Volume 46 part 3 (2001)


General Issues
Continents and Countries

Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.

General Issues


Authority and Control in Modern Industry. Theoretical and empirical perspectives. Ed. by Paul L. Robertson. [Routledge Studies in Business Organizations and Networks, vol. 10.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1999. xii, 246 pp. £55.00.
The nine essays in this collection, seven of which originate from a session of the International Economic History Association, held in Milan, August 1994, present both theoretical arguments and case studies on the relationship between organizational forms and the deployment of labour in modern capitalist economies. Juxtaposing views from economics, sociology and economic history and reflecting different schools of thought, the historical examples include factory-based labour in Britain during the Industrial Revolution (S.R.H. Jones); agricultural labour in the American South after World War II (Lee J. Alston); the American automobile industry in the interwar period (Wayne A. Lewchuk); and the German chemical industry before 1914 (Sachio Kaku).

Beyond the Cultural Turn. New Directions in the Study of Society and Culture. Ed. and with an Introd. by Victoria E. Bonnell and Lynn Hunt. Essays by Richard Biernacki, Caroline Bynum, Steven Feierman [a.o.] With an Afterword by Hayden White. [Studies on the History of Society and Culture, vol. 34.] University of California Press, Berkeley 1999. xi, 350 pp. $45.00; £35.00. (Paper: $16.95; £13.95.)
The nine essays in this collection, based on a conference organized in April 1996 by the editors of the series "New Directions in the Study of Society and Culture", offer a broad overview of the impact of the linguistic or cultural turn on the state of art in history and historical sociology. The contributors deal with the themes of culture as concept and practice (William H. Sewell, Jr, and Richard Biernacki); knowledge in the social sciences (Margaret C. Jacob, and Margaret R. Somers); the use of the narrative (Karin Halttunen, Steven Feierman, and Sonya O. Rose) and the body and self as critical junctures of culture and society (Caroline Bynum, and Jerrold Seigel). Hayden White has contributed an afterword.

The Cambridge Companion to Weber. Ed. by Stephen Turner. [Cambridge Companions.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2000. xx, 288 pp. £40.00; $54.95. (Paper: £14.95; $19.95.)
The latest volume in this series of "companions" to major philosophers, in which a work on Marx was published previously, (see IRSH, 38 (1993), p. 397) is an introduction to the major facets of the ideas of Max Weber (1864-1920). In thirteen essays the contributors deal with some of the major controversies over Weber's work and the changes in the issues since he wrote about them. The following four major fields in Weber's work are covered: rationality, rationalization and psychology; politics and culture; religions and their economic ethics; and law and economics. Contributors include Harold J. Berman, Jon Elster, Stanley L. Engerman, Alastair Hamilton, Peter Lassman, Wilfried Nippel, Guenther Roth and Wolfgang Schluchter.

Chriss, James J. Alvin W. Gouldner: Sociologist and Outlaw Marxist. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 1999. xi, 217 pp. £37.50.
This is a study of the work and life of Alvin W. Gouldner (1920-1981), American sociologist, founder of the journal Theory and Society, and author of influential works such as The Coming Crisis of Western Sociology (1970), The Future of Intellectuals and the Rise of the New Class (1979) and The Two Marxisms (1980) (see IRSH, 26 (1981), p. 220). Dr Chriss aims to give an "understanding" - i.e. a hermeneutic interpretation rather than an explanation - of the main themes in Gouldner's work and its transition from functionalism and to critical theory.

Donskis, Leonidas. The End of Ideology & Utopia? Moral Imagination and Cultural Criticism in the Twentieth Century. [American University Studies, vol. 191.] Peter Lang, New York [etc.] 2000. xvi, 213 pp. Ill. S.fr. 78.00.
Combining civilizational theory, philosophy of history, and cultural criticism, Professor Donskis focuses in this book on four major twentieth-century critics of culture - Vytautas Kavolis, Ernest Gellner, Louis Dumont and Lewis Mumford - to explore the role of ideological and Utopian thinking in the twenty-first century. Ideology and Utopia survive, according to the author, in the modern social sciences and humanities, as well as in various critiques of society and culture that serve as important sources for what he describes as cultural and moral imagination.

Foster, John Bellamy. Marx's Ecology. Materialism and Nature. Monthly Review Press, New York 2000. x, 310 pp. $48.00 (Paper: $18.00.)
Challenging conventional interpretations of Marx as an anti-ecological thinker, Professor Foster examines in this study Marx's often-neglected writings on capitalist agriculture and soil ecology, philosophical naturalism, and evolutionary theory to show that Marx was far more concerned with the changing human relationship to nature than is generally acknowledged. Aiming to reconstruct a materialist conception of nature and society, the author criticizes the spiritualism, which he sees as prevalent in the modern Green movement, and advocates a more rational approach to the current environmental crisis based on a Marxist materialism.

Gupta, Suman. Marxism, History, and Intellectuals. Toward a Reconceptualized Transformative Socialism. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, Madison [etc.]; Associated University Presses, London [etc.] 2000. 266 pp. £35.00.
Starting from the often complex relationship that revolutionary socialist philosophy has had with the social strata of intellectuals, this study reviews the constructions of and attitudes toward intellectuals in different revolutionary socialist philosophies, with references to the corresponding theories of history that are implicit in these philosophies. The author covers topics such as the early Marx, Bernstein, Lenin, Kautsky, Mao Zedong's ideas and the relations between the Chinese Communist Party and intellectuals, and twentieth-century Western Marxists. In his final chapter, Dr Gupta elaborates a brief reconceptualized pragmatic socialist political programme.

Marsden, Richard. The Nature of Capital. Marx after Foucault. [Routledge Studies in Social and Political Thought, vol. 20.] Routledge, London [etc.] 1999. xv, 237 pp. £60.00.
Examining the work of Marx and of Foucault through a lens of "critical realism", Professor Marsden aims in this philosophical study to overturn the generally accepted idea that their social theories are fundamentally incompatible. He sets out to synthesize Marx's theory of social relations of production and Foucault's theory of disciplinary power to analyse and define the operative logic of production relations, which shapes the condition of postmodern capitalism.

Paton, Calum. World, Class, Britain. Political Economy, Political Theory and British Politics. Macmillan Press, Basingstoke [etc.] 2000. viii, 237 pp. £42.50.
Combining political economy, political theory and an analysis of the developments in British politics over the last three decades, this study aims to offer a critique of the impact of "globalization" on British politics and on the study and analysis of politics and economy in modern social sciences. In the second part of the book, Professor Paton argues how political theory and ethical concepts may help restart the search for a better balance, both in Britain and in the rest of the world, between the social and the economic than presently exists under global capitalism.

Schöler, Uli. Ein Gespenst verschwand in Europa. Über Marx und die sozialistische Idee nach dem Scheitern des sowjetischen Staatssozialismus. [Politik- und Gesellschaftsgeschichte, Band 52.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 1999. 367 pp. DM 48.00; S.fr. 46.00; S 350.00.
Dr Schöler, prominent ideologue of the German SPD, aims in this study to analyse what use the classical socialist theory and strategies have retained for the challenges of the twenty-first century. For this recalibration of the practical utility of the theories of Marx and Engels, the author re-examines the historical praxis of the Soviet system of state socialism and the causes of its eventual demise and systematically re-explores and re-evaluates the function and structure of a socialist transitional economy and society, as to be found in the work of Marx and Engels.

Socialism and the Market. The Socialist Calculation Debate Revisited. Ed. by Peter J. Boettke. Vol. 1. The Natural Economy. Sel. and with a new introd. By Peter J. Boettke. Vol. 2. Collectivist Economic Planning. Ed. by F.A. Hayek. Vol. 3. Economic Planning in Soviet Russia. [By] Boris Brutzkus. Vol. 4. Marginalist Economics and the Socialist Economy. Sel. by Peter J. Boettke. Vol. 5. Socialist Calculation and the Market Economy. Sel. by Peter J. Boettke. Vol. 6. Rivalry and Central Planning. [By] Don Lavoie. Vol. 7. The Political Economy of Soviet Socialism. [By] Peter J. Boettke. Vol. 8. Mechanism Design Theory and the Allocation of Resources. Sel. by Peter J. Boettke. Vol. 9. The Current Status of the Debate. Sel. by Peter J. Boettke. Routledge, London [etc.] 2000. xviii, 613 pp.; v, 293 pp.; xvii, 234 pp.; vi, 160 pp.; vi, 273 pp.; x, 208 pp.; xxi, 246 pp.; vi, 141 pp.; vi, 334 pp. £650.00 (9 vols).
This set of nine volumes comprises photographic reprints of the main literature on the debate on the theory and history of socialist economic planning, from its beginnings at the end of the nineteenth century to the latest contributions to the ongoing debate in the late 1990s. In his introduction to these volumes, the editor Professor Boettke states two purposes for this collection: to provide scholars with a coherent set of the main contributions to this debate, and to demonstrate through this selection of readings that the theory and history of socialist planning needs to be studied simultaneously to improve the understanding of the collapse of socialism at the end of the twentieth century. In the introduction, Professor Boettke offers a comprehensive overview of the origins and course of the debate and lists four reasons why the debate remains relevant today, even though, with the collapse of Soviet socialism, most practical examples of a socialist, planned economy have disappeared: "(1) the importance of the imaginary construction of socialism for the economic analysis of a self-regulating market economy; (2) the intellectual power and moral intuitive appeal of Marx's revolutionary project; (3) the importance of pre-analytical cognitive acts (visions) in providing the raw material with which we work when engaged in analysis; and (4) the importance of this debate for the self-understanding of Austrian or market process economists and their rendering of how an entrepreneurial market economy in fact works to coordinate the plans of participants and to enable individuals to live peaceful and prosperous lives."
The collection starts with a selection of central texts on the ideal of the natural economy, resulting from the abolition of commodity production and social ownership of the means of production. They include an English excerpt from Marx's Critique of the Gotha Programme (1938), Lenin's The State and Revolution (Australian edition from 1920) and an excerpt from Bukharin's The ABC of Communism (1922). Volumes 2 and 3 reprint the two publications that mark the beginning of the theoretical and the practical debate: Collectivist Economic Planning (1935), edited by F.A. Hayek, and Boris Brutzkus, Economic Planning in the Soviet Union (1935). Volume 4 reflects the second stage of the debate, when marginalist economists took up the theory of a socialist economy, and features reprints of contributions by Fred M. Taylor, H.D. Dickinson, Maurice Dobb, Abbé P. Lerner and Oskar Lange. The problem of calculation in a socialist economy, resulting in the famous "Austrian argument", is the theme of Volume 5, which includes texts by Ludwig von Mises, Hayek, as well as more recent contributions to this debate by János Kornai and others. Volume 6 is a reprint of Don Lavoie, Rivalry and Central Planning (1985); Volume 7 comprises a reprint of Peter Boettke's The Political Economy of Soviet Socialism: The Formative Years, 1918-1928 (1990). Volume 8 deals with the problem of resource allocation and information in a socialist economy, whereas in Volume 9 the current status of the debate is reflected.


Benbassa, Esther and Aron Rodrigue. Sephardi Jewry. A History of the Judeo-Spanish Community, 14th-20th Centuries. [Jewish Communities in the Modern World, vol. 2.] University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 2000. lxiii, 313 pp. Maps. $19.95; £12.50.
This is an updated English translation of Juifs des Balkans: Espaces judéo-ibériques, XIVe-XXe siècles (1993), of which a first, shortened English translation appeared in 1995, entitled The Jews of the Balkans: The Judeo-Spanish Community, 15th to 20th Centuries. This study traces the rise, evolution, transformation, and dissolution of the Sephardi Jews of the Levant: descendants of Jews who left the Iberian peninsula after the expulsions at the end of the fifteenth century and migrated to the Ottoman Balkans and Asia Minor.

Bush, Barbara. Imperialism, Race and Resistance. Africa and Britain, 1919-1945. Routledge, London [etc.] 1999. xviii, 394 pp. Ill. £17.99.
In this history of the development of anticolonial resistance and opposition to racism in the period 1919-1945, Dr Bush focuses on Britain, West Africa and South Africa. Her first aim is to chart Africa's changing position in the world in the context of developments in imperialism and racism, her second to provide insight into the workings of British imperial power and its impact on relations between black and white, and between colonized and colonizer, and her third to evaluate related developments in resistance to white supremacy in Africa and the African diaspora.

Des Brigades internationales aux sans-papiers. Crise et avenir de la solidarité internationale. Sous la dir. de Michel Rogalski et Jean Tabet. Préface de Gilles Perrault. Actes des Rencontres internationales Henri Curiel, 20-21-22 novembre 1998, Gennevilliers. Le Temps des Cerises, Pantin 1999. 300 pp. F.fr. 120.00.
As a tribute to the Egyptian/French militant communist Henri Curiel (1914-1978), a conference was organized in Gennevilliers, France, in November 1998 on the crisis and future of international solidarity. These are the proceedings of that conference. The fifty-three participants discussed various examples of international solidarity movements before and during World War II and during the decolonization period in the 1950s and 1960s in North Africa and Indochina; two examples of contemporary international activists (Che Guevara and Mehdi Ben Barka); Curiel's own militant activism in Egypt and internationally; and the present-day crisis of international solidarity and its prospects for the future.

Diakonoff, Igor M. The Paths of History. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1999. xi, 355 pp. $19.95.
This study aims to offer a concise history of humanity and the laws governing it. Expanding Marx's five stages of development of world history to eight (primitive, primitive communal, early antiquity, imperial antiquity, the Middle Ages, absolutist postmedieval, capitalist and postcapitalist), Professor Diakonoff, a well-known expert on the history of ancient civilizations, argues that transitions from one stage to another are not necessarily marked by social conflict and revolution. Emphasizing ethnic, cultural, religious and military-technological factors over economic and socioeconomic aspects of the development of world history, the author states that social evolution need not signify progress.

E.H. Carr. A Critical Appraisal. Ed. by Michael Cox. Palgrave, Basingstoke [etc.] 2000. xxii, 352 pp. £45.00.
After the recently published intellectual biography of E.H. Carr (1892-1982) (see IRSH, this volume, pp. 114f.), this is the second publication dedicated to the life and work of this renowned historian of the Soviet Union, specialist on international affairs and philosopher of history. The fifteen essays in this collection, based on a conference organized at the University of Wales in July 1997, deal with these three different aspects of Carr's career in addition to biographical features. In his introduction, Professor Cox analyses Carr's gradual alienation from liberal values.

Health and Disease in Human History: A Journal of Interdisciplinary History Reader. [The Journal of Interdisciplinary History Readers.] The MIT Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 2000. viii, 345 pp. Maps. £41.50. (Paper: £16.95.)
This volume brings together thirteen articles that were published in the Journal of Interdisciplinary History between 1975 and 1996 on the broad theme of health and disease in human history. According to the editor, the essays reveal how strong the influence of environmental and epidemiological realities on exploration, settlement, agricultural growth, colonization, urbanization and human stature has been historically. Using insights and techniques from various relevant disciplines (anthropology, medicine, nutrition, genetics, psychiatry, statistics, and sanitary engineering), contributions deal with specific diseases and their effect on human history; the impact of diet; and measurements of heights and stature as proxies for generalizations about human progress.

The International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. Ed. by Anthony Carew, Michel Dreyfus, Geert Van Goethem [e.a.] [International and Comparative Social History, vol. 3.] Peter Lang, Bern [etc.] 2000. 624 pp. S.fr. 117.00; DM 147.00; S 975.00.
This book is the first history to be written of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU). The five contributors describe the development of the precursors to the ICFTU: the International Secretariat of National Trade Union Centres and the International Federation of Trade Unions (Michel Dreyfus and Geert Van Goethem) and the early World Federation of Trade Unions (Anthony Carew). They also reconstruct its origins during the Cold War (Anthony Carew) and its development from the 1970s to the 1990s (Rebecca Gumbrell-McCormick). In the final chapter Marcel van der Linden discusses the organization's prospects for the twenty-first century.

Linebaugh, Peter and Marcus Rediker. The Many-Headed Hydra. Sailors, Slaves, Commoners, and the Hidden History of the Revolutionary Atlantic. Verso, London [etc.] 2000. vii, 433 pp. Ill. Maps. £19.00.
"From the beginning of English colonial expansion in the early seventeenth century through the metropolitan industrialization of the early nineteenth, rulers invoked the Hercules-hydra myth to describe the difficulty of imposing order on increasingly global systems of labor." This study reviews the development of an Atlantic economy in this period from the perspective of the diverse landless workers who crossed national, ethnic, and racial boundaries as sailors, slaves, and indentured labourers, circulating around the Atlantic world on trade ships and slave ships. The authors focus on the dozens of rebellions - largely ignored by historians thus far - that were led by workers on both sides of the Atlantic and which, despite brutal suppression from the rulers of the day, fuelled the age of revolution.

Nishikawa, Masao. Der Erste Weltkrieg und die Sozialisten. Aus dem Japanischen von Maik Hendrik Sprotte. Edition Temmen, Bremen 1999. 177 pp. DM 39.90.
This is the German translation of a Japanese study from 1989, updated by the author for the translation. Dr Nishikawa offers a descriptive, chronological account of the developments and events around the Second International in the decade preceding the First World War, basing himself largely on the work of Georges Haupt, Peter Nettl and others.

Pennartz, Paul [and] Anke Niehof, The Domestic Domain. Chances, choices and strategies of family households. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 1999. xii, 241 pp. £37.50.
See Andrejs Plakans's review in this volume, pp. 461-462.

Sassen, Saskia. Guests and Aliens. The New Press, New York 1999. xxi, 202 pp. $16.95.
In this study, Professor Sassen explores the history of European and global migration and exile in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to show that most migrational flows are not so much the outcome of the poverty of or persecutions in poor countries but are patterned and bounded within larger political and economic structures that have always stimulated people to act. She sketches the historical context of European mass migration to reframe the global immigration question of the present day and to devise a more intelligent and effective immigration policy.

Schmidt-Nowara, Christopher. Empire and Antislavery. Spain, Cuba, and Puerto Rico, 1833-1874. [Pitt Latin American Series.] University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh 1999. xiii, 239 pp. Ill. $50.00. (Paper: $22.95.)
This study analyses the forces in favour of, and against, the preservation of slavery in Spain and in its Atlantic colonial empire in the nineteenth century. Based on archives of the colonial government in Madrid, Havana, and San Juan and on personal papers of individual actors, such as planters, writers and journalists, the book also is a study of the Sociedad Abolicionista Española, founded in 1865. Cuba's dependence on slave labour (370,553 slaves in a population of 1.4 million in 1862) largely explains the vehement resistance from the colonial elite and the late abolition (1886) of slavery in the Spanish world.

Schrupp, Antje. Nicht Marxistin und auch nicht Anarchistin. Frauen in der Ersten Internationale. [Aktuelle Frauenforschung.] Ulrike Helmer Verlag, Königstein 1999. 336 pp. Ill. DM 58.00.
This dissertation (Frankfurt, 1999) focuses on four women activists within the circles of the First International: the French Virginie Barbet (dates of birth and death unknown) and André Léo (1824-1900), the Russian Elisabeth Dmitrieff (1850-1918), and the American Victoria Woodhull (1838-1927). By exploring their positions in the early international working-class movement, Dr Schrupp aims to show that their role and influence was more important than has hitherto been recognized in the historiography, and to analyse the difficult relationship of international socialism and feminism.

Social Mobility and Modernization: A Journal of Interdisciplinary History Reader. [The Journal of Interdisciplinary Readers.] Ed. by Robert I. Rotberg. The MIT Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 2000. viii, 360 pp. Maps. £41.50. (Paper: £16.95.)
This volume brings together thirteen essays, previously published in the Journal of Interdisciplinary History between 1971 and 1996, on the central theme of the modernization of the West and what this modernization has meant for human society. The editor identifies the following subthemes addressed in the contributions: the process of (proto-)industrialization; the impact of modernization on social mobility, class structures and class differences; social unrest caused by industrialization and modernization; economic and social equality; the role of women in modernization; and the origins of modernization. The selection is arranged chronologically, covering both Europe and North America.


Dockers de la Méditerranée à la Mer du Nord. Des quais et des hommes dans l'histoire. Colloque international 11 au 13 mars 1999, Cité du Livre, Aix en Provence, Musée d'Histoire de Marseille. [Telemme: Temps, Espaces, Langages, Europe Méridionale-Méditerranée.] Édisud, Aix-en-Provence 1999. 238 pp. F.fr. 150.00.
This collection encompasses the proceedings of a colloquium, organized in Aix-en-Provence and Marseilles in March 1999, on a comparative history of longshoremen and dock labour in ports in France, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Greece, and Algeria. The seventeen contributions address four main themes: the organization of dock labour; communities of longshoremen and the rise of syndicalism for longshoremen; the relation between longshoremen and the cities; and internationalism among longshoremen. Contributors include John Barzman, Brigitte Bertoncello, Sylvie Bredeloup, Marco Doria, Jordi Ibarz Gelabert, Dieter Läpple, Robert Mencherini, Erik Nijhof, and Noel Whiteside.

Silverman, Victor. Imagining Internationalism in American and British Labor, 1939-49. [The Working Class in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2000. xv, 299 pp. $59.95. (Paper: $24.95.)
See Geert van Goethem's review in this volume, pp. 462-465.


Curtin, Jennifer. Women and Trade Unions. A comparative perspective. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 1999. ix, 189 pp. £35.00.
This study examines the relationship that has emerged since the 1960s between women workers and trade unions by analysing how women trade unionists have sought to make trade-union structures and policy agendas more inclusive of the interest of women workers in four countries: Australia, Austria, Israel and Sweden. Based in part on interviews with women trade union officials, Dr Curtin examines the distinctive strategies for change pursued by women unionists in each of the four countries, and investigates the circumstances and issues that led women trade unionists to deploy class-based or gender-specific strategies in protecting the interests of women workers.

Globalization and Patterns of Labour Resistance. Ed. by Jeremy Waddington. [Employment and Work Relations in Context Series.] Mansell, London [etc.] 1999. xvi, 253 pp. £50.00; $80.00.
This collection offers eight contributions presenting contemporary research on the relationship between the globalization of production and the regulation of labour. Contributors examine the relations between specific patterns of labour control and approaches to national labour relations, and assess the nature and form of labour resistance and accommodation across a range of manufacturing industries in different national contexts. The subjects of the case studies include the automobile industries in Hungary (András Tóth) and Canada (Wayne Lewchuk and David Robertson), factory regimes and labour standards in Asia (Rob Lambert and Anita Chan), and the South African glass-packaging industry (Tanya Rosenthal). In a concluding essay, Harvie Ramsay explores the possibilities and limitations of further internationalization of labour unions. CONTINENTS AND COUNTRIES



Sabra, Adam. Poverty and Charity in Medieval Islam. Mamluk Egypt, 1250-1517. [Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2000. xiii, 192 pp. £37.50; $59.95.
This study explores the attitude of medieval Muslims to poverty and charity and the experience of being poor in an Islamic society in the period 1215-1517 in Mamluk Cairo. Professor Sabra also considers the role of the waqfs (pious endowments) in providing food, education and medical care to the poor of medieval Egypt and compares poverty and destitution in Mamluk Egypt with the situation in Europe and China in the same period.


Berry, Sara S. Chiefs Know Their Boundaries. Essays on Property, Power, and the Past in Asante, 1896-1996. [Social History of Africa.] Heinemann, Portsmouth (NH); James Currey, Oxford; David Philip, Cape Town 2001. xxxix, 227 pp. Maps. £40.00. (Paper: £16.95.)
Professor Berry analyses in the six essays in this volume the system of landownership in Asante (the Ashanti region in present-day Ghana) in the twentieth century. Ownership is a central concept in both the Marxist and the neo-liberal schools of thought and in the debates on the development of Africa. During this whole period the chiefs in Asante played a pivotal role in the allocation of ownership rights, despite advancing commercialization and individualization of these rights. The author deals with ownership in Asante as a dynamic social process, which despite its divergent form has not impeded the development of the region.

Parker, John. Making the Town. Ga State and Society in Early Colonial Accra. [Social History of Africa.] Heinemann, Portsmouth (NH); James Currey, Oxford; David Philip, Cape Town 2000. xxxiii, 265 pp. Ill. Maps. £40.00. (Paper: £16.95.)
This revised edition of a dissertation (School of Oriental and African Studies, London, 1995) analyses the interaction between the colonial rule and the indigenous Ga society in Ghana. In the period covered (1860-1920), Accra, the main town of the Ga people, expanded from 20,000 to 60,000 inhabitants. Despite this explosive growth Ga society maintained its integrity, and Accra remained a genuine African town, instead of a European enclave, as many other African ports became in this period. Dr Parker's study is based on archival research in both Accra and London.

South Africa

Drew, Allison. Discordant Comrades. Identities and Loyalties on the South African Left. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2000. vii, 309 pp. £43.00.
See Jonathan Grossman's review in this volume, pp. 481-484.


Kinsbruner, Jay. Independence in Spanish America. Civil Wars, Revolutions, and Underdevelopment. Second Revised Diálogos Edition. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque 2000. xxvii, 187 pp. Ill. Maps.
This is the revised second edition of a concise introduction to the turbulent history of the Spanish-American struggle for independence. Professor Kinsbruner embraces the thesis of Hernán Ramírez Necoechea, who argues that Spanish colonialism had become an obstacle to local economic growth by around 1800. The wars of independence are viewed as civil wars between patriots and royalists. He also highlights the revolutionary social changes that coincided (albeit not always at the same pace or equally comprehensively), such as the emergence of citizenship, the abolition of slavery, and the erosion of the traditional protection of the indigenous communities (repúblicas de indios).


Atán, Adriana. Cuatro historias de anarquistas. Testimonios orales de militantes del anarcosindicalismo argentino. n.p., 2000. 209 pp. Ill. Pesos 10.00; $10.00.
This book comprises four interviews with the Argentine anarchosyndicalists Jesús Gil, Enrique Palmeiro, José Grunfeld, and Domingo Trama. They came from various branches within the labour movement (masons, teamsters, office clerks, and shipbuilders) and were all members of the Federación Obrera Regional Argentina. Now in their eighties, they review, with the author, their years of labour struggle and oppression by the different dictatorships. Both their experiences and their current views are addressed. During the Spanish Civil War José Grunfeld served as the local secretary of the FAI in Barcelona.


Creese, Gillian. Contracting Masculinity: Gender, Class, and Race in a White-Collar Union, 1944-1994. [The Canadian Social History Series.] Oxford University Press, Don Mills (Ontario) [etc.] 1999. vii, 278 pp. Ill. $19.95.
This study examines the role of office workers and their trade union at BC Hydro, a public-sector utility company in western Canada, in the design and construction of differentially privileged work for men and women and for workers of different race and ethnicity, in the period 1944-1994. Dr Creese reviews aspects such as the impact of the gender composition of the union leadership on collective bargaining and the effect of traditions of union solidarity on attempts to bargain for greater equity in the office.

Whose National Security? Canadian State Surveillance and the Creation of Enemies. Ed. by Gary Kinsman, Dieter K. Buse and Mercedes Steedman. Between the Lines, Toronto 2000. xii, 293 pp. Ill. C$29.95.
In November 1996, a conference was organized in Sudbury, Canada, on the history of state surveillance in Canada and the impact of the security regime at a personal level. This volume, encompassing sixteen revised papers from that conference together with six new essays, aims to show the diverse forms of critical research in progress in Canada regarding national security and security surveillance, and to develop an interdisciplinary critical perspective on the field. The topics covered include: the origins of state security and security surveillance; surveillance of the radical Left in the interwar and Cold-War periods; surveillance at universities; new definitions of security threats from the Cold War onward; and the possibilities of gaining access to state security collections.

United States of America

Achtundvierziger/Forty-Eighters: Die deutschen Revolutionen von 1848/49, die Vereinigten Staaten und der amerikanische Bürgerkrieg. Hrsg. von Wolfgang Hochbruck, Ulrich Bachteler [und] Henning Zimmermann. Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster 2000. 148 pp. DM 29.80.
The eight essays in this collection deal with the influence exercised by refugees and exiles from the German Revolution of 1848/1849 on American society, politics, and democratization from 1848 through the Civil-War years. They include contributions on: the American diplomatic reactions to the revolutionary events of 1848/1849 in Germany (Timothy M. Roberts); the 1848/1849 immigrants and the problem of labour conditions in the United States (Bruce Levine); the influence of Mazzini in the United States (Hans Grote); 1848/1849 immigrants in the Southern states (Werner Steger), and the influence of 1848/1849 on the revolutionary events of 1861 in Missouri (Steven Rowan).

Buhle, Paul. Taking Care of Business. Samuel Gompers, George Meany, Lane Kirkland, and the Tragedy of American Labor. Monthly Review Press, New York 1999. ix, 315 pp. $40.00. (Paper: $18.00.)
See Howard Kimeldorf's review in this volume, pp. 475-477.

Dubofsky, Melvyn. Hard Work. The Making of Labor History. [The Working Class in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2000. ix, 249 pp. $49.95. (Paper: $17.95.)
Professor Dubofsky, one of the most prominent American labour historians of the older generation, has brought together in this volume ten essays, all but two previously published, which span most of his nearly four decades of research in the field. Opening with a autobiographical essay, which sketches the beginnings of his involvement in the newly emerging labour history, he has grouped the rest of the essays into three parts, reflecting the range of his interests in the field: labour radicalism; culture and comparative history; workers, politics and the state, and theory and world systems.

Foster, Stuart J. Red Alert! Educators Confront the Red Scare in American Public Schools, 1947-1954. With a Foreword by O.L. Davis, Jr. [Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education, vol. 87.] Peter Lang, New York [etc.] 2000. xiv, 274 pp. S.fr. 44.00.
This study explores the impact of the "red scare" during the McCarthy era (1947-1954) on America's public schools. Professor Foster details the profound influence that the red scare had on educational policy and practice and examines the work and position of the National Education Association and its Defense Commission. The author aims to show how anticommunist hysteria led to an assault on free speech, democracy, and decency in many public schools - an assault that the Defense Commission was mostly unable to thwart.

Irons, Janet. Testing the New Deal. The General Textile Strike of 1934 in the American South. [The Working Class in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2000. ix, 262 pp. Ill. $45.00. (Paper: $16.95.)
In September 1934, a general textile strike in the Southern textile industry in the United States involved two-thirds of the Southern textile workers who protested employer harassment and massive industry restructuring. After calling off the strike in return for government promises that remained unfulfilled, thousands of workers were blacklisted, and labour conditions in the Southern textile industry deteriorated. This study explores the links between workers' insurgency, organized labour, and New-Deal governmental policies during this largely forgotten labour conflict. Professor Irons concludes that, while the New Deal's rhetoric mobilized the poor to challenge local authority, its political structure reinforced the power of the South's economic elite.

Johnson, Walter. Soul by Soul. Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market. Harvard University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1999. x, 283 pp. £16.50.
This study examines the working of the actual slave market in New Orleans in the period between ca. 1820 and ca. 1860 and aims to reconstruct the different experiences and interdependencies of the three parties involved: the slaves, the traders, and the buyers. Using court records, slave-holders' letters, nineteenth-century narratives of former slaves, and financial documentation of the trade itself, Professor Johnson depicts the course of business within the market's slave pens and showrooms and analyses the underlying mechanisms of racism, paternalism, and resistance.

Kryder, Daniel. Divided Arsenal. Race and the American State During World War II. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2000. xv, 301 pp. Maps. £19.95; $29.95.
Examining the role of African Americans in the US army, factories, and agriculture, in this study Professor Kryder looks at the reform of federal and other racial policies during World War II and analyses why these reforms turned out to be limited in scope. He concludes that, for central governments, limited racial reform represented not an end in itself but a means to serve the larger concerns of full mobilization for wartime production and survival in office. Nevertheless, according to the author, these modified reforms shaped both the scale and the scope of the future American state and the subsequent civil rights movement.

Magat, Richard. Unlikely Partners. Philanthropic Foundations and the Labor Movement. ILR Press (Cornell University Press), Ithaca [etc.] 1999. x, 242 pp. Ill. $39.95; £30.50.
See Howell John Harris's review in this volume, pp. 477-478.

Palmer, David. Organizing the Shipyards. Union Strategy in Three Northeast Ports, 1933-1945. ILR Press of Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1998. 264 pp. xvii, 264 pp. Ill. $39.95; £29.95.
See Andrew A. Workman's review in this volume, pp. 479-481.

Phillips, Kimberley L. Alabama North. African-American Migrants, Community, and Working-Class Activism in Cleveland, 1915-45. [The Working Class in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 1999. xv, 335 pp. Ill. $59.95. (Paper: $21.95.)
The migration of a great number of African Americans to Cleveland at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries gave the city the nickname "Alabama North". This study explores the black workers' experiences of industrial, nonindustrial, and household work in Cleveland in the period 1915-1945 and the new forms of collective activism they developed. Dr Phillips focuses on the way workers and their families used their Southern experiences, traditions and values to develop strategies of self-organization and community, forming complex networks of kin and friends and establishing a wide variety of fraternal, benevolent, social and church-based organizations.

Register, Cheri. Packinghouse Daughter. A Memoir. Minnesota Historical Society Press, St. Paul 2000. viii, 280 pp. $24.95.
Dr Register recounts in this book the history of a violent labour strike in the meatpackers' industry in Albert Lea, Minnesota, in 1959, which she witnessed as the young daughter of a packinghouse worker. Merging personal memoir, historical research, and interviews with those involved from both sides, she describes how, in retrospect, she is no longer able to see the labour issues divided in the simplified terms of her youth. At the same time, the book attests to how childhood experience can affect personal values and notions of social class.

Richards, Yevette. Maida Springer. Pan-Africanist and International Labor Leader. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh 2000. xvii, 366 pp. Ill. $29.95.
This is a biography of Maida Springer (born 1910), a leading figure in African-American labour politics and an activist in the civil rights movement, and, through her work in the AFL-CIO Department of International Affairs and involvement in the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU), influential in the rise of African labour and nationalist movements from the mid-1950s onward. Dr Richards explores the ways in which pan-Africanism, racism, sexism, and anticommunism affected Springer's political development, her labour activism and her relationship with labour leaders within the AFL-CIO, the ICFTU and in African unions.



The Jews of China. Volume Two. A Sourcebook and Research Guide. Ed. and with an Intr. by Jonathan Goldstein. BIBLIOGRAPHY by Frank Joseph Shulman. [An East Gate Book.] M.E. Sharpe, Armonk (New York) [etc.] 2000. xiii, 202 pp. $69.95.
This is the second volume of an overview of the Jewish presence in China from the twelfth century to 1949; (the first volume was annotated in IRSH, 45 (2000), pp. 142f). This second volume features four contributions on traditional Chinese awareness of Jews; six twentieth-century memoirs of Jewish people who lived in China before 1949; and four reports on recent research projects on the subject. A selected bibliography on Chinese Jews and the Jewish diaspora in China from the Tang Period (AD 618-906) through the mid-1990s concludes this volume.

Wang, Fan-sen . Fu Ssu-nien. A Life in Chinese History and Politics. [Cambridge Studies in Chinese History, Literature and Institutions.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2000 [recte 2001]. xvi, 261 pp. £37.50; $59.95.
This biography of the Chinese scholar, educator and political and social critic, Fu Ssu-nien (1896-1950), explores his prominent role in the intellectual and educational development of China in the first half of the twentieth century. As a student leader of the May Fourth Movement, he later opposed both the Communist Party and the corrupt elements within the Kuomintang but eventually left the mainland for Taiwan in 1948. Tracing Fu's leading role in cultivating modern Chinese academic research and education, among others as founder of the Institute of Philology and History at Peking University and the Academia Sinica, Dr Wang focuses especially on Fu's efforts to establish a "modern", more objective historical discipline.


Göksu, Saime [and] Edward Timms. Romantic Communist. The Life and work of Naz2m Hikmet. Hurst & Company, London 1999. xxiv, 367 pp. Ill. £20.00.
This biography of the well-known Turkish poet, Naz2m Hikmet (1902-1963), deals both with his poetry and other avant-garde artistic work and with his political involvement. Born to a cosmopolitan Ottoman family, he was strongly influenced during his stay in Moscow in the 1920s by the Russian artistic avant garde, as well as by the political vision of Lenin. Imprisoned from 1938 to 1950, he fled to the Soviet Union after his release, where he remained in exile until his death.


Barer, Shlomo. The Doctors of Revolution. 19th-Century Thinkers Who Changed the World. Thames & Hudson, London 2000. 1216 pp. £29.95; D.fl. 124.60.
Exploring the childhood, education, and young adulthood of Karl Marx, Heinrich Heine, Moses Hess, Ferdinand Lasalle, Alexander Herzen, and Michael Bakunin, Mr Barer intertwines in a narrative, epic style the biographies of six influential philosophers and writers who played important, but different, roles in the development of revolutionary ideology in the first half of the nineteenth century, which culminated in the European revolutions of 1848/1849 and the emergence of socialism, communism, and anarchism. In an appendix, the author devotes special attention to the rabbinical ancestry of Marx.

Bourrinet, Philippe. Le courant "Bordiguiste" (1919-1999). Italie, France, Belgique. [www.left-dis.nl, Zoetermeer 1999.] 143 pp. D.fl. 110.19; € 50.00.
The Italian Communist Left (sinistra italiana), which arose around Amadeo Bordiga from 1912, was the dominant trend in the PCI during 1921-1925. In 1926, following Bordiga's defeat by Gramsci at the Congress of Lyon, it was gradually excluded and forced into exile. In 1927 it became the Left Faction of the PCI and from 1935 the Faction of the Communist Left until its dissolution in 1945 and the transition to the Partito comunista internazionale (1943-1982). The Italian Left was zealously internationalist, and elaborated its theoretical positions, outside rigidly established frameworks, in the journal, Bilan. The author considers this digression cause for a study of this movement, which hardly drew massive numbers.

Bourrinet, Philippe. La Gauche communiste germano-hollandaise des origines à 1968. Zoetermeer 1999. D.fl. 187.32; € 85.00. (Paper: D.fl 165.28; € 75.00.
This book is based on a thesis that was defended at the Sorbonne in 1988 ("La gauche communiste hollandaise (1907-1950): du tribunisme au ‘conseillisme': aux origines du courant international communiste des conseils"). The present work is a political history of the leftist-communist movement in the Netherlands and Germany and closely follows the political and theoretical discussions in that movement, placing its history in an international context. Individuals such as Pannekoek and Gorter and the organizations to which they belonged are obviously central to this work.

Cœuré, Sophie. La grande lueur à l'est. Les Français et l‘Union soviétique 1917-1939. Éditions du Seuil, Paris 1999. 364 pp. F.fr. 175.00.
Based partly on newly discovered archival sources from the former Soviet Union, this study examines the extensive propaganda activities deployed by Moscow to create and maintain the very positive image of the Soviet Union among many French opinion leaders in the interwar period. In their many contacts with French diplomats, industrialists, journalists, and fellow travellers, the author aims to show how the Soviets succeeded in conveying to the French a unified, mythical image of a heroic, happy people, led by the fatherly leaders Lenin and Stalin, and in concealing the reality of the repressive political regime, the famines, and the purges.

Meyer, Ahlrich. Die Logik der Revolten. Studien zur Sozialgeschichte 1789-1848. Schwarze Risse-Rote Strasse, Berlin; VLA, Hamburg 1999. 320 pp. DM 32.00.
Professor Meyer has brought together in this volume seven essays, all previously published between 1985 and 1995, that deal with the confrontation of the lower classes with emerging capitalism in the first half of the nineteenth century. The common theme in these essays is the attention to pre-Marxist revolutionary social movements and the autonomy and logic of hunger riots and other forms of subsistence revolts. Apart from a long essay on mass poverty and existence, published in the journal Autonomie/Neue Folge in 1985, and contributions on Wilhelm Weitling and Moses Hess, two essays published in the IRSH, "Socialism as a Cultural Movement?" (1991) and "The Poverty of Protest Research" (1995), are included here in German.

Nimtz, August H., Jr. Marx and Engels. Their Contribution to the Democratic Breakthrough. [SUNY series in Political Theory: Contemporary Issues.] State University of New York Press, Albany 2000. xiii, 377 pp. $23.95.
Challenging both the frequently presumed incompatibility between the projects of Marx and Engels and political democracy and the impression that Marx and Engels were merely "great thinkers" rather than political activists, Professor Nimtz, Jr argues in this chronologically ordered study that, first, Marx and Engels were in fact the leading protagonists in the main democratic movement in the nineteenth century; second, that they were primarily political activists; and, third, that their active involvement in the 1848/1849 revolutionary events provided them with lessons that made them more effective in the fight for socialism and thus in advancing the democratic cause.

Opposing Fascism. Community, Authority and Resistance in Europe. Ed. by Tim Kirk and Anthony McElligott. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1999. ix, 246 pp. £35.00; $59.95.
The eleven contributions to this volume highlight forms of resistance to fascism and national socialism in the interwar period and during the Second World War that transcend the stereotypes of organized resistance. The contributors also discuss the contradictions and fractions within the resistance communities and groups and the often complicated and mixed motives of the people involved. The essays cover subjects such as: the servicemen's revolt and social democracy in Germany, 1918-1920 (Nick Howard); the antifascist movement in southeast Lancashire (Neil Barrett); structures of authority in the Greek resistance 1941-1944 (Mark Mazower), and the new historiography on Italian women in the resistance (Perry R. Willson).

Vincent, David. The Rise of Mass Literacy. Reading and Writing in Modern Europe. [Themes in History.] Polity, Cambridge [etc.] 2000; Blackwell Publishers Inc., Malden (MA). viii, 200 pp. £50.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
In this book Professor Vincent aims to provide a comparative study of the growth and impact of mass literacy across Europe between 1750 and 1950. Considering the evolution of methods of teaching and learning over the centuries, he examines the relationship between literacy and economic growth, including the changing function of literacy in the workplace, and between mass literacy and the rise of democracy and political mobilization. The author also discusses the changing pattern of demand for and provision of reading matter and analyses the history of popular writing and the relationship between print, language and national identity.


De Rijck, Tine [en] Griet Van Meulder. De ereburgers. Een sociale geschiedenis van de Limburgse mijnwerkers. EPO, Berchem 2000. 775 pp. Ill. Maps. B.fr. 1498.00; D.fl. 82.00.
This large volume encompasses two studies of the social history of miners in the Belgian province of Limburg in the period from the beginning of the exploitation in 1917 until the closure of the last mines in 1985. The first study, by Mrs De Rijck, is an oral history of the everyday life of the miners, dealing with labour conditions and social and cultural life in the mining communities. In the second study, Mrs Van Meulder, assisted by Guy Coppieters, gives a comprehensive overview of the history of labour relations, labour conditions, changes in rates of pay, and the rise of the trade-union movement in the mining industry.


Voices from the Gulag. Life and Death in Communist Bulgaria. Comp. and ed. by Tzvetan Todorov. Transl. by Robert Zaretsky. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park (Penn.) 2000. xiii, 178 pp. $28.50.
This work is a compilation of testimonies and recollections of former inmates of Bulgarian concentration camps, in particular those of Lovech in the period 1959-1962. Compiler, editor, and author of the extensive introduction is the Franco-Bulgarian philosopher and historian, Tzvetan Todorov, who wrote earlier about the German and Soviet concentration camps (Facing the Extreme: Moral Life in the Concentration Camps (1996)). The book is largely based on interviews made for the Bulgarian documentary film The Survivors: Stories from the Camps by Atanas Kiryakov. The present volume is a translation of the French edition Au nom du peuple. Témoignages sur les camps communistes (1992).


Kun, Miklós. Prague Spring - Prague Fall. Blank Spots of 1968. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1999. xv, 252 pp. Ill. $60.00.
This book is a collection of ten interviews with eyewitnesses and participants in the events of 1967-1969 in Prague, made by the Hungarian historian Miklós Kun, in an effort to fill in the "blank spots" of the Prague Spring of 1968 and, as he states in the introduction, to answer the question "Was there an alternative?". Among the interviewees are Stepan Chervonenko, Soviet ambassador to Prague at that time, Piotr Shelest, head of the Ukrainian CP and Soviet negotiator during the preparations for the invasion in 1968, and Ludvík Vaculík, writer and author of the manifesto "Two Thousand Words". The book contains a seven-page chronology, summing up the events in Czechoslovakia from 27 June 1967 till 17 April 1969, and an extensive bibliography.

Eire - Ireland

Jeffery, Keith. Ireland and the Great War. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2000. xiv, 208 pp. Ill. £16.95; $27.95.
This book explores the impact of the First World War upon Ireland, both immediate and from a more extended historical perspective. Professor Jeffery considers a broad range of experience, covering nationalist, unionist, Catholic, and Protestant experience and in both civilian social, economic, and cultural terms, as well as in purely military ones. Seeing the Great War as the most central experience in twentieth-century Ireland, the author argues that identifying and exploring the Irish Great War experience can contribute to the contemporary Irish peace process.


Bory, Jean-Louis. Eugène Sue. Mémoire du Livre, Paris 2000. 573 pp. F.fr. 149.00.
This is a new edition of the standard biography of the French socialist novelist Eugène Sue (1804-1857) by Jean-Louis Bory (1919-1979), which was originally published in 1962. Born into a wealthy family of surgeons, Sue was attracted to socialism in 1841 and became enormously popular with his serial novel, Les mystères de Paris (1842-1843), in which he sketched a dramatic portrait of working-class Paris. Bory discusses Sue's literary as well as his political career.

Démocratie, solidarité et mutualité. "Autour de la loi de 1898". Sous la dir. de Michel Dreyfus, Bernard Gibaud [et] André Gueslin. [Collection Économies et sociétés contemporaines.] Mutualité Française/Economica, Paris 1999. xiii, 343 pp. F.fr. 98.00; € 14.94.
In honour of the centenary of the French Mutual Benefit Society charter of 1 April 1898, a colloquium was organized in Paris in September 1998. This volume contains the proceedings of that conference. The three main themes in the twenty-two contributions in the volume are: the origins of social security mutualism in the context of social and labour policies in France in the century preceding the charter; the "republicanization" of the mutual benefit societies; and the impact of the charter in the twentieth century.

Denéchère, Yves. La politique espagnole de la France de 1931 à 1936. Une pratique française de rapports inégaux. [Recherches et DOCUMENTS - Espagne.] L'Harmattan, Paris; L'Harmattan Inc., Montréal 1999. 336 pp. F.fr.
This thèse (Nantes, 1998) examines the international relations between France and Spain and French foreign policy towards Spain in the period between the proclamation of the republic in April 1931 and the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in July 1936. Exploring the French perception of the democratization in Spain in this period, the management of bilateral relations, and the place of Spain in general French foreign policy, the author concludes that the failure of France to figure prominently in the international diplomatic manoeuvring around the outbreak of the Civil War reflects its decline as a great power in the interwar years.

L'exil Républicain espagnol à Toulouse 1939-1999. Éd. par Lucienne Domergue. [Collection hespérides espagne.] Presses Universitaires du Mirail, Toulouse 1999. 309 pp. Ill. F.fr. 198.00; € 30.18.
At the end of the Spanish Civil War in 1939 the city of Toulouse became the centre of Spanish exiles in France. The fourteen essays in this collection deal with various aspects of the exile experience: the actual migration movement, the reception in France, the various political and national movements among the exiles, the exile culture, and the traces of the Spanish exiles in present-day Toulouse.

Maillard, Alain. La communauté des égaux. Le communisme néo-babouviste dans la France des années 1840. [Le sens de l'histoire.] Éditions Kimé, Paris 1999. 352 pp. F.fr 195.00.
This study deals with the origins and rise of early, neo-babouviste communism, as it emerged in France in the 1840s among both rural and urban militant artisans and workers. Invoking the memories and ideas of Gracchus Babeuf and Filippo Buonarroti, militants organized in secret societies under leaders such as Théodore Dezamy, Jean-Jacques Pillot, Richard Lahautière and others. In 1848, they joined forces with the groups around Etienne Cabet to form the early communist party.

Manfredini, Irene. Saint-Simon. Les manuscrits de "l'industrie". ["Studi", clxvii.] Leo S. Olschki Editore, Firenze 1999. 150 pp. L. 30.000.
This is an annotated, critical edition of the manuscripts of L'industrie, one of the later, major works of the French Utopian thinker Henri Saint-Simon (1760-1825). Published in 1817/1818 in four volumes, L'industrie, ou Discussions politiques, morales et philosophiques, dans l'intérêt de tous les hommes livrés à des travaux utiles et indépendants reflects a major shift in Saint-Simon's thinking. In this work, the emerging modern industry provides the foundation for his social theory, with the industrialists as a new aristocracy, designed to improve society as a whole. In her extensive introduction the editor conveys a detailed impression of the various manuscript versions and the publication history of L'industrie.

Michel, Louise. Histoire de ma vie. Seconde et troisième parties. Londres 1904. Texte ét. et prés. par Xavière Gauthier. Presses Universitaires de Lyon, Lyon 2000. 180 pp. Ill. F.fr. 115.00; € 17.53.
See Bert Altena's review in this volume, pp. 467-470.

Michel, Louise. Je vous écris de ma nuit. Correspondance générale de Louise Michel 1850-1904. [Essais et documents.] Édition établie, annotée et présentée par Xavière Gauthier. Les Éditions de Paris, Paris 1999. 799 pp. F.fr. 245.00; € 37.35.
See Bert Altena's review in this volume, pp. 467-470.

Robespierre. Ed. by Colin Haydon and William Doyle. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 1999. x, 292 pp. £35.00; $59.95.
The fifteen essays in this volume, most of them originating from a conference held in Winchester, UK, in July 1994, examine Maximilien Robespierre's life and work from three main perspectives: his ideology and vision of the French Revolution; his role in the Revolution's politics; and nineteenth- and twentieth-century representations of Robespierre, by historians, as well as by dramatists and fiction writers. In the concluding essay, François Crouzet explores French historians' views on Robespierre.


Arbeiter in der SBZ-DDR. Hrsg. von Peter Hübner und Klaus Tenfelde. [Veröffentlichungen des Instituts zur Erforschung der europäischen Arbeiterbewegung, Schriftenreihe A, Darstellungen, Band 10.] Klartext, Essen 1999. 912 pp. DM 188.00.
Based on a conference organized by the Institut zur Erforschung der europäischen Arbeiterbewegung in September 1997, the forty-three contributions to this large volume aim to reflect current research on the history of workers and the working class in the Soviet Occupation Zone (SBZ) and the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in the 1950s and 1960s. Themes dealt with are: the building of the Wall in 1961 and the continuity of labour history in the GDR; the labour market, companies, and labour conflicts within companies; the working-class milieu and its delimitations; generations and continuities; and images of working men and women.

Arbeiterführer, Parlamentarier, Parteiveteran. Die Tagebücher des Sozialdemokraten Hermann Molkenbuhr 1905 bis 1927. Hrsg. von Bernd Braun und Joachim Eichler. Mit einer Einl. von Bernd Braun. [Schriftenreihe der Stiftung Reichspräsident-Friedrich-Ebert-Gedenkstätte, Band 8.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 2000. 405 pp. DM 68.00.
Shortly after his political biography of Hermann Molkenbuhr (1851-1927) (see the annotation below), Dr Braun edited, together with Dr Eichler, the present publication of the diaries of Molkenbuhr from the last twenty-two years of his life. These reflect extensively the mindset and actions of one of the central personalities in the history of German social democracy and parliamentarianism, thus representing a very valuable source on this period.

Braun, Bernd. Hermann Molkenbuhr (1851-1927). Eine politische Biographie. [Beiträge zur Geschichte des Parlamentarismus und der politischen Parteien, Band 118.] Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 1999. 418 pp. Ill. DM 98.00.
This revised dissertation (Heidelberg, 1997) is a political biography of the leading German social democrat Hermann Molkenbuhr (1851-1927). As one of the founders of the SPD, as a member and secretary of the party's directive board from 1904 until his death and throughout his exceptionally long (thirty-four-year) membership of the German Reichstag, partly as one of the leaders of the social-democratic faction, Molkenbuhr's career mirrors, according to Dr Braun, the evolution of the SPD from a marginal splinter group in Imperial Germany to the mainstay of the Weimar Republic.

Demm, Eberhard. Von der Weimarer Republik zur Bundesrepublik. Der politische Weg Alfred Webers 1920-1958. [Schriften des Bundesarchivs, Band 51.] Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 1999. xiii, 584 pp. Ill. DM 98.00.
This is the second and concluding part of the political biography of Alfred Weber (1868-1958), brother of Max Weber, founder of the Heidelberg School of cultural sociology and author of the pioneering study Kulturgeschichte als Kultursoziologie (1935). (The first part, Ein Liberaler in Kaiserreich und Republik, was published in 1990.) Professor Demm focuses on Weber's groundbreaking scholarly work in Heidelberg, where he created the essential conditions for the work of important sociologists such as Karl Mannheim, Ernst Lederer and Norbert Elias; his dedication to the Weimar democracy; the period of his innere Emigration between 1933 and 1945, and his political role in the restoration of German democracy after 1945.

Displaced books. Bücherrückgabe aus zweierlei Sicht. Beiträge und Materialien zur Bestandsgeschichte deutscher Bibliotheken im Zusammenhang von NS-Zeit und Krieg. Hrsg. von Maria Kühn-Ludewig. 2., durchges. und erw. Aufl. [Laurentius Sonderheft.] Laurentius Verlag, Hannover 1999. 134 pp. Ill. DM 25.00.
This collection, initiated by the Arbeitskreis kritischer BibliothekarInnen (Akribie), a task force of discerning librarians, contains the proceedings of colloquia in Bremen (October 1997 and May 1999), and Berlin-Steglitz (1998), complemented by reports about the looting of books and libraries in the Third Reich. The contributions, which cover a broad range with respect to scope and quality, are divided into three parts: gifts; losses; and findings. The collection aims to give an overview of the looting of books and libraries in the Third Reich and to show how German scholarly libraries took advantage of Judenauktionen and the so-called gifts of duplicates from occupied Poland.

Grieder, Peter. The East German leadership 1946-1973. Conflict and crisis. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 1999. x, 243 pp. £40.00.
This book aims to provide an empirical study of conflict within the leadership of the Socialist Unity Party (SED), the ruling party in East Germany, from its establishment in 1946 until the death of its first leader, Walter Ulbricht in 1973. Basing himself on the Stasi archive, as well as on the central party archive of the SED, Dr Grieder focuses on four periods of crisis in East-German history: the Stalinization of the SED between 1946 and 1953; the Zaisser-Herrnstadt opposition in the years between 1950 and 1953; the anti-Ulbricht opposition in 1956-1958; and the end of the Ulbricht era between 1970 and 1973.

Mommsen, Hans. Alternative zu Hitler. Studien zur Geschichte des deutschen Widerstandes. [Beck'sche Reihe, Band 1373.] Verlag C.H. Beck, München 2000. 424 pp. DM 34.00; S.fr. 31.50; S 248.00.
In this collection, Professor Mommsen has brought together fourteen essays - all but one previously published between 1984 and 1999 - on the history of German resistance against Hitler. Themes covered are: the varied political ideas and aims within the resistance; ideas within the 20th July movement and the Kreisauer circle; the conservatives and socialist, ecclesiastic, and military groupings; the joint efforts to develop an alternative to Hitler; the antidemocratic and authoritarian trends within parts of the resistance, and the frequent ambivalence towards anti-Semitism and persecution of the Jews.

Müller, Sabrina. Soldaten in der deutschen Revolution von 1848/49. [Krieg in der Geschichte, Band 3.] Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn [etc.] 1999. 357 pp. DM 98.00.
During the Revolution of 1848/1849 armed forces in Germany were frequently dispatched to the nuclei of the Revolution. This dissertation (Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, 1997) examines the impact of the revolutionary demands for political freedom, civil rights and abolition of the monarchy on ordinary soldiers. Dr Müller explores how the Revolution affected the soldiers' relations with and conduct towards their superiors and the revolutionaries they were instructed to deal with, and analyses the motives that led large numbers of soldiers to desert to the side of the revolutionaries.

Niethammer, Lutz. Deutschland danach. Postfaschistische Gesellschaft und nationales Gedächtnis. Hrsg. von Ulrich Herbert und Dirk van Laak in Zusammenarb. mit Ulrich Borsdorf, Franz-Josef Brüggemeier, Alexander von Plato [u.a.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 1999. 623 pp. DM 58.00; S.fr. 55.00; S 423.00.
This volume comprises twenty-nine essays - all but one previously published between 1972 and 1997 - by the renowned German historian Professor Niethammer, on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday. The selection reflects the main themes in his work: the postwar social and political development of the two Germanies; denazification; the experience of coming to terms with the Nazi past and the collective national German memory; and the methodology of oral history and Alltagsgeschichte.

Plumpe, Werner. Betriebliche Mitbestimmung in der Weimarer Republik. Fallstudien zum Ruhrbergbau und zur Chemischen Industrie. [Quellen und Darstellungen zur Zeitgeschichte, Band 45.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 1999. vii, 470 pp. DM 128.00.
Focusing on two industries, the paint industry in Leverkusen and the metal mining in the Ruhr region, Dr Plumpe offers, in this revised Habilitationsschrift (Bochum, 1994), a detailed examination of the rise of industrial participation in the Weimar era in the context of the industrial and labour relations and the general contemporary socioeconomic and political developments. The author concludes that although the Betriebsrätegesetz of 1920 provided a satisfactory legal framework for both employers and employees, settling industrial and labour conflicts proved impossible in this period, due to the inability of both parties to communicate more effectively and to learn from past experiences.

Schneider, Michael. Kleine Geschichte der Gewerkschaften. Ihre Entwicklung in Deutschland von den Anfängen bis heute. Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachf. GmbH, Bonn 2000. 624 pp. Ill. DM 39.80; S.fr. 38.80; S 291.00.
This is the second, updated and revised edition of an introductory history of the (West) German trade-union movement from its nineteenth-century origins to the present, intended for a broad readership. (The first edition was annotated in IRSH, 34 (1989), p. 544). This edition, which now incorporates the developments around Reunification as well, consists of nearly 100 additional pages, including three new source documents and three more tables.

Schober, Volker. Der junge Kurt Schumacher 1895-1933. [Reihe Politik- und Gesellschaftsgeschichte, Band 53.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 2000. 503 pp. Ill. DM 78.00; S.fr. 73.00; S 569.00.
This abridged version of a dissertation (Heidelberg, 1999) sketches the first thirty-eight years of the life of the German social-democratic politician, Kurt Schumacher (1895-1952). Dr Schober examines Schumacher's rapid rise in the SPD from 1920 onward, first on regional, Württembergian level as editor of the party paper Schwäbische Tagwacht, and from 1924 as a promising member of the Reichstag. The author ends his biography in 1933, when Schumacher's political activities ceased with Hitler's Machtsübernahme, and his long martyrdom under national socialism began, culminating in his imprisonment in a concentration camp from 1935-1945.

Schulz, Günther. Die Angestellten seit dem 19. Jahrhundert. [Enzyklopädie deutscher Geschichte, Band 54.] R. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 2000. xii, 147 pp. DM 29.80.
In this extensive series of textbooks on German history, this volume deals with the social group of Angestellten, office workers and other employees in technical, administrative and commercial occupations in both civil-service and private enterprises from ca. 1800 onward. The social position and political orientation of this often vaguely defined social group has been the subject of many debates and controversies, such as discussions of their role in the rise of national socialism. Professor Schulz examines the changes in labour relations in the industrial and service sector, the group's political orientation, organizational behaviour, private and household life and consumer and recreational behaviour over this period.

Tober, Holger J. Deutscher Liberalismus und Sozialpolitik in der Ära des Wilhelminismus. Anschauungen der liberalen Parteien im parlamentarischen Entscheidungsprozeß und in der öffentlichen Diskussion. [Historische Studien, Band 460.] Matthiesen Verlag, Husum 1999. 477 pp. DM 128.00.
This dissertation aims to give a detailed analysis of the stance of the Liberal parties towards the various forms of social and labour legislation developed in the Wilhelmine period (1871-1918). The role of the Liberals was, according to Dr Tober, much more active and important than has been acknowledged thus far by standard historiography. The Liberals on the left of the political spectrum especially took the vanguard in negotiating major compromises.

Weg in den Untergang. Der innere Zerfall der DDR. Hrsg. von Konrad H. Jarausch und Martin Sabrow. [Sammlung Vandenhoeck.] Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1999. 280 pp. DM 39.00.
The nine essays in this volume, partly based on a section of the Frankfurter Historikertag in September 1998, analyse the background and causes of the internal decline and eventual demise of the East German communist system from various perspectives. The editors and Detlef Pollack explore the different interpretations that have arisen. Wilfried Loth and André Steiner examine the role of international relations and economic changes. The last four essays deal in part with the role model provided by the affluent West Germany (Stefan Wolle), and the changes elsewhere in Eastern Europe (Helmut Fehr).

Welskopp, Thomas. Das Banner der Brüderlichkeit. Die deutsche Sozialdemokratie vom Vormärz bis zum Sozialistengesetz. [Reihe: Politik- und Gesellschaftsgeschichte, Band 54.] Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger, Bonn 2000. 839 pp. Ill. DM 128.00; S.fr. 119.00; S 934.00.
This revised and abridged edition of a Habilitationschrift (Free University Berlin, 1999) explores the history of German social democracy from 1848 to 1878. Examining the movements' social and organizational structure and ideological development, he concludes that the social origins of the members are more artisanal than working-class. As a consequence, the movement came to resemble a political association more than a labour movement. On the ideological field, the author emphasizes the autonomous radical democratic nature of the early social-democratic movement (as opposed to the view that the movement was a precursor to the Marxist working-class party).

Great Britain

The Chartist Legacy. Ed. by Owen Ashton, Robert Fyson and Stephen Roberts. With a Foreword by Asa Briggs. Merlin Press, Nr. Woodbridge (Suffolk) 1999. xvi, 297 pp. £12.95.
This volume brings together eleven original essays on the Chartist movement and covers a broad variety of topics. The contributions include: an essay by Owen Ashton on oratory in the Chartist movement; articles by Stephen Roberts and Paul A. Pickering on Feargus O'Connor; Jamie L. Bronstein on the United States from a Chartist context; Timothy Randall on Chartist poetry and song; and Anthony Taylor on the memory of Chartism in post-Chartist radicalism. In his foreword, Asa Briggs reflects on his own role in the historiography of Chartism.

Chase, Malcolm. Early Trade Unionism. Fraternity, skill and the politics of labour. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2000. 286 pp. £45.00.
See Adrian Randall's review in this volume, pp. 465-467.

Crime, Protest and Police in Modern British Society. Essays in Memory of David J. V. Jones. Ed. by David W. Howell and Kenneth O. Morgan. University of Wales Press, Cardiff 1999. x, 248 pp. £35.00.
This collection of nine essays is a commemorative volume dedicated to Professor David J.V. Jones (1941-1994), historian of crime and protest in modern Britain and Wales. The contributions reflect his main research interests: the dynamics of popular protest, both rural and industrial; the Chartist uprising; the roots and significance of crime; and the popular impact of the police on public consciousness. Contributors include: Dorothy Thompson, Hugh Dunthorne, Clive Emsley, Owen R. Ashton, John E. Archer, Neil Evans and Peter Stead. Dwyryd W. Jones has compiled a bibliography of Professor Jones's works.

Howell, David W. The Rural Poor in Eighteenth-Century Wales. University of Wales Press, Cardiff 2000. xvi, 317 pp. £35.00.
In the first part of this study, Dr Howell explores the poor material conditions for the tenant farmers, small freeholders, craftsmen and agricultural labourers who worked and lived off the land in eighteenth-century Wales. He focuses on the fragility of living conditions and on the working relations between the various rural groups. In the second part, he addresses the popular culture of Welsh rural poor, their religious beliefs, political involvement, riots and public disorder, and the level of criminality.

King, Steven. Poverty and Welfare in England, 1700-1850. A Regional Perspective. [Manchester Studies in Modern History.] Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 2000; distr. excl. in the USA by St. Martin's Press, New York. x, 294 pp. Maps. £45.00.
This history of poverty and welfare in England in the period 1700-1850 from a regional perspective pursues two distinct objectives. First, it provides a synthesis of the vast body of historical literature published in recent decades on poverty, the old and new Poor Laws and welfare patterns. Second, it aims to analyse extensive new data sets to draw out regional and subregional patterns in the character of the Poor Law and its role in ordinary lives, and thus offers new perspectives for the ongoing debate on poverty and welfare.

Labour's First Century. Ed. by Duncan Tanner, Pat Thane [and] Nick Tiratsoo. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2000. x, 418 pp. Ill. £25.00; $49.95.
On the occasion of the Labour Party's centenary, this volume brings together twelve contributions that evaluate the Party's performance across the twentieth century and reflect on why Labour has spent so much time in opposition, despite its many achievements. A wide variety of themes are covered, such as Labour's social and political ideas (Jose Harris): Labour and the economy (Jim Tomlinson); Labour and welfare (Pat Thane); Labour and gender (Martin Francis); Labour and the trade unions (Alastair J. Reid); Labour and its membership (Duncan Tanner), and Labour from a comparative perspective (Stefan Berger). The last essay in the collection analyses New Labour's relation to the Party's past (Steven Fielding).

Linehan, Thomas. British Fascism 1918-39. Parties, Ideology and Culture. [Manchester Studies in Modern History.] Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 2000; distr. excl. in the USA by St. Martin's Press, New York. xiii, 306 pp. £49.00. (Paper: £15.99.)
This study aims, first, to provide a guide to the essentials of interwar British fascism, focusing on the various fascist parties, fascist personalities, fascist ideologies and topical historiography. Second, Dr Linehan aims to analyse British fascism as a cultural phenomenon, looking at the way Britain's fascists perceived and defined culture, elaborated theories of a distinct fascist culture in Britain, and were obsessed about problems of modernity and supposed decadence in British society.

Manning, Brian. The far left in the English Revolution 1640 to 1660. Bookmarks, London [etc.] 1999. vi, 136 pp. £7.95.
In this concise study, parts of which have been published before, Professor Manning conducts some preliminary explorations into the history of the radicals in the English Revolution whose politics were to the left of the better known radicals, the Levellers, Fifth Monarchists and Quakers. Labelling these radicals as the "far Left" and placing them in the context of Marxist historiography, the author sketches the economic background, the emergence of a wage-earning class, and the role of religion, and examines two attempts at armed insurrection originating from the far Left in the 1650s.

Martin, Ross M. The Lancashire Giant. David Shackleton, Labour Leader and Civil Servant. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool 2000. xv, 222 pp. Ill. £34.99. (Paper: £16.99.)
This is a biography of David Shackleton (1863-1938), an important activist in the Edwardian trade-union movement, one of the first to be elected as Member of Parliament for Labour, and highly influential behind the scenes in the emerging Labour Party. In 1910, he embarked on a second career at the summit of the British civil service. Professor Martin portrays both Shackleton's professional career and his personality and private life. The author argues that Shackleton's most significant achievement within the Labour Party was to ensure that the influence and wealth of the older, conservative unions were brought in to help the Labour party, when its need was greatest.

Radicalism and Revolution in Britain, 1775-1848. Essays in Honour of Malcolm I. Thomis. Ed. by Michael T. Davis. Macmillan, Basingstoke [etc.] 2000. xv, 242 pp. £42.50.
Professor Malcolm I. Thomis published in 1977 (together with co-author Peter Holt) Threats of Revolution in Britain, 1789-1848 (see IRSH, 23 (1978), p. 326), an influential study of popular movements and radicalism in the age of revolution. In the present collection, a Festschrift for Professor Thomis on the occasion of his retirement, fourteen contributors take up the spectre of revolution and the nature of radicalism in Britain from the late eighteenth century to the age of the Chartists. Both historical and literary aspects are addressed, in keeping with Professor Thomis's own research interests in this field.

Royle, Edward. Revolutionary Britannia? Reflections on the threat of revolution in Britain 1789-1848. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 2000; distr. excl. in the USA by St. Martin's Press. ix, 214 pp. £45.00. (Paper: £16.99.)
Connecting to the longstanding debate about British exemption from revolutionary change in the age of revolution between 1789 and 1848, this study explores British radical and revolutionary popular movements in this period and examines how Britain avoided revolution. Professor Royle explores issues such as the impact of the French Revolution, Luddism, the Reform Bill crisis, and Chartism. In explaining the British exception, he focuses on the government's propaganda against revolutionary sentiments and the role of popular conservatism.

Steinberg, Marc W. Fighting Words. Working-Class Formation, Collective Action, and Discourse in Early Nineteenth-Century England. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 1999. xviii, pp. 286 pp. $45.00.
Focusing on cotton spinners from Lancashire and London silk weavers - two English trade groups fighting economic subordination and degradation in the 1820s - in this study Professor Weinberg aims to link the historical processes of class formation and the dynamics of contentious collective action by exploring the role of discourse in each process. Theoretically based on literary analysis, sociocultural psychology, and cultural studies, and empirically rooted in an examination of the labour process, industrial organization, social life, community politics, discursive struggles and collective actions, the author aims to show how discourses of contention were products of struggle and framed possibilities for collective action.

Whatley, Christopher A. Scottish Society 1707-1830. Beyond Jacobitism, towards industrialisation. Manchester University Press, Manchester [etc.] 2000; distr. excl. in the USA by St. Martin's Press, New York. xi, 354 pp. Maps. £45.00. (Paper: £14.99.)
This study aims to give a comprehensive overview of the social and economic history of Scotland in the eighteenth century and the first decades of the nineteenth century. Professor Whatley takes issue with the central place of Jacobitism in Scottish historiography, which, according to the author, was far less important for ordinary people than has hitherto been assumed. He also disputes the general image of compliance by ordinary Scots, focusing on several instances of upheaval and deep social conflict as a result of growing commercialization and advancing industrialization.

Whiting, Richard. The Labour Party and Taxation. Party Identity and Political Purpose in Twentieth-Century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2000 [recte 2001]. xii, 294 pp. £40.00; $64.95.
This political history of Labour's use of the tax system from 1906 to 1979 examines how the Labour Party used taxes to further its political aims of funding welfare, managing the economy, promoting fairness, and achieving greater equality. Dr Whiting aims also to demonstrate the limits of Labour's ability to achieve a more equal society in this way and delineates the problems caused by the political role of the trade unions. In the epilogue, the story is brought up to the present.

Winstanley and the Diggers, 1649-1999. Ed. by Andrew Bradstock. Frank Cass, London [etc.] 2000. x, 173 pp. £42.50. (Paper: £16.50.)
The eleven essays in this volume, seven of which are based on a conference organized in Surrey, UK, in April 1999, reflect on the latest scholarship on the Diggers, the group of English agrarian communists who propagated common land ownership and occupied a tract of land in April 1649 at St George's Hill, Surrey, and their leader and main theoretician, Gerrard Winstanley. The themes explored include the influence of Winstanley's writings, his ideas on "civil liberty", the economic and political background of the Commonwealth period, the Diggers' attitude towards women and the family, and the biblical influence on their thinking.


Amadeo Bordiga nella storia del comunismo. A cura di Luigi Cortesi. Collab. editoriale di Alexander Höbel. Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, Napoli 1999. xi, 415 pp. L. 39.000.
A quarter of a century after the death of Amadeo Bordiga (1889-1970) a colloquium was convened in Bologna in 1996 to reappraise the individual and his work. This book features a selection of ten contributions from, among others, Luigi Cortesi, Luigi Gerosa, Arturo Peregalli and Liliana Grilli. These essays are intended as contributions to a political and intellectual biography. Nearly all cover the years from 1911 to 1926, when Bordiga figured prominently in European and world communism. In an appendix Luigi Gerosa reviews the edition of Bordiga's collected works.

Gabaccia, Donna R. Italy's Many Diasporas. [Global Diasporas.] UCL Press, London 2000. xv, 264 pp. £14.99.
See Bruno Ramirez's review in this volume, 470-472.

Scuola, intellettuali e identità nazionale nel pensiero di Antonio Gramsci. A cura di Lorenzo Capitani [e] Roberto Villa. [Per Gramsci, 2.] Gamberetti Editrice, Roma 1999. 151 pp. L. 29.000.
This collection contains seven essays based on a colloquium held in Reggio Emilia in 1997 in honour of the bicentennial of the Italian national flag and as a commemoration of Gramsci, with an appendix featuring miscellaneous texts by Gramsci about school and culture. In his foreword Renato Zangheri, chairman of the Fondazione Istituto Gramsci, contends that Gramsci viewed education not only as a pedagogical matter but also as one of the fundamental models of his ideas: hegemony, moral and intellectual reform, and consensus. The idea of a reciprocal teacher-pupil relationship extends beyond the school context to the social relationship between leaders and subjects. Such reciprocity is necessary to achieve the Gramscian Utopia of a self-governed society.

The Netherlands

Smolenaars, Ellie. De macht van het getal. Honderd jaar pensioen- en ouderenbeweging. Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam/ANBO, Utrecht 2000. 116 pp. Ill. D.fl. 29.90.
Published on the occasion of the centenary of the Dutch General Union for Elderly (ANBO) and its three predecessors, this study sketches the history of this religiously and politically neutral organization from its origins as the small Union for State Pension Recipients to its current status as a mass organization. The author describes the transition of the ANBO and its predecessor from a single-issue movement (the introduction of a state pension) to a multi-issue emancipatory movement, arguing that it represents a unique example of continuity between an "old" and a "new" social movement.

Peet, Jan. "Rente zonder bijsmaak". Een geschiedenis van de Algemene Spaarbank voor Nederland en van haar ontwikkeling naar een ethische bedrijfsvoering, 1960-2000. Met medewerking van Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk en Fiona van Schendel. Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 2000. 430 pp. Ill. D.fl. 49.90; € 22.64.
Founded in 1960 as the savings bank for members of the social-democratic trade union, the Algemene Spaarbank voor Nederland (ASN) (General Savings Bank for the Netherlands) became known from the 1970s onward as a bank with an "ethical" investment policy, targeting a broader clientele than trade-union members only. In this study, published in honour of the bank's fortieth anniversary, the history of this development is described, and the possibilities and limitations of banking are analysed according to certain ethical, socially responsible guidelines.

Price, J.L. Dutch Society 1588-1713. Longman, Harlow [etc.] 2000. viii, 306 pp. £27.99.
With this social history of the Dutch in the extended seventeenth century (1588-1713), Dr Price aims to fill a gap he sees in the growing historical interest in the Dutch Republic in its Golden Age. Whereas the Dutch miracle of economic and colonial supremacy in the seventeenth century and the remarkable achievements in art (especially painting) have attracted considerable interest, the society underpinning these developments has received far less attention. In his analysis, the author stresses the extent to which Dutch society was different from the rest of Europe: highly urbanized and with market forces that penetrated throughout the economy and transformed society at every level.

Schoots, Hans. Living Dangerously. A Biography of Joris Ivens. Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam 2000. 443 pp. Ill. D.fl. 59.50; € 27.00.
This biography of the Dutch film director Joris Ivens (1898-1989), a slightly abridged and revised translation of Gevaarlijk leven. Een biografie van Joris Ivens (1995), sketches his life and remarkable career of documentary film-making that spanned over six decades. A convinced communist from early in his life, Ivens was one of the founding fathers of documentary film and, from the 1930s onward, one of the most prominent political film-makers of the century. For most of his life he was at odds with the Dutch authorities because of his communist convictions.

Stutje, Jan Willem. De man die de weg wees. Leven en werk van Paul de Groot 1899-1986. Uitgeverij De Bezige Bij, Amsterdam 2000. 610 pp. D.fl. 59.50.
This dissertation (University of Amsterdam, 2000) is the first comprehensive biography of Paul de Groot (1899-1986), who for several decades after World War II was the undisputed, autocratic, and often reviled leader of the Dutch Communist Party, the CPN. Placing De Groot in the social, cultural, and political context of his era, Dr Stutje portrays him as a typical representative of Dutch Stalinism and explores his double identity as a Jew and a communist in an hostile environment. One of the other main themes in this study is the evolution of the CPN under the leadership of De Groot from compliance with the directives from Moscow to greater autonomy.


Puhani, Patrick A. Evaluating Active Labour Market Policies. Empirical Evidence for Poland During Transition. [ZEW Economic Studies, vol. 5.] Physica-Verlag, Heidelberg [etc.] 1999. xv, 239 pp. Maps. DM 90.00; S.fr. 82.00; S 657.00; £31.00; $67.00.
This dissertation (Munich, 1998) examines the effectiveness of various labour-market programmes deployed in Poland in the period of the transition from a state socialist to a free-market economy. Using modern statistical methods applied to both macro and microeconomic data, Dr Puhani concludes that active labour market policy affects men more than women, and that training programmes are more effective than job subsidies and public works to increase the re-employment opportunities for the unemployed.


Avilés Farré, Juan. La fe que vino de Rusia. La revolución bolchevique y los españoles [1917-1931]. [Colección Historia Biblioteca Nueva.] Biblioteca Nueva/ Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid 1999. 350 pp. Ill. Ptas. 2.500.
This study aims to explore the influence of the Russian Revolution and the Soviet Union in Spain during the years between the revolution and the proclamation of the Second Republic. In his introduction the author explains that this book is both a history of ideas and a history of the Spanish intellectuals, whose opinions he examines here. His concept of intellectuals comprises both academics and those who are self-taught, and not only writers but also politicians and trade-union leaders. In Spain the debate about the Soviet Union also focused on whether such a revolution was feasible and desirable in Spain.

García-Sanz Marcotegui, Ángel. Los "obreros conscientes" navarros. Gregorio Angulo (1868-1937). Fundación Juan José Gorricho/Unión General de Trabajadores de Navarra, n.p. [Pamplona] 1999. 370 pp. Ill. Ptas. 1.500.
This book is the biography of one of the most important socialist leaders in Navarra. A stonemason by profession, Gregorio Angulo (1868-1937) did much to improve living conditions for workers. Other, less well-known leaders from the Navarran labour movement are also covered, and the situation of Pamplona's working class and the fates of the labour organizations in Pamplona and elsewhere in Navarra are dealt with as well.

McCarthy, Jim. Political Theatre during the Spanish Civil War. University of Wales Press, Cardiff 1999. xix, 251 pp. £35.00.
See Angela Cenarro's review in this volume, pp. 472-474.

Plata Parga, Gabriel. La razón romántica. La cultura política del progresismo español a través de Triunfo (1962-1975). Prólogo de José Ángel Ezcurra. [Colección Historia Biblioteca Nueva.] Biblioteca Nueva, Madrid 1999. 411 pp. Ill. Ptas. 2.750.
Toward the end of Francoism, leftist political culture in Spain used the journal Triunfo as a mouthpiece. This started with the gradual cultural liberalization in 1962. In this study, the author focuses on the progressive ideology of the generation of 1968 as expressed in Triunfo, though his research on the publication is not comprehensive. The periodical was independent with respect to clandestine political parties, although several staff members, such as Manuel Vázquez Montalbán, maintained ties with the Communist Party. The book is divided into two sections: before and after 1968. Both parts address the political situation abroad and cultural topics.

Soutelo Vázquez, Raúl. Os intelectuais do agrarismo. Protesta social e reformismo agrario na Galicia rural: Ourense, 1880-1936. [Humanidades e Ciencas Xurídico-Sociais, Número 23.] Universidade de Vigo, Vigo 1999. 238 pp. Ill. €12.02.
From the mid-nineteenth century the developed segments of the urban middle classes in the Spanish region of Galicia took an interest in social and economic progress in the countryside. On the one hand, there were intellectuals affiliated with the Liberal Party and concerned with the living conditions of the farmers. Some were influenced by anti-Catholic and republican ideas. They viewed leadership of the farmers' organizations as a way to advance their power. On the other hand, there were the conservative Catholics and Galician nationalists who aimed to counteract modern ideas from the city and to preserve their political and ideological leadership through a powerful social class of affluent farmers.


Ottosson, Mikael. Sohlberg och Surdegen. Sociala Relationer på Kosta Glasbruk 1820-1880. [Lunds Universitet, Historiska Institutionen, Lund 1999.] 280 pp. Ill.
This study explores the social and labour relations in the glassworks of Kosta, Sweden, in the context of the general social and economic changes in the period 1820-1880. Focusing on this example of a smaller, rurally-based workshop, Dr Ottosson criticizes the general concept of paternalism as the standard social ideology prevailing in Swedish rural industrial communities. He shows that some categories of workers actually had greater social mobility than the concept of paternalism suggests. Towards the end of the period the protoindustrial Verlag-system made way for a Manufaktur production system, which heightened the contrasts between masters in the workshops and the proprietors of the glassworks.