship between colonial and postcolonial power and consumption.
Hora, Roy. The Landowners of the Argentine Pampas. A Social and Political History 1860-1945. [Oxford Historical Monographs.] Clarendon Press, Oxford [etc.] 2001. ix, 264 pp. £40.00.
In this social and political history of the Argentine landowning elite, Professor Hora questions the prevailing static impression of this landed class as being the permanent dominant social class throughout the middle of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Examining how socio-economic and political circumstances affected landowners and were in turn affected by them, he also challenges revisionist interpretations that underrate the central role played by the landowning class in the evolution of modern Argentina. See also Richard J. Walter's review in this volume, pp. 290-293.
Whitney, Robert. State and Revolution in Cuba. Mass Mobilization and Political Change, 1920-1940. [Envisioning Cuba.] The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 2001. xii, 255 pp. $49.95; £42.50. (Paper: $18.95; £15.95.)
The period that Professor Whitney is addressing has received insufficient consideration, given the understandable interest in Castro's revolution. He describes how during the period 1920-1940, Cuba changed from a country dominated by oligarchic capitalism under American tutelage to what was basically a modern state with constitutional features. The mass mobilization of the clases populares was decisive in this respect. Despite the brief tenure of the reform-oriented Grau administration in 1933, the people were subsequently incorporated in the political process. The young Batista then advanced to an authoritarian populist. The study is based in part on archival research in Cuba and the United States.
Hernández Castillo, R. Aída. Histories and Stories from Chiapas. Border Identities in Southern Mexico. Transl. by Martha Pou. Foreword by Renato Rosaldo. [Anthropology; Latin American Studies.] University of Texas Press, Austin 2001. xix, 295 pp. Ill. Maps. $50.00. (Paper: $22.95.)
This book, which has been translated from Spanish, is an account of Professor Hernández's study on a small tribe in Chiapas at the Guatemalan border. In four volumes, each entitled "Border Crossing", the author examines in detail the specific ethnic-historical development of the Mam tribe. The period of forced acculturation in post-revolutionary Mexico into a mestizo-Mexican identity virtually obliterated the Mam as a recognizable indigenous people. The responses, which included conversions both to Presbyterian Protestantism and to Jehovah's witnesses and later on a revival of indigenismo, are subsequently considered. The book concludes by situating the Mam with respect to the armed uprising of the EZLN and the para-militarization of this region after 1994.
Stephen, Lynn. Zapata Lives! Histories and Cultural Politics in Southern Mexico. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 2002. xlv, 400 pp. Ill. Maps. $60.00; £40.00. (Paper: $24.95; £17.95.)
In this study Professor Stephen investigates the local backgrounds of modern Zapatismo in Chiapas and Oaxaca. To this end, she presents several case studies of ejidos (units of communally-owned land) in these areas. She sketches how embracing neo-liberal policy in the nineties put pressure on the local communities. After the elections of 2000, the rural, indigenous areas became highly militarized on the one hand, while a powerful drive toward indigenous rights emerged on the other hand. Lynn Stephen places her own fieldwork as an anthropologist from the US but working in Mexico in the context of the pursuits of the subjects of her study.
Van Young, Eric. The Other Rebellion. Popular Violence, Ideology, and the Mexican Struggle for Independence, 1810-1821. Stanford University Press, Stanford (Cal.) 2001. xvii, 702 pp. £55.00; $75.00.
This vast work addresses aspects of the Mexican struggle for independence unrelated to politics or the military. In three volumes, Professor Van Young examines first the social profile of the insurgents, second who the leaders and followers were and finally aspects relating to violence and ideology. His main conclusion is that the extended violence was attributable more to the resistance to change among rural communities, regardless of whether such change arose from external or internal factors, than to the political aspirations to independence. The ethno-cultural dimension in the Mexican struggle for independence is, according to the author, the chief difference from the French and American revolutions.
Weinberg, Bill. Homage to Chiapas. The New Indigenous Struggles in Mexico. Verso, London [etc.] 2002. xxiv, 456 pp. Ill. £13.00; $22.00; C$32.00.
This monograph is an account of the struggle in Chiapas from 1994 onward. The author, a New York journalist and activist, has provided a richly documented contemporary history of this part of Mexico, without losing sight of the broader context. Oil, NAFTA and the drug trade are, according to the author, decisive elements in Mexican domestic politics as well as in relations with the US. Previously, Weinberg wrote War and Land: Politics and Ecology in Central America (1991). The themes addressed there recur in this work.
United States of America
Bacharach, Samuel B., Peter A. Bamberger [and] William J. Sonnenstuhl. Mutual Aid and Union Renewal. Cycles of Logics of Action. ILR Press (an imprint of Cornell University Press), Ithaca [etc.] 2001. x, 200 pp. £26.95. (Paper: $16.95; £11.50.)
The present ongoing decline in union membership in the United States (and in the rest of the highly industrialized countries) is often attributed to an increasingly hostile economic, legal and managerial environment. Professors Bacharach, Bamberger and Sonnenstuhl argue in this book that the decline may have more to do with a crisis of union legitimacy and member commitment and suggest that both problems could be addressed if unions were to create a new logic of action for legitimizing themselves by returning to their nineteenth-century, mutual aid-based roots.
Bae, Youngsoo. Labor in Retreat. Class and Community among Men's Clothing Workers of Chicago, 1871-1929. [SUNY Series in American Labor History.] State University of New York Press, Albany 2001. xiv, 295 pp. $78.50. (Paper: $26.95.)
In this study of industrial unionism and the workplace and community politics among workers in the men's clothing industry in Chicago between 1871 and 1929, Professor Bae focuses on workers' strategies for coping with changing circumstances and their own role in the decline of the movement. Analysing residential patterns, social institutions and social relationships and suggesting a different conception of class, community and space, she posits that the weakened sense of community among ethnic groups after World War I, rather than the unfavourable atmosphere of the day, was a major cause for the decline of the labour movement.
Bao, Xiaolan. Holding Up More Than Half the Sky. Chinese Women Garment Workers in New York City, 1948-92. Foreword by Roger Daniels. [The Asian American Experience.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2001. xvi, 331 pp. Ill. Maps. $44.95.
Based on over a hundred interviews with Chinese immigrant women workers, this study examines the changing family culture and labour and workplace relations, and with it, the image and empowerment of Chinese American women working in the garment industry in the period 1948-1992. Professor Bao shows how from a situation of exploitative paternalism, rooted in ethnic social and economic structures and an uneasy relationship with union leadership, the women developed a degree of militancy and organized protest that enabled them to force Chinese garment industry employers to sign a union contract.
Beckert, Sven. The Monied Metropolis. New York City and the Consolidation of the American Bourgeoisie, 1850-1896. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. xvii, 492 pp. Ill. Maps. £25.00; $34.95.
Exploring the emergence and consolidation of a new economic elite in New York City in the second half of the nineteenth century, Professor Beckert aims to show how a small and diverse group of industrialists acquired unprecedented economic power and dominance over the older merchant elite in this period. He argues that the Civil War was central in this realignment. In the wake of the Reconstruction, the New York bourgeoisie reoriented its ideology, from the free labour views of the antebellum period to laissez-faire liberalism.
Bontemps, Alex. The Punished Self. Surviving Slavery in the Colonial South. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 2001. x, 224 pp. $29.95; £19.95.
This study describes the enslavement of captive Africans and their Creole descendants in the American South during the eighteenth century as a systematic assault on their sense of self. Professor Bontemps explores enslavement as a process of objectification and considers how the cultural assault of enslavement was initiated by forcing captive Africans to accept a new identity, that of Negro. Illustrating the crucial dilemma for captive Africans of how to appear to be a Negro convincingly in order to survive without actually becoming one, he argues that slavery's true brutality was the psychic condition, much more than the harsh physical violence to maintain submissiveness.
Bucki, Cecelia. Bridgeport's Socialist New Deal, 1915-36. [The Working Class in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2001. xi, 291 pp. Ill. $35.00.
In this study of the role of labour in the local politics of Bridgeport, Connecticut in the interwar period, Professor Bucki examines the factors that led to the dominance of the Socialist Party in this town. Describing the legacy of activist unionism, combined with a tradition of business manipulation of local politics and a growing fiscal crisis, she shows how the Socialist Party, representing the concerns of ethnic working-class communities, gained political power and even the mayor's office on a wave of popular antibusiness and New Deal enthusiasm.
Diner, Hasia R. Hungering for America. Italian, Irish, and Jewish Foodways in the Age of Migration. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 2001. xvii, 292 pp. Ill. £27.50.
Focusing on three distinctive immigrant groups (Italians, Irish and Jews from Eastern Europe) who came to America between the 1820s and the 1920s, Professor Diner explores in this study the relation between immigrant foodways and ethnic cultures in the United States. As the immigrants were drawn to America largely because of its abundance of food, the author argues that their experiences with the realities of abundant food in America in contrast with their earlier homeland experiences of deprivation shaped their ethnic practices and food culture in the new land in distinctive ways.
Hewitt, Nancy A. Southern Discomfort. Women's Activism in Tampa, Florida, 1880s-1920s. [Women in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2001. xiv, 345 pp. $40.00.
This study explores the interactions and activism among native-born white, African American and Cuban and Italian immigrant women in the Cigar City of Tampa, Florida in the period 1880-1920. Subject to the state's newly imposed system of legal segregation from 1885, Tampa served as a centre for exiles from Cuba and a repository for Cuban and Italian immigrants, who brought with them new forms of radicalism. Professor Hewitt aims to show how women's interests were transformed and their activist identities forged and reformulated from the Reconstruction through the industry-wide cigar strike of 1901 and the emergence of progressive reform and militancy.
Hicks, George L. Experimental Americans. Celo and Utopian Community in the Twentieth Century. University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2001. xiii, 273 pp. $36.95.
This is an anthropological study of one of the longer-lived and still existing utopian experimental communities in the United States, Celo Community in western North Carolina, founded in 1937 by Arthur Morgan, first chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority. Drawing on extensive fieldwork and interviews with former members, the late Professor Hicks has sketched Celo's development and ideological, pacifist background, assessed its success in creating alternatives to mainstream social relations, compared it with other utopian communities and examined its shift to a post-utopian phase in the late 1970s.
Kuhn, Clifford M. Contesting the New South Order. The 1914-1915 Strike at Atlanta's Fulton Mills. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 2001. xii, 302 pp. Ill. $49.95. (Paper: $19.95.)
The famous 1914-1915 Strike at Atlanta's Fulton Bag and Cotton Mills was central to the American Federation of Labor's effort to organize southern workers at the beginning of the twentieth century. In this study of the strike, Professor Kuhn analyses its importance despite its ultimate failure and its legacy for the development of the New South. Depicting the strike and the community in which it occurred, the author also chronicles the struggle for public opinion between management, workers, union leaders and other interested parties.
Mercier, Laurie. Anaconda. Labor, Community, and Culture in Montana's Smelter City. [The Working Class in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2001. xi, 301 pp. Ill. $49.95. (Paper: $24.95.)
The town of Anaconda, Montana, is the home of the largest copper mine and smelting plant in the world. Professor Mercier offers in this study a history of this community dominated by a single industry, from the New Deal period to the period of deindustrialization in the 1980s. Drawing both on archival sources and on oral history, she explores the union's role in the development of the labour relations, analyses how the miners' families formed a distinct working-class culture in the community and considers the role of women in particular. See also John H.M. Laslett's review in this volume, pp. 296-297.
Nelson, Bruce. Divided We Stand. American Workers and the Struggle for Black Equality. [Politics and Society in Twentieth-Century America.] Princeton University Press, Princeton [etc.] 2001. xliv, 388 pp. Ill. $39.50; £24.95.
Focusing on longshoremen in the ports of New York, New Orleans and Los Angeles and on steelworkers throughout the US, Professor Nelson explores in this study the intersection of class and race in the making and remaking of the American working class from the end of the nineteenth to the second half of the twentieth century. He emphasizes white working-class agency in the construction of racially discriminatory practices and sketches the circumstances in which racialized class identities emerged and developed, including the complex relationships between union leaders and various rank-and-file constituencies addressing racial issues. See also Joseph A. McCartin's review in this volume, pp. 293-296.
O'Connor, Alice. Poverty Knowledge. Social Science, Social Policy, and the Poor in Twentieth-Century U.S. History. [Politics and Society in Twentieth-Century America.] Princeton University Press, Princeton [etc.] 2001. xi, 373 pp. £19.95.
This study examines the politics, institutions, ideologies and social science that shaped poverty research and policy in twentieth-century United States. Professor O'Connor aims to assess a transformation in the study of poverty, from a reform-minded inquiry into the political economy of industrial capitalism to a detached, highly technical analysis of the demographic and behavioural characteristics of the poor. She argues that these transformations emerged not only from trends within social sciences but also from central preoccupations of twentieth-century American liberalism: economic growth, the Cold War, the changing fortunes of the welfare state and the enduring racial divide.
Ransom, Roger L. [and] Richard Sutch. One Kind of Freedom. The economic consequences of emancipation, second edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. xxviii, 458 pp. Ill. Maps. £45.00; $64.95. (Paper: £15.95; $22.95.)
This is a new edition of an economic history classic (originally published in 1977) that examines the economic institutions that replaced slavery and the conditions under which former slaves were allowed to enter the economic life of the United States following the Civil War. Professors Ransom and Sutch contend that although African Americans experienced a substantial rise in their economic welfare, the kind of freedom they were permitted curtailed further black advancement and retarded Southern economic development. In an epilogue to the new edition, the authors extend their original analysis based on expanded data and sophisticated computer computations and statistical techniques.
Rose, James D. Duquesne and the Rise of Steel Unionism. [The Working Class in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2001. xi, 285 pp. $24.50.
Focusing on the steel works at Duquesne, Pennsylvania, Professor Rose examines in this study two different forms of employee representation that battled for supremacy from the mid 1930s onward. In the early New Deal period, management in the steel works helped set up employee representation plans (ERPs) in addition to the independent trade union; the former representing skilled workers and tradesmen, mostly US-born and of northern and western European descent; the latter the unskilled, hourly workers, mostly eastern and southern Europeans and African Americans. The author argues that the ERPs matured from tools of the management into semi-independent, worker-led organizations.
Sherman, John W. A Communist Front at Mid-Century. The American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, 1933-1959. Praeger, Westport [etc.] 2001. xiv, 175 pp. £54.50.
In this history of the American Committee for the Protection of Foreign Born (ACPFB), from its beginnings in 1933 to its dissolution at the height of the Red Scare in 1959, Professor Sherman aims to show that the ACPFB, despite its positive social contributions, was in fact an important American communist "front" organization. He argues that, contrary to what the revisionist historiography of American communism has done, historians should not divorce the social accomplishments of communist front organizations from their political significance.
The Partitions of Memory. The Afterlife of the Division of India. Ed. by Suvir Kaul. Permanent Black, Delhi 2001. x, 301 pp. £25.00.
The eight essays in this volume explore in what measure and in which different ways the Partition has shaped the post-Independence history of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh and the consideration it receives in different academic disciplines. The essays cover topics such as the history and culture of Pakistan in relation to the Partition; literary reactions to Partition; relief and rehabilitation measures provided to Partition refugees; the Dalit claim to a separate political identity; and the power of national monuments.
Shapiro, Judith. Mao's War Against Nature. Politics and the Environment in Revolutionary China. [Studies in Environment and History.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. xviii, 287 pp. Ill. Maps. £35.00; $59.95. (Paper: £12.95; $18.95.)
This study explores the environmental politics and the resulting enormous environmental problems in China under Mao Zedong. As a result of Mao's insistence that "Man Must Conquer Nature", a series of policies, such as the building of Sanmexia Dam in the Yellow River, urgency to achieve autarky and fanciful agricultural schemes, had disastrous consequences for both human beings and the natural environment, contributing, among others, to the greatest human-made famine in history. Dr Shapiro argues that the abuse of nature was closely linked to abuse of people under Mao Zedong.
Pandey, Gyanendra. Remembering Partition. Violence, Nationalism and History in India. [Contemporary South Asia, vol. 7.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. xiii, 218 pp. £45.00. (Paper: £15.95.)
In this study of the partition of British India in 1947 and the excessive violence that accompanied it, Professor Pandey analyses the ways in which these events are selectively remembered or forgotten to ensure the unity of the community or nation. With it, his study serves as critique of the procedure of history-writing and nationalist myth-making on the question of violence, examining how local forms of sociality are formed and reformed by the experience and representation of violent events. See also Dick Kooiman's review in this volume, pp. 297-300.
Ranganayakamma. For the solution of the "Caste" question: Buddha is not enough, Ambedkar is not enough either, Marx is a Must. Eng. Transl. [by] B.R. Bapuji. Sweet Home Publications, Hyderabad 2001. viii, 421 pp. Rs. 80.00; $10.00.
In this book, the English translation of a text originally written in Telugu, Ranganayakamma discusses the range of ideas on the "caste" question of the Indian leader and ideologue of the Dalit movement, B.R. Ambedkar (1891-1956). As in her recent previous publications (see IRSH, 46 (2001), pp. 112f.), the author strongly and exclusively advocates the Marxist view on the issue of castes, or at least her own interpretation of a Marxist perspective on the caste system in India.
Chaqueri, Cosroe. The Russo-Caucasian Origins of the Iranian Left. Social Democracy in Modern Iran. [Caucasus World.] Curzon, Richmond 2001. 352 pp. Ill. £45.00.
This study reconstructs and analyses the history of left-wing politics in Iran and its Russo-Caucasian origins during the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1907, offering at the same time a history of the formative years of the socialist movement in Iran between the first Russian revolution of 1905 and the suppression of the Iranian Constitutional regime by the Russian Tsarist government, with British support, in 1911. Professor Chaqueri explores the roots and international consequences of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution and aims to demonstrate the importance of social democracy in the Constitutional movement.
Aspinall, Robert W. Teachers' Unions and the Politics of Education in Japan. [SUNY Series in Japan in Transition.] State University of New York Press, Albany 2001. xiii, 240 pp. $62.50. (Paper: $20.95.)
This overview of the history of the teachers' unions in Japan after 1945 focuses on the causes and effects of the rift in 1989 within the largest union, the Japan Teachers' Union (Nikky so). Professor Aspinall places the development and fortunes of the teachers' unions in the broader context of Japanese unionism and party politics and examines the role of teachers' unions in the education hierarchy and the current wave of educational reform.
Sellek, Yoko. Migrant Labour in Japan. Palgrave, Basingstoke [etc.] 2001. x, 261 pp. £45.00.
Since the mid-1980s, Japan has become one of the main destinations for foreign migrant workers. This study investigates how Japanese immigration control policies, under the influence of economic globalization, have been reshaped. Dr Sellek traces the changing situation of foreign migrant workers from the mid-1980s onward, focusing in particular on the transition from being "temporary workers" to "long-term stayers" and on the consequences for the myth and reality of the homogeneity of Japanese society.
Salman, Michael. The Embarrassment of Slavery. Controversies over Bondage and Nationalism in the American Colonial Philippines. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 2001. xii, 335 pp. Maps. $45.00.
This study investigates the controversies between Philippine nationalism, anti-slavery ideology and American colonial hegemony around the issue of slavery in the Philippines in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The discovery of the existence of slavery among Philippine minority groups, Professor Salman argues, led to embarrassment for American colonial officials, Philippine nationalists and American anti-imperialists. He submits that dominant political movements in the colonial Philippines appropriated antislavery rhetoric as part of a discourse on national emancipation from colonial rule.
Bugajski, Janusz. Political Parties of Eastern Europe. A Guide to Politics in the Post-Communist Era. M.E. Sharpe, Armonk [etc.] 2002. lx, 1055 pp. £168.50.
This guide provides detailed coverage of political developments in eighteen countries of Eastern Europe in the period after the demise of state socialism. The political entities Montenegro and Kosova are treated separately from Serbia. For each country there is a historical overview, a description of the political parties and sets of political data and election results. The guide includes a list of abbreviations of political party names and indices of individual and party names.
Manfredonia, Gaetano. L'anarchisme en Europe. [Que sais-je? 3613.] Presses Universitaire de France, Paris 2001. 128 pp. 6.41.
This is a concise account of the history of anarchism in Europe from William Godwin to the present. In addition to a description of theory and movement, the author provides a political and comparative analysis in the different stages of development. He offers a brief review of the most important theoreticians and leading figures; of the different currents, such as mutualism, individualism, collectivism and anarcho-syndicalism; of the conflict in the First International; of the national anarchist movements; the role of anarchism in the Russian Revolution and the Spanish Civil War; and he characterizes contemporary anarchism.
Ruff, Julius R. Violence in Early Modern Europe. [New Approaches to European History, vol. 22.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. xii, 269 pp. Ill. £37.50; $54.95. (Paper: £13.95; $19.95.)
This textbook aims to give a broad-ranging survey of the history of violence in Western Europe from the Reformation to the French Revolution. Summarizing the main research in the field, Professor Ruff argues that modern preoccupations with the problem of violence are mirrored in late medieval and early modern European societies. He focuses, among others, on the role of the emerging state in controlling violence; the roots and forms of the period's widespread interpersonal violence; the impact on women; and rioting.
Dambruyne, Johan. Corporatieve middengroepen. Aspiraties, relaties en transformaties in de 16de-eeuwse Gentse ambachtswereld. Academia Press, Gent 2002. xi, 884 pp. 35.00.
This extensive study of the artisanal middle class focuses on the transformation processes in the artisans' world in the city of Ghent in the sixteenth century. Diverging from the existing historiography, Dr Dambruyne argues that the group of guild masters, characterized as an artisanal middle class with a form of premodern corporative ideology, played was far more important in the social and political development of the early modern city of Ghent than was hitherto believed. See also Wilfried Reininghaus's review in this volume, pp. 273-275.
Associations et champ politique. La loi de 1901 à l'épreuve du siècle. Sous la dir. de Claire Andrieu, Gilles Le Béguec et Danielle Tartakowsky. [Histoire de la France aux XIXe et XXe siècle, 53.] Publications de la Sorbonne, Paris 2001. 723 pp. 35.00.
These are the proceedings of a colloquium, organized in Paris in November 2000, in honour of the centennial of the Loi de 1901 (the Act of 1901), which formalized legal freedom of association in France. In 43 essays, the contributors deal with the legal and historical context of the Act, its impact on the development of political parties, trade unions and mutuals and on the Third Republic as a whole. The influence of the law on (liberal, socialist and nationalist) political movements and organizations and on associational movements and organizations are addressed in separate parts.
Baecque, Antoine de. Glory and Terror. Seven Deaths under the French Revolution. Transl. by Charlotte Mandell. Routledge, New York [etc.] 2001. vi, 243 pp. Ill. £18.99.
This is the English translation of La gloire et l'effroi: Sept morts sous la Terreur (1997), a study of the Terror and passion in the French Revolution, which focuses on the spectacular and often awesome events around seven renowned deaths, analysing them as key moments in the Revolution to understand the passions it aroused, and how these passions drove the Revolution into another successive phase. Professor de Baecque offers very pictorial descriptions of events such as the public death of the great revolutionary orator Mirabeau; the interment of Voltaire in the Pantheon, the spectacle of Louis XVI's execution; and the dramatic final hours of Robespierre.
Bidouze, René. 72 Jours qui changèrent la cité. La Commune de Paris dans l'histoire des services publics. Pref. d'Anicet Le Pors. Le Temps des Cerises, Pantin 2001. 232 pp. 18.29.
This history of the Commune de Paris focuses on the governmental system and the public administration and services established in the 72 days that the Commune lasted. Dr Bidouze aims to give a comprehensive overview of how the public administration and the various public services in Paris were conceived according to the democratic principles of the Commune. He deals with the recruitment of officials, the effectiveness of the government and services, the underlying political and social philosophies, the reaction of the population and the traces the Commune left behind in the city's system of government and public services.
Bloch-Dano, Evelyne. Flora Tristan. La Femme-Messie. Bernard Grasset, Paris 2001. 350 pp. 20.12.
This is a biography of the radical feminist, utopist and author Flora Tristan (1803-1844), written for a general readership. Giving a chronological overview of Tristan's adventurous and tumultuous life, Mrs Bloch-Dano focuses more on her personal than on her political life, emphasizing Tristan's inclination to mystify and mythologize her own life course, in which she regarded herself as a messianic figure.
Bonnier, Charles. Les souvenirs de Charles Bonnier. Prés. par Gilles Candar. [Documents et témoignages.] Presses Universitaires du Septentrion, Villeneuve d'Ascq 2001. 279 pp. 21.34.
These are the memoirs of Charles Bonnier (1863-1926), a key figure in French and European socialism in the 1880s and 1890s, a close friend of Jules Guesde and associated with Friedrich Engels, Eleanor Marx and Wilhelm Liebknecht. His academic career took him to Germany and England. His memoirs shed light not only on the political and ideological aspects of socialist intellectual militancy but also on the cultural life of the Belle Epoque, as he was an enthusiastic participant in various artistic milieus.
Bourderon, Roger. La négociation. Été 1940: crise au PCF. [Préface de Serge Wolikow.] Éditions Syllepse, Paris 2001. 253 pp. Ill. 15.24.
This study examines the "Tréand affair", which arose between June 1940 and mid-1941 in the PCF, the French Communist Party. Maurice Tréand, a leading PCF militant, and Jean Catelas started to negotiate with the Nazi occupiers in June 1940 to resume publication of the communist newspaper l'Humanité. This approach raised vehement objections within the PCF and the Comintern and culminated in the expulsion of Tréand and Catelas from the party. Based on the statement from Odette Janvier about the affair, a close collaborator of Catelas, Mr Bourderon aims to show that Catelas in particular played a different role than the one suggested in the PCF reports on the matter.
Brana, Pierre [et] Joëlle Dusseau. Adrien Marquet, maire de Bordeaux. Du socialisme à la collaboration. Atlantica, Anglet 2001. 286 pp. Ill. 18.29.
This is a political biography of Adrien Marquet (1884-1955), mayor of Bordeaux from 1925 to 1944, and together with Marcel Déat one of the leading "neo-socialists", who developed an authoritarian, nationalist, right-wing version of French socialism. He became a minister in the Vichy regime and collaborated whole-heartedly with the Nazi occupiers. The authors argue that, despite his convictions and political errors, Marquet remained an important representative of the leading political class of the Third Republic.
Carrot, Georges. La Garde Nationale (1789-1871). Une force publique ambiguë. Avant-propos de Jean-Louis Loubet del Bayle. [Sécurité et Société.] L'Harmattan, Paris [etc.] 2001. 364 pp.
Dr Carrot, who has previously written a history of the maintenance of public order in twentieth-century France (see IRSH, 37 (1992), p. 432), examines in this study the history of La Garde National, the French National Guard, from its origins in 1789 until its dissolution in 1871. Giving a chronological overview, the author focuses in particular on the legal context and on the ambiguous social and political role of the Guard.
Deinet, Klaus. Die mimetische Revolution oder die französische Linke und die Re-Inszenierung der Französischen Revolution im neunzehnten Jahrhundert (1830-1871). [Beihefte der Francia, Band 50.] Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Stuttgart 2001. 488 pp. Ill. 65.45.
This study, based on a Habilitationsschrift (University of Essen, 1998), analyses how the French left in the nineteenth century in both its principal discourse and its actual revolutionary activity in the February Revolution of 1848 and the Paris Commune of 1870/1871 continued to regard the French Revolution as its leading example and role model. According to Dr Deinet, much of the unrealistic and anachronistic modus operandi of the French left in these periods was attributable to the inner logic of the "mimetic Revolution".
Dreyfus, Michel. Liberté, égalité, mutualité. Mutualisme et syndicalisme 1852-1967. Les Éditions de l'Atelier, Paris 2001. 350 pp. 27.44.
This study (based on a mémoire d'Habilitation, Université Paris I, 1997) retraces the history of the social security mutualism in France and its relations to the trade union movement and syndicalism from the reform of the mutual benefit societies under Napoleon III in 1852, when their mutuality was forcibly separated from the original syndicalist movement, and 1967, when a period of long-term convergence with the trade unions reached its conclusion. Focusing on the role of mutual benefit societies in the rise of social security and welfare in France, Dr Dreyfus analyses the influence of the forced severance of mutuals and trade unions on the exception française in the development of the social security system.
The French Revolution. The Essential Readings. Ed. by Ronald Schechter. [Blackwell Essential Readings in History.] Blackwell Publishers, Malden (Mass.) [etc.] 2001. viii, 344 pp. £15.99.
This textbook presents ten selections from important scholarship on the French Revolution over the past quarter century, introduced and contextualized for student readers. Bringing together texts from authors from various and often diverging scholarly traditions, Professor Schechter aims to demonstrate the at times surprising connections to be established between historians from very different and often opposing points of view. Included are selections from the works of François Furet, Keith Micheal Baker, Roger Chartier, Robert Darnton, Colin Jones, Sarah Maza, Joan Wallach Scott, Lynn Hunt, Dale Van Kley and Mona Ozouf.
Hofnung, Thomas. Georges Marchais. L'inconnu du Parti Communiste Français. L'Archipel, Paris 2001. 482 pp. 21.50.
This is a political biography of Georges Marchais (1920-1997), leader of the Parti Communiste Français (PCF), the French Communist Party, from 1970 to 1994. Mr Hofnung, a reporter for the French newspaper Libération, aims to clarify the unknown and unexplained aspects of Marchais's life and political career, such as the role of the Soviet Union in his rise to power within the PCF.
L'implantation du socialisme en France au XXe siècle. Partis, réseaux, mobilisation. Sous la dir. de Jacques Girault, avec la collab. de Jean-William Dereymez, Frank Georgi, Denis Lefebvre, Frédéric Sawicki [et] Danielle Tartakowsky. [Histoire de France aux XIXe et XXe siècles, 52.] Publications de la Sorbonne, Paris 2001. 369 pp. 27.44.
These are the proceedings of a colloquium, organized in Paris in May 1999, on the implantation of socialism in twentieth-century France. In twenty-four contributions, historians and political scientists use the perspectives of the spatial dimension, the chosen representatives in parliamentary bodies, the organizations and the socialist discourse to explore the origins and rise of socialist political organizations, the emergence of socialist networks and the political mobilization. Donald Sassoon draws some comparative conclusions.
Jurquet, Jacques. À Contre-courant 1963-1986. Préf. de Jean-Luc Einaudi. Le Temps des Cerises, Pantin 2001. 366 pp. Ill. 18.29.
These memoirs of the French militant Jacques Jurquet cover the years 1963-1986, in which he was one of the leading figures in the French Maoist movement. Jurquet sketches the issues and controversies within the Parti Communiste Français (PCF), the French Communist Party, which led him to choose the Maoist course and become one of the founders and leaders of the PCMLF.
La protection sociale sous le régime de Vichy. Sous la dir. de Philippe-Jean Hesse et Jean-Pierre Le Crom. [Histoire.] Presses Universitaires de Rennes, Rennes 2001. 377 pp. 23.00.
In the nine chapters of this volume the contributors aim to give a comprehensive overview of the development of the social security system in France under the Vichy Regime (1940-1944). Looking at various ideological strands among the Vichy regime and the resistance, as well as at the actual policies regarding social insurance, family support, the legal framework and the role of mutuals, the authors conclude that by and large the development under the Vichy regime fit into the broader trend from the end of the nineteenth century onward of increasing the state involvement in the social security system.
Sagan, Eli. Citizens & Cannibals. The French Revolution, the Struggle for Modernity, and the Origins of Ideological Terror. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., Lanham [etc.] 2001. xii, 625 pp. $35.00.
Placing himself in the tradition of the "grand" social evolutionary theory of Marx, Weber, Parsons and Habermas, Mr Sagan investigates in this study, based on secondary literature, the roots of what he labels as the ideological terror, which lay at the heart of the Great Reign of Terror in the French Revolution. With the French Revolution, the author argues, France entered the modern stage of society without achieving a stable democratic society, and Terror was seized upon as a response to that failure.
Buchner, Bernd. Um nationale und republikanische Identität. Die deutsche Sozialdemokratie und der Kampf um die politischen Symbole in der Weimarer Republik. [Politik- und Gesellschaftgeschichte, Band 57.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachf., Bonn 2001. 408 pp. Ill. 34.80.
This dissertation (Justus-Liebig-Universität, Giessen, 1999) examines the role of symbols in the formation of a republican and national identity in the Weimar Republic. Dr Buchner examines how German social democracy in particular, as the most important political force in the Weimar Republic, tried to reconcile republican and national symbols. He focuses on the use of the flag; the role of a national hymn, war memorials and the commemoration of German national events; the contestation of proletarian symbols between social democrats and communists; and implementation of a republican celebratory culture.
Grzesinski, Albert. Im Kampf um die deutsche Republik. Erinnerungen eines Sozialdemokraten. Hrsg. von Eberhard Kolb. [Schriftenreihe der Stiftung Reichspräsident-Friedrich-Ebert-Gedenkstätte, Band 9.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 2001. 384 pp. Ill. 34.80.
This is the first complete German edition of the memoirs of Albert Grzesinski (1879-1947), German social democratic politician, who served as Minister of the Interior and head of the Berlin police during the Weimar Republic. Grzesinski, who went into exile in 1933, after Hitler's Machtübernahme, was the first politician who accounted for his political deeds under the Weimar Republic, which he aimed to defend against political extremism from the right and the left. Besides a comprehensive introduction to Grzesinski's life and career, the edition includes additional documents, such as letters and diary excerpts. See also Ursula Langkau-Alex's review in this volume, pp. 287-290.
Kaminsky, Annette. Wohlstand, Schönheit, Glück. Kleine Konsumgeschichte der DDR. [Beck'sche Reihe, 1410.] Verlag C.H. Beck, München 2001. 176 pp. Ill. 9.90.
This study aims to offer a concise history of consumption in the GDR, based on the manifold of monographs and edited volumes published on daily life and consumer culture in East Germany since the end of the GDR. Sketching five distinct periods, Dr Kaminsky aims to show to what extent the level of consumption and frequent difficulties in providing for daily needs have contributed to the collapse of the GDR.
Schumann, Dirk. Politische Gewalt in der Weimarer Republik 1918-1933. Kampf um die Straße und Furcht vor dem Bürgerkrieg. [Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für soziale Bewegungen. Schriftenreihe A: Darstellungen, Band 17.] Klartext, Essen 2001. 400 pp. Ill. 45.00.
This revised edition of a Habilationsschrift (University of Bielefeld, 1998) explores the politically motivated violence in the Weimar Republic of both the extreme left and the extreme right from the perspective of its origins. Dr Schumann argues that, contrary to the prevailing views that the violence originated from a "brutalization" as a result of World War I, it arose from the effort of the extreme right to secure its dominance in the streets over the militant labour movement.
Sozialpolitik in der DDR - Ziele und Wirklichkeit. Hrsg. von Günter Manz, Ekkehard Sachse [und] Gunnar Winkler. trafo verlag, Berlin 2001. 429 pp. 29.80.
The fourteen contributors to this volume on social policy in the GDR were all active in the GDR in the academic planning and evaluation of East German social policy. In twenty-two contributions, they reflect on the principal goals of East German social policy from the origins of the GDR to the reunification and on the policy's implementation in a range of areas, such as social security, demographic policy, income policy, employment, working conditions and healthcare. The last part addresses academic research and training in the GDR in the field of social policy.
The Third Reich Between Vision and Reality. New Perspectives on German History 1918-1945. Ed. by Hans Mommsen. [German Historical Perspectives, vol. XII.] Berg, Oxford [etc.] 2001. vii, 127 pp. £45.00.
This collection of seven essays on German history during the interwar period analyses the elements of continuity between the Weimar period and the National Socialist dictatorship and the ideological and psychological preconditions for Hitler's rise to power and the considerable support for his rule. The essays include contributions on the Viennese background to Hitler's career (Brigitte Hamann); the impact of the Fascist experiment in Italy on the German bourgeois right (Wolfgang Schieder); and the false myth of the efficiency of Nazi economic policy (Christoph Buchheim).
Carr, Griselda. Pit Women. Coal Communities in Northern England in the Early Twentieth Century. Merlin Press, London 2001. vi, 174 pp. £12.95.
In this book, Mrs Carr explores everyday experiences of "pit women", wives of miners in England and their place and role in the mining communities in the first half of the twentieth century. The author deals with issues such as housing, environmental hazards and ill health, child rearing, formal and informal networks and the impact of labour struggle on family and women's lives. She concludes that solidarity and the sense of community were crucial in enduring the hardships of daily life and coping with the hardship of prolonged strikes.
Gildart, Keith. North Wales Miners. A Fragile Unity, 1945-1996. [Studies in Welsh History, vol. 18.] University of Wales Press, Cardiff 2001. xvi, 277 pp. Ill. £25.00.
Focusing on the period between the nationalization of the coal industry in 1947 and its privatization in 1994, this study examines the interrelationship of coal, community and politics in the north Wales coalfield. Using both oral history and archival sources, Dr Gildart considers both the politics of the National Union of Mineworkers and the role of the Labour Party in the momentous social, political and industrial changes that occurred in this period.
Imagining Early Modern London. Perceptions and Portrayals of the City from Stow to Strype, 1598-1720. Ed. by J.F. Merritt, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. xii, 305 pp. Maps. £40.00; $59.95.
Taking two famous descriptions of the City of London (John Stow's Survey of London from 1598 and John Strype's new edition of the same work in 1720) as starting points, the ten essays in this volume explore the ways in which different Londoners experienced the dramatic changes and growth of the city in this period. The contributors from various disciplines examine how Londoners interpreted and memorialized their past, how individuals located themselves mentally, socially and geographically within the city, and in what measure the capital's growth was believed to have a moral influence upon its inhabitants.
Laity, Paul. The British Peace Movement 1870-1914. [Oxford Historical Monographs.] Clarendon Press, Oxford [etc.] 2001. ix, 270 pp. £40.00.
Based upon the recently opened Peace Society Archive, this study examines the late Victorian and Edwardian peace movement in Britain, which included activists such as Richard Cobden, Herbert Spencer, Keir Hardie, J.A. Hobson and Norman Angell. Identifying different programmes for achieving peace, Dr Laity aims to show the significant impact the movement had on the political debate during various wars and crises in the decades before 1914 and offers a new interpretation of the reaction of the peace campaigners to war in 1914.
Price, Richard. British Society, 1680-1880. Dynamism, Containment and Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1999. xii, 349 pp. £40.00; $59.95. (Paper: £14.95; $22.95.)
In this new interpretation of modern British social history, Professor Price challenges the dominant periodization which sees the nineteenth century as the beginning of modern Britain. He argues that nineteenth-century Britain was more the extension of an earlier era of which the main themes appeared in the late seventeenth century and which continued to shape the social, economic and political history until around 1880. See also Keith Nield's review in this volume, pp. 275-278.
Shpayer-Makov, Haia. The Making of a Policeman. A social history of a labour force in metropolitan London, 1829-1914. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2002. ix, 293 pp. Ill. £45.00.
In this study of the Metropolitan Police of London from its establishment in 1829 until World War I, Professor Shpayer-Makov analyses this largest work organization of any kind at its time from the perspective of the working conditions, recruitment policies and terms of service. She argues that in the distinct pattern of employment and adoption of long-term strategies for recruitment and terms of service, the force was a precursor to many future employment policies. See also Elaine A. Reynolds's review in this volume, pp. 281-283.
Tadmor, Naomi. Family and Friends in Eighteenth-Century England. Household, Kinship, and Patronage. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2001. x, 312 pp. £40.00; $59.95.
In this study of the family in eighteenth-century England, Dr Tadmor aims to provide a new interpretation of concepts of household, family and kinship. Based on an analysis of contemporary language, as used in diaries, conduct treatises and novels, she uncovers a vibrant language of kinships, which, she argues, reveals the importance of the household in constructing notions of the family in this period and of strong ties of "friendship" in the formation of vital social, economic and political networks among kin and non-kin.
Congressi e convegni della Federazione Anarchica Italiana. Atti e documenti (1944-1995). A cura di Giorgio Sacchetti. [Il Pensiero Libertario, 28.] Samizdat, Pescara 2002. 573 pp. 20.50.
The first part of this book of sources is the re-edition of Federazione Anarchica Italiana: Congressi e Convegni (1944-1962), delivered and annotated by Ugo Fedeli and issued in 1963. The second part concerns the period from 1963 to 1995 and was compiled and annotated by Giorgio Sacchetti. A brief report, agenda and list of motions adopted is published for each congress. The same holds true for the most important national conventions. The work also includes the official reports from the Correspondence Commission or other documents considered useful. The main source was the weekly Umanità Nova. A brief biographical profile of Ugo Fedeli is appended.
Epstein, Steven A. Speaking of Slavery. Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy. [Conjunctions of Religion & Power in the Medieval Past.] Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 2001. xiv, 215 pp. $32.50; £21.95.
Focusing on medieval slavery on the Italian peninsula (and its origins and transition from the Roman slave culture), Professor Epstein examines in this study how the system of slavery was sustained by the language used to describe it. He looks first at the words used for slavery from early medieval dialects into the Italian literature from Dante to Primo Levi and Antonio Gramsci and then considers the connected legal history of slavery and the related emergence over time of concepts of liberty and morality. He concludes by analysing the language of the medieval market.
Kurz, Jan. Die Universität auf der Piazza. Entstehung und Zerfall der Studentenbewegung in Italien 1966-1968. [Italien in der Moderne, Band 9.] SH-Verlag, Köln 2001. 349 pp. 42.80.
This study examines the development of the Italian student movement in the years 1966-1968 from a peaceful student protest movement into an active and violent social movement, operating nationwide. The author applies social movement theory, as developed by Tarrow and others, to analyse the factors that brought about this radicalization, and he explores the internal and external ideological influences that came into play.
Labriola, Antonio. Carteggio. II: 1881-1889. A cura di Stefano Miccolis. Bibliopolis, Napoli 2002. xxxiv, 543 pp.
This is the second volume in the annotated edition of the correspondence of Antonio Labriola (1843-1904), issued under the auspices of the Istituto Italiano per gli Studi Filosofici and the Istituto Universitario Orientale in Naples (see IRSH, 47 (2002), p. 168 for the first volume). This second volume comprises, among others, the start of the correspondence with Benedetto Croce (1885) and Andrea Costa (1888). It consists of 566 letters he either wrote or received, among which 73 hitherto unpublished ones; 64 of them are from Labriola. In addition to an index of names, there are, like in the first volume, indices of names of addressees and senders.
Musso, Stefano. Storia del lavoro in Italia dall'Unità a oggi. Marsilio, Venezia 2002. 279 pp. 22.00.
This retrospective study deals with labour history in Italy from the unification to the present. In the first part the author describes the structural changes which influenced social groups, such as farmers and workers. He also covers the successive organizational models in corporate industry that resulted from innovation and application of Taylorism and Fordism, and labour relationships in industry. In the second part the author addresses the rise of the trade unions, labour disputes and their regulation.
Natta, Alessandro. Serrati. Vita e lettere di un rivoluzionario. Editori Riuniti, Roma 2001. 366 pp. 19.63.
This is the biography of Giacinto Menotti Serrati (1872-1926), socialist journalist and propagandist, who was expelled from the socialist party in 1923 because of his communist sympathies and joined the PCI in 1924. At the end of the nineteenth century he went into exile because of the persecution he suffered in Italy. In Switzerland and the United States he propagated socialism among Italian emigrants and wrote for periodicals such as the Avvenire del lavoratore (Lugano) and Il Proletario (New York). In 1911 he returned to Italy. The appendix comprises 77 annotated letters to relatives from 1895-1926.
Un nodo. Immagini e documenti sulla repressione coloniale italiana in Libia. A cura di Nicola Labanca. Con scritti di Simone Bernini, Nicola Labanca, Annalisa Pasero e Antonietta Tartaglia. [Strumenti e Fonti, 20.] Piero Lacaita Editore, Manduria [etc.] 2002. 244 pp. Ill. 15.00.
This book is the outcome of the desire of Professor Antonietta Tartaglia to publish the photograph collection of her father Raffaele. From 1929 to 1931 Raffaele was stationed as a soldier in Libya, an Italian colony at the time. The photograph collection he brought home with him conveys various aspects of life and death in the colony. The book also comprises three contributions from specialists on Italian colonial history: an introduction by Nicola Labanca, an essay by Simone Bernini about the repression of anti-colonial resistance in the period 1911-1918 based on material from Italian archives and an article by Annalisa Pasero about the repression in Cyrenaica during the fascist period based on British documents.
Pisacane, Carlo. La rivoluzione. A cura di Aldo Romano. Introd. di Giuseppe Galzerano. [Atti e memorie del popolo.] Galzerano Editore, Casalvelino Scalo (Salerno) 2002. clxxvi, 297 pp. Ill. 20.00.
Carlo Pisacane (1818-1857) joined the first Italian war of independence in 1848. Afterwards he settled in Genoa, where he wrote several books. In 1857 he was killed during a military expedition he had organized with Mazzini. The four-volume Saggi storici-politici-militari sull'Italia was published posthumously in 1860. La rivoluzione is the third volume of those essays. In this work he depicts an independent Italy free of exploitation and tyranny. The present edition is a faithful copy of the 1957 re-edition, edited by Aldo Romano, based on an accurate comparison with the manuscript. Giuseppe Galzerano contributed an extensive biographical introduction to this edition.
Storia economica e sociale di Trieste. Vol. I. La città dei gruppi 1719-1918. A cura di Roberto Finzi e Giovanni Panjek. LINT, Trieste 2001. 623 pp. Maps. 46.48.
This is the first of three volumes about the economic and social history of the harbour city of Trieste and covers the different population groups that lived there. The second volume will explore the various forms of transport in the period 1719-1918, and the third will address the history of Trieste as an Italian city in the period 1918-2000. The 15 contributions review demographic and urban development trends, the linguistic problems arising from the presence of e.g. a Slovenian population group, the social stratification and the various ethnic minorities: Slovenes, Jews, Greeks, German speakers, Serbs and Armenians.
Turati, Filippo. Rifare l'Italia! Introd. e cura di Carlo G. Lacaita. [Strumenti e Fonti, 21.] Piero Lacaita Editore, Manduria [etc.] 2002. 151 pp. 12.00.
This is the re-edition of a speech that the socialist leader Filippo Turati (1857-1932) delivered to the Chamber of Deputies on 26 June 1920 in the debate about the government declaration of the fifth and final Giolitti administration, which existed until 1921. He spoke personally, due to his minority position in the socialist party, in an effort to establish a platform comprising several political forces based on several concrete reform proposals for dealing with the deep crisis that Italy was experiencing. This edition features a limited set of notes.
Voci di compagni, schede di questura. Considerazioni sull'uso delle fonti orali e delle fonti di polizia per la storia dell'anarchismo. [Di] C. Bermani, G.N. Berti, P. Brunello [e a.] Centro Studi Libertari/Archivio Pinelli, Milano 2002; distr. by Elèuthera, Milano. 124 pp. 10.00.
This book comprises the contributions to two seminars organized by the Centro Studi Libertari/Archivi Pinelli in Milan in 2001 to prepare the Dizionario biografico degli anarchici italiani (see http://www.dbai.it). The objective of the seminars was to determine how to evaluate documents from police archives used for such a research project. Contributions also address methodological issues concerning the use of oral history documents. The participants in the seminars were Italian historians dealing with both themes in their scholarly work.
Groot, Gertjan de. Fabricage van verschillen. Mannenwerk, vrouwenwerk in de Nederlandse industrie (1850-1940). Aksant, Amsterdam 2001. 585 pp. Ill. 27.50.
This dissertation examines gender segregation, defined as the imbalanced distribution of men and women among occupations and positions and the ensuing discrepancy in rates of pay in the industrial labour process in the Netherlands between 1850 and 1940. Dr de Groot focuses first on four industrial sectors (cigars, clothing, shoes and the textile industry) and then on four larger factories to analyse data on production processes, division of labour, staff turnover, wages and career paths. He concludes that gender segregation did not exist beforehand but developed on the shop floor and persists to this day despite the increased participation of women in the labour market.
Heijden, Marien van der. De Burcht. Het bondsgebouw van H.P. Berlage, R.N. Roland Holst en de ANDB. Aksant, Amsterdam 2001. 72 pp. Ill. 14.95.
In honour of the opening of the trade union museum in 1991 in the former union hall of the ANDB, the Dutch diamond workers' union, Mr van der Heijden published a richly illustrated booklet featuring the history of the realization of this architectural landmark by the famous Dutch architect H.P. Berlage. Upon the completion of the restoration of the main conference room of the "Burcht" ten years later, he published this revised and expanded new edition of this history, which also focuses on the decorative paintings by R.N. Roland Holst.
De joden in Nederland anno 2000. Demografisch profiel en binding aan het jodendom. Red.: Hanna van Solinge [en] Marlene de Vries. Aksant, Amsterdam 2001. xii, 274 pp. 25.00.
This social demographic survey of the Jewish population living in the present-day Netherlands is a sequel to similar surveys held in 1954 and 1966. The central questions are: what is the Jewish population in the Netherlands; what is the social-demographic profile of the Dutch-Jewish population and of the non-Dutch Jews living in the Netherlands; what is the foreseeable demographic future for Jews in the Netherlands; and to what extent and in what ways do Dutch and other Jews residing in the Netherlands identify with Jewry and Judaism?
Sociaal Nederland. Contouren van de twintigste eeuw. Red.: Corrie van Eijl, Lex Heerma van Voss [en] Piet de Rooy. Aksant, Amsterdam 2001. vi, 249 pp. 21.50.
The thirteen contributions in this collection are intended as an inventory of the main economic, social and cultural and political trends in Dutch society in the twentieth century. Specific themes dealt with include demographic developments (Frans van Poppel and Hanna van Solinge); youth (Peter Selten); gender and nationalities (Leo Lucassen); religion (Dienke Hondius); political participation (Ruud Koole), industrialization and regional identity (Erik Nijhof) and levelling of income (Jan Luiten van Zanden). In a synthesizing conclusion Siep Stuurman characterizes the cultural and political revolution of the 1960s as a watershed between old and new society.
Russia – Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Conze, Susanne. Sowjetische Industriearbeiterinnen in den vierziger Jahren. Die Auswirkungen des Zweiten Weltkrieges auf die Erwerbstätigkeit von Frauen in der UdSSR, 1941-1950. [Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte des östlichen Europa, Band 58.] Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 2001. 270 pp. 44.00; S.fr. 75.70.
Based on an analysis of women's labour in the Moscow textile factory Trechgornaja Manufaktura and the Stalin Automobile Factory ZIS/ZIL (also in Moscow) during and after World War II, the author explores whether in what measure the increased participation of women in the industrial workforce during World War II influenced their position thereafter and considers the role of the government, the party and trade unions in the process, as well as the effect of labour law and social policy-related factors on the living and working conditions of women employed in industry.
Depretto, Jean-Paul. Pour une histoire sociale du régime soviétique (1918-1936). [Pays de l'Est.] L'Harmattan, Paris [etc.] 2001. 367 pp. 27.45.
Aiming to transcend the contrast between the typical social and the typical political perspectives on the history of the Soviet Union, Mr Depretto calls for an account highlighting the role of the state in this social history of the early Soviet Union until 1936. According to the author, the Western concept of class is inappropriate for analysing the Soviet social pyramid; the ideology of the dictatorship of the proletariat – in the meaning of the minority of industrial workers – should be taken literally, regarding the social declassification of the peasantry.
Gooding, John. Socialism in Russia. Lenin and his Legacy, 1890-1991. Palgrave, Basingstoke [etc.] 2002. viii, 287 pp. £45.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
In this study, Professor Gooding seeks answers to questions such as how Marxist ideas came to be implemented in Russia, a country that seemed entirely unsuited to them, why the system led to such suffering and upheaval and proved so fruitless, and why the attempt to rescue the experiment brought about the rapid collapse of Soviet Russia. His account of the failed socialist experiment revolves around the figure of Lenin: the living Lenin, who created Bolshevism and directed the Soviet state in its first years, the posthumous Lenin as Stalin fashioned him, a godlike, omniscient authority and the Lenin as the perestroika reformers perceived him: a Marxist idealist and fundamentally a democrat.
Kozlov, Vladimir A. Mass Uprisings in the USSR. Protest and Rebellion in the Post-Stalin Years. Transl. and Ed. by Elaine McClarnand MacKinnon. [The New Russian History.] M.E. Sharpe, Armonk [etc.] 2002. xix, 351 pp. £55.50.
This is a revised and abridged version of the Russian publication Massovye besporjadki v SSSR pri Khrushcheve i Brezhneve (1953- nachalo 80-ch gg.) (1999). Basing himself upon a broad range of sources, the author, currently the deputy-director of GARF (the State Archive of the Russian Federation), presents an extensive survey of mass uprisings both in Russia and in other USSR republics from the 1950s to the mid-1980s. He also discusses critical questions concerning the nature of the state-society relationship and the appropriateness of "totalitarianism" as a model for understanding Soviet society.
Provincial Landscapes. Local Dimensions of Soviet Power, 1917-1953. Comp. by Donald J. Raleigh. [Pitt Series in Russian and East European Studies.] University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh 2001. xi, 407 pp. Ill. Maps. $34.95.
This book is a collection of fourteen essays devoted to "decentering standard narratives of the Soviet historical experience", originally presented at a conference at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, in April 1999. The essays, which are mostly based on recently opened local archives, address topics such as unveiling campaigns in Uzbekistan in 1927 (Douglas T. Northrop), popular unrest in Saratov in 1921 (Donald J. Raleigh), the Zhdanovshchina campaign in Ukrainian literature (Serhy Yekelchyk) and the essential role the otkhodniki – the local male population that regularly went to work in industry but returned to the villages – played in the stunning 75 percent Bolshevik votes in the 1917 Constituent Assembly elections in Sychevka, a rural district in Smolensk Province (Roberta T. Manning).
Barona Vilar, Josep Lluís. Salud, enfermedad y muerte. La sociedad valenciana entre 1833 y 1939. [Estudis Universitaris, 88.] Diputació de València, Institució Alfons el Magnànim, Valencia 2002. 414 pp. 12.50.
This case study, the result of a research project at the Department of the History of Science at the University of Valencia that spanned several years, explores Valencian society from the perspective of sickness and health in a period of great social and economic change in Spain. The study aims to integrate the analysis of the countless aspects that influence the sickness and health of a population in a given social-economic context. To this end, it is focused on the interaction between a population's state of sickness and health on the one hand and the social and cultural factors, the institutions for healthcare, healthcare policy and medical discourse about the state of public health on the other hand.
Gutiérrez Molina, José Luis. Valeriano Orobón Fernández. Anarcosindicalismo y revolución en Europa. Dir. y Coord.: Federación Local CGT Valladolid. Libre Pensamiento, n.p. [Madrid] 2002. 302 pp. Ill. 8.00.
This is the biography of Valeriano Orobón Fernández (1901-1936), a less well-known Spanish anarchist who was nonetheless one of the driving forces in efforts to innovate theory and tactics of the CNT. He was a strong supporter of the alliance of anarcho-syndicalists and socialists. He also worked as a translator during his exile in Germany, where he befriended individuals from the international anarcho-syndicalist movement. The book also comprises a bibliography of his own publications and of translations he published in Spain. Several of his writings are reproduced here as well.
Iglesias, Pablo. Obras completas de Pablo Iglesias. Ed. a cargo de Aurelio Martín Nájera. [Vol. 7.] Biografías y recuerdos. Pres. de Cándido Méndez. [Vol. 8.] Propaganda Socialista (1888-1890). Pres. de José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero. [Vol. 9.] Propaganda Socialista (1891-1893). Pres. de José Blanco López. [Vol. 10.] Propaganda Socialista (1894-1897). Pres. de Luis Gómez Llorente. [Vol. 11.] Propaganda Socialista (1898-1901). Pres. de Manuel Chaves González. [Vol. 12.] Propaganda Socialista (1902-1903). Pres. de José Bono Martínez. Fundación Pablo Iglesias, Madrid; Instituto Monsa de Ediciones, Barcelona 2002. xx, 402 pp. xxi, 547 pp. xxi, 456 pp. xxv, 565 pp. xxiii, 606 pp. xxiii, 548 pp. Ill.
These are the subsequent volumes of the Collected Works of Pablo Iglesias (1850-1925) (see IRSH, 47 (2002), p. 174). The seventh volume includes three biographies about him by contemporaries and a selection of editorials and reminiscences about him, also by contemporaries. This volume features a bibliography of works by and about him as well. Volumes 8 through 12 contain his writings and speeches from 1888 to 1903.
Peiró Arroyo, Antonio. Jornaleros y mancebos. Identidad, organización y conflicto en los trabajadores del Antiguo Régimen. [Historia del mundo moderno.] Crítica, Barcelona 2002. 212 pp. 16.50.
The purpose of this work, writes the author in the introduction, is to analyse social conflicts between the owners of the production means and the free workers – casual labourers in agriculture and industry – in late-feudal society. The author reviews the causes of proletarianization in Aragón in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, living conditions among the unsalaried workers, their forms of organization and struggle to improve their working conditions and finally the crisis in the system and the emergence of new forms of organization. In an introductory chapter he compares experiences with these forms of organization in Great Britain, France and Spain.
Rosés Cordovilla, Sergi. El MIL: una historia política. [Disidencias, 8.] Alikornio ediciones, Barcelona 2002. 253 pp. 15.00.
The history of the Movimiento Ibérico de Liberación is surrounded by myths due to its aura of armed struggle, which led to the judicial execution under the Franco regime of Salvador Puig Antich in 1974. This study aims to offer a more accurate account based on extensive research in both public and private archives and interviews with eyewitnesses. According to the author, the resulting impression is one of an original, independent group that had ideological roots in anti-authoritarian, Marxist movements and regarded itself as a support group for the autonomous labour movement of the early 1970s.
Ruiz, Teofilo F. Spanish Society, 1400-1600. [A Social History of Europe.] Longman, Harlow [etc.] 2001. xv, 286 pp. £16.99; $25.99.
This textbook aims to give a comprehensive overview of Spanish society in transition from the late Middle Ages to modernity. After sketching the general geographical, political and cultural scene, Professor Ruiz explores the social structure, looking at both peasants and urban poor, nobility and clergy, as well as those on the margins of society, including Jews, Muslims and Gypsies. The last part is devoted to everyday life and comprises chapters on the rise of festivals, the role of violence, food and clothing and religion and sexuality.